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1.
J Oleo Sci ; 69(9): 1107-1115, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32879198

RESUMO

Medicinal plants and their secondary metabolites have long been a rich source of biologically active compounds that can prevent many diseases. In this context, we investigated the antioxidant activities of the essential oil of Lavandula officinalis and tested its potency against hepatic and renal toxicity induced by hydrogen peroxide in adult male mice based on measurements of biochemical parameters, oxidative stress, and tissue damage in both organs. We proved a remarkable antioxidant power of this plant (in vitro) by correcting the harmful effects of the prooxidant (in vivo). It can be concluded that lavender is an aromatic plant capable of reducing the stress caused by reactive oxygen species.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/induzido quimicamente , Lesão Renal Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Antioxidantes , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/toxicidade , Lavandula/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fitoterapia , Folhas de Planta/química , Animais , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/etiologia , Feminino , Técnicas In Vitro , Masculino , Camundongos , Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Óleos Voláteis/uso terapêutico , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
2.
J Oleo Sci ; 69(8): 941-950, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32759552

RESUMO

This study reports the biological activity of essential oils from fertility tree and horseradish tree leaves, and the mechanisms by which these oils promote insecticidal activity using Drosophila melanogaster as a model organism. Adult D. melanogaster were exposed to these essential oils at a final concentration of 10 µL/g for 24 hours. The exposure of flies to the essential oil resulted in significant decrease in their survival and fecundity. In addition, the essential oils produced significant reduction in acetylcholinesterase activity and induced oxidative stress in the flies as evidenced by an increase in reactive oxygen species, thiol and thiobarbituric reactive substance levels, as well as catalase activity. The essential oils were also characterized by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Constituents such as terpenoids, Bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, benzeneacetaldehyde, phytol, octadecane, 9,12-octadecadienoic acid (Z,Z)- methyl ester, heneicosane, eicosane and others were characterized. Therefore, our results point out to the potential application of fertility tree and horseradish tree leaf essential oils as natural alternatives to synthetic insecticides in agricultural and pest control practices, especially against dipterans.


Assuntos
Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Bignoniaceae/química , Drosophila melanogaster/efeitos dos fármacos , Drosophila melanogaster/metabolismo , Inseticidas , Moringa oleifera/química , Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/química , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Óleos Voláteis/química , Ácidos Ftálicos/análise , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Terpenos/análise , Substâncias Reativas com Ácido Tiobarbitúrico/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo
3.
J Oleo Sci ; 69(8): 951-958, 2020 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32641605

RESUMO

Piperitenone oxide, a major chemical constituent of the essential oil of spearmint, Mentha spicata, induces differentiation in human colon cancer RCM-1 cells. In this study, piperitenone oxide and trans-piperitenone dioxide were prepared as racemic forms by epoxidation of piperitenone. The relative configuration between two epoxides in piperitenone dioxide was determined to be trans by 1H NMR analysis and nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy (NOESY) in conjunction with density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Optical resolution of (±)-piperitenone oxide by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using a chiral stationary phase (CSP) afforded both enantiomers with over 98% enantiomeric excess (ee). Evaluation of the differentiation-inducing activity of the synthetic compounds revealed that the epoxide at C-1 and C-6 in piperitenone oxide is important for the activity, and (+)-piperitenone oxide has stronger activity than (-)-piperitenone oxide. The results obtained in this study provide new information on the application of piperitenone oxide and spearmint for differentiation-inducing therapy. Furthermore, natural piperitenone oxide was isolated from M. spicata. The enantiomeric excess of the isolated natural piperitenone oxide was 66% ee. Epoxidation of piperitenone with hydrogen peroxide proceeded in a phosphate buffer under weak basic conditions to give (±)-piperitenone oxide. These results suggest that the nonenzymatic epoxidation of piperitenone, which causes a decrease in the enantiomeric excess of natural piperitenone oxide, is accompanied by an enzymatic epoxidation in the biosynthesis of piperitenone oxide.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias do Colo/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Compostos de Epóxi/isolamento & purificação , Compostos de Epóxi/farmacologia , Mentha spicata/química , Monoterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Monoterpenos/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/síntese química , Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Compostos de Epóxi/química , Humanos , Conformação Molecular , Monoterpenos/química , Fitoterapia , Estereoisomerismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
4.
Exp Parasitol ; 216: 107937, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32535114

