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1.
J Oleo Sci ; 69(8): 941-950, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32759552

RESUMO

This study reports the biological activity of essential oils from fertility tree and horseradish tree leaves, and the mechanisms by which these oils promote insecticidal activity using Drosophila melanogaster as a model organism. Adult D. melanogaster were exposed to these essential oils at a final concentration of 10 µL/g for 24 hours. The exposure of flies to the essential oil resulted in significant decrease in their survival and fecundity. In addition, the essential oils produced significant reduction in acetylcholinesterase activity and induced oxidative stress in the flies as evidenced by an increase in reactive oxygen species, thiol and thiobarbituric reactive substance levels, as well as catalase activity. The essential oils were also characterized by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Constituents such as terpenoids, Bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, benzeneacetaldehyde, phytol, octadecane, 9,12-octadecadienoic acid (Z,Z)- methyl ester, heneicosane, eicosane and others were characterized. Therefore, our results point out to the potential application of fertility tree and horseradish tree leaf essential oils as natural alternatives to synthetic insecticides in agricultural and pest control practices, especially against dipterans.


Assuntos
Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Bignoniaceae/química , Drosophila melanogaster/efeitos dos fármacos , Drosophila melanogaster/metabolismo , Inseticidas , Moringa oleifera/química , Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/química , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Óleos Voláteis/química , Ácidos Ftálicos/análise , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Terpenos/análise , Substâncias Reativas com Ácido Tiobarbitúrico/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo
2.
J Oleo Sci ; 69(9): 985-992, 2020 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32788517

RESUMO

The oxidative stability of sunflower oil containing rosemary essential oil and extracts in the oil during frying were followed by measuring peroxide value. Variation in the values of L* of the frying oil containing extract was less than that of frying oil containing essential oil. a*-Value of the fried oil containing extract highly significant decreased. Increase in the value of b* of 1. and 2. frying oil with 0.5 % rosemary essential oil was less. b* Value of the frying oils containing rosemary extract increased compared to b* values of frying oils containing essential oil. b* Value of the frying oil that the essential oil of rosemary added showed less increase than b* value of the frying oil that extract of rosemary. The viscosity values of frying oils containing rosemary extract changed between 30.3 mPas (1. frying oil containing 0.5% extract) and 35.5 mPas (2. frying oil containing 0.5% extract). In addition, free fatty acidity values of frying oils containing essential oil at 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5% levels ranged from 0.160% (1. frying oil containing 0.5% essential oil) to 0.320% (1. frying oil containing 0.3% essential oil). Peroxide values of frying oils containing rosemary extracts were determined between 12.84 meq O2/kg (1. frying oil containing 0.1% extract) and 28.98 meq O2/kg (2. frying oil containing 0.1% extract). Peroxide value of frying made with 0.3 % the rosemary essential oil increased less than that of made with the raw sunflower oil (control) (p < 0.05). Whenever rosemary essential oil and rosemary extract compare, the essential oil seems to be more effective on the peroxide value of the frying oil. The essential oil of rosemary have been effected more from the extracts of rosemary on the oxidative stability of sunflower oil.


Assuntos
Culinária , Temperatura Alta , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleo de Girassol/química , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Oxirredução , Peróxidos/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Óleos Vegetais/química
3.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 330: 108766, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32659522

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to explore the antifungal and aflatoxin B1 inhibitory efficacy of nanoencapsulated antifungal formulation. Mixture design response surface methodology (RSM) was utilized to design the antifungal formulation (SBC 4:1:1) based on the combination of chemically characterized Ocimum sanctum (S), O. basilicum (B), and O. canum (C) against Aspergillus flavus. The SBC was incorporated inside the chitosan nanomatrix (Ne-SBC) using an ultrasonic probe (40 kHz) and interactions were confirmed by SEM, FTIR and XRD analysis. The results showed that the Ne-SBC possessed enhanced antifungal and aflatoxin B1 inhibitory effect over the free form of SBC. The biochemical and in silico results indicate that the antifungal and aflatoxin B1 inhibitory effect was related to perturbance in the plasma membrane function (ergosterol biosynthesis and membrane cation) mitochondrial membrane potential, C-sources utilization, antioxidant defense system, and the targeted gene products Erg 28, cytochrome c oxidase subunit Va, and Nor-1. In-situ observation revealed that Ne-SBC effectively protects the Avena sativa seeds from A. flavus and AFB1 contamination and preserves its sensory profile. The findings suggest that the fabrication of SBC inside the chitosan nano-matrix has promising use in the food industries as an antifungal agent.


