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1.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 7651-7666, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33116493

RESUMO

Introduction: Plants have always been a significant source of natural active components with biological properties. Celery seed oil (extracted from Apium graveolens) has several potential applications, but its therapeutic uses in the form of nanoemulsion formulation need to be investigated further in order to meet the demand in cancer treatment, and to alleviate the prevailing crisis arising from increased antimicrobial resistance. Methods: The therapeutic potential of celery seed oil was investigated through the formulation and testing of a nanoemulsion developed with Tween 80 (a non-ionic surfactant) and the utilization of an ultrasonication technique. Anticancer and apoptotic properties of the formulation were evaluated through MTT and Annexin V-FITC assays. The clonogenic assay aided in the identification of the antiproliferative properties of the formulation on oral squamous cell carcinoma. The antimicrobial study was supported by agar well diffusion assay, membrane integrity test and scanning electron microscopy. Results: Experiments identified relevant parameters, including optimal surfactant concentration and emulsification time. GC-MS analysis identified various components in the celery oil, but not their biological activities. A sonication time of 20 min resulted in a droplet diameter of 23.4 ± 1.80 nm. The IC50 concentration of the optimal nanoemulsion formulation against SAS cells was 1.4 µL/mL. At this concentration, cell proliferation was significantly reduced through inhibition of the anchorage-independent cell growth by disrupting colony formation and inducing cell death (apoptosis) of cancer cells. The nanoemulsion was also treated with a microbial suspension of S. aureus, and displayed antibacterial properties through lipid membrane fusion, causing cytoplasmic leakage as verified through agar well diffusion and membrane permeability assays. Scanning electron microscopy revealed complete distortion of the bacterial pathogen. Conclusion: The results in this study present celery as a possible constituent for cancer therapeutics and as a candidate for aggressive, yet safe cancer treatment. The celery-based nanoemulsion has the potential to act as a key alternative to standard antibiotic therapy.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apium/química , Emulsões/química , Nanopartículas/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Sonicação , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/tratamento farmacológico , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Permeabilidade da Membrana Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Clonais , Composição de Medicamentos , Difusão Dinâmica da Luz , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Neoplasias Bucais/tratamento farmacológico , Nanopartículas/ultraestrutura , Óleos Voláteis/uso terapêutico , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/ultraestrutura , Tensoativos/química
2.
J Oleo Sci ; 69(9): 1107-1115, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32879198

RESUMO

Medicinal plants and their secondary metabolites have long been a rich source of biologically active compounds that can prevent many diseases. In this context, we investigated the antioxidant activities of the essential oil of Lavandula officinalis and tested its potency against hepatic and renal toxicity induced by hydrogen peroxide in adult male mice based on measurements of biochemical parameters, oxidative stress, and tissue damage in both organs. We proved a remarkable antioxidant power of this plant (in vitro) by correcting the harmful effects of the prooxidant (in vivo). It can be concluded that lavender is an aromatic plant capable of reducing the stress caused by reactive oxygen species.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/induzido quimicamente , Lesão Renal Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Antioxidantes , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/toxicidade , Lavandula/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fitoterapia , Folhas de Planta/química , Animais , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/etiologia , Feminino , Técnicas In Vitro , Masculino , Camundongos , Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Óleos Voláteis/uso terapêutico , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
3.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 8: CD003150, 2020 08 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32813272

