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1.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361547

RESUMO

Essential oils of aromatic plants represent an alternative to classical pest control with synthetic chemicals. They are especially promising for the alternative control of stored product pest insects. Here, we tested behavioral and electrophysiological responses of the stored product pest Tribolium confusum, to the essential oil of a Brazilian indigenous plant, Varronia globosa, collected in the Caatinga ecosystem. We analyzed the essential oil by GC-MS, tested the effects of the entire oil and its major components on the behavior of individual beetles in a four-way olfactometer, and investigated responses to these stimuli in electroantennogram recordings (EAG). We could identify 25 constituents in the essential oil of V. globosa, with anethole, caryophyllene and spathulenole as main components. The oil and its main component anethole had repellent effects already at low doses, whereas caryophyllene had only a repellent effect at a high dose. In addition, the essential oil abolished the attractive effect of the T. confusum aggregation pheromone. EAG recordings revealed dose-dependent responses to the individual components and increasing responses to the blend and even more to the entire oil. Our study reveals the potential of anethole and the essential oil of V. globosa in the management of stored product pests.


Assuntos
Antenas de Artrópodes/fisiologia , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Repelentes de Insetos , Magnoliopsida/química , Óleos Voláteis , Tribolium/fisiologia , Animais , Repelentes de Insetos/química , Repelentes de Insetos/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia
2.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361848

RESUMO

The industrial processing of crude propolis generates residues. Essential oils (EOs) from propolis residues could be a potential source of natural bioactive compounds to replace antibiotics and synthetic antioxidants in pig production. In this study, we determined the antibacterial/antioxidant activity of EOs from crude organic propolis (EOP) and from propolis residues, moist residue (EOMR), and dried residue (EODR), and further elucidated their chemical composition. The EOs were extracted by hydrodistillation, and their volatile profile was tentatively identified by GC-MS. All EOs had an antibacterial effect on Escherichia coli and Lactobacillus plantarum as they caused disturbances on the growth kinetics of both bacteria. However, EODR had more selective antibacterial activity, as it caused a higher reduction in the maximal culture density (D) of E. coli (86.7%) than L. plantarum (46.9%). EODR exhibited mild antioxidant activity, whereas EOMR showed the highest antioxidant activity (ABTS = 0.90 µmol TE/mg, FRAP = 463.97 µmol Fe2+/mg) and phenolic content (58.41 mg GAE/g). Each EO had a different chemical composition, but α-pinene and ß-pinene were the major compounds detected in the samples. Interestingly, specific minor compounds were detected in a higher relative amount in EOMR and EODR as compared to EOP. Therefore, these minor compounds are most likely responsible for the biological properties of EODR and EOMR. Collectively, our findings suggest that the EOs from propolis residues could be resourcefully used as natural antibacterial/antioxidant additives in pig production.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Antioxidantes , Escherichia coli/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lactobacillus plantarum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Óleos Voláteis , Própole/química , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia
3.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361609

RESUMO

The use of copaiba oil has been reported since the 16th century in Amazon traditional medicine, especially as an anti-inflammatory ingredient and for wound healing. The use of copaiba oil continues today, and it is sold in various parts of the world, including the United States. Copaiba oil contains mainly sesquiterpenes, bioactive compounds that are popular for their positive effect on human health. As part of our ongoing research endeavors to identify the chemical constituents of broadly consumed herbal supplements or their adulterants, copaiba oil was investigated. In this regard, copaiba oil was subjected to repeated silica gel column chromatography to purify the compounds. As a result, one new and seven known sesquiterpenes/sesquiterpenoids were isolated and identified from the copaiba oil. The new compound was elucidated as (E)-2,6,10-trimethyldodec-8-en-2-ol. Structure elucidation was achieved by 1D- and 2D NMR and GC/Q-ToF mass spectral data analyses. The isolated chemical constituents in this study could be used as chemical markers to evaluate the safety or quality of copaiba oil.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Fabaceae/química , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Sesquiterpenos/análise , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional
4.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443336