Assuntos
Aflatoxina B1/antagonistas & inibidores , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Ocimum/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Aflatoxina B1/metabolismo , Antifúngicos/química , Aspergillus flavus/efeitos dos fármacos , Aspergillus flavus/metabolismo , Quitosana/química , Quitosana/farmacologia , Composição de Medicamentos , Ocimum/classificação , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Sementes/microbiologia
4.
Food Chem ; 330: 127268, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32540519

RESUMO

Essential oils (EOs) are natural, volatile and aromatic liquids extracted from special plants. EOs are complex mixture of secondary metabolites (terpenes, phenolic compounds, alcohol). EOs possess a wide range of biological activities including antioxidant, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory ones. Particularly, EOs exhibit pronounced antibacterial and food preservative properties that represent a real potential for the food industry. Numerous EOs have the potential to be used as a food preservative for meat and meat products, vegetables and fruits as well as for dairy products. The main obstacles for using EOs as food preservatives are their safety limits, marked organoleptic effects and possible contamination by chemical products such as pesticides. This review aims to provide an overview of current knowledge about EOs food preservative properties with special emphasis on their antibacterial activities and to support their uses as natural, eco-friendly, safe and easily biodegradable agents for food preservation.


Assuntos
Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Conservantes de Alimentos/química , Conservantes de Alimentos/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Frutas/química , Humanos , Carne , Produtos da Carne , Metabolismo Secundário , Terpenos/análise , Verduras
5.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234661, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32544201

RESUMO

Xanthoxylin was the main compound (content 44.92% of total volatiles) in the leaves of Luodian B. balsamifera, which might be the key cause of failure in collecting essential oil (EO) of the leaves using general hydrodistillation in Clevenger apparatus. A modified hydrodistillation equipped with Clevenger apparatus was designed for isolating EO from the leaves. Six EOs of Luodian B. balsamifera harvested once a month from September to next February were collected successfully. The main components of EOs were δ-elemene, α-cubenene, caryophyllene, caryophyllene epoxide, γ-eudesmol, xanthoxylin, and α-eudesmol. The EOs of Luodian B. balsamifera collected from October to December had higher antioxidant activities (ACs). Combining the principal component analysis of chemical components with the results of ACs and the yields of six EOs, the leaves of Luodian B. balsamifera were suitable to be harvested in November and December to obtain EO with high quality.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Asteraceae/química , Óleos Voláteis/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , China , Destilação/instrumentação , Destilação/métodos , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Sesquiterpenos Policíclicos/isolamento & purificação , Estações do Ano , Sesquiterpenos/isolamento & purificação
6.
Food Chem ; 330: 127202, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32531637

RESUMO

The effect of supercritical fluid extract of tomato pomace (TP) and essential oil of organic peppermint (PM) on pH, color, residual nitrite content, lipid oxidation (TBARS value) and total plate count (TPC) of cooked pork sausages produced with 50 mg/kg of sodium nitrite was investigated. Five batches were produced: T1: 100 mg/kg of sodium nitrite; T2: 50 mg of sodium nitrite; T3: 50 mg of sodium nitrite and 0.150 µL/g TP; T4: 50 mg of sodium nitrite, 0.075 µL/g TP and 0.075 µL/g PM; T5: 50 mg of sodium nitrite and 0.150 µL/g PM. The lowest residual nitrite content and TBARS value were observed in treatment T4. The inclusion of TP increased redness of cooked pork sausages. TPC was the lowest in treatment T5. The results of this study showed that the addition of TP and PM enhanced quality of cooked sausages produced with reduced level of sodium nitrite.


