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1.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 135: 110949, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31751643

RESUMO

In 2015, the Expert Panel of the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association (FEMA) initiated a program for the re-evaluation of the safety of over 250 natural flavor complexes (NFCs) used as flavor ingredients. This publication, third in the series, considers NFCs composed primarily of constituents with the 3-phenyl-2-propenyl or a cinnamyl functional group, using the procedure outlined in 2005 and updated in 2018 to evaluate the safety of naturally-occurring mixtures for their intended use as flavor ingredients. The procedure relies on a complete chemical characterization of the NFC intended for commerce and organization of each NFC's chemical constituents into well-defined congeneric groups. The safety of the NFC is evaluated using the well-established and conservative threshold of toxicological concern (TTC) concept in addition to data on absorption, metabolism and toxicology of members of the congeneric groups and the NFC under evaluation. Six NFCs from the Myroxylon and Cinnamomum genera, Balsam Oil, Peru (FEMA 2117), Tolu Balsam Extract (FEMA 3069), Cassia Bark Extract (FEMA 2257), Cassia Bark Oil (FEMA 2258), Cinnamon Bark Extract (FEMA 2290) and Cinnamon Bark Oil (FEMA 2291) were evaluated and affirmed as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) under their conditions of intended use as flavor ingredients.


Assuntos
Cinnamomum/química , Aromatizantes/toxicidade , Myroxylon/química , Óleos Voláteis/toxicidade , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Qualidade de Produtos para o Consumidor , Aromatizantes/química , Humanos , Nível de Efeito Adverso não Observado , Óleos Voláteis/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Medição de Risco
2.
Chem Biodivers ; 17(1): e1900508, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31692228

RESUMO

This study aimed to identify the main components of an essential oil produced from leaves of Ambrosia trifida and to evaluate its potential allelopathic effect on seed germination and seedling growth of lettuce, watermelon, cucumber and tomato. The essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation and characterized chemically by gas chromatography (GC) coupled with both mass spectrometry (MS) and flame ionization detector (FID). Total 69 compounds were identified, with limonene (20.7 %), bornyl acetate (15.0 %), borneol (14.7 %) and germacrene D (11.6 %) as the major components. The working solutions of the essential oil emulsified with Tween 20 and dissolved in distilled water were prepared at four concentration levels (0.01, 0.1, 0.5 % and 1 %, v/v). The results obtained showed that increase in essential oil concentration leads to decrease in seed germination, as well as shoot and radical length of lettuce, watermelon, cucumber and tomato. The obtained data revealed a highly significant effect (p<0.05) between control and 1 % and 0.5 % oil concentrations in all treatments. The essential oil of A. trifida exhibited more powerful phytotoxic effects on lettuce, watermelon and tomato than on cucumber regarding germination and early seedling growth.


Assuntos
Ambrosia/química , Citrullus/efeitos dos fármacos , Cucumis sativus/efeitos dos fármacos , Alface/efeitos dos fármacos , Lycopersicon esculentum/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleos Voláteis/toxicidade , Folhas de Planta/química , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação
3.
Toxicol In Vitro ; 62: 104658, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31629071

RESUMO

We developed an innovative co-culture system composed of Hs578t human mammary stromal-like cells and T47D hormone-dependent breast epithelial tumor cells as a representative in vitro model of the human hormone-dependent mammary tumor microenvironment. Hs578t cells expressed aromatase (CYP19) mainly via the healthy stromal CYP19 promoter I.4, but also to a lesser extent via the breast cancer-relevant promoters PII, I.3 and I.7, and produced estrogens from androgen precursors. These estrogens stimulated T47D cell proliferation and estrogen receptor-dependent expression of trefoil factor-1 (TFF1), which is known to stimulate mammary tumor cell proliferation and migration. Hs578t cells can also undergo a "promoter-switch" where the normally silent CYP19 promoters PII, I.3 and I.7 become activated, which mimics the in vivo situation in human breast cancer patients. This positive feedback loop is the hallmark of the hormone-dependent breast tumor microenvironment. Using the co-culture model we designed, we evaluated the promoter-specific expression of CYP19, expression of estrogen-dependent gene TFF1, and determined the effects exhibited by basil and fennel seed essential oils on steroidogenesis in the tumor microenvironment.