RESUMO

We develop a suitable delivery system for niaouli essential oil (NEO) using a nanoemulsification method for acne vulgaris. Prepared nanoemulsions (NEs) were characterized for droplet dimension, rheology, surface charge, and stability. The ability of NEO formulations against Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis was investigated and all formulations showed antiacne potential in vitro. Ex vivo permeation studies indicated significant improvement in drug permeations and steady state flux of all NEO-NEs compared to the neat NEO (p < 0.05). On the basis of the studied pharmaceutical parameters, enhanced ex vivo skin permeation, and marked effect on acne pathogens, formulation NEO-NE4 was found to be the best (oil (NEO; 10% v/v); Kolliphor EL (9.25% v/v), Carbitol (27.75% v/v), and water (53% v/v)). Concisely, the in vitro and ex vivo results revealed that nanoemulsification improved the delivery as well as bioactivities of NEO significantly.


Assuntos
Portadores de Fármacos/química , Melaleuca/química , Nanoestruturas/química , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Emulsões , Óleos Voláteis/metabolismo , Permeabilidade , Pele/metabolismo , Staphylococcus epidermidis/efeitos dos fármacos
5.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443352

RESUMO

Ruta L. is a typical genus of the citrus family, Rutaceae Juss. and comprises ca. 40 different species, mainly distributed in the Mediterranean region. Ruta species have long been used in traditional medicines as an abortifacient and emmenagogue and for the treatment of lung diseases and microbial infections. The genus Ruta is rich in essential oils, which predominantly contain aliphatic ketones, e.g., 2-undecanone and 2-nonanone, but lack any significant amounts of terpenes. Three Ruta species, Ruta chalepensis L., Ruta graveolens L., and Ruta montana L., have been extensively studied for the composition of their essential oils and several bioactivities, revealing their potential medicinal and agrochemical applications. This review provides a systematic evaluation and critical appraisal of publications available in the literature on the composition and bioactivities of the essential oils obtained from Ruta species and includes a brief outlook of the potential applications of nanotechnology and chitosan-based products of Ruta essential oils.


Assuntos
Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Ruta/química , Animais , Humanos , Nanomedicina
6.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443356

RESUMO

Within the unavoidable variability of various origins in the characteristics of essential oils, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the distillation time on the chemical composition and biological activity of Cannabis sativa essential oils (EOs). The dry inflorescences came from Carmagnola, Kompolti, Futura 75, Gran Sasso Kush and Carmagnola Lemon varieties from Abruzzo region (Central Italy), the last two being new cultivar here described for the first time. EOs were collected at 2 h and 4 h of distillation; GC/MS technique was applied to characterize their volatile fraction. The EOs were evaluated for total polyphenol content (TPC), antioxidant capacity (AOC) and antimicrobial activity against food-borne pathogens and spoilage bacteria. The time of distillation particularly influenced EOs chemical composition, extracting more or less terpenic components, but generally enriching with minor sesquiterpenes and cannabidiol. A logical response in ratio of time was observed for antioxidant potential, being the essential oils at 4 h of distillation more active than those distilled for 2 h, and particularly Futura 75. Conversely, except for Futura 75, the effect of time on the antimicrobial activity was variable and requires further investigations; nevertheless, the inhibitory activity of all EOs against Pseudomonas fluorescens P34 was an interesting result.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Cannabis/química , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Polifenóis/análise , Fatores de Tempo
7.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443590