Assuntos
Lycopersicon esculentum/química , Produtos da Carne/análise , Mentha piperita/química , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Carne Vermelha/análise , Nitrito de Sódio/química , Animais , Cor , Culinária , Oxirredução , Extratos Vegetais/química , Suínos
7.
J Oleo Sci ; 69(6): 643-648, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32493886

RESUMO

Sour citrus are prized for their flavor and fragrance. This work identified the components of the peel oil of Hetsuka-daidai (Citrus sp. hetsukadaidai), a special sour citrus that is native to the southern part of the Osumi peninsula, Kagoshima, Japan. These compounds were compared to those identified from the peels of six other major sour citrus: lime (Citrus latifolia), lemon (Citrus limon), Yuzu (Citrus junos), Kabusu (Citrus aurantium), Kabosu (Citrus sphaerocarpa), and Sudachi (Citrus sudachi). Peel oil contents were analyzed for the duration of four months during harvest season to investigate the differences in peel oil/fragrance during ripening. These results could facilitate the development of preferred flavor and scent profiles using local species.


Assuntos
Citrus/química , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Estações do Ano , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Japão , Óleos Voláteis/análise
8.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 330: 108696, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32502760

RESUMO

Synthetic preservatives can have harmful effects on the body, so plant essential oils appear to be an attractive natural alternative. However, the use of essential oils is limited due to the low stability and possible negative effects on the sensory properties of food. Oil encapsulation was suggested as a way to overcome these drawbacks. The objective of this study was to encapsulate thyme essential oil and to evaluate its antioxidant and antimicrobial potential in vitro and in situ in of hamburger-like meat products. The casein-maltodextrin capsules produced by spray-drying were assessed for encapsulation efficiency, thermal stability, chemical compounds and morphology. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH, hydroxyl and nitric oxide methods, while antimicrobial activity was evaluated in vitro against four bacteria and in situ in hamburger-like products. The capsule showed high encapsulation efficiency and thermal stability, and spherical and irregular morphology. The casein-maltodextrin encapsulated essential oil showed antioxidant and antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella Typhimurium tested in vitro and against thermotolerants coliforms and Escherichia coli in situ, showing potential for application as a natural preservative in food.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Conservantes de Alimentos/farmacologia , Produtos da Carne/microbiologia , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Thymus (Planta)/química , Antibacterianos/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Dessecação , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Conservantes de Alimentos/química , Temperatura Alta , Óleos Voláteis/química
9.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 331: 108732, 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32521374

RESUMO

The present study aimed to evaluate the anti-quorum sensing (anti-QS) and anti-proteolytic potentials of tarragon essential oil (TEO) and its major compounds against food-associated Pseudomonas spp. The activities were verified by in vitro, in silico and in situ approaches. In this work, methyl eugenol (ME)- and ß-phellandrene (ß-PH)-rich TEO was investigated. TEO at subMIC increased the percentage of saturated fatty acids in the bacterial membranes (from 7 to 22%) and exhibited anti-quorum sensing via decreasing the efficiency of QS autoinducer synthesis [3-oxo-C12-HSL (from 2.028 µg/mL to

Assuntos
Artemisia/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Proteólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Pseudomonas/efeitos dos fármacos , Percepção de Quorum/efeitos dos fármacos , 4-Butirolactona/análogos & derivados , 4-Butirolactona/isolamento & purificação , 4-Butirolactona/farmacologia , Animais , Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Simulação por Computador , Peixes/microbiologia , Homosserina/análogos & derivados , Homosserina/isolamento & purificação , Homosserina/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Pseudomonas/isolamento & purificação
10.
Food Chem ; 331: 127278, 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32569965

RESUMO

1H quantitative Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (qNMR) spectroscopy technique has certain advantages such as low-temperature operation, authentic structural prediction and short data acquisition time. In this study, a 1H qNMR method was developed for the analysis of propenylbenzenes (eugenol and seven analogues) in the essential oils, a broadly distributed class of natural flavours. It was validated in terms of specificity (methoxy/acetate signal), linearity (range 0.05-5.00 mg per assay), sensitivity (limit of detection and quantification 4.4 and 14.9 µg/mL respectively), accuracy and precision. The qNMR technique was utilized during the sensory or activity-guided identification of chavibetol as the key odorant and antioxidant in the betel (Piper betle L., Bangla cultivar) oil, a widely consumed chewing stimulant and valuable flavouring agent. The method was also applied for the evaluation of six different post-harvest drying techniques for betel leaves through the quantitative analysis of unambiguously identified propenylbenzene markers (chavibetol, chavibetol acetate and 4-allyl-1,2-phenylene diacetate).