Assuntos
Aromatase/genética , Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Estrogênios/toxicidade , Foeniculum , Ocimum basilicum , Óleos Voláteis/toxicidade , Fator Trefoil-1/genética , Aromatase/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Técnicas de Cocultura , Humanos , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Sementes
4.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(35): 36048-36054, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31745787

RESUMO

The essential oils (EOs) from aerial parts of Saussurea amara (L.) DC. (SAEO) and Sigesbeckia pubescens Makino (SPEO) were analyzed for their chemical composition by GC-MS, and their repellent activities against adults of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum Herbst, as well as the booklouse, Liposcelis bostrychophila Badonnel, were evaluated for the first time. Results of GC-MS analysis indicated that both SAEO and SPEO were characterized by high content of sesquiterpenoids (relative content > 70%) including oxygenated sesquiterpenoids. The two oil samples and their major component caryophyllene oxide exerted beneficial repellent effects on T. castaneum and L. bostrychophila at 2 and 4 h post-exposure. At 4 h post-exposure, the PR value of caryophyllene oxide could still reach 92% (class V) against T. castaneum at minimum testing concentration of 3.15 nL/cm2, and this compound was observed to result in the greatest repellency (PR = 100%) against L. bostrychophila at 12.63 nL/cm2. This work confirmed the potent repellent efficacy of SAEO and SPEO for controlling pest damage and suggested their potential to be developed into botanical repellents.


Assuntos
Repelentes de Insetos/toxicidade , Óleos Voláteis/toxicidade , Saussurea/fisiologia , Sesquiterpenos/toxicidade , Animais , Asteraceae , Besouros/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Insetos/efeitos dos fármacos , Inseticidas/análise , Óleos Voláteis/química , Controle de Pragas , Tribolium/efeitos dos fármacos
5.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 285, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31692877

RESUMO

Introduction: Pesticides are used as essential tools to control vector-borne diseases and agricultural pests and maintain quality and quantity crop production. Scientists attempt to use derived plant natural products due to environmental safety and low mammalian toxicity. Therefore, the cytotoxicity of malathion and Nepeta crispa essential oil against vertebrate L929 and invertebrate Sf9 cell lines were investigated. Methods: About 2×103 cells were placed into the wells of a 96-well plate experiments. Then appropriate concentrations of malathion and N. crispa essential oil added to the wells. The cells were allowed to grow for 3-5 days and estimated the cell numbers. Control cell wells contained only cells with DMSO. All treatments and controls repeated at least four replicates. Results: About 2×103 cells were placed into the wells of a 96-well plate experiments. Then appropriate concentrations of malathion and N. crispa essential oil added to the wells. The cells were allowed to grow for 3-5 days and estimated the cell numbers. Control cell wells contained only cells with DMSO. All treatments and controls repeated at least four replicates. Conclusion: Plant essential oil not only had no negative effects but also had boosting effects on the L929 cell viability. Nepeta crispa essential oil had negative effects on the Sf9 cell viability with the differences that derived plant natural products containing environmentally friendly and readily biodegradable derivatives, hydrolyzing rapidly in nature and nearly having no destructive effects on mammals and environment.


Assuntos
Malation/toxicidade , Nepeta/química , Óleos Voláteis/toxicidade , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Células Sf9 , Spodoptera
6.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 133: 110802, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31493462