RESUMO

Biocompatible skin wound dressing materials with long-term therapeutic windows and anti-infection properties have attracted great attention all over the world. The cooperation between essential oil and non-toxic or bio-based polymers was a promising strategy. However, the inherent volatility and chemical instability of most ingredients in essential oils make the sustained pharmacological activity of essential oil-based biomaterials a challenge. In this study, a kind of film nanocomposite loaded with patchouli essential oil (PEO-FNC) was fabricated. PEO-loaded mesoporous silica nanoparticles (PEO-MSNs) with drug load higher than 40 wt% were firstly prepared using supercritical CO2 cyclic impregnation (SCCI), and then combined with the film matrix consisting of polyvinyl alcohol and chitosan. The morphology of PEO-MSNs and PEO-FNC was observed by transmission and scanning electron microscope. The mechanical properties, including hygroscopicity, tensile strength and elongation at break (%), were tested. The release behavior of PEO from the film nanocomposite showed that PEO could keep releasing for more than five days. PEO-FNC exhibited good long-term (>48 h) antibacterial effect on Staphylococcus aureus and non-toxicity on mouse fibroblast (L929 cells), making it a promising wound dressing material.


Assuntos
Bandagens/microbiologia , Dióxido de Carbono/química , Nanocompostos/química , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Pogostemon/química , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Camundongos , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos
8.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361759

RESUMO

Croton ferrugineus Kunth is an endemic species of Ecuador used in traditional medicine both for wound healing and as an antiseptic. In this study, fresh Croton ferrugineus leaves were collected and subjected to hydrodistillation for extraction of the essential oil. The chemical composition of the essential oil was determined by gas chromatography equipped with a flame ionization detector and gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer using a non-polar and a polar chromatographic column. The antibacterial activity was assayed against three Gram-positive bacteria, one Gram-negative bacterium and one dermatophyte fungus. The radical scavenging properties of the essential oil was evaluated by means of DPPH and ABTS assays. The chemical analysis allowed us to identify thirty-five compounds representing more than 99.95% of the total composition. Aliphatic sesquiterpene hydrocarbon trans-caryophyllene was the main constituent with 20.47 ± 1.25%. Other main compounds were myrcene (11.47 ± 1.56%), ß-phellandrene (10.55 ± 0.02%), germacrene D (7.60 ± 0.60%), and α-humulene (5.49 ± 0.38%). The essential oil from Croton ferrugineus presented moderate activity against Candida albicans (ATCC 10231) with an MIC of 1000 µg/mL, a scavenging capacity SC50 of 901 ± 20 µg/mL with the ABTS method, and very strong antiglucosidase activity with an IC50 of 146 ± 20 µg/mL.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/química , Antioxidantes/química , Croton/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Óleos Voláteis/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Monoterpenos Acíclicos/química , Monoterpenos Acíclicos/isolamento & purificação , Alcenos/química , Alcenos/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Infecciosos/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Benzotiazóis/antagonistas & inibidores , Compostos de Bifenilo/antagonistas & inibidores , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida albicans/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Monoterpenos Cicloexânicos/química , Monoterpenos Cicloexânicos/isolamento & purificação , Inibidores Enzimáticos/isolamento & purificação , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Sesquiterpenos Monocíclicos/química , Sesquiterpenos Monocíclicos/isolamento & purificação , Picratos/antagonistas & inibidores , Sesquiterpenos Policíclicos/química , Sesquiterpenos Policíclicos/isolamento & purificação , Sesquiterpenos de Germacrano/química , Sesquiterpenos de Germacrano/isolamento & purificação , Ácidos Sulfônicos/antagonistas & inibidores , alfa-Glucosidases/química
9.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361766