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/análise , Odorantes/análise , Óleos Voláteis/análise , Piper betle/química , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Benzeno/análise , Benzeno/química , Dessecação , Eugenol/análogos & derivados , Eugenol/análise , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Micro-Ondas , Óleos Voláteis/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
11.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 19(3): 289-299, mayo 2020. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1116296

RESUMO

Piper kadsura (Choisy) Ohwi which belongs to the family Piperaceae, is a well-known medicinal plant possessing high medicinal and various therapeutic properties. It is widely used in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of asthma and rheumatic arthritis. Numerous studies on this species have also corroborated the significant anti-inflammatory potential of its extracts and secondary metabolites. The main chemical constituents which have been isolated and identified from P. kadsura are lignans and neolignans, which possess anti-inflammatory activities. The present article aims to provide a review of the studies done on the phytochemistry and antiinflammatory activities of P. kadsura. The scientific journals for this brief literature review were from electronic sources, such as Science Direct, PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus, and Web of Science. This review is expected to draw the attention of the medical professionals and the general public towards P. kadsura and to open the door for detailed research in the future.


Piper kadsura (Choisy) Ohwi, perteneciente a la familia Piperaceae, es una planta medicinal conocida que posee importantes propiedades medicinales y diversas propiedades terapéuticas. Es ampliamente utilizada en la medicina tradicional china para el tratamiento del asma y la artritis reumática. Numerosos estudios sobre esta especie también han corroborado el destacado potencial antiinflamatorio de sus extractos y metabolitos secundarios. Los principales componentes químicos que se han aislado e identificado de P. kadsura son los lignanos y los neolignanos, que poseen actividades antiinflamatorias. El presente artículo tiene como objetivo proporcionar una revisión de los estudios realizados sobre las actividades fitoquímicas y antiinflamatorias de P. kadsura. Las revistas científicas para esta breve revisión de literatura fueron de fuentes electrónicas, como Science Direct, PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus y Web of Science. Se espera que esta revisión atraiga la atención de los profesionales médicos y el público en general respecto de P. kadsura y abra la puerta a una investigación detallada en el futuro.


Assuntos
Piper/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Plantas Medicinais , Óleos Voláteis/química , Lignanas/análise , Piperaceae/química , Kadsura , Alcaloides/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia
12.
Food Chem ; 326: 126997, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32422511

RESUMO

The increased demand for pesticide-free foods has also increased the search for healthier and environmentally friendly alternatives in agriculture. Essential oils are known to possess natural antifungal properties, becoming a reliable alternative for commercial fungicides, especially for postharvest decay control. However, essential oils are volatile and photodegradable, which reduces their long-term activities. This work presents the development of a lemongrass essential oil-containing poly(lactic acid) nanocapsules. They have shown in vitro antifungal activity against Colletotrichum acutatum and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides with a MIC dosage of 0.1% (v/v) for both phytopathogens. In the in vivo assay with postharvest apples, the ones treated with encapsulated essential oil showed bitter rot lesions three times smaller than the ones treated with non-encapsulated essential oil, or in comparison to the apples in positive control. The methodology led to stable nanocapsules with spherical morphology, a mean diameter of 96.4 nm, and with an encapsulation efficiency of 99%.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Colletotrichum/efeitos dos fármacos , Cymbopogon/química , Fungicidas Industriais/farmacologia , Nanocápsulas/química , Óleos Voláteis/química , Poliésteres/farmacologia , Malus/efeitos dos fármacos , Malus/microbiologia , Poliésteres/química
13.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 92(1): e20180569, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32321015