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to characterize the central effects of the Hyptis martiusii leaf essential oil (OEHM) and 1,8-cineole (eucalyptol) using behavioral animal models. Gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was used to characterize the chemical compounds present in the OEHM. For the behavioral tests, female Swiss mice treated with the OEHM (25, 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, i.p.) and 1,8-cineole (50 mg/kg, i.p.) were used and subjected to the following tests: open field, elevated cross maze, rotarod, sodium pentobarbital- or ethyl ether-induced sleep time, pentylenetetrazol-induced convulsions, haloperidol-induced catalepsy, and ketamine-induced hyperkinesia. GC/MS analysis identified 20 constituents with the majority of them being monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, with eucalyptol (1,8-cineol), the major sample compound (25.93%), standing out. The results showed the OEHM (25, 50 100 and 200 mg/kg, i.p.) and its major compound (50 mg/kg, i.p.) reduced animal motility in the open field test, increased pentobarbital- and ethyl ether-induced sleep time, as well as death latency in the pentylenetetrazole-induced convulsion model. However, the tested compounds were devoid of anxiolytic-like and myorelaxant activity. In addition, the OEHM (100 and 200 mg/kg, i.p.) and 1,8-cineole (50 mg/kg, i.p.) potentiated haloperidol-induced catalepsy and reduced ketamine-induced hyperkinesia. Taken together, the results suggest the OEHM has important hypnotic-sedative and antipsychotic-like effects, which appear to be due to the monoterpene 1,8-cineole, the major compound identified in the essential oil.


Assuntos
Sistema Nervoso Central/efeitos dos fármacos , Eucaliptol/farmacologia , Hyptis/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Animais , Eucaliptol/toxicidade , Feminino , Hipercinese/tratamento farmacológico , Ketamina , Aprendizagem em Labirinto/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Atividade Motora/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleos Voláteis/toxicidade , Folhas de Planta/química , Sono/efeitos dos fármacos
7.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 133: 110794, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31473339

RESUMO

Despite being renowned for its volatiles, the data on the toxicity of the essential oil of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L., Lamiaceae) is rather limited compared to its solvent/water-soluble extractibles. In this study, the aerial parts essential oil of M. officinalis, with over 130 constituents identified herein, 26 of which detected for the first time, was investigated for acute oral toxicity in BALB/c mice. The oil, composed of predominantly monoterpene aldehydes, citronellal (21.2-21.8%), neral (17.8-18.4%), and geranial (22.9-23.5%), which were assayed in parallel with the oil in some tests, induced significant changes in animal behavior, as well as altered biochemical parameters reflecting liver and kidney functions. Different pathological changes in the stomach, duodenum, liver, and kidneys were detected when the oil was administered in doses higher than 1 g kg-1. A depletion in the liver/kidney antioxidant capacities and an increased rate of lipid peroxidation was noted for animals treated with lemon balm oil. The calculated value of the oral LD50 in BALB/c mice (2.57 g kg-1) infers that the essential oil is only moderately toxic.


Assuntos
Melissa/química , Óleos Voláteis/toxicidade , Óleos Vegetais/toxicidade , Administração Oral , Aldeídos/metabolismo , Animais , Artemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Digestório/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Digestório/patologia , Feminino , Glutationa/metabolismo , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/patologia , Dose Letal Mediana , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Óleos Voláteis/administração & dosagem , Óleos Voláteis/análise , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/química , Óleos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Óleos Vegetais/análise
8.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 160: 102-111, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31519243

RESUMO

The present study reports the formulation of Apium graveolens essential oil (AGEO) with its major components linalyl acetate (LA) and geranyl acetate (GA) (1:1:1) as a novel green preservative for protection of postharvest food commodities from fungal infestations, aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) secretion, free radical generation and lipid peroxidation. The essential oil based novel formulation displayed considerable inhibitory action against fourteen food borne molds responsible for deterioration of stored food commodities, in addition to the most toxigenic strain of Aspergillus flavus (AFLHPR14) isolated from fungal and aflatoxin contaminated rice seeds. The observed higher efficacy of designed formulation was due to the synergistic action of essential oil and its major components. Fungal plasma membrane was recorded as the possible target site of antifungal action of the formulation as revealed through reduction in membrane ergosterol content, increased intracellular propidium iodide (PI) fluorescence and enhanced leakage of cellular ions (sodium, potassium, calcium) and 260, 280 nm absorbing materials. Further, inhibition of methylglyoxal (an aflatoxin inducer) confirmed the aflatoxin inhibitory potential of novel formulation based on essential oil and its major components. High antioxidant potential as observed through DPPH and ABTS·+ radical scavenging assay, improved phenolic content, considerable inhibition of lipid peroxidation in stored rice seeds, in situ efficacy on AFB1 inhibition in food system under storage container system, acceptable sensorial characteristics and favorable safety profile during animal trials suggest the recommendation of the designed formulation for large scale application as green preservative by food and agriculture based industries against fungal and aflatoxin contamination of stored commodities.