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Medications licensed for the treatment of dementia have limited efficacy against cognitive impairment or against the distressed behaviours (behavioural and psychological symptoms, or behaviour that challenges) which are also often the most distressing aspect of the disorder for caregivers. Complementary therapies, including aromatherapy, are attractive to patients, practitioners and families, because they are perceived as being unlikely to cause adverse effects. Therefore there is interest in whether aromatherapy might offer a safe means of alleviating distressed behaviours in dementia. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy and safety of aromatherapy for people with dementia. SEARCH METHODS: We searched ALOIS, the Cochrane Dementia and Cognitive Improvement Group Specialized Register, on 5 May 2020 using the terms: aromatherapy, lemon, lavender, rose, aroma, alternative therapies, complementary therapies, essential oils. In addition, we searched MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO (all via Ovid SP), Web of Science Core Collection (via Thompson Web of Science), LILACS (via BIREME), CENTRAL (via the Cochrane Library), ClinicalTrials.gov and the World Health Organization (WHO) trials portal (ICTRP) on 5 May 2020. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials which compared fragrance from plants in an intervention defined as aromatherapy for people with dementia with placebo aromatherapy or with treatment as usual. All doses, frequencies and fragrances of aromatherapy were considered. Participants in the included studies had a diagnosis of dementia of any subtype and severity. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two reviewers independently selected studies for inclusion, extracted data and assessed risk of bias in included studies, involving other authors to reach consensus decisions where necessary. We did not perform any meta-analyses because of heterogeneity between studies, but presented a narrative synthesis of results from the included trials. Because of the heterogeneity of analysis methods and inadequate or absent reporting of data from some trials, we used statistical significance (P ≤ or > 0.5) as a summary metric when synthesising results across studies. As far as possible, we used GRADE methods to assess our confidence in the results of the trials, downgrading for risk of bias and imprecision. MAIN RESULTS: We included 13 studies with 708 participants. All participants had dementia and in the 12 trials which described the setting, all were resident in institutional care facilities. Nine trials recruited participants because they had significant agitation or other behavioural and psychological symptoms in dementia (BPSD) at baseline. The fragrances used were lavender (eight studies); lemon balm (four studies); lavender and lemon balm, lavender and orange, and cedar extracts (one study each). For six trials, assessment of risk of bias and extraction of results was hampered by poor reporting. Four of the other seven trials were at low risk of bias in all domains, but all were small (range 18 to 186 participants; median 66), reducing our confidence in the results. Our primary outcomes were agitation, overall behavioural and psychological symptoms, and adverse effects. Ten trials assessed agitation using various scales. Among the five trials for which our confidence in the results was moderate or low, four trials reported no significant effect on agitation and one trial reported a significant benefit of aromatherapy. The other five trials either reported no useable data or our confidence in the results was very low. Eight trials assessed overall BPSD using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory and we had moderate or low confidence in the results of five of them. Of these, four reported significant benefit from aromatherapy and one reported no significant effect. Adverse events were poorly reported or not reported at all in most trials. No more than two trials assessed each of our secondary outcomes of quality of life, mood, sleep, activities of daily living, caregiver burden. We did not find evidence of benefit on these outcomes. Three trials assessed cognition: one did not report any data and the other two trials reported no significant effect of aromatherapy on cognition. Our confidence in the results of these studies was low. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: We have not found any convincing evidence that aromatherapy (or exposure to fragrant plant oils) is beneficial for people with dementia although there are many limitations to the data. Conduct or reporting problems in half of the included studies meant that they could not contribute to the conclusions. Results from the other studies were inconsistent. Harms were very poorly reported in the included studies. In order for clear conclusions to be drawn, better design and reporting and consistency of outcome measurement in future trials would be needed.


Assuntos
Aromaterapia , Demência/terapia , Sintomas Comportamentais/terapia , Viés , Humanos , Óleos Voláteis/uso terapêutico , Agitação Psicomotora/terapia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
4.
Inflammopharmacology ; 28(5): 1153-1161, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32803479

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) has emerged as a global health threat. Unfortunately, there are very limited approved drugs available with established efficacy against the SARs-CoV-2 virus and its inflammatory complications. Vaccine development is actively being researched, but it may take over a year to become available to general public. Certain medications, for example, dexamethasone, antimalarials (chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine), antiviral (remdesivir), and IL-6 receptor blocking monoclonal antibodies (tocilizumab), are used in various combinations as off-label medications to treat COVID-19. Essential oils (EOs) have long been known to have anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, bronchodilatory, and antiviral properties and are being proposed to have activity against SARC-CoV-2 virus. Owing to their lipophilic nature, EOs are advocated to penetrate viral membranes easily leading to membrane disruption. Moreover, EOs contain multiple active phytochemicals that can act synergistically on multiple stages of viral replication and also induce positive effects on host respiratory system including bronchodilation and mucus lysis. At present, only computer-aided docking and few in vitro studies are available which show anti-SARC-CoV-2 activities of EOs. In this review, role of EOs in the prevention and treatment of COVID-19 is discussed. A discussion on possible side effects associated with EOs as well as anti-corona virus claims made by EOs manufacturers are also highlighted. Based on the current knowledge a chemo-herbal (EOs) combination of the drugs could be a more feasible and effective approach to combat this viral pandemic.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Óleos Voláteis/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/efeitos adversos , Antivirais/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Óleos Voláteis/efeitos adversos , Pandemias , Plantas Medicinais/química
5.
Mikrobiyol Bul ; 54(3): 463-478, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Turco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32755521