RESUMO

Hedyosmum racemosum (Ruiz & Pav.) G. is a native species of Ecuador used in traditional medicine for treatment of rheumatism, bronchitis, cold, cough, asthma, bone pain, and stomach pain. In this study, fresh H. racemosum leaves of male and female specimens were collected and subjected to hydrodistillation for the extraction of the essential oil. The chemical composition of male and female essential oil was determined by gas chromatography-gas chromatography equipped with a flame ionization detector and coupled to a mass spectrometer using a non-polar and a polar chromatographic column. The antibacterial activity was assayed against five Gram-positive and two Gram-negative bacteria, and two dermatophytes fungi. The scavenging radical properties of the essential oil were evaluated by DPPH and ABTS assays. The chemical analysis allowed us to identify forty-three compounds that represent more than 98% of the total composition. In the non-polar and polar column, α-phellandrene was the principal constituent in male (28.24 and 25.90%) and female (26.47 and 23.90%) essential oil. Other main compounds were methyl chavicol, germacrene D, methyl eugenol, and α-pinene. Female essential oil presented a strong activity against Klebsiella pneumoniae (ATCC 9997) with an minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 500 µg/mL and a scavenging capacity SC50 of 800 µg/mL.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/química , Antioxidantes/química , Monoterpenos Cicloexânicos/química , Magnoliopsida/química , Óleos Voláteis/química , Derivados de Alilbenzenos/química , Derivados de Alilbenzenos/isolamento & purificação , Anisóis/química , Anisóis/isolamento & purificação , Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Arthrodermataceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Arthrodermataceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Benzotiazóis/antagonistas & inibidores , Monoterpenos Bicíclicos/química , Monoterpenos Bicíclicos/isolamento & purificação , Compostos de Bifenilo/antagonistas & inibidores , Monoterpenos Cicloexânicos/isolamento & purificação , Equador , Eugenol/análogos & derivados , Eugenol/química , Eugenol/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Humanos , Magnoliopsida/metabolismo , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Picratos/antagonistas & inibidores , Folhas de Planta/química , Plantas Medicinais , Sesquiterpenos de Germacrano/química , Sesquiterpenos de Germacrano/isolamento & purificação , Fatores Sexuais , Ácidos Sulfônicos/antagonistas & inibidores
10.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361638

RESUMO

The species Cordia verbenacea DC (Boraginaceae), known as the whaling herb and camaradinha, is a perennial shrub species native to the Atlantic Forest. Its leaves are used in folk medicine as an anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antiulcerogenic and curative agent, in the form of teas or infusions for internal or topical use. The present study aimed to verify the cytotoxicity of the essential oil and the leishmanicidal and trypanocidal potential of C. verbenacea. The essential oil was characterized by GC-MS. The in vitro biological activity was determined by anti-Leishmania and anti-Trypanosoma assays. The cytotoxixity was determined using mammalian fibroblasts. The C. verbenacea species presented α-pinene (45.71%), ß-caryophyllene (18.77%), tricyclo[2,2,1-(2.6)]heptane (12.56%) as their main compounds. The essential oil exhibited strong cytotoxicity at concentrations below 250 µg/mL (LC50 138.1 µg/mL) in mammalian fibroblasts. The potent anti-trypanosome and anti-promastigote activities occurred from the concentration of 62.5 µg/mL and was considered clinically relevant. The results also demonstrate that at low concentrations (<62.5 µg/mL), the essential oil of C. verbenacea managed to be lethal for these activities. This can be considered an indication of the power used in daily human consumption. Therefore, it can be concluded that the essential oil of C. verbenacea contains a compound with remarkable antiparasitic activities and requires further research.


Assuntos
Cordia/química , Citotoxinas , Leishmania braziliensis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Óleos Voláteis , Tripanossomicidas , Trypanosoma cruzi/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Citotoxinas/química , Citotoxinas/isolamento & purificação , Citotoxinas/farmacologia , Camundongos , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Tripanossomicidas/química , Tripanossomicidas/isolamento & purificação , Tripanossomicidas/farmacologia
11.
Molecules ; 26(13)2021 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34279420