RESUMO

The chemical composition and acaricidal activity of plant-derived essential oils was assessed against Rhipicephalus microplus ticks. The essential oils of Mentha arvensis, Cymbopogon citratus and C. nardus were assessed for acaricidal activity against Rhipicephalus microplus. Essential oils (EO) of plants were separated by hydrodistillation (three times) and analyzed using gas chromatography - mass spectrometer (GC-MS). For bioassays, engorged females of R. microplus were exposed to C. citratus and C. nardus EO at 2%, 3%, 4% and 5% concentrations; and to M. arvensis EO at 1%, 3%, and 5% for 5 min. The weight egg mass, nutrient index (N.I), egg production index (E.P.I), hatching and control rate were evaluated. Non-feed larvae of R. microplus were exposed to essential oils with 0.25%, 0.5%; 1%; 1.5% and 2% concentrations; the mortality rate was measured after 48 h. Only engorged females presented reduced biological activities (oviposition, E.P.I) after exposure to M. arvensis at 3%, when in comparison to both positive and negative controls. The hatchability of R. microplus larvae ranged from 66.9% (after exposure to C. nardus EO at 5%) to 99.2% (positive control). The nutrition index was lower (46.6%) for the exposure to M. arvensis EO at 5%. M. arvensis at 3% and 5% concentrations was significantly efficient for engorged females when compared to control (53.7% and 47.5%, respectively). C. citratus EO at 1%, 1.5% and 2% concentrations yielded better results in the larval packet test, causing 100% mortality. Nonetheless, C. nardus and M. arvensis EO at 2% yielded 66% and 39% mortality, respectively. The study showed that M. arvensis presented potential for the control of R. microplus engorged females while C. citratus and C. nardus presented potential as a larvicide.


Assuntos
Acaricidas , Cymbopogon/química , Mentha/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Rhipicephalus , Acaricidas/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Bioensaio/veterinária , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Destilação/métodos , Feminino , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Dose Letal Mediana , Monoterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Monoterpenos/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Óleos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Infestações por Carrapato/parasitologia , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária
5.
J Oleo Sci ; 69(6): 643-648, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32493886

RESUMO

Sour citrus are prized for their flavor and fragrance. This work identified the components of the peel oil of Hetsuka-daidai (Citrus sp. hetsukadaidai), a special sour citrus that is native to the southern part of the Osumi peninsula, Kagoshima, Japan. These compounds were compared to those identified from the peels of six other major sour citrus: lime (Citrus latifolia), lemon (Citrus limon), Yuzu (Citrus junos), Kabusu (Citrus aurantium), Kabosu (Citrus sphaerocarpa), and Sudachi (Citrus sudachi). Peel oil contents were analyzed for the duration of four months during harvest season to investigate the differences in peel oil/fragrance during ripening. These results could facilitate the development of preferred flavor and scent profiles using local species.


Assuntos
Citrus/química , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Estações do Ano , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Japão , Óleos Voláteis/análise
6.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 331: 108732, 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32521374

RESUMO

The present study aimed to evaluate the anti-quorum sensing (anti-QS) and anti-proteolytic potentials of tarragon essential oil (TEO) and its major compounds against food-associated Pseudomonas spp. The activities were verified by in vitro, in silico and in situ approaches. In this work, methyl eugenol (ME)- and ß-phellandrene (ß-PH)-rich TEO was investigated. TEO at subMIC increased the percentage of saturated fatty acids in the bacterial membranes (from 7 to 22%) and exhibited anti-quorum sensing via decreasing the efficiency of QS autoinducer synthesis [3-oxo-C12-HSL (from 2.028 µg/mL to

Assuntos
Artemisia/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Proteólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Pseudomonas/efeitos dos fármacos , Percepção de Quorum/efeitos dos fármacos , 4-Butirolactona/análogos & derivados , 4-Butirolactona/isolamento & purificação , 4-Butirolactona/farmacologia , Animais , Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Simulação por Computador , Peixes/microbiologia , Homosserina/análogos & derivados , Homosserina/isolamento & purificação , Homosserina/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Pseudomonas/isolamento & purificação
7.
Aquat Toxicol ; 224: 105493, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32408004