RESUMO

Malaria still remains to be a public health threat and one of the most important infectious diseases to get attention from World Health Organization. No domestic malaria cases have been reported on the island of Cyprus since 1948, as a result of successful elimination process. All of the malaria cases detected in recent years are imported cases. As known, hundreds of medicines are obtained from plants and traditional medicine are used in endemic places of malaria. The cause of malaria - Plasmodium parasites, are developing resistance to antimalarial drugs. Hence, research on plant extracts and essential oils have gained great interest in recent years to obtain new and safe agents/substances. In our study, it was aimed to investigate the in vivo antimalarial activities of essential oils obtained from Origanum dubium, Origanum majorana, Salvia fruticosa and Laurus nobilis plants which grows in Northern Cyprus against Plasmodium berghei - the rodent malaria agent. Plants were collected in appropriate seasons and were dried to obtain and analyze essential oils via Clevenger Apparatus system. L929 mouse fibroblast cell line and MTT [3-(4.5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl) -2.5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] kit were used to determine the cytotoxic activities of the essential oils obtained. In our study, total of 36 mice (Balb/c) of 6 groups (6 mice in each group) were formed: chloroquine group (CG) (50 mg/kg) as malaria reference group, untreated control group (UTCG), O.dubium (OD) (20 mg/kg), O.majorana (OM) (20 mg/kg), S.fruticosa (SF) (20 mg/kg) and L.nobilis (LN) (20 mg/kg). The essential oils were given to mice infected with P.berghei strain orally on 0, 1, 2 and 3rd days (4 times in total). Blood was taken from the tail end of each mouse 24 hours after the last treatment and blood collection was continued every two days until the mice died. Withdrawn blood taken from the mice were prepared as a thin smear and stained with Giemsa. Then, parasitemia percentages in each smear were calculated. As a result of the cytotoxicity tests, cytotoxic activity was not found at 100 µg/ml (20 mg/kg) in all oils except OD essential oil. While the mice receiving chloroquine continued their lives with the disappearance of the parasite on the 6thday, the mice in the UTCG died on the 9th day. The parasitemia rate reached 35% in the OM group on the 23rd day, in the OD group on the 21st day and in the other groups (SF and LN) on the 14th day and the mice have died. In our study, the difference between the life span in all groups was found statistically significant (p≤ 0.001). As a result, the essential oils O.majorana (14 days increase according to UTCG) an endemic plant of Cyprus and O.dubium (12 days increase according to UTCG) which had an antimalarial effect, decreased parasitemia and increased the life span of mice more than two times, indicated that they could be a source for the acquisition of new antimalarial molecules.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos , Malária , Óleos Voláteis , Origanum , Extratos Vegetais , Animais , Antimaláricos/farmacologia , Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Chipre , Células Alimentadoras , Malária/tratamento farmacológico , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/uso terapêutico , Origanum/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Plasmodium berghei/efeitos dos fármacos
6.
J Nat Med ; 74(4): 710-721, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32556946

RESUMO

Cinnamon, clove, and fennel are commonly used as spices and herbal medicines, and one of their medicinal uses is as aromatic stomachics. We investigated the effect on appetite in mice of inhaling volatile compounds contained in essential oils extracted from herbal medicines used as aromatic stomachics. The appetite-enhancing effects of cinnamon and fennel essential oils were similar to those of their main components trans-cinnamaldehyde and trans-anethole, respectively. The appetite-enhancing effects of clove essential oil were observed over a wide range of doses (4.5 × 10-4 to 4.5 × 10-3 mg/cage), even though the active compounds showed effects within a narrow range of doses (eugenol: 4.5 × 10-4 to 2.5 × 10-3 mg/cage; eugenol acetate: 1.1 × 10-3 to 4.5 × 10-3 mg/cage). The increase in appetite at doses that differed by tenfold in mice administered clove oil was due to synergistic effects between eugenol and eugenol acetate in clove oil. Thus, loss of appetite could be treated more effectively using essential oil containing both eugenol and eugenol acetate compared with the active compounds administered separately. Administering essential oils, such as cinnamon and clove, could improve loss of appetite without strict dosage adjustment.