RESUMO

Cannabis sativa L. is an annual species cultivated since antiquity for different purposes. While, in the past, hemp inflorescences were considered crop residues, at present, they are regarded as valuable raw materials with different applications, among which extraction of the essential oil (EO) has gained increasing interest in many fields. The aim of the present study is the evaluation of the yield and the chemical composition of the EO obtained by hydrodistillation from eleven hemp genotypes, cultivated in the same location for two consecutive growing seasons. The composition of the EOs was analyzed by GC-MS, and then subjected to multivariate statistical analysis. Sesquiterpenes represented the main class of compounds in all the EOs, both in their hydrocarbon and oxygenated forms, with relative abundances ranging from 47.1 to 78.5%; the only exception was the Felina 32 sample collected in 2019, in which cannabinoids predominated. Cannabinoids were the second most abundant class of compounds, of which cannabidiol was the main one, with relative abundances between 11.8 and 51.5%. The statistical distribution of the samples, performed on the complete chemical composition of the EOs, evidenced a partition based on the year of cultivation, rather than on the genotype, with the exception of Uso-31. Regarding the extraction yield, a significant variation was evidenced among both the genotypes and the years of cultivation.


Assuntos
Cannabis/genética , Óleos Voláteis/análise , Óleos Voláteis/química , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Canabinoides/análise , Canabinoides/química , Cannabis/classificação , Cannabis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cannabis/metabolismo , Genótipo
12.
Molecules ; 26(14)2021 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299543

RESUMO

The essential oils of hinoki (Chamaecyparis obtusa) leaves have anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, and relaxation properties that are likely associated with the major components such as sabinene, α-terpinyl acetate, limonene, elemol, myrcene, and hibaene. The present study describes the use of a cellulose-dissolving ionic liquid (IL) [C2mim][(MeO)(H)PO2] and low-toxicity solvents called betaine-based deep eutectic solvents (DESs) for the efficient extraction of hinoki essential oils. As a control method, organic solvent extraction was performed using either hexane, ethyl acetate (EtOAc), or acetone at 30 °C for 1 h. Both the experimental and control methods were conducted under the same conditions, which relied on partial dissolution of the leaves using the IL and DESs before partitioning the hinoki oils into the organic solvent for analysis. Quantitative analysis was performed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode. The results indicated that extraction using the [C2mim][(MeO)(H)PO2]/acetone bilayer system improved the yields of limonene and hibaene, 1.5- and 1.9-fold, respectively, when compared with the control method. In addition, extraction using betaine/l-lactic acid (molar ratio 1:1) gave the greatest yields for both limonene and hibaene, 1.3-fold and 1.5-fold greater, respectively, than when using an organic solvent. These results demonstrate the effective extraction of essential oils from plant leaves under conditions milder than those needed for the conventional method. The less toxic and environmentally begin DESs for the extraction are also applicable to the food and cosmetic industries.


Assuntos
Chamaecyparis/química , Líquidos Iônicos/química , Limoneno/química , Solventes/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Óleos Voláteis/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Sesquiterpenos/química
13.
Molecules ; 26(14)2021 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299441

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to conduct a histochemical analysis to localize lipids, terpenes, essential oil, and iridoids in the trichomes of the L. album subsp. album corolla. Morphometric examinations of individual trichome types were performed. Light and scanning electron microscopy techniques were used to show the micromorphology and localization of lipophilic compounds and iridoids in secretory trichomes with the use of histochemical tests. Additionally, the content of essential oil and its components were determined using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Qualitative analyses of triterpenes carried out using high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) coupled with densitometric detection, and the iridoid content expressed as aucubin was examined with spectrophotometric techniques. We showed the presence of iridoids and different lipophilic compounds in papillae and glandular and non-glandular trichomes. On average, the flowers of L. album subsp. album yielded 0.04 mL/kg of essential oil, which was dominated by aldehydes, sesquiterpenes, and alkanes. The extract of the L. album subsp. album corolla contained 1.5 × 10-3 ± 4.3 × 10-4 mg/mL of iridoid aucubin and three triterpenes: oleanolic acid, ß-amyrin, and ß-amyrin acetate. Aucubin and ß-amyrin acetate were detected for the first time. We suggest the use of L. album subsp. album flowers as supplements in human nutrition.


