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1.
Exp Parasitol ; 210: 107847, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32004535

RESUMO

Leishmaniasis is an infectious disease that has high endemicity and is among the six parasitic diseases of higher occurrence in the world. The current treatments are limited due to their toxicity, treatment resistance and high cost which have increased the search for new substances of natural origin for its therapy. Based on this, an in vitro biological and chemical investigation was carried out to evaluate the potential of Piper marginatum against Leishmania amazonesis. P. marginatum leaves were collected to obtain the essential oil (EO) and the ethanolic extract (CE). The chemical profile of the CE and fractions was obtained by 1H NMR. The analysis of the EO chemical composition was performed by GC-MS. EO, CE and fractions were submitted to antileishmanial and cytotoxicity assays against macrophages. The chromatographic profiles of EO, CE and fractions showed the presence of phenolic compounds and terpenoids, having 3,4-Methylenedioxypropiophenone as a major compound. All P. marginatum samples showed low toxicity to macrophages. The CE and the methanolic, hexane and ethyl acetate fractions had low cytotoxicity when compared to Pentamidine. All tested samples inhibited growth of L. amazonensis promastigotes. The antileishmanial activity of EO, CE and fractions were evaluated in macrophages infected with L. (L.) amazonensis and treated with the concentrations 1, 10 and 100 µg/mL for 48 h. All samples were active, but EO and CE showed superior activity against amastigote forms when compared to the promastigote forms of L. amazonensis. This work describes for the first time the antileishmanial activity of the species P. marginatum and its cytotoxicity against macrophages, suggesting that it can be an alternative source of natural products in the phytotherapeutic treatment of leishmaniasis.


Assuntos
Leishmania mexicana/efeitos dos fármacos , Leishmaniose Cutânea/tratamento farmacológico , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Piper/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Doenças Endêmicas , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Leishmaniose Cutânea/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Cutânea/parasitologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/parasitologia , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Doenças Negligenciadas/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Negligenciadas/epidemiologia , Doenças Negligenciadas/parasitologia , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Folhas de Planta/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Óleos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia
2.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 53: e20190211, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31994661

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Anopheles stephensi is the main malaria vector in Southeast Asia. Recently, plant-sourced larvicides are attracting great interests. METHODS: The essential oil was extracted from the leaf of Cinnamomum camphora (L.), and a bioassay was conducted to determine the larvicidal efficacy. The chemical composition of the essential oil was determined by GC-MS analysis. RESULTS: The oil showed strong, dose-dependent larvicidal activities. The onset of larvicidal efficiency was rapid. The LC50 and LC95 were determined as 0.146% and 1.057% at 1 h, 0.031% and 0.237% at 12 h, 0.026% and 0.128% at 24 h, respectively. The oil contains 32 compounds. CONCLUSIONS: The essential oil of C. camphora leaf has an excellent larvicidal potential for the control of A. stephensi.


Assuntos
Anopheles/efeitos dos fármacos , Cinnamomum camphora/química , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Mosquitos Vetores/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Animais , Anopheles/classificação , Bioensaio , Inseticidas/isolamento & purificação , Dose Letal Mediana , Mosquitos Vetores/classificação , Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação
3.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 135: 110940, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31693914