Assuntos
Aflatoxinas/antagonistas & inibidores , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Apium/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/toxicidade , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Masculino , Camundongos , Óleos Voláteis/toxicidade
9.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 160: 163-170, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31519251

RESUMO

Aedes aegypti is a major mosquito vector that can transfer many deadly diseases such as dengue, chikungunya, Zika, and yellow fever viruses. Due to the developing resistance among the vector populations by the application of chemical insecticides, alternative eco-friendly vector management strategies are being focused. In this aspect, the present study was carried out to evaluate the mosquitocidal potentials of essential oil of Sphaeranthus amaranthoides (EO-Sa). EO-Sa was found to be effective against Ae. aegypti mosquito vector by exhibiting significant larvicidal, adulticidal and repellent activities. GCMS analysis of EO-Sa revealed the presence of Carvone as the major component (peak area of 89.7%). The larvicidal bioassays performed revealed that the second instar larvae were relatively more susceptible (94.32% mortality) to EO-Sa treatments (75 ppm), LC50, 20.38 ppm.The sub lethal treatment concentration (20 ppm) significantly affected the oviposition, fecundity and morphology of Ae. aegypti. At sub lethal treatment concentration, EO-Sa down regulated α- and ß carboxylesterase and up regulated the GST and CYP450 level of third and fourth instar larvae. Thus the present results illustrates that EO-Sa can deliver a durable larvicidal, repellent and adulticidal activity against Ae. aegypti in an effective and eco-friendly manner.


Assuntos
Aedes/efeitos dos fármacos , Asteraceae/química , Dengue/transmissão , Insetos Vetores/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleos Voláteis/toxicidade , Animais
10.
Molecules ; 24(16)2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416129

RESUMO

The present work describes the chemical characterization and the phytotoxicity assessment of essential oils (EOs) obtained from spent materials or pruning waste of four plant species: Zingiber officinale Roscoe used in the juicing industry, Pistacia vera L. var. Bronte used in the food industry, discarded material of industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L. var. Futura 75), and pruning waste from Cupressus sempervirens L. The phytochemical profile of the EOs was evaluated by gas chromatographic flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and GC-MS analyses, which highlighted the presence of several compounds with a wide range of biological activities. Among them, application possibilities in agriculture were evaluated by studying the phytotoxic activity in vitro against germination and initial radical growth of several seeds such as Raphanus sativus L., Lepidium sativum L., Lactuca sativa L., Solanum lycopersicum L., Lolium multiflorum Lam., and Portulaca oleracea L.


Assuntos
Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Óleos Vegetais/química , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/toxicidade , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Óleos Voláteis/toxicidade , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/toxicidade , Óleos Vegetais/toxicidade , Plantas/química , Plantas/ultraestrutura , Portulaca/efeitos dos fármacos
11.
J Oleo Sci ; 68(9): 931-937, 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31413242

RESUMO

The essential oil extracted from roots and rhizomes of Ligusticum jeholense Nakai et Kitagawa was investigated for its chemical composition by GC-MS analysis, and evaluated for its contact toxicity and repellency against Tribolium castaneum and Lasioderma serricorne, along with some of its individual components. The essential oil was rich in aromatics (65.34%) with low molecular weight. Major components included sedanolide (33.95%), 3-butylidenephthalide (18.76%), spathulenol (8.90%) and myristicin (6.76%). The results of bioassays indicated that the essential oil of L. jeholense and 3-butylidenephthalide possessed significant repellent activities against T. castaneum at 2 and 4 h post-exposure. Meanwhile, 3-butylidenephthalide had potent contact toxicity against L. serricorne (LD50 = 13.64 µg/adult). The minor component n-butylbenzene in the oil was highly toxic to T. castaneum (LD50 = 23.99 µg/adult) and L. serricorne (LD50 = 7.86 µg/adult) in contact assays, but failed to repel these beetles at all testing concentrations. Spathulenol and myristicin exerted good insecticidal and repellent effects on the two target insects. This work suggests that the essential oil of L. jeholense has promising potential for development as natural insecticide or repellent to control pest damage in warehouses.