Assuntos
Apetite/efeitos dos fármacos , Cinnamomum zeylanicum/química , Foeniculum/química , Óleos Voláteis/uso terapêutico , Syzygium/química , Animais , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia
7.
Res Vet Sci ; 131: 186-193, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32388021

RESUMO

Bovine mastitis is the most important disease affecting dairy herds worldwide, causing direct impacts on farms' profitability and food safety issues. The prevention and treatment of this pathology is especially done through antimicrobials, but the increasing antimicrobial resistance of pathogens to this disease may affect the efficiency of conventional drugs. Besides, antimicrobials residues in milk and the environment are a potential threat to human health. Thereby, the use of plant extracts and essential oils may become promising alternatives for the control of bovine mastitis. Antimicrobial properties present in several plants are well described and plant extracts and essential oils are often considered safe to animals, humans and environment. This review summarizes the current problems encountered in the conventional treatment of mastitis, the possibilities of the use of plant extracts and essential oils as alternative agents for the control of these pathogens and the limitations found in the use of these plant derivatives. Finally, the perspectives to the use of plant extracts and essential oils for the treatment of bovine mastitis are presented.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Mastite Bovina/tratamento farmacológico , Óleos Voláteis/uso terapêutico , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino , Óleos Voláteis/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(10)2020 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32408699

RESUMO

Essential oils have shown promise as antiviral agents against several pathogenic viruses. In this work we hypothesized that essential oil components may interact with key protein targets of the 2019 severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). A molecular docking analysis was carried out using 171 essential oil components with SARS-CoV-2 main protease (SARS-CoV-2 Mpro), SARS-CoV-2 endoribonucleoase (SARS-CoV-2 Nsp15/NendoU), SARS-CoV-2 ADP-ribose-1″-phosphatase (SARS-CoV-2 ADRP), SARS-CoV-2 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (SARS-CoV-2 RdRp), the binding domain of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (SARS-CoV-2 rS), and human angiotensin-converting enzyme (hACE2). The compound with the best normalized docking score to SARS-CoV-2 Mpro was the sesquiterpene hydrocarbon (E)-ß-farnesene. The best docking ligands for SARS-CoV Nsp15/NendoU were (E,E)-α-farnesene, (E)-ß-farnesene, and (E,E)-farnesol. (E,E)-Farnesol showed the most exothermic docking to SARS-CoV-2 ADRP. Unfortunately, the docking energies of (E,E)-α-farnesene, (E)-ß-farnesene, and (E,E)-farnesol with SARS-CoV-2 targets were relatively weak compared to docking energies with other proteins and are, therefore, unlikely to interact with the virus targets. However, essential oil components may act synergistically, essential oils may potentiate other antiviral agents, or they may provide some relief of COVID-19 symptoms.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Óleos Voláteis/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Antivirais/farmacologia , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Simulação por Computador , Humanos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Virais/química
9.
Phytother Res ; 34(9): 2287-2302, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32309898

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to compare the micro-morphological features of two different non-drug Cannabis sativa L. biotypes (Chinese accession G-309 and one fibrante variety) and to evaluate the phytochemical profile as well as some biological properties of the essential oils (EOs) obtained by hydrodistillation of dried flowering tops. After a micro-morphological evaluation by scanning electron microscopy, the phytochemical composition was analysed by GC-FID and GC-MS analyses. Antioxidant and anti-acetylcholinesterase properties were investigated by several in vitro cell-free assays, while neuroactive effects were evaluated on mouse cortical neuronal as well as human iPS cell-derived central nervous system cells grown on MEA chips. Both EOs showed strong antioxidant properties mainly attributable to the high content of hydroxylated compounds as well as significant anti-acetylcholinesterase activities (IC50 74.64 and 57.31 µg/ml for Chinese accession and fibrante variety, respectively). Furthermore, they showed a concentration-dependent inhibition of spontaneous electrical activity of human and mouse neuronal networks, with the fibrante variety, which showed the best activity (MFR, IC50 0.71 and 10.60 µg/ml, respectively). The observed biological activities could be due to a synergic effect between terpenes and phytocannabinoids, although in vivo studies, which clarify the molecular mechanism, are still lacking.