RESUMO

Eplingiella fruticosa (Lamiaceae), formally known as Hyptis fruticosa, is an important aromatic medicinal herb used in folk medicine in northeastern Brazil. We aimed to evaluate the anti-hyperalgesic effect of essential oil obtained from E. fruticosa (HypEO) complexed with ßCD (HypEO-ßCD) in a chronic widespread non-inflammatory muscle pain animal model (a mice fibromyalgia-like model, FM). The HypEO was extracted by hydro distillation and its chemical composition was determined by GC-MS/FID. Moreover, Fos protein expression in the spinal cord was assessed by immunofluorescence. (E)-caryophyllene, bicyclogermacrene, 1,8-cineole, α-pinene, ß-pinene and 21 other compounds were identified in the HypEO. The treatment with HypEO-ßCD produced a longer-lasting anti-hyperalgesic effect compared to HypEO, without alterations in motor coordination or myorelaxant effects. Moreover, HypEO and HypEO-ßCD produced a significant anti-hyperalgesic effect over 7 consecutive treatment days. Immunofluorescence assay demonstrated a decrease in Fos protein expression in the spinal cord (p < 0.001). We demonstrated that the anti-hyperalgesic effect produced by HypEO was improved after complexation with ß-CD and this seems to be related to the central pain-inhibitory pathway, suggesting the possible use of E. fruticosa for chronic pain management.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Hiperalgesia/tratamento farmacológico , Lamiaceae/química , Mialgia/tratamento farmacológico , Óleos Voláteis/uso terapêutico , beta-Ciclodextrinas/uso terapêutico , Analgésicos/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Masculino , Camundongos , Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Folhas de Planta/química , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-fos/metabolismo , Medula Espinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Medula Espinal/metabolismo
4.
Chem Biodivers ; 17(1): e1900489, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31663269

RESUMO

The chemical composition and in vitro antioxidant activity of the essential oil of propolis (EOP) collected from 25 locations in China was investigated. Steam-distillation extraction was used to extract the EOP, and chemical composition was identified by GC/MS. The antioxidant activities of EOP were also measured. The result showed that a total of 406 compounds were detected in EOP. The major compounds of Chinese EOP were cedrol, γ-eudesmol, benzyl alcohol, phenethyl alcohol, 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol, 3,4-dimethoxystyrene and guaiol. Principal component analysis revealed the significant correlation between EOP compositions and their origins, and certain correlation was detected between EOP and their color. Linear discriminant analysis showed that 88 % and 84 % of the propolis samples were predicted correctly as the groupings identified by climatic zone and the color, respectively. Furthermore, the differences of antioxidant activities of EOP were significant. EOP of Shandong had the strongest antioxidant activities, whereas EOP of Guangdong, Yunnan and Hunan showed the poorest.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Própole/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , China , Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação
5.
Chem Biodivers ; 17(1): e1900508, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31692228

RESUMO

This study aimed to identify the main components of an essential oil produced from leaves of Ambrosia trifida and to evaluate its potential allelopathic effect on seed germination and seedling growth of lettuce, watermelon, cucumber and tomato. The essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation and characterized chemically by gas chromatography (GC) coupled with both mass spectrometry (MS) and flame ionization detector (FID). Total 69 compounds were identified, with limonene (20.7 %), bornyl acetate (15.0 %), borneol (14.7 %) and germacrene D (11.6 %) as the major components. The working solutions of the essential oil emulsified with Tween 20 and dissolved in distilled water were prepared at four concentration levels (0.01, 0.1, 0.5 % and 1 %, v/v). The results obtained showed that increase in essential oil concentration leads to decrease in seed germination, as well as shoot and radical length of lettuce, watermelon, cucumber and tomato. The obtained data revealed a highly significant effect (p<0.05) between control and 1 % and 0.5 % oil concentrations in all treatments. The essential oil of A. trifida exhibited more powerful phytotoxic effects on lettuce, watermelon and tomato than on cucumber regarding germination and early seedling growth.


Assuntos
Ambrosia/química , Citrullus/efeitos dos fármacos , Cucumis sativus/efeitos dos fármacos , Alface/efeitos dos fármacos , Lycopersicon esculentum/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleos Voláteis/toxicidade , Folhas de Planta/química , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação
6.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 177: 112840, 2020 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31522096