Assuntos
Derivados de Benzeno/farmacologia , Repelentes de Insetos/farmacologia , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Anidridos Ftálicos/farmacologia , Tribolium/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Ligusticum/química , Óleos Voláteis/análise , Óleos Voláteis/toxicidade
12.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 133: 110747, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31377137

RESUMO

Three autochthonous flavouring herbs from Alentejo (Portugal), Calamintha nepeta (syn. Clinopodium nepeta), Origanun virens and Thymus mastichina, were selected to evaluate toxicological, antioxidant, antiproliferative and antimicrobial potential of their essential oils (EOs). C. nepeta and T. mastichina EOs showed a high content of oxygenated monoterpenes (86-91%) while O. virens had similar content of oxygenated and hydrocarbon monoterpenes (45%). Toxicological assessment suggests high activity against A. salina (31.8 < CL50 < 128.4 mg/L) and very low toxicity in Swiss mice (DL50 ≥ 1500 mg/kg). EOs showed high antioxidant ability by DPPH radical scavenging assay (0.1-0.6 mg QE/mL EO), total reducing power method (0.2-1.7 mg QE/mL EO) and ß-carotene/linoleic acid system (11-501 mg QE/mL EO). An important antiproliferative effect against human breast tumour cell line was observed (88.9 < EC50 < 108.5 mg/L). Moreover, EOs presented a large antibacterial spectrum. Results point out the low toxicity and high antioxidant, antiproliferative and antimicrobial activities of EOs of these endemic aromatic plants, suggesting their potential use in biotechnological, food and/or pharmaceutical industries.


Assuntos
Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/toxicidade , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Óleos Vegetais/toxicidade , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/toxicidade , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/toxicidade , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/toxicidade , Artemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Nepeta/química , Origanum/química , Portugal , Thymus (Planta)/química
13.
Ecotoxicology ; 28(7): 763-770, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31254186

RESUMO

Euschistus heros (F.) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) is a soybean pest in Brazil, controlled with synthetic chemical insecticides, which may be harmful to the environment and humans, as well as to select pest resistant strains. The research for new pest control strategies such as the use of plant essential oils has been increased due to the selectivity and biodegradation of these molecules. The objective was to evaluate the cytological changes in the salivary glands, fat body and midgut of E. heros exposed to different concentrations of essential oil of Piper aduncum L. (Piperales: Piperaceae), which the main compounds were identified as myristicin 30.03%, aromadendrene 9.20%, dillapiole 8.43%, α-serinene 7.31%, tridecane 6.26%, γ-elemene 4.58% and o-cymene 4.20%. The essential oil of P. aduncum was toxic for E. heros with LD50 = 36.23 mg per insect and LD90 = 50.42 mg per insect. Cytological changes such as tissue disruption, increase in mitochondria population, and glycogen and lipid depletion occur in the fat body cells, whereas salivary glands and midgut are not affected by this essential oil. Results suggest that P. aduncum essential oil causes fat body cellular stress, which may compromise some physiological processes for the insect survival.