RESUMO

Currently, the contamination of water with different insecticides like profenofos (PFF) is a critical concern in the aquatic ecosystem. There are limited studies available on the negative impacts of PFF on common carp fish (Cyprinus carpio L.). Therefore, the existing study was designed to investigate the effect of PFF exposure (1/10 of the 96 h-LC50) on the neurobehavior, growth performance, chemical composition, oxidative status, DNA damage, apoptotic status and histological indices of the brain and gill tissues. In addition, this study seeks to detect the ability of geranium essential oil (GEO) dietary supplementation to mitigate the negative impacts of PFF. Accordingly, a total of 120 healthy fish were divided into four groups: the control group, fed on basal diet only; the other groups were fed on a basal diet supplemented with 400 mg kg-1 GEO, basal diet and PFF in water (PFF group), and supplemented diet with GEO and PFF in water (GEO + PFF), respectively, for 60 days. The results showed that PFF significantly reduced fish growth performance, crude protein, and lipid contents. It caused several behavioral alterations including spiral movement, decreased activeness, and changes in feeding behavior. Moreover, PFF increased the DNA tail length, tail moment, and the level of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine. Histologically, PFF induced a wide array of circulatory, inflammatory, regressive and progressive alterations in the brain and gill tissues. PFF significantly downregulated Bcl-2 and upregulated caspase-3 immuno-expression in both organs. Further, it considerably depleted the antioxidant enzymes, including superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase. The GEO supplementation did not reach the respective control values but markedly improved most of the behavioral, physical, biochemical, oxidative, apoptotic, and inflammatory markers, altered by PFF exposure. It also protected the gill and brain tissues from the branchial and encephalopathic effects of PFF. These findings suggest that GEO dietary supplements could be advantageous for mitigating PFF negative impacts and presenting a promising feed additive for common carp in aquaculture.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Carpas , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Geranium/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Organotiofosfatos/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Aquicultura , Encéfalo/enzimologia , Encéfalo/patologia , Carpas/genética , Carpas/metabolismo , Dieta , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ecossistema , Brânquias/efeitos dos fármacos , Brânquias/enzimologia , Brânquias/patologia , Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação
8.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0231437, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32357169

RESUMO

As a traditional Chinese medicine, Croton tiglium has the characteristics of laxative, analgesic, antibacterial and swelling. This study aimed to analyze the chemical composition of C. tiglium essential oil (CTEO) extracted from the seeds of C. tiglium and its cytotoxicity and antitumor effect in vitro. Supercritical CO2 fluid extraction technology was used to extract CTEO and the chemical constituents of the essential oil were identified by comparing the retention indices and mass spectra data taken from the NIST library with those calculated based on the C7-C40 n-alkanes standard. In vitro cytotoxicity of the CTEO was assessed against cancer cell lines (A549) and the human normal bronchial epithelial cells (HBE) using the CCK-8 assay. Proliferation was detected by colony formation experiments. Wound scratch and cell invasion assays were used to detect cell migration and invasion. Levels of apoptotic markers, signaling molecules, and cell cycle regulators expression were characterized by Western blot analysis. As the results, twenty-eight compounds representing 92.39% of the total oil were identified in CTEO. The CTEO has significant antitumor activity on A549 cancer cells (IC50 48.38 µg/mL). In vitro antitumor experiments showed that CTEO treatment significantly inhibited the proliferation and migration of A549 cells, disrupted the cell cycle process, and reduced the expression levels of cyclin A, cyclin B and CDK1. CTEO can also reduce mitochondrial membrane potential, activate caspase-dependent apoptosis pathway, and finally induce apoptosis. CTEO may become an effective anti-cancer drug and will be further developed for cancer treatment.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Apoptose , Proliferação de Células , Croton/química , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Células A549 , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/isolamento & purificação , Ciclo Celular , Movimento Celular , Cromatografia com Fluido Supercrítico , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial , Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Transdução de Sinais
9.
J Oleo Sci ; 69(6): 635-642, 2020 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32404544

RESUMO

In this study, we provide a method for obtaining essential oil from Mentha arvensis L. in large quantities. Three types of polysaccharide-degrading enzymes were investigated, namely cellulase A "Amano" 3, cellulase T "Amano" 4, and hemicellulase "Amano" 90. The optimum extraction conditions were the combined use of 2 wt% cellulase T and 2 wt% hemicellulase 90, and 3 h of incubation. Enzymeassisted extraction increased the amount of the essential oil from 2.2 mL to 3.0 mL, compared with the amount extracted without an enzyme.