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most widespread neurodegenerative disease; there are around ten million new cases of Alzheimer yearly worldwide especially in middle or low-income countries. Pistacia is a genus of flowering plants including the well-known, economically important P. chinensis Bunge, P. lentiscus L. and P. khinjuk. In this study, the metabolic profiling of Pistacia leaves extracts was achieved via UHPLC-ESI-MS analysis and GC-MS analysis employing chemometric analysis for their discrimination. In addition, the methanolic extracts of different Pistacia species were assessed for their anti-cholinesterase and anti-inflammatory activities by various in vitro assays. 37 and 30 metabolites belonging to different classes were identified by UHPLC-ESI-MS and GC-MS analyses respectively. Chemometric analysis revealed that P. lentiscus and P. khinjuk were more closely related chemically to each other. All studied Pistacia leaves extracts showed apparent anti-cholinesterase and anti-inflammatory activities, which promotes their use in the prevention and management of AD.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Inibidores da Colinesterase/farmacologia , Memória/efeitos dos fármacos , Pistacia/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Inibidores da Colinesterase/química , Inibidores da Colinesterase/isolamento & purificação , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Ensaios Enzimáticos , Eritrócitos , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/metabolismo , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Voluntários Saudáveis , Hemólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Metabolômica/métodos , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Pistacia/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Óleos Vegetais/química , Óleos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/métodos
7.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 28(4): 644-651, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31800886

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of Eucalyptus citriodora essential oil and citronellal on sheep gastrointestinal nematodes. Essential oil composition was determined by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The substances were evaluated in vitro using adult worm motility test (AWMT) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The acute toxicity test in mice and the fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) in sheep were performed. Citronellal was confirmed as the essential oil major constituent (63.9%). According to the AWMT, 2 mg/mL of essential oil and citronellal completely inhibited Haemonchus contortus motility at 6 h post exposure. H. contortus exposed to essential oil and citronellal exhibited internal ultrastructural modifications. The lethal dose 50 values in mice were 5,000 and 2,609 mg/kg for essential oil and citronellal, respectively. E. citriodora essential oil reduced sheep epg at 14 days post treatment by 69.5% (P<0.05). No significant differences were observed in epg between the citronellal and negative control groups (P>0.05). The interaction between citronellal and other constituents in the essential oil may be relevant for its in vivo anthelmintic activity. Thus, E. citriodora essential oil and citronellal pharmacokinetic studies may help elucidate the anthelmintic activity of these compounds.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia , Eucalyptus/química , Hemoncose/veterinária , Haemonchus/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Ovinos/parasitologia , Animais , Feminino , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Hemoncose/parasitologia , Haemonchus/isolamento & purificação , Haemonchus/ultraestrutura , Camundongos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas , Testes de Sensibilidade Parasitária
8.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 285, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31692877

RESUMO

Introduction: Pesticides are used as essential tools to control vector-borne diseases and agricultural pests and maintain quality and quantity crop production. Scientists attempt to use derived plant natural products due to environmental safety and low mammalian toxicity. Therefore, the cytotoxicity of malathion and Nepeta crispa essential oil against vertebrate L929 and invertebrate Sf9 cell lines were investigated. Methods: About 2×103 cells were placed into the wells of a 96-well plate experiments. Then appropriate concentrations of malathion and N. crispa essential oil added to the wells. The cells were allowed to grow for 3-5 days and estimated the cell numbers. Control cell wells contained only cells with DMSO. All treatments and controls repeated at least four replicates. Results: About 2×103 cells were placed into the wells of a 96-well plate experiments. Then appropriate concentrations of malathion and N. crispa essential oil added to the wells. The cells were allowed to grow for 3-5 days and estimated the cell numbers. Control cell wells contained only cells with DMSO. All treatments and controls repeated at least four replicates. Conclusion: Plant essential oil not only had no negative effects but also had boosting effects on the L929 cell viability. Nepeta crispa essential oil had negative effects on the Sf9 cell viability with the differences that derived plant natural products containing environmentally friendly and readily biodegradable derivatives, hydrolyzing rapidly in nature and nearly having no destructive effects on mammals and environment.