RESUMO

The essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from fresh leaves of Vitex agnus-castus and Ocimum campechianum, and from fresh inflorescences of Ocimum carnosum were analysed by GC-FID and GC-MS. The major components of V. agnus-castus essential oil were identified as 1,8-cineole (47.9%), terpinyl α-acetate (11.6%), sabinene (11.2%) and caryophyllene oxide (9.7%), while in the O. campechianum essential oil were eugenol (72.1%), ß-elemene (6.8%), (E)-caryophyllene (6.4%) and bicyclogermacrene (5.2%). Linalool (79.0%), α-epi-cadinol (5.4%), terpinen-4-ol (3.2%) and 1,8-cineole (2.8%) were the major constituents in the O. carnosum essential oil. The essential oils were subsequently evaluated for their larvicidal and cytotoxic activities. Larval bioassay against Aedes aegypti of V. agnus-castus, O. campechianum and O. carnosum essential oils showed LC50 values of 97.55 ± 0.35, 81.45 ± 0.35 and 109.49 ± 0.35 µg/mL, respectively. The in vitro cytotoxic activities of the essential oils has been evaluated on breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7), lung carcinoma (NCI-H292), pro-myelocytic leukemia (HL-60), and cervical adenocarcinoma (HEP-2) human cell lines, and pro-myelocytic leukemia cells lines (HL-60) were found to be the most sensitive to all the essential oils tested than the others. This is the first report on larvicidal and cytotoxic activities of these essential oils.


Assuntos
Aedes/efeitos dos fármacos , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Ocimum/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Óleos Vegetais/farmacocinética , Vitex/química , Animais , Bioensaio , Linhagem Celular Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Inseticidas/isolamento & purificação , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Folhas de Planta/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Testes de Toxicidade , Vitex/classificação
14.
Exp Appl Acarol ; 81(1): 37-50, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32246382

RESUMO

Haemaphysalis longicornis is one of the most prevalent tick species across eastern Asia, Australia, and New Zealand, and has been implicated as a vector of several pathogenic agents. This study evaluated the in vitro acaricidal efficacy of Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass) essential oil on unfed H. longicornis using the adult and nymph immersion test, and the larval packet test. Six concentrations with three replications each of 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 mg/mL (adults and nymphs) were used, and 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 40 and 80 mg/mL (larvae), with control group (50% ethanol). The adult and nymph mortality rates were 98 and 100% at 50 mg/mL, and 95 and 100% at 60 mg/mL, respectively, whereas the larval mortality rate was 94 and 96% at 40 and 80 mg/mL, respectively. Mortality of adult, nymph and larva increased significantly in a dose-dependent manner. The LC50 for adult, nymph, and larva, were 29.21 (95% confidence interval 25.90-32.58), 28.18 (23.78-32.25), and 28.06 (25.57-30.90) mg/mL, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy revealed a disjointed sensilla base from the sockets, cuticular cracks, blocked aeropyles, and shrinking of the midgut. These results showed that C. citratus essential oil could be a good eco-friendly alternative control strategy against ectoparasites like ticks due to its high acaricidal efficacy.


Assuntos
Acaricidas/química , Cymbopogon/química , Óleos Voláteis/química , Carrapatos , Animais , Larva , Ninfa
15.
Food Chem ; 322: 126782, 2020 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32305879

RESUMO

Biodegradable active packaging is required to replace petroleum-based plastics. In this study, a biopolymer-based packaging material was prepared using a casting method, which consisted of a cellulose nanofiber/whey protein matrix containing titanium dioxide particles (1% TiO2) and essential oil droplets (2% rosemary oil) as functional components. The ability of this packaging to protect lamb meat from chemical and microbial spoilage during 15 days of refrigerated storage (4 °C) was analysed. The meat samples were periodically analysed for microbial count, chemical stability (pH, lipid oxidation, lipolysis), and optical properties. The active packaging significantly reduced microbial growth, lipid oxidation, and lipolysis of the lamb meat during storage, which led to an increase in shelf life from around 6 to 15 days. These biopolymer-based active packaging materials may therefore be suitable for application in meat products.