Assuntos
Celulase , Glicosídeo Hidrolases , Extração Líquido-Líquido/métodos , Mentha/química , Mentol/isolamento & purificação , Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Fatores de Tempo
10.
Exp Parasitol ; 215: 107919, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32442440

RESUMO

Rhipicephalus microplus, the cattle tick, is a major cause of economic losses in bovine production. Due to the widespread acaricidal resistance to commercially available products, as well as their toxicity and environmental impact, alternative control methods are required. Nanoformulations produced from plant extracts as bioactive substances are very promising as innovative acaricidal agents. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro repellent activity of Pilocarpus spicatus essential oil and its nanoemulsion against R. microplus, using larval repellent test (RT). The essential oil was extracted by hydrodistillation, using a Clevenger-type apparatus. The nanoemulsion was prepared with 5% essential oil, 5% tween 80, and 90% water, using the phase inversion method (50 mg/mL). Limonene was the major component (46.8%) of the essential oil, as determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and confirmed by flame ionization detection (GC/FID). According to the RT results, the essential oil had a repellent activity greater than 69%, from concentrations of 3.12 mg/mL (69.81 ± 10%) to 50 mg/mL (98.10 ± 0.6%), whereas the nanoemulsion at 50 mg/mL presented repellent activities of 97.14 ± 1.37% and 97.89 ± 0.52% 6 and 10 h after treatment, respectively. These values regarding to total repellency were very close to those calculated for mortality corrected by Abbott's formula. The phase inversion method preserved the chemical and physical characteristics of the essential oil since both reached an equal repellent effect at the same concentration. Therefore, P. spicatus essential oil and nanoemulsion had excellent repellent activities against R. microplus larvae, demonstrating its potential for future use as an alternative for tick control.


Assuntos
Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Pilocarpus/química , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Rhipicephalus/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Emulsões/farmacologia , Feminino , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Limoneno/análise , Modelos Lineares , Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Folhas de Planta/química , Óleos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Distribuição Aleatória , Controle de Ácaros e Carrapatos/métodos , Infestações por Carrapato/parasitologia , Infestações por Carrapato/prevenção & controle , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária
11.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 92(1): e20180569, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32321015

RESUMO

The essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from fresh leaves of Vitex agnus-castus and Ocimum campechianum, and from fresh inflorescences of Ocimum carnosum were analysed by GC-FID and GC-MS. The major components of V. agnus-castus essential oil were identified as 1,8-cineole (47.9%), terpinyl α-acetate (11.6%), sabinene (11.2%) and caryophyllene oxide (9.7%), while in the O. campechianum essential oil were eugenol (72.1%), ß-elemene (6.8%), (E)-caryophyllene (6.4%) and bicyclogermacrene (5.2%). Linalool (79.0%), α-epi-cadinol (5.4%), terpinen-4-ol (3.2%) and 1,8-cineole (2.8%) were the major constituents in the O. carnosum essential oil. The essential oils were subsequently evaluated for their larvicidal and cytotoxic activities. Larval bioassay against Aedes aegypti of V. agnus-castus, O. campechianum and O. carnosum essential oils showed LC50 values of 97.55 ± 0.35, 81.45 ± 0.35 and 109.49 ± 0.35 µg/mL, respectively. The in vitro cytotoxic activities of the essential oils has been evaluated on breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7), lung carcinoma (NCI-H292), pro-myelocytic leukemia (HL-60), and cervical adenocarcinoma (HEP-2) human cell lines, and pro-myelocytic leukemia cells lines (HL-60) were found to be the most sensitive to all the essential oils tested than the others. This is the first report on larvicidal and cytotoxic activities of these essential oils.


Assuntos
Aedes/efeitos dos fármacos , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Ocimum/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Óleos Vegetais/farmacocinética , Vitex/química , Animais , Bioensaio , Linhagem Celular Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Inseticidas/isolamento & purificação , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Folhas de Planta/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Testes de Toxicidade , Vitex/classificação
12.
ScientificWorldJournal ; 2020: 7821310, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32292295