Assuntos
Malation/toxicidade , Nepeta/química , Óleos Voláteis/toxicidade , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Células Sf9 , Spodoptera
9.
J Oleo Sci ; 68(10): 1003-1009, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31582666

RESUMO

Frankincense essential oil, obtained from Boswellia carteri, is a popular essential oil, which is widely used in many parts of the world. While some of its properties are known, its effects on stress and sleep have not been studied. The effects of frankincense essential oil and its major components, limonene and α-pinene, on plasma corticosterone and glutathione (GSH) levels, as well as on sleep and wakefulness behaviour, were studied in sleep-deprived rats. The substances were applied topically after dilution in jojoba oil (vehicle). As compared to vehicle, frankincense essential oil at a dilution of 1/1000 (1:103) significantly reduced corticosterone levels (p < 0.05). In contrast, its major constituents (α-pinene and limonene), elevated levels of this stress hormone. Frankincense, limonene and α-pinene, all led to significant reductions in plasma GSH levels. Although frankincense dose-dependently reduced plasma concentrations of antioxidant ions albeit to levels insufficient to neutralize oxidative stress; levels of products of oxidative metabolism metabolites were decreased by the frankincense. In sleep-deprived rats, frankincense 1:103 respectively increased and decreased the amount of wakefulness and non-rapid eye movement sleep. Frankincense essential oil can counter the effects of stress by effectively relieving sleep debt and maintaining antioxidant capacity without increasing oxidative stress, and, therefore, may be beneficial in the management of stress.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Franquincenso/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Boswellia/química , Franquincenso/química , Franquincenso/isolamento & purificação , Masculino , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
10.
Chem Biodivers ; 16(11): e1900416, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31631505

RESUMO

The frequent disease of Panax notoginseng caused by the pathogenic fungi in field cultivation has become the major threaten to the sustainable development of it. The present study was conducted to find natural agent with potential inhibition against pathogen. Therefore, the inhibitory effects of Cinnamomum cassia (L.) J.Presl essential oils (EOs) against P. notoginseng associated pathogenic fungi were conducted both in vitro and in vivo experiments. The results of the Oxford cup test revealed that C. cassia dry bark EO (50 mg/mL) had significant inhibitory activity on the growth of all tested fungi, and the growth of various pathogens was completely inhibited, except for that of Fusarium solani. Therefore, the constituents of C. cassia EOs were analyzed by GC/MS, and the research demonstrated that the main constituents of C. cassia dry bark EO were trans-cinnamaldehyde (75.65 %), (E)-2-methoxycinnamaldehyde (6.08 %), cinnamaldehyde (3.47 %) and cinnamyl acetate (1.02 %). The MIC results showed that C. cassia dry bark EO and the main compounds had good antifungal effect on the tested strains, and the inhibitory effect was similar to that of hymexazol (chemical pesticide). By analyzing the value of the fraction inhibitory concentration index (FICI), additive effects, irrelevant effects and synergistic effects were observed after the mixture of hymexazol against various pathogens. Moreover, in vivo model showed that C. cassia dry bark EO could reduce the occurrence of anthrax in P. notoginseng. To widen the resources of C. cassia available, the compositions of both C. cassia fresh bark and leaf EOs were also tested and many common compositions existed among them. Taken together, it was concluded that C. cassia EO had the potential use in the field to reduce the pathogenic disease.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Cinnamomum aromaticum/química , Fusarium/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Panax notoginseng/efeitos dos fármacos , Antifúngicos/química , Antifúngicos/isolamento & purificação , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Panax notoginseng/microbiologia
11.
Chem Biodivers ; 16(12): e1900506, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31633273