Assuntos
Corpo Adiposo/efeitos dos fármacos , Heterópteros/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleos Voláteis/toxicidade , Piper/química , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Trato Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Heterópteros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dose Letal Mediana , Ninfa/efeitos dos fármacos , Ninfa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Óleos Voláteis/química , Glândulas Salivares/efeitos dos fármacos
14.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 55(5)2019 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31126036

RESUMO

Background and objectives: Natural products such as essential oils with antioxidant potential can reduce the level of oxidative stress and prevent the oxidation of biomolecules. In the present study, we investigated the antioxidant potential of Lantana montevidensis leaf essential oil (EOLM) in chemical and biological models using Drosophila melanogaster. Materials and methods: in addition, the chemical components of the oil were identified and quantified by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and the percentage compositions were obtained from electronic integration measurements using flame ionization detection (FID). Results: our results demonstrated that EOLM is rich in terpenes with Germacrene-D (31.27%) and ß-caryophyllene (28.15%) as the major components. EOLM (0.12-0.48 g/mL) was ineffective in scavenging DPPH radical, and chelating Fe(II), but showed reducing activity at 0.24 g/mL and 0.48 g/mL. In in vivo studies, exposure of D. melanogaster to EOLM (0.12-0.48 g/mL) for 5 h resulted in 10% mortality; no change in oxidative stress parameters such as total thiol, non-protein thiol, and malondialdehyde contents, in comparison to control (p > 0.05). Conclusions: taken together, our results indicate EOLM may not be toxic at the concentrations tested, and thus may not be suitable for the development of new botanical insecticides, such as fumigants or spray-type control agents against Drosophila melanogaster.


Assuntos
Drosophila melanogaster/química , Lantana/toxicidade , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacocinética , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Humanos , Lantana/metabolismo , Óleos Voláteis/farmacocinética , Óleos Voláteis/toxicidade , Extratos Vegetais/farmacocinética , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade
15.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 129: 269-280, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31029727

RESUMO

Essential oils of Nepeta cataria var. citriodora, N. transcaucasica, N. melissifolia, N. sibirica and N. nuda were investigated. The yields of EO were from 0.78 (N. nuda) to 5.94 (N. cataria) mg/g plant dry weight (pdw). In total, 143 compounds were identified and quantified in Nepeta plant EOs by GC-MS/FID. 4aα,7α,7aß-Nepetalactone (NL) was dominant constituent in N. cataria and N. nuda EO (50.16 and 55.72%, respectively) followed by 4aα,7α,7aα-NL (35.64 and 6.20%, respectively); other quantitatively important compounds were ß-caryophyllene, caryophyllene oxide, some monoterpene alcohols and their aldehydes. N. transcaucasica EO was composed mainly of citronellol (17.69%), 4aα,7ß,7aα-NL (14.34%), geranial (9.05%) and geranyl acetate (8.20%), whereas EOs of N. melissifolia and N. sibirica contained high percentages of 1,8-cineole (37.35 and 42.58%, respectively) and caryophyllene oxide (22.06 and 20.35%, respectively). In order to valorize EO distillation residues their antioxidant potential was evaluated by several in vitro assays: water extracts were considerably stronger radical scavengers than acetone extracts isolated from the solid EO distillation residue. The bioactivities and toxicological data of Nepeta spp. and their main EO components were assessed based on the most recently reported data.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/toxicidade , Nepeta/química , Óleos Voláteis/análise , Óleos Voláteis/toxicidade , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Lituânia , Nepeta/classificação , Óleos Vegetais/química , Especificidade da Espécie
16.
Exp Parasitol ; 200: 37-41, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30928354

RESUMO

Toxocara spp. are responsible for causing toxocariasis, a zoonotic disease of global importance, which is difficult to treat as the available drugs have moderate efficacy in the clinical resolution of the disease. A promising alternative to the existing drugs is Propolis, which is known for having biological and pharmacological properties such as antiparasitic, antioxidant, and antitumor activities. In this study, we report the in vitro anthelmintic activity of essential oil from Brazilian Red Propolis (EOP) against larvae of Toxocara cati. Approximately 100 larvae per well were cultivated in microplates containing RPMI-1640 medium and incubated in the presence of EOP (18.75, 37.5, 75, 150, 300 and 600 µg/mL) to determine the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and IC50 (concentration required to inhibit 50% of the population) values. Then, T. cati larvae treated with the MIC of EOP were inoculated in mice to evaluate their progression in vivo. A concentration of 600 µg/mL of EOP showed 100% larvicidal activity after exposure for 48 h, while 300 µg/mL represented the IC50 and CC50. The anthelmintic activity of EOP was confirmed by the inability of the treated T. cati larvae to infect the mice. Our findings demonstrate the potential of EOP as an anthelmintic.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Própole/química , Toxocara/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Helmínticos/toxicidade , Células CHO , Corantes , Cricetinae , Cricetulus , Feminino , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Cinética , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Movimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Óleos Voláteis/toxicidade , Toxocara/fisiologia , Azul Tripano
17.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(14): 14036-14049, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30852752