RESUMO

Agrimonia asiatica is a perennial plant with deep green color and covered with soft hairs and has a slightly aromatic odor. This genus Agrimonia has been used in traditional medicines of China, Greece, and European countries. It was mainly used as a haemostatic, a tonic for asthenia, and an astringent for diarrhea. Agrimony is part of the division Magnoliophyta; class is represented by order Rosales, family Rosaceae, of the genus Agrimonia. Family Rosaceae-or pink eels-is one of the largest families of flowering plants, including about 100 genera and 3000 species. Rosaceae is common in almost all areas of the globe where flowering plants can grow, but most of them are concentrated in the temperate and subtropical zones of the Northern Hemisphere. Phytochemical investigation on ethanolic extract of A. asiatica led to isolation of four flavonoid derivatives (kaempferol-3-glycoside, quercetin-3-O-α-arabinofuranosyl-ß-D-galactopyranoside, 3-O-kaempherol 2,3-di-O-acetyl-4-O-(cis-p-coumaroyl)-6-O-(trans-p-coumaroyl)-ß-D-glucosopyranoside, and catechin) alongside of sucrose. All the extracts, fractions, and isolated compounds were tested for antimicrobial and antiplasmodial activities. We also studied the chemical composition of essential oil obtained from the aerial part of A. asiatica. The essential oil constituents from the aerial part of A. asiatica were obtained using a steam-distillation method in wild growing conditions in Kazakhstan. The essential oil extracted from the aerial part of the plant was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy and its major components amounting to 100% were found to be ß-selinene (36.370%), α-panasinsene (21.720%), hexadecanoic acid (7.839%), and 1,2-nonadiene (6.199%). Neither the extract nor the isolated compounds showed antimicrobial and antiplasmodial activities.


Assuntos
Agrimonia/química , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antiprotozoários/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/isolamento & purificação , Antiprotozoários/química , Antiprotozoários/isolamento & purificação , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Estrutura Molecular , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Testes de Sensibilidade Parasitária , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação
13.
J Mycol Med ; 30(2): 100940, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32201243

RESUMO

Despite the use of conventional antifungal drugs, Candida spp resistance, especially mediated by biofilms formation remains recurrent. Therefore, new drugs to treat fungal infections are urgently needed. In this line, our study aimed to determine the anticandidal activity and the synergistic effect of essential oil fractions from Syzygium aromaticum, Cymbopogon citratus and Aeollanthus heliotropioides harvested in Cameroon using a combination approach. Essential oils have been obtained by hydrodistillation and their chemical composition was analysed by GC/MS. Antifungal activity was evaluated by the determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) using a micro-dilution method. The sorbitol and ergosterol binding ability and anti-biofilm activity were also assessed in order to evaluate the mode of action. The crude essential oils showed a good anticandidal activity, most probably due to the eugenol, linalool and citral content. The combination of two fractions F7 and F10 showed an improved growth inhibition of Candida spp compared to the crude essential oils. The inhibitory effect could be related with the presence of γ-dodecalactone and citronellol as main compounds. The best synergistic combination F7F10 inhibited biofilm formation at ten time reduced combination MIC. The active fractions targeted different fungal cell structures, including cell wall and membrane. Our study showed that the combination of selected essential oils fractions exhibited an increased antifungal activity against Candida spp compared to the crude essential oils. The combination approach of inner compound groups may be used as a promising strategy for the development of efficient recombined micro-essential oils as antifungal agents to face Candida resistance.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Candida/efeitos dos fármacos , Cymbopogon/química , Lamiaceae/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Syzygium/química , Antifúngicos/isolamento & purificação , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Camarões , Candida/fisiologia , Candidíase/tratamento farmacológico , Candidíase/microbiologia , Fracionamento Químico , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Óleos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia
14.
Phytother Res ; 34(9): 2088-2139, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32173933

RESUMO

Peppermint (Mentha × piperita L) is a perennial, glabrous and strongly scented herb belongs to the family Lamiaceae. It is cultivated in a temperate region of Europe, Asia, United States, India and Mediterranean countries due to their commercial value and distinct aroma. In addition to traditional food flavouring uses, M. × piperita is well recognized for their traditional use to treat fever, cold, digestive, anti-viral, anti-fungal and oral mucosa and throat inflammation. The scientific studies provide awareness on the use of M. × piperita for biological effects such as anti-oxidant, anti-microbial, anti-viral, anti-inflammatory, biopesticidal, larvicidal, anticancer, radioprotective effect, genotoxicity and anti-diabetic activity have been ascribed. A wide spectrum of bioactive phytochemicals such as flavonoids, phenolics lignans and stilbenes and essential oils are expected to be responsible for the aroma effects. In this sense, this present review provides an extensive overview of the traditional medicinal, phytochemical and multiple biological activities of this "Peppermint."