RESUMO

Perfumes have always been products of great importance, mainly composed of natural, valuable and vegetal raw materials. Today, some of them have completely disappeared in perfumery, even though they are part of our cultural heritage and were commonly used in the past. Balm of Judea is one of the most noble, rare and fascinating ingredient long used in perfumery and medicine, that is missing today. After years of research, we collected a resin and an essential oil (steam distillation of fresh aerial parts) from Commiphora gileadensis (L.) C.Chr. native from Saudi Arabia and cultivated in Israel. The aims of this study were to i) identify the main reasons of the loss of the balm of Judea, ii) characterize the volatile composition of the resin and the essential oil and iii) evaluate their olfactory profile and assess their biological activity. Eighty-three compounds were identified in the resin, by a combination of GC-MS and GC/FID techniques, using direct injection and HS-SPME. α-Pinene (24.0 %), sabinene (43.8 %), ß-pinene (6.3 %) and cymene (3.6 %) were the main identified compounds, giving an intense, terpenic and lemony smell to the resin. Anti-inflammatory, wound-healing and whitening activities were highlighted. Sabinene (22.7 %), terpinen-4-ol (18.7 %), α-pinene (14.4 %) and cymene (13.6 %) were identified as the main components of the essential oil, giving a spicy, woody and lemony fragrance. Anti-inflammatory and whitening activities were emphasized.


Assuntos
Commiphora/química , Óleos Voláteis/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Commiphora/metabolismo , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Odorantes/análise , Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/química , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/metabolismo , Resinas Vegetais/química , Resinas Vegetais/metabolismo , Microextração em Fase Sólida
12.
Molecules ; 24(19)2019 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31569578

RESUMO

In this study, Carum carvi L. essential oil (CEO) and Origanum majorana L. essential oil (MEO) was steam-distillated under reduced pressure. We henceforth obtained three fractions for each essential oil: CF1, CF2, CF3, MF1, MF2, and MF3. Then, these fractions were characterized using the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) technique. The results indicated that some fractions were rich in oxygenated compounds (i.e., CF2, CF3, MF2, and MF3) with concentrations ranging from 79.21% to 98.56%. Therefore, the influence of the chemical composition of the essential oils on their antifungal activity was studied. For this purpose, three food spoilage fungi were isolated, identified, and inoculated in vitro, in order to measure the antifungal activity of CEO, MEO, and their fractions. The results showed that stronger fungi growth inhibitions (FGI) (above 95%) were found in fractions with higher percentages of oxygenated compounds, especially with (-)-carvone and terpin-4-ol as the major components. Firstly, this work reveals that the free-terpenes hydrocarbons fractions obtained from MEO present higher antifungal activity than the raw essential oil against two families of fungi. Then, it suggests that the isolation of (-)-carvone (97.15 ± 5.97%) from CEO via vacuum distillation can be employed successfully to improve antifungal activity by killing fungi (FGI = 100%). This study highlights that separation under reduced pressure is a simple green method to obtain fractions or to isolate compounds with higher biological activity useful for pharmaceutical products or natural additives in formulations.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos/química , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Terpenos/química , Antifúngicos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação
13.
Chem Biodivers ; 16(11): e1900359, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31544347

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate the chemical composition, and the trypanocidal and antibacterial activities of the essential oils from four species of Annonaceae: Bocageopsis multiflora (Mart.) R.E.Fr., Duguetia quitarensis Benth., Fusaea longifolia (Aubl.) Saff., and Guatteria punctata (Aubl.) R.A.Howard. The chemical composition of the essential oils from the aerial parts yielded 23, 20, 21 and 23 constituents, respectively, which were identified by GC/MS. The trypanocidal activity was evaluated against the amastigote and trypomastigote forms of T. cruzi. The antibacterial activity was evaluated by the microdilution method against enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus pyogenes, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. The results of trypanocidal activity showed that the essential oils of the four species were active at the tested concentrations, with G. punctata essential oil being the most active, with IC50 =0.029 µg/mL, and selectivity index (SI)=32, being 34 times more active than the reference drug benznidazole. All EOs showed strong antibacterial activity (minimum inhibitory concentrations of 4.68-37.5 µg/mL) against strains of S. mutans.