Assuntos
Embalagem de Alimentos/métodos , Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Nanoestruturas/química , Óleos Voláteis/química , Carne Vermelha , Titânio/química , Animais , Celulose/análise , Celulose/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Carne Vermelha/análise , Carne Vermelha/microbiologia , Refrigeração , Ovinos , Proteínas do Soro do Leite/química
16.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1260: 283-296, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32304038

RESUMO

In our society, anxiety and depression are serious health issues that affect a large proportion of the population. Unfortunately, drug therapies are not always effective and can lead to drug abuse, delay of therapeutic effect, dependence, and tolerance. Traditionally, aromatherapy has also been used for anxiety relief and mood improvement. The use of essential oils, in relieving anxiety and depression, does not have the disadvantages associated with currently used drug therapies. In-vivo studies on animal models have verified the anxiolytic effects of these essential oils and the interactions of their major components with central nervous system receptors. Therefore, it seems reasonable to argue that the modulation of glutamate and GABA neurotransmitter systems are likely to be the critical mechanisms responsible for the sedative, anxiolytic, and anticonvulsant proprieties of linalool and essential oils containing linalool in significant proportions. Popular anxiolytic essential oils are generally rich in terpenoid alcohols like linalool, geraniol and citronellol, and the monoterpene limonene (or citral). Therefore, other essential oils or formulations that contain these terpenoids as major components may serve as important aromatherapeutics for relief of anxiety.


Assuntos
Ansiolíticos/uso terapêutico , Ansiedade/tratamento farmacológico , Aromaterapia , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Óleos Voláteis/uso terapêutico , Terpenos/uso terapêutico , Animais , Ansiolíticos/química , Ansiolíticos/farmacologia , Anticonvulsivantes/química , Anticonvulsivantes/farmacologia , Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/química , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/farmacologia , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/uso terapêutico , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Terpenos/química , Terpenos/farmacologia
17.
Am J Chin Med ; 48(3): 597-613, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32308013

RESUMO

Magnoliae Flos is a commonly used traditional medicinal material in Asia. It is used to treat sinusitis, nasal congestion, and hypersensitive skin. Because Magonlia Flos was described as an aromatic material in ancient Chinese texts, we hypothesized that its essential oil may be used to treat immune disorders. Dendritic cells (DCs), regarded as a major target of immunomodulators to control immune responses, play a critical role in the adaptive immune response. In this study, Magnoliae Flos essential oil (MFEO) decreased the production of the cytokines TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-12p70 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated DCs. It also suppressed the surface markers MHC II, CD80, and CD86 in LPS-stimulated DCs. Animal models demonstrated that the 2,4-Dinitro-1-fluorobenzene (DNFB) inducing a contact hypersensitivity response was inhibited following treatment with MFEO. In addition, MFEO inhibited the infiltration of T cells in the ears of DNFB-induced mice. To explore its bioactive compounds, the components of MFEO were analyzed using gas chromatography (GC) and GC-mass spectrometry. The results revealed that the major compounds in MFEO are camphor and 1,8-cineole. Additional DC bioassays confirmed that these compounds substantially suppressed cytokine production in LPS-induced DCs. Therefore, we demonstrated that MFEO exhibits an immunosuppressive effect both in vivo and in vitro, and camphor and 1,8-cineole may be the major components responsible for its immunosuppressive ability. The findings indicate that MFEO has the potential to be developed as a new immunosuppressant for excessive diseases.


Assuntos
Imunidade Adaptativa/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Dermatite de Contato/tratamento farmacológico , Dermatite de Contato/imunologia , Imunossupressores , Magnoliaceae/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/uso terapêutico , Fitoterapia , Animais , Cânfora/análise , Cânfora/isolamento & purificação , Células Cultivadas , Citocinas/metabolismo , Células Dendríticas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Eucaliptol/análise , Eucaliptol/isolamento & purificação , Camundongos , Óleos Voláteis/química , Linfócitos T/imunologia
18.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 20(1): 103, 2020 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32245466