Assuntos
Iridoides/química , Lamiaceae/química , Óleos Voláteis/química , Triterpenos/química , Cromatografia em Camada Delgada/métodos , Flores/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Iridoides/análise , Lamiaceae/metabolismo , Óleos Voláteis/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Folhas de Planta/química , Sesquiterpenos/análise , Tricomas/química , Triterpenos/análise
14.
Molecules ; 26(14)2021 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299446

RESUMO

The citrus industry is one of the most important economic areas within the global agricultural sector. Persian lime is commonly used to produce lime juice and essential oil, which are usually obtained by batch distillation. The aim of this work was to validate a patented continuous steam distillation process and to both physically and chemically characterize the volatile fractions of essential Persian lime oil. Prior to distillation, lime juice was obtained by pressing the lime fruit. Afterwards, the juice was subjected to a continuous steam distillation process by varying the ratio of distillate flow to feed flow (0.2, 0.4, and 0.6). The distillate oil fractions were characterized by measuring their density, optical rotation, and refractive index. Gas chromatography GC-FID was used to analyze the chemical compositions of the oil fractions. The process of continuous steam distillation presented high oil recovery efficiencies (up to 90%) and lower steam consumption compared to traditional batch process distillation since steam consumption ranged from 32 to 60% for different steam levels. Moreover, a reduction in process time was observed (from 8 to 4 h). The oil fractions obtained via continuous steam distillation differed significantly in their composition from the parent compounds and the fractions.


Assuntos
Citrus/metabolismo , Destilação/métodos , Cromatografia Gasosa/métodos , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Óleos Voláteis/química , Vapor
15.
Molecules ; 26(14)2021 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299454

RESUMO

In this study, a new broth macrodilution volatilization method for the simple and rapid determination of the antibacterial effect of volatile agents simultaneously in the liquid and vapor phase was designed with the aim to assess their therapeutic potential for the development of new inhalation preparations. The antibacterial activity of plant volatiles (ß-thujaplicin, thymohydroquinone, thymoquinone) was evaluated against bacteria associated with respiratory infections (Haemophilus influenzae, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes) and their cytotoxicity was determined using a modified thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide assay against normal lung fibroblasts. Thymohydroquinone and thymoquinone possessed the highest antibacterial activity against H. influenzae, with minimum inhibitory concentrations of 4 and 8 µg/mL in the liquid and vapor phases, respectively. Although all compounds exhibited cytotoxic effects on lung cells, therapeutic indices (TIs) suggested their potential use in the treatment of respiratory infections, which was especially evident for thymohydroquinone (TI > 34.13). The results demonstrate the applicability of the broth macrodilution volatilization assay, which combines the principles of broth microdilution volatilization and standard broth macrodilution methods. This assay enables rapid, simple, cost- and labor-effective screening of volatile compounds and overcomes the limitations of assays currently used for screening of antimicrobial activity in the vapor phase.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Administração por Inalação , Antibacterianos/análise , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Benzoquinonas/administração & dosagem , Benzoquinonas/farmacologia , Haemophilus influenzae/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Monoterpenos/administração & dosagem , Monoterpenos/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/química , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Streptococcus pneumoniae/efeitos dos fármacos , Streptococcus pyogenes/efeitos dos fármacos , Timol/administração & dosagem , Timol/análogos & derivados , Timol/farmacologia , Tropolona/administração & dosagem , Tropolona/análogos & derivados , Tropolona/farmacologia , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/farmacologia , Volatilização
16.
Molecules ; 26(13)2021 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34279396