RESUMO

The study reports efficacy of Melissa officinalis L. essential oil (MOEO) as a safe plant-based insecticide against Tribolium castaneum Herbst (TC) by induction of oxidative stress. MOEO nanoencapsulation in chitosan matrix was performed to enhance its bioefficacy. GC-MS analysis of MOEO depicted geranial (31.54%), neral (31.08%), and ß-caryophyllene (12.42%) as the major components. MOEO showed excellent insecticidal potential in contact (100% mortality at 0.157 µL/cm2) and fumigant bioassays (LC50 = 0.071 µL/mL air) and 100% repellency at concentration ≤ 0.028 µL/cm2. Increased reactive oxygen species (ROS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and decreased ratio of reduced glutathione (GSH) to oxidized glutathione (GSSG) at the LC50 dose suggested significant oxidative stress on TC in MOEO treatment sets. The encapsulated MOEO exhibited enhanced activity as fumigant (LC50 = 0.048 µL/mL air) and showed significant antifeedant activity in situ (EC50 = 0.043 µL/mL). High LD50 value (13,956.87 µL/kg body weight of mice) confirmed favorable toxicological profile for non-target mammals. The findings depict potential of nanoencapsulated MOEO as an eco-friendly green pesticide against infestation of stored food by TC.


Assuntos
Farinha , Repelentes de Insetos/farmacologia , Melissa/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Tribolium/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Repelentes de Insetos/análise , Repelentes de Insetos/toxicidade , Dose Letal Mediana , Masculino , Camundongos , Monoterpenos/análise , Óleos Voláteis/análise , Óleos Voláteis/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Sesquiterpenos/análise , Tribolium/fisiologia , Triticum
18.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 153: 122-128, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30744885

RESUMO

Nowadays, Acrobasis advenella is considered a pest of the highest economic significance in black chokeberry plantations, negatively affecting the quantity and quality of fruits. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Satureja hortensis essential oil and its main constituent, carvacrol, on the life cycle and physiology of A. advenella. The metabolic activity of both preparations was evaluated against insect α- and ß- glucosidase, catalase, peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase. The results showed S. hortensis essential oil and carvacrol, are characterized by insecticidal activity against A. advenella larvae. It found an increase in catalase activity in A. advenella homogenates under the influence of carvacrol and an induction of polyphenol oxidase by S. hortensis EO with no changes in POX activity. Also, it was shown that the activity of α- and ß-glucosidase significantly increased in larvae fed on inflorescences treated with the essential oil and carvacrol. These preparations particularly strongly affected ß-glucosidase activity in the insect homogenates. S. hortensis essential oil reduced emergence the longevity of moths. The obtained results suggest that S. hortensis essential oil and carvacrol can be useful in protecting organic crops of black chokeberry but essential oils may be more effective biopesticides than their active ingredients separately.