Assuntos
Medicina Tradicional/tendências , Mentha piperita/fisiologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Fitoterapia/tendências , Ásia , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Índia , Medicina Tradicional/métodos , Ilhas do Mediterrâneo , Mentha piperita/química , Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Fitoterapia/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Estados Unidos
15.
Exp Parasitol ; 210: 107847, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32004535

RESUMO

Leishmaniasis is an infectious disease that has high endemicity and is among the six parasitic diseases of higher occurrence in the world. The current treatments are limited due to their toxicity, treatment resistance and high cost which have increased the search for new substances of natural origin for its therapy. Based on this, an in vitro biological and chemical investigation was carried out to evaluate the potential of Piper marginatum against Leishmania amazonesis. P. marginatum leaves were collected to obtain the essential oil (EO) and the ethanolic extract (CE). The chemical profile of the CE and fractions was obtained by 1H NMR. The analysis of the EO chemical composition was performed by GC-MS. EO, CE and fractions were submitted to antileishmanial and cytotoxicity assays against macrophages. The chromatographic profiles of EO, CE and fractions showed the presence of phenolic compounds and terpenoids, having 3,4-Methylenedioxypropiophenone as a major compound. All P. marginatum samples showed low toxicity to macrophages. The CE and the methanolic, hexane and ethyl acetate fractions had low cytotoxicity when compared to Pentamidine. All tested samples inhibited growth of L. amazonensis promastigotes. The antileishmanial activity of EO, CE and fractions were evaluated in macrophages infected with L. (L.) amazonensis and treated with the concentrations 1, 10 and 100 µg/mL for 48 h. All samples were active, but EO and CE showed superior activity against amastigote forms when compared to the promastigote forms of L. amazonensis. This work describes for the first time the antileishmanial activity of the species P. marginatum and its cytotoxicity against macrophages, suggesting that it can be an alternative source of natural products in the phytotherapeutic treatment of leishmaniasis.


Assuntos
Leishmania mexicana/efeitos dos fármacos , Leishmaniose Cutânea/tratamento farmacológico , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Piper/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Doenças Endêmicas , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Leishmaniose Cutânea/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Cutânea/parasitologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/parasitologia , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Doenças Negligenciadas/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Negligenciadas/epidemiologia , Doenças Negligenciadas/parasitologia , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Folhas de Planta/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Óleos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia
16.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0229076, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32078653

RESUMO

Synthetic pesticides are the cornerstone of vector-borne disease control, but alternatives are urgently needed to tackle the growing problem of insecticide resistance and concerns over environmental safety. Leptospermum scoparium J.R. Forst and G. Forst (manuka) essential oil and its four fractions were analyzed for chemical composition and toxicity against Aedes aegypti larvae. The use of bio-based amylose-N-1-hexadecylammonium chloride inclusion complexes (Hex-Am) as an emulsifier for L. scoparium essential oil was also investigated. Fraction 1 was inactive, fractions 2 (LC50 = 12.24 ppm) and 3 (LC50 = 20.58 ppm) were more toxic than the whole essential oil (LC50 = 47.97 ppm), and fraction 4 (LC50 = 35.87 ppm) had similar toxicity as the whole essential oil. Twenty-one chemical constituents were detected in L. scoparium essential oil compared to 16, 5, 19 and 25 chemical constituents in fractions, 1, 2, 3 and 4 respectively. The two most dominant chemical constituents were calamenene (17.78%) and leptospermone (11.86%) for L. scoparium essential oil, calamenene (37.73%) and ledene (10.37%) for fraction 1, leptospermone (56.6%) and isoleptospermone (19.73) for fraction 2, cubenol (24.30%) and caryophyllene oxide (12.38%) for fraction 3, and γ-gurjunene (21.62%) and isoleptospermone (7.88%) for fraction 4. Alpha-pinene, ledene, and aromandendrene were 2-7 times less toxic than the whole essential suggesting that the toxicity of L. scoparium essential oil was either due to other chemical constituents that were not tested or due synergist interactions among chemical constituents. Leptospermum scoparium essential oil-Hex-Am emulsion (LC50 = 29.62) was more toxic than the whole essential oil. These findings suggest that L. scoparium essential oil is a promising source of mosquito larvicide and that Hex-Am is an excellent emulsifier for L. scoparium essential oil for use as a larvicide.