Assuntos
Annonaceae/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Tripanossomicidas/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Testes de Sensibilidade Parasitária , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Especificidade da Espécie , Streptococcus mutans/efeitos dos fármacos , Streptococcus pyogenes/efeitos dos fármacos , Tripanossomicidas/química , Tripanossomicidas/isolamento & purificação , Trypanosoma cruzi/efeitos dos fármacos
14.
Phytomedicine ; 60: 152977, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31474477

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intrigued by testimonies of Saxon borreliosis self-help groups concerning considerabl improvements of their symptoms by ingestion of Cistus creticus L. (Cistaceae) leaf preparations, we recently reported on the growth inhibiting activity of extracts with different polarities and its volatile oil against Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto (Bbss) in vitro, determined by a bioassay guided procedure. The most active volatile oil (only about 0.10% in leaves) was found to be dominated by labdane-type manoyloxides as well as carvacrol, determined via GC-MS. HYPOTHESIS: These terpenes are major active constituents of the old pharmaceutical oleoresin labdanum, which is secreted from the leaf surface of C. creticus and traditionally harvested, e.g., on Crete by brushing the shrubs. METHODS: In order to elucidate the definite anti-Borrelia active principles of C. creticus, preparative scale separation of the diethyl­ether soluble fraction of Cretan labdanum was achieved by combined silica gel 60-and RP-18 CC and analysed by novel TLC-Extractor/ES-MS as well as by 1d/2d-1H/13C-NMR data. For the antispirochaetal activity tests against Bbss in vitro, all samples were solubilised in water with addition of polysorbate 80, the effect of which on bacterial growth was examined and found to be negligible. RESULTS: This led to isolation and identification of the monoterpene carvacrol as well as of the four major manoyloxides manoyloxide (A), 3-acetoxy-manoyloxide (B), 3­hydroxy-manoyloxide (C), and epi­manoyloxide (D). Additionally, 2-keto-manoyloxide (E) and sclareol (F) were identified via GC/EI-MS. In subsequent microbiological tests of the isolated compounds, epi­manoyloxide (D) exhibited by far the strongest individual antispirochaetal effect, equal to the positive control amoxicilline. Furthermore, manoyloxide (A), carvacrol, and the diethyl­ether soluble fraction of labdanum as a whole contribute to the strong antispirochaetal activity, while the other labdanes were less active. Isolated manoyloxides were further used as external standards for a GC-MS screening of labdanum samples from different origins, revealing exceptionally high contents of all analysed manoyloxides in the samples of Cretan labdanum from C. creticus, while their contents in other commercial available labdanum samples were lower by several orders of magnitude. Especially in Spanish labdanum samples, declared as Cistus ladanifer L., mainly simple alkanes and at most traces of epi­manoyloxide (D) and of manoyloxide (A) could be detected. CONCLUSION: The application of C. creticus preparations by Lyme disease self-help groups may be considered as a reasonable therapy approach. For the first time, isolated epi­manoyloxide and carvacrol could be evaluated as most promising candidates for drug development and labdanum based phytomedicine development, respectively. They should serve as vital active markers for quality assessments of C. creticus preparations.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Borrelia/efeitos dos fármacos , Cistus/química , Diterpenos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Diterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Grécia , Monoterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Monoterpenos/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Terpenos/isolamento & purificação , Terpenos/farmacologia
15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(36): e17009, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31490383

RESUMO

Erythrina corallodendron L., a kind of landscape tree, has long been used as a traditional medicine. In this study, the composition of essential oil extracted from the leaves was analysed by GC-MS (gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer), with linalool identified as the main compound. Its cytotoxicity against MDA-MB-231, MCF-7 and HMLE cells was examined by MTT and cloning assays. Transwell and wound-healing assays were used to examine the inhibition of migration and invasion. Western blot, qRT-PCR and immunofluorescence staining were used to measure the mRNA and protein expression of factors related to EMT (snail, slug, E-cadherin, N-cadherin and vimentin). The essential oil of Erythrina corallodendron leaves was found to inhibit the proliferation, migration and invasion of breast cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner. The findings of this study suggest that the essential oil of E. corallodendron leaves may merit further investigation as a potential clinical or adjuvant drug for treating breast cancer migration and invasion.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/tratamento farmacológico , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/análise , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Erythrina/química , Óleos Voláteis/uso terapêutico , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Fitoterapia , Folhas de Planta/química
16.
Molecules ; 24(17)2019 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31470602