RESUMO

The main strategies against Triatoma infestans (primary vector responsible for the Chagas disease transmission) are the elimination or reduction of its abundance in homes through the application of insecticides or repellents with residual power, and environmental management through the improvement of housing. The use of plant-derived compounds as a source of therapeutic agents (i.e., essential oils from aromatic plants and their components) is a valuable alternative to conventional insecticides and repellents. Essential oil-based insect repellents are environmentally friendly and provide reliable personal protection against the bites of mosquitoes and other blood-sucking insects. This study investigates, for the first time to our knowledge, the potential repellent activity of Zuccagnia punctata essential oil (ZEO) and poly(ε-caprolactone) matrices loaded with ZEO (ZEOP) prepared by solvent casting. The analysis of its essential oil from aerial parts by GC-FID and GC-MS, MS allowed the identification of 25 constituents representing 99.5% of the composition. The main components of the oil were identified as (-)-5,6-dehydrocamphor (62.4%), alpha-pinene (9.1%), thuja-2, 4 (10)-diene (4.6%) and dihydroeugenol (4.5%). ZEOP matrices were homogeneous and opaque, with thickness of 800 ± 140 µm and encapsulation efficiency values above 98%. ZEO and ZEOP at the lowest dose (0.5% wt./wt., 96 h) showed a repellency of 33 and 73% respectively, while at the highest dose (1% wt./wt., 96 h) exhibited a repellent activity of 40 and 66 %, respectively. On the other hand, until 72 h, ZEO showed a strong repellent activity against T. infestans (88% repellency average; Class V) to both concentrations, compared with positive control N-N diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET). The essential oils from the Andean flora have shown an excellent repellent activity, highlighting the repellent activity of Zuccagnia punctata. The effectiveness of ZEO was extended by its incorporation in polymeric systems and could have a potential home or peridomiciliary use, which might help prevent, or at least reduce, Chagas' disease transmission.


Assuntos
Fabaceae/química , Repelentes de Insetos/farmacologia , Mosquitos Vetores/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Triatoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Cânfora/análogos & derivados , Cânfora/análise , Eugenol/análogos & derivados , Eugenol/análise , Repelentes de Insetos/química , Óleos Voláteis/química , Poliésteres/química
17.
Molecules ; 26(14)2021 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299656

RESUMO

Chemical composition, antioxidant capacity, and antimicrobial activity of lavender essential oils (LEOs) extracted from three different varieties of Lavandula angustifolia Mill. (1-Moldoveanca 4, 2-Vis magic 10, and 3-Alba 7) have been determined. These plants previously patented in the Republic of Moldova were cultivated in an organic agriculture system in the northeastern part of Romania and then harvested in 3 consecutive years (2017-2019) to obtain the essential oils. From the inflorescences in the complete flowering stage, the LEOs were extracted by hydrodistillation. Then, their composition was analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and by Fourier Transformed Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The major identified constituents are as follows: linalool (1: 32.19-46.83%; 2: 29.93-30.97%; 3: 31.97-33.77%), linalyl acetate (1: 17.70-35.18%; 2: 27.55-37.13%; 3: 28.03-35.32%), and terpinen-4-ol (1: 3.63-7.70%; 2: 3.06-7.16%; 3: 3.10-6.53%). The antioxidant capacity as determined by ABTS and DPPH assays indicates inhibition, with the highest activity obtained for LEO var. Alba 7 from 2019. The in vitro antimicrobial activities of the LEOs and combinations were investigated as well, by using the disk diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against the Gram-positive bacterial strain Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538), Gram-negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27858), Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), the yeast Candida albicans (ATCC 10231), and clinical isolates. Our results have shown that LEOs obtained from the three studied varieties of L. angustifolia manifest significant bactericidal effects against tested microorganisms (Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli), and antifungal effects against Candida albicans. The mixture of LEOs (Var. Alba 7) and geranium, respectively, in tea tree EOs, in different ratios, showed a significant enhancement of the antibacterial effect against all the studied strains, except Pseudomonas aeruginosa.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Antioxidantes , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Candida albicans/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lavandula/química , Óleos Voláteis , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia
18.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 185: 535-542, 2021 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34216656