Assuntos
Inseticidas/química , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Leptospermum/química , Controle de Mosquitos , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Emulsificantes/química , Emulsões , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Inseticidas/isolamento & purificação , Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Análise Espectral
17.
J Mycol Med ; 30(2): 100933, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32061515

RESUMO

Essential oils (EO) are effective natural antimicrobials but are susceptible to oxidation. Microencapsulation improves EO stability, reduces toxicity, and controls release. The aim of this study was preparation, characterization and antidermatophytic activity of free and microencapsulated cinnamon essential oil (MP). MP were prepared by the spray drying method and the success of MP encapsulation was confirmed by UV-vis spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The antifungal effect of EO and MP was evaluated by the broth microdilution method against Microsporum gypseum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. The checkerboard method was used to assess synergistic interactions. Fluorescence microscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to investigate the inhibition of hyphal growth by EO and MP. A cytotoxic assay was performed using the VERO cell line. Microencapsulated cinnamon essential oil was found to be micrometric, with a round, regular structure. The minimum inhibitory concentration of EO was found to be between 125-250µg/mL, while that of MP was 220.5-440.5µg/mL. EO was synergistic with fluconazole while microencapsulated oil was less cytotoxic than EO.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos , Cinnamomum zeylanicum/química , Dermatomicoses/tratamento farmacológico , Composição de Medicamentos , Óleos Voláteis , Animais , Antifúngicos/administração & dosagem , Antifúngicos/isolamento & purificação , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Química Farmacêutica/métodos , Chlorocebus aethiops , Composição de Medicamentos/métodos , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Humanos , Hifas/efeitos dos fármacos , Hifas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Microsporum/efeitos dos fármacos , Microsporum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Óleos Voláteis/administração & dosagem , Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Óleos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Óleos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Testes de Toxicidade , Trichophyton/efeitos dos fármacos , Trichophyton/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Células Vero
18.
Molecules ; 25(3)2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32013272

RESUMO

Searching for new bio-based herbicides is crucial for decreasing chemical pollution, protecting the environment, and sustaining biodiversity. Origanum vulgare is considered a promising source of essential oil with herbicidal effect. The mode of action is not known. The present study focused on (1) comparison of phytotoxic activity of Origanum vulgare EO on monocot (Triticum aestivum and Hordeum vulgare) and dicot species (Lepidium sativum and Sinapis alba); (2) and evaluating other antimicrobial biological activities against phytopatogen bacteria (Clavibacter michiganensis, Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola, Pseudomonas savastanoi, and Xanthomonas campestris); antifungal activity against Monilinia fructicola, Aspergillus niger, Penicillium expansum, and Botrytis cinerea; cytotoxic activity and antioxidant activity. According to the GC/MS analyses, the EO belongs to the thymol chemotype O. vulgare with its high content of thymol (76%). Germination of all four species was not influenced by EO. The phytotoxic effect was statistically significant in the monocot species, while in the dicot species the opposite was observed-a stimulation effect, which was also statistically significant. Strong biological activity of O. vulgare EO was noted on all phytopatogen bacteria and fungi in the highest dose. Cytotoxic activity showed an IC50 = 50.5 µg/mL. Antioxidant activity showed an IC50 = 106.6 µg/mL after 45 min experimental time. Based on the presented results, it is possible to conclude that thymol chemotype O. vulgare essential oil could be potentially used as a herbicide with selective effects on monocot plant species.


Assuntos
Herbicidas/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Origanum/química , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Timol/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/isolamento & purificação , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Citotoxinas/isolamento & purificação , Citotoxinas/farmacologia , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Depuradores de Radicais Livres , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Herbicidas/isolamento & purificação , Hordeum/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Lepidium sativum/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Óleos Vegetais/química , Óleos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Sinapis/efeitos dos fármacos , Especificidade da Espécie , Timol/química , Timol/isolamento & purificação , Triticum/efeitos dos fármacos
19.
Molecules ; 25(4)2020 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32079080

RESUMO

In the last decade, there has been growing interest in the food industry in replacing synthetic chemicals with natural products with bioactive properties. This study's aims were to determine the chemical composition and the antioxidant properties of the essential oil of Pastianica sylvestris. The essential oil was isolated with a yield of 0.41% (w/v) by steam distillation from the dried seeds and subsequently analysed by GC-MS. Octyl acetate (78.49%) and octyl hexanoate (6.68%) were the main components. The essential oil exhibited an excellent activity for the inhibition of primary and secondary oxidation products for cold-pressed sunflower oil comparable with butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), which were evaluated using peroxide and thiobarbituric acid values. The antioxidant activity of the essential oil was additionally validated using DPPH radical scavenging (0.0016 ± 0.0885 mg/mL), and ß-carotene-linoleic acid bleaching assays. Also, the amounts of total phenol components (0.0053 ± 0.0023 mg GAE/g) were determined.