Assuntos
Acetilcolinesterase/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Cannabis/química , Óleos Voláteis/uso terapêutico , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Acetilcolinesterase/farmacologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Humanos , Camundongos , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
10.
J Med Life ; 13(1): 87-93, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32341707

RESUMO

Nurses may be anxious due to critical and emergencies, and anxiety can affect their professional performance. Non-pharmacological interventions, as a safe method, can reduce anxiety. This study aimed to determine the effect of music therapy and aromatherapy with chamomile - lavender essential oil on the anxiety of clinical nurses. This was a randomized, double-blind clinical trial. One hundred twenty nurses from clinical wards of Besat Hospital in Sanandaj, Iran, were selected between 2018 and 2019 by purposeful sampling. The samples were randomly assigned to three groups with different interventions, namely music therapy, both aromatherapy with chamomile-lavender essential oil and music therapy, and aromatherapy with chamomile-lavender essential oil, along with a control group as well. The anxiety of nurses was measured based on the Beck Anxiety Inventory before the intervention and after three work shifts. The data were analyzed using the SPSS v.22 software. One-way ANOVA was used to test the hypotheses. The findings showed that the mean scores of the anxiety of nurses after the intervention in the three groups namely the group for which music therapy was applied, the group for which aromatherapy with chamomile-lavender essential oil was used and the group for which both music therapy and aromatherapy with chamomile-lavender essential oil were applied, were (39.28), (37.82) and (40.03), respectively. Therefore, the obtained mean score of each group was significantly lower than that of the control group (56.08) (p < 0.0001). The results showed that the interventions of music therapy and aromatherapy with chamomile-lavender essential oil could reduce the anxiety of nurses. Therefore, it is recommended to use music therapy and aromatherapy with chamomile-lavender essential oil to reduce the anxiety of nurses in the clinical setting.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/terapia , Aromaterapia , Camomila/química , Lavandula/química , Musicoterapia , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros , Óleos Voláteis/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Masculino , Óleos Vegetais/uso terapêutico
11.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1260: 283-296, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32304038

RESUMO

In our society, anxiety and depression are serious health issues that affect a large proportion of the population. Unfortunately, drug therapies are not always effective and can lead to drug abuse, delay of therapeutic effect, dependence, and tolerance. Traditionally, aromatherapy has also been used for anxiety relief and mood improvement. The use of essential oils, in relieving anxiety and depression, does not have the disadvantages associated with currently used drug therapies. In-vivo studies on animal models have verified the anxiolytic effects of these essential oils and the interactions of their major components with central nervous system receptors. Therefore, it seems reasonable to argue that the modulation of glutamate and GABA neurotransmitter systems are likely to be the critical mechanisms responsible for the sedative, anxiolytic, and anticonvulsant proprieties of linalool and essential oils containing linalool in significant proportions. Popular anxiolytic essential oils are generally rich in terpenoid alcohols like linalool, geraniol and citronellol, and the monoterpene limonene (or citral). Therefore, other essential oils or formulations that contain these terpenoids as major components may serve as important aromatherapeutics for relief of anxiety.


Assuntos
Ansiolíticos/uso terapêutico , Ansiedade/tratamento farmacológico , Aromaterapia , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Óleos Voláteis/uso terapêutico , Terpenos/uso terapêutico , Animais , Ansiolíticos/química , Ansiolíticos/farmacologia , Anticonvulsivantes/química , Anticonvulsivantes/farmacologia , Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/química , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/farmacologia , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/uso terapêutico , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Terpenos/química , Terpenos/farmacologia
12.
Am J Chin Med ; 48(3): 597-613, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32308013

RESUMO

Magnoliae Flos is a commonly used traditional medicinal material in Asia. It is used to treat sinusitis, nasal congestion, and hypersensitive skin. Because Magonlia Flos was described as an aromatic material in ancient Chinese texts, we hypothesized that its essential oil may be used to treat immune disorders. Dendritic cells (DCs), regarded as a major target of immunomodulators to control immune responses, play a critical role in the adaptive immune response. In this study, Magnoliae Flos essential oil (MFEO) decreased the production of the cytokines TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-12p70 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated DCs. It also suppressed the surface markers MHC II, CD80, and CD86 in LPS-stimulated DCs. Animal models demonstrated that the 2,4-Dinitro-1-fluorobenzene (DNFB) inducing a contact hypersensitivity response was inhibited following treatment with MFEO. In addition, MFEO inhibited the infiltration of T cells in the ears of DNFB-induced mice. To explore its bioactive compounds, the components of MFEO were analyzed using gas chromatography (GC) and GC-mass spectrometry. The results revealed that the major compounds in MFEO are camphor and 1,8-cineole. Additional DC bioassays confirmed that these compounds substantially suppressed cytokine production in LPS-induced DCs. Therefore, we demonstrated that MFEO exhibits an immunosuppressive effect both in vivo and in vitro, and camphor and 1,8-cineole may be the major components responsible for its immunosuppressive ability. The findings indicate that MFEO has the potential to be developed as a new immunosuppressant for excessive diseases.