RESUMO

Antimicrobial films based on polylactic acid (PLA) were developed by incorporating Thymus vulgaris essential oil (TV-EOs) with different concentrations of ethanolic extract of Mediterranean propolis (EEP) (5 wt% and 10 wt% based on PLA). The antimicrobial activities of EEP were performed by the agar disc diffusion method. The EEP exhibited high antimicrobial properties with inhibition zone diameter of 12.1 and 11.58 mm against Staphylococcus aureus and Penicillium sp., respectively. The addition of TV-EOs to films containing 5 and 10 wt% of EEP decrease the elastic modulus from 1292 MPa to 1084 MPa and 911.1 MPa to 794 MPa compared with films containing 5 and 10% of EEP alone, respectively. However, the elongation at break increased by 64% after the addition of TV-EOs to the film containing 10 wt% of EEP. Thermal stability of films improvement by the addition of TV-EOs and EEP. Antimicrobial activity of the films showed that films containing 10 wt% EEP inhibited the growth of Candida albicans and the combination of EEP and TV-EOs in the PLA matrix showed a synergistic effect against Escherichia coli. The developed PLA-based films with antimicrobial activity have a potential application in food packaging to increase the shelf life of packaged food.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Etanol/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Poliésteres/química , Própole/química , Thymus (Planta)/química , Antibacterianos/química , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Etanol/química , Embalagem de Alimentos , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
19.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 185: 620-628, 2021 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34216663

RESUMO

Mandarin (Citrus reticulata L.) essential oil (MEO) reportedly displays excellent antimicrobial properties. In this study, MEO was loaded into chitosan nanoparticles (CSNPs). The characteristics, antibacterial properties and benefit in pork preservation of MEO-CSNPs were evaluated. The MEO-CSNPs displayed an excellent encapsulation efficiency (EE) (67.32%-82.35%), the particle size values of 131.3 nm-161.9 nm, and the absolute zeta potential values above 30 mV. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) revealed that the MEO was incorporated into CSNPs without requiring a chemical reaction, the antibacterial activity of the MEO remained. Furthermore, the damage of MEO-chitosan nanoemulsions (MEO-CSs) to the cell membranes of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Escherichia coli (E. coli) was confirmed by the change of bacterial cell morphology. The anti-biofilm assays verified that the MEO-CSs substantially inhibited biofilm formation and destroyed the mature biofilms. MEO-CSs were also applied to pork, proving a great potential for pork preservation. This study provides a potential approach for developing and utilizing MEO-CSs as natural antimicrobial agents in the food industry.


Assuntos
Quitosana/química , Citrus/química , Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Carne de Porco , Animais , Membrana Externa Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas , Óleos Voláteis/química , Tamanho da Partícula , Óleos Vegetais/química , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Suínos , Termogravimetria , Difração de Raios X
20.
Molecules ; 26(13)2021 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34202776

RESUMO

The chemical composition, antioxidant activity, and antimicrobial properties of three commercially available essential oils: rosemary (REO), lavender (LEO), and mint (MEO), were determined in the current study. Our data revealed that the major components of REO, MEO, and LEO were 1,8-cineole (40.4%), menthol (40.1%), and linalool acetate (35.0%), respectively. The highest DPPH radical-scavenging activity was identified in MEO (36.85 ± 0.49%) among the investigated EOs. Regarding antimicrobial activities, we found that LEO had the strongest inhibitory efficiencies against the growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida (C.) tropicalis, MEO against Salmonella (S.) enterica, and REO against Staphylococcus (S.) aureus. The strongest antifungal activity was displayed by mint EO, which totally inhibited the growth of Penicillium (P.) expansum and P. crustosum in all concentrations; the growth of P. citrinum was completely suppressed only by the lowest MEO concentration. The lowest minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) against S. enterica, S. aureus, and C. krusei were assessed for MEO. In situ analysis on the bread model showed that 125 µL/L of REO exhibited the lowest mycelial growth inhibition (MGI) of P. citrinum, and 500 µL/L of MEO caused the highest MGI of P. crustosum. Our results allow us to make conclusion that the analysed EOs have promising potential for use as innovative agents in the storage of bakery products in order to extend their shelf-life.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Pão/microbiologia , Lavandula/química , Mentha/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Penicillium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Rosmarinus/química , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Candida tropicalis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Óleos Voláteis/química
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