Assuntos
Acetatos/química , Antioxidantes/química , Óleos Voláteis/química , Pastinaca/química , Sementes/química , Acetatos/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Bioensaio , Compostos de Bifenilo/antagonistas & inibidores , Compostos de Bifenilo/química , Hidroxianisol Butilado/química , Hidroxianisol Butilado/isolamento & purificação , Hidroxitolueno Butilado/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Ácido Linoleico/química , Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Fenóis/química , Picratos/antagonistas & inibidores , Picratos/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Óleo de Girassol/química , Tiobarbitúricos/química , beta Caroteno/química
20.
Curr Pharm Biotechnol ; 21(10): 927-938, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32065101

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The essential oil of methyl eugenol rich Cymbopogon khasianus Hack. was evaluated and its bioactivities were compared with pure methyl eugenol. So far, methyl eugenol rich essential oil of lemongrass was not studied for any biological activities; hence, the present study was conducted. OBJECTIVE: This study examined the chemical composition of essential oil of methyl eugenol rich Cymbopogon khasianus Hack., and evaluated its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and herbicidal properties and genotoxicity, which were compared with pure compound, methyl eugenol. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Methyl eugenol rich variety of Cymbopogon khasianus Hack., with registration no. INGR18037 (c.v. Jor Lab L-9) was collected from experimental farm CSIR-NEIST, Jorhat, Assam (26.7378°N, 94.1570°E). The essential oil wasobtained by hydro-distillation using a Clevenger apparatus. The chemical composition of the essential oil was evaluated using GC/MS analysis and its antioxidant (DPPH assay, reducing power assay), anti-inflammatory (Egg albumin denaturation assay), and antimicrobial (Disc diffusion assay, MIC) properties, seed germination effect and genotoxicity (Allium cepa assay) were studied and compared with pure Methyl Eugenol compound (ME). RESULTS: Major components detected in the Essential Oil (EO) through Gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy analysis were methyl eugenol (73.17%) and ß-myrcene (8.58%). A total of 35components were detected with a total identified area percentage of 98.34%. DPPH assay revealed considerable antioxidant activity of methyl eugenol rich lemongrass essential oil (IC50= 2.263 µg/mL), which is lower than standard ascorbic acid (IC50 2.58 µg/mL), and higher than standard Methyl Eugenol (ME) (IC50 2.253 µg/mL). Methyl eugenol rich lemongrass EO showed IC50 38.00 µg/mL, ME 36.44 µg/mL, and sodium diclofenac 22.76 µg/mL, in in-vitro anti-inflammatory test. Moderate antimicrobial activity towards the 8 tested microbes was shown by methyl eugenol rich lemongrass essential oil whose effectiveness against the microbes was less as compared to pure ME standard. Seed germination assay further revealed the herbicidal properties of methyl eugenol rich essential oil. Moreover, Allium cepa assay revealed moderate genotoxicity of the essential oil. CONCLUSION: This paper compared the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, genotoxicity and herbicidal activities of methyl eugenol rich lemongrass with pure methyl eugenol. This methyl eugenol rich lemongrass variety can be used as an alternative of methyl eugenol pure compound. Hence, the essential oil of this variety has the potential of developing cost-effective, easily available antioxidative/ antimicrobial drugs but its use should be under the safety range of methyl eugenol and needs further clinical trials.


Assuntos
Cymbopogon/química , Eugenol/análogos & derivados , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Compostos de Bifenilo/química , Aberrações Cromossômicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Cymbopogon/genética , Eugenol/isolamento & purificação , Eugenol/farmacologia , Eugenol/toxicidade , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Óleos Voláteis/toxicidade , Ovalbumina/imunologia , Picratos/química , Extratos Vegetais/química
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