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lamiaceae family is one of the most diverse and common plant families in terms of ethnomedicine due to their potential therapeutic effects. The aim of this study is to investigate the correlation between the chemical composition and the antibacterial effect of five essential oils from this family against five reference bacterial strains responsible of nosocomial diseases and foodborne illnesses. METHODS: The commercial essential oils of Tunisian Rosmarinus officinalis, Thymus capitatus, Origanum majorana and Salvia officinalis were analyzed by GC/FID and GC-MS. Essential oils were evaluated for their antibacterial activities by disc diffusion and microbroth dilution methods against five reference bacterial strains: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus. The inhibition zone diameter values and the twenty major compounds of the selected essential oils were subjected to PCA and HCA analysis. RESULTS: Analysis by GC/FID and GC/MS allowed the identification of ninety-one components representing 96.0 to 98.2% of the total oils. The different component contents varied according to the species. The main components were carvacrol, 1,8-cineole, α-thujone, α-terpineol and α-pinene. The PCA and the HCA of the selected essential oil components and the inhibition zone diameter (IZD) values identified four species groups and subgroups. Each essential oils group constituted a chemotype responsible for their bacterial inhibition ability. Thymus capitatus essential oil showed the strongest antibacterial activity with MBC ranging from 0.73 to 2.94 mg mL- 1. CONCLUSION: Rosmarinus officinalis, Thymus capitatus, Origanum majorana and Salvia officinalis essential oils have shown promising antibacterial activities against reference bacterial strains responsible for nosocomial diseases and foodborne illnesses.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Lamiaceae/química , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Estrutura Molecular , Tunísia
19.
J Appl Microbiol ; 129(3): 541-553, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32271977

RESUMO

AIM: This study investigated the in vitro mechanism of action of a commercial citrus EO, Brazilian orange terpenes (BOT), on an enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) isolated from pig gut and on Lactobacillus rhamnosus. METHODS AND RESULTS: Firstly, bacteria were exposed sequentially to BOT every 3 h (three times) at sub-minimal inhibitory concentrations and results showed that sequential exposure to BOT provoked a higher reduction of bacteria viability than a single exposure and the reduction of ETEC viability was higher compared to that of L. rhamnosus. Then, evaluation of the BOT effects on the cell membrane permeability and integrity, indicated that BOT increased the membrane permeability and caused disruptive effects on the integrity of bacterial cells as reflected by an increase of the relative electric conductivity and the release of essential cell constituents. Interestingly, BOT effects were more pronounced on the ETEC than on L. rhamnosus. This was ratified by scanning electron microscopy, which showed more noticeable morphological damages and disturbances on ETEC cells than on the L. rhamnosus cells. Limonene was detected as the major compound in BOT by polar/nonpolar GC-MS (78·65%/79·38%). CONCLUSIONS: Results revealed that the probable mechanism of the selective antibacterial action of the citrus EO, BOT, can be described as altering more remarkable the permeability and integrity of the cytoplasmic membrane as well as the external structure of ETEC cells than L. rhamnosus cells. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: This study provides information about the mechanism of antibacterial action displayed by a citrus EO, a by-product of the citrus processing industry, as a natural alternative to antibiotics used in pig production sector to combat pathogens such as ETECs.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Citrus/química , Escherichia coli Enterotoxigênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Lactobacillus rhamnosus/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Animais , Membrana Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Escherichia coli Enterotoxigênica/isolamento & purificação , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Óleos Voláteis/química , Especificidade da Espécie , Suínos , Terpenos/farmacologia
20.
J Appl Microbiol ; 129(1): 137-145, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32119179

RESUMO

AIMS: This study aimed to evaluate in vitro efficacy of essential oils (EOs) and their compounds (EOCs) alone or in combination against Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, the causative agent of furunculosis in salmonid fish. METHODS AND RESULTS: Antimicrobial activity of 13 EOs and 16 EOCs was investigated for four A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida strains using broth microdilution. The checkerboard assay was used to evaluate a putative synergy between the most efficient EOs and EOCs against the tested strains. Cinnamon bark, oregano, clove, and thyme oils and their major compounds cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, carvacrol and thymol showed the lower minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration values. The association of cinnamaldehyde and eugenol (V/V: 30%/70%) showed a synergistic activity against three tested strains. The combinations of cinnamon with oregano, clove or thyme EOs showed a neutral or additive activity against all the tested strains. CONCLUSIONS: Cinnamon, oregano, clove and thyme oils and their major phytochemical compounds showed strong activities against A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida strains. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: To reduce the use of antibiotics in aquaculture, phytochemicals such as cinnamaldehyde and eugenol can be tested alone or in combination in in vivo studies as functional feed alternatives.


Assuntos
Aeromonas salmonicida/efeitos dos fármacos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Animais , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Furunculose/microbiologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Salmonidae/microbiologia
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