RESUMO

The promising antimicrobial activity of essential oils (EOs) has led researchers to use them in combination with antimicrobial drugs in order to reduce drug toxicity, side effects, and resistance to single agents. Mentha x piperita, known worldwide as "Mentha of Pancalieri", is produced locally at Pancalieri (Turin, Italy). The EO from this Mentha species is considered as one of the best mint EOs in the world. In our research, we assessed the antifungal activity of "Mentha of Pancalieri" EO, either alone or in combination with azole drugs (fluconazole, itraconazole, ketoconazole) against a wide panel of yeast and dermatophyte clinical isolates. The EO was analyzed by GC-MS, and its antifungal properties were evaluated by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) parameters, in accordance with the CLSI guidelines, with some modifications. The interaction of EO with azoles was evaluated through the chequerboard and isobologram methods. The results suggest that this EO exerts a fungicidal activity against yeasts and a fungistatic activity against dermatophytes. Interaction studies with azoles indicated mainly synergistic profiles between itraconazole and EO vs. Candida spp., Cryptococcus neoformans, and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Thus, the "Mentha of Pancalieri" EO may act as a potential antifungal agent and could serve as a natural adjuvant for fungal infection treatment.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Azóis/farmacologia , Mentha piperita/química , Monoterpenos/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/química , Animais , Antifúngicos/química , Antifúngicos/isolamento & purificação , Arthrodermataceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Arthrodermataceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Arthrodermataceae/isolamento & purificação , Candida/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Candida/isolamento & purificação , Cryptococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Cryptococcus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cryptococcus/isolamento & purificação , Combinação de Medicamentos , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Fluconazol/farmacologia , Guias como Assunto , Humanos , Itraconazol/farmacologia , Cetoconazol/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Monoterpenos/química , Monoterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação
17.
Chem Biodivers ; 16(11): e1900388, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31475446

RESUMO

The leaves and unripe and fully-grown fruits of Schinus molle were collected from three geographical regions of Jordan: Amman (the Mediterranean), Madaba (Irano-Turanean), and Sahab (Saharo-Arabian). The hydrodistilled volatile oils of fresh and dried leaves and fruits were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The actual composition of the emitted volatiles was determined using Solid Phase Micro-Extraction (SPME). α- and ß-Phellandrenes were the major components in all the analyzed samples. Quantitative differences were observed in the obtained essential oils (0.62-5.25 %). Additionally, cluster analysis was performed. Biologically, the antiproliferative activity of the essential oil, ethanol, and water extracts of the fruits and leaves was screened on Caco2, HCT116, MCF7, and T47D cell lines. The essential oil and ethanol extracts exhibited a dose-dependent inhibition of cell growth with IC50 ranging between 21 and 65 µg/mL. The water extract did not exhibit any antiproliferative activity against the investigated cell lines.


Assuntos
Anacardiaceae/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Anacardiaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/isolamento & purificação , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Frutas/química , Humanos , Jordânia , Estrutura Molecular , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Folhas de Planta/química , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
18.
Chem Biodivers ; 16(10): e1900397, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31475763

RESUMO

The essential oils from needles, twigs, bark, wood, cones and young shoots of Pinus mugo were analyzed by GC, GC/MS, and 1 H-NMR spectroscopy. More than 130 compounds were identified. The oils differed in the quantitative composition. The principal components of the oil from twigs with needles were 3-carene (23.8 %), myrcene (22.3 %), and α-pinene (10.3 %). The needle oil contained mainly α-pinene (18.6 %), 3-carene (11.3 %), and bornyl acetate (8.3 %). The oils from twigs without needles, young shoots, bark, and wood were dominated by 3-carene (28.6 %, 15.0 %, 18.5 %, and 34.6 %, respectively) and myrcene (23.4 %, 24.0 %, 24.6 %, and 9.4 %, respectively). In the cone oil (E)-ß-caryophyllene was the main constituent (24.0 %).