Assuntos
Inseticidas/toxicidade , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Monoterpenos/toxicidade , Mariposas/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleos Voláteis/toxicidade , Óleos Vegetais/toxicidade , Satureja , Animais , Catalase/metabolismo , Catecol Oxidase/metabolismo , Larva/metabolismo , Mariposas/metabolismo , beta-Glucosidase/metabolismo
19.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 153: 17-27, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30744891

RESUMO

Lucilia cuprina, known as the Australian blowfly, is of high medico-sanitary and veterinary importance due to its ability to induce myiasis. Synthetic products are the most frequent form of fly control, but their indiscriminate use has selected for resistant populations and accounted for high levels of residues in animal products. This study aimed to assess the effect of essential oil from leaves of Curcuma longa (CLLEO), and its major compound α-phellandrene against L. cuprina L3. An additional goal was to determine the morphological alterations in target organs/tissues through ultrastructural assessment (SEM) and light microscopy, as well as macroscopic damage to cuticle induced by CLLEO. Groups of 20 L3 were placed on filter paper impregnated with increasing concentrations of CLLEO (0.15 to 2.86 µL/cm2) and α-phellandrene (0.29 to 1.47 µL/cm2). Efficacy was determined by quantifying L3 mortality 6, 24 and 48 h after contact with CLLEO and by measuring the structural damage to L3. CLLEO and α-phellandrene inhibited adult emergence by 96.22 and 100%, respectively. Macroscopic cuticle damage, appeared as diffuse pigment and darkening of larval body, was caused by both extracts. The SEM revealed dryness on the cuticle surface, distortion of the sensorial structures and general degeneration in treated L3. Furthermore, alterations in target organs (digestive tract, fat body and brain) were noticed and shall be used as biomarkers in future attempts to elucidate the mechanism of action of these compounds. The vacuolar degeneration and pyknotic profiles observed in the brain tissue of treated larvae with both extracts and the decreased motility within <6 h after treatment leads us to suggest a neurotoxic activity of the products. This work demonstrates the potential use of CLLEO and α-phellandrene as bioinsecticides to be used against L. cuprina, representing an ecofriendly alternative for myiasis control in humans and animals.


Assuntos
Curcuma , Dípteros/efeitos dos fármacos , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Monoterpenos/toxicidade , Óleos Voláteis/toxicidade , Animais , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/patologia , Dípteros/ultraestrutura , Corpo Adiposo/efeitos dos fármacos , Corpo Adiposo/patologia , Feminino , Trato Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Trato Gastrointestinal/patologia , Larva/ultraestrutura , Masculino , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Folhas de Planta
20.
PLoS One ; 14(2): e0212576, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30785945

RESUMO

Cutaneous myiasis is a severe worldwide medical and veterinary issue. In this trial the essential oil (EO) of the Andean medicinal plant species Clinopodium nubigenum (Kunth) Kuntze was evaluated for its bioactivity against the myiasis-inducing blowfly Lucilia sericata (Meigen) (Diptera Calliphoridae) and compared with that of the well-known medicinal plant species Lavandula angustifolia Mill. The EOs were analysed and tested in laboratory for their oviposition deterrence and toxicity against L. sericata adults. The physiology of EO toxicity was evaluated by enzymatic inhibition tests. The antibacterial and antifungal properties of the EOs were tested as well. At 0.8 µL cm-2, both EOs completely deterred L. sericata oviposition up to 3 hours. After 24 h, the oviposition deterrence was still 82.7% for L. angustifolia and the 89.5% for C. nubigenum. The two EOs were also toxic to eggs and adults of L. sericata. By contact/fumigation, the EOs, the LC50 values against the eggs were 0.07 and 0.48 µL cm-2 while, by topical application on the adults, LD50 values were 0.278 and 0.393 µL per individual for C. nubigenum and L. angustifolia EOs, respectively. Inhibition of acetylcholine esterase of L. sericata by EOs (IC50 = 67.450 and 79.495 mg L-1 for C. nubigenum and L. angustifolia, respectively) suggested that the neural sites are targets of the EO toxicity. Finally, the observed antibacterial and antifungal properties of C. nubigenum and L. angustifolia EOs suggest that they could also help prevent secondary infections.


Assuntos
Dípteros/efeitos dos fármacos , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Lamiaceae/toxicidade , Lavandula/toxicidade , Óleos Voláteis/toxicidade , Animais , Dípteros/anatomia & histologia , Feminino , Humanos , Controle de Insetos , Miíase/parasitologia , Miíase/veterinária , Oviposição/efeitos dos fármacos
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