Assuntos
Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Pinus/química , Agulhas , Óleos Voláteis/química , Casca de Planta/química , Brotos de Planta/química , Caules de Planta/química , Polônia , Células Fotorreceptoras Retinianas Cones/química , Madeira/química
19.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 28(4): 807-811, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483032

RESUMO

Gastrointestinal Nematode Infection (GIN) are the main constraint to the production of small ruminants. Studies of medicinal plants have been an important alternative in the effort to control these parasites. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the in vitro ovicidal and larvicidal activity of essential oil of Rosmarinus officinalis. The oil was extracted, analyzed by gas chromatography and tested on GIN eggs and larvae in six concentrations, 227.5mg/mL, 113.7mg/mL, 56.8mg/mL, 28.4mg/mL, 14.2mg/mL and 7.1mg/mL. To determine the ovicidal activity, GIN eggs were recovered from sheep feces and incubated for 48h with different concentrations of the oil. For the evaluation of larval migration, third-stage larvae (L3) were obtained by fecal culture, and associated with the essential oil for 24h at the same concentrations, after which they were left for another 24 hours on microsieves, followed by the count of migrating and non-migrating larvae. The assays of R. officinalis oil showed a significant (p<0.05) 97.4% to 100% inhibition of egg hatching and a significant (p<0.05) 20% to 74% inhibition of larval migration. The main constituent revealed by gas chromatography was Eucalyptol. The results indicate that R. officinalis essential oil has ovicidal and larvicidal activity on sheep GINs.


Assuntos
Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Nematoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Óvulo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Rosmarinus/química , Ovinos/parasitologia , Animais , Cromatografia Gasosa , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Nematoides/isolamento & purificação , Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Testes de Sensibilidade Parasitária
20.
Toxicol Mech Methods ; 29(9): 710-722, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31364915

RESUMO

Background: Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) and clove (Syzygium aromaticum) oils are known for their various biological effects, including anticancer properties. Objective: To investigate the anticancer effect of combined fennel and clove oil treatment on Caco-2 cells and normal human lymphocytes (NHL). Methods: GC-MS, in vitro cytotoxicity, morphological, apoptosis-related marker, and flow cytometric cell cycle distribution analyses were conducted. Results: Seventeen volatile compounds were identified in fennel oil, including trans-anethole (68.3%) and (+)-fenchone (8.1%). In clove oil, 22 compounds, including eugenol (71.4%) and caryophyllene (8.7%), were identified. IC50 of the fennel, clove, and oil mixture were 300 ± 5.0, 150 ± 4.0, and 73 ± 2.5 µg/mL, respectively with combination index (CI) < 1.0. Mechanistic anticancer properties were investigated using 30, 45, and 60 µg/mL oil mixture. Analysis of apoptotic morphology, flow cytometric cell cycle distribution, and apoptosis-related markers, such as Bcl-2 and Ki-67, confirmed cell cycle arrest and apoptosis induction in Caco-2 cells by the fennel and clove oil combination. Moreover, the oil mixture did not exert significant (p < 0.01) toxicity on NHL in vitro. Conclusion: The oil mixture exerted selective cytotoxicity towards Caco-2 cells through cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, which may occur through synergistic effects between fennel and clove oil active ingredients.


Assuntos
Anticarcinógenos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleo de Cravo/farmacologia , Foeniculum/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Syzygium/química , Anticarcinógenos/isolamento & purificação , Células CACO-2 , Óleo de Cravo/isolamento & purificação , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Humanos , Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação
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