Assuntos
Imunidade Adaptativa/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Dermatite de Contato/tratamento farmacológico , Dermatite de Contato/imunologia , Imunossupressores , Magnoliaceae/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/uso terapêutico , Fitoterapia , Animais , Cânfora/análise , Cânfora/isolamento & purificação , Células Cultivadas , Citocinas/metabolismo , Células Dendríticas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Eucaliptol/análise , Eucaliptol/isolamento & purificação , Camundongos , Óleos Voláteis/química , Linfócitos T/imunologia
13.
Phytother Res ; 34(10): 2675-2684, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32267031

RESUMO

To determine the effect of aromatherapy with rose and lavender on the patient outcomes after open-heart surgery (OHS). In the clinical trial, patients were randomized to four groups. One group received routine care, the placebo group received a cotton swab soaked in water and the other two groups received either a cotton swab containing three drops of rose or lavender essence (0.2 ml). A total of 160 patients were randomized into four groups. Intergroup anxiety was not significantly different; however, the reciprocal time-group effect was significant among the four groups. The extubation time was significant among the four groups which related to rose essence group compared with the control group (p < .001) and placebo group (p = .029). The surgical site pain was significant in the rose essence and lavender groups compared to the control group. Aromatherapy can reduce extubation time, surgical site pain severity, and anxiety in patients undergoing OHS.


Assuntos
Extubação/métodos , Ansiedade/tratamento farmacológico , Aromaterapia/métodos , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/métodos , Lavandula/química , Óleos Voláteis/uso terapêutico , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Rosa/química , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
14.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev ; 21(3): 771-775, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32212806

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Bone marrow biopsy is a common procedure for the diagnosis and treatment of hematologic diseases and tumors, which are associated with anxiety. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of lavender aroma on anxiety of patients having bone marrow biopsy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was performed on 80 patients referred to Vali-e-Asr Hospital for bone marrow biopsy. Samples were selected by convenience method and were assigned into intervention and control groups using randomized blocks of 4. Random sequence was generated by RAS software. Several drops of distilled water on a cotton ball was used in the control group and same amount of lavender essential oil on a cotton ball was used in the intervention group. Then, participants in both groups were asked to smell the cotton ball for 15 minutes and then, their anxiety level was measured immediately. The results were analyzed by SPSS software version 25 using covariance analysis and rank regression. RESULTS: The results showed that, the mean scores of anxiety in the control and intervention groups were 6.3 ± 1.92 and 3.75 ± 1.05, respectively. There was a significant difference (p <0.05) between the two groups in terms of anxiety score.The results showed that there was a significant difference in anxiety score between two groups in terms of variables such as age, gender, physician experience, biopsy history and biopsy site (P <0.05). The results also showed no significant difference between the (p >0.05). CONCLUSION: The results of this study showed that bone marrow biopsy is associated with anxiety, and smelling of lavender aroma is effective in reducing anxiety in patients undergoing this procedure. This fragrance can be used by treatment team in hematology and oncology clinics to reduce anxiety caused by bone marrow biopsy.
.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/prevenção & controle , Biópsia , Medula Óssea , Lavandula/química , Óleos Voláteis/uso terapêutico , Óleos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Ansiedade/etiologia , Aromaterapia , Biópsia/efeitos adversos , Medula Óssea/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Odorantes
15.
Clin Oral Investig ; 24(4): 1517-1525, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32144515

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This randomized controlled trial compares for the first time effects of Alvogyl versus absorbable gelatin sponge as palatal wound dressings on postoperative pain, amount of analgesic consumption, post-surgical bleeding, and wound re-epithelization. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Following sample size calculation, 36 systemically healthy patients requiring palatal mucosal graft harvesting were randomized to receive Alvogyl (intervention group, 18 patients) or absorbable gelatin sponge (control group, 18 patients) palatal dressings. Patient-reported VAS pain scores over 2 weeks were defined as primary outcome. Post-surgical bleeding, number of analgesics consumed, and complete re-epithelialization of the palatal wound for up to 5 weeks were defined as secondary outcomes. RESULTS: Although significantly higher VAS pain scores were reported in the control as compared with the intervention group up to 12 days post-surgically (from (median [range]) 8.5 [2-10] to 1 [0-2] and from 6 [0-10] to 0 [0-2] respectively), with higher analgesics consumption (from 2 [1-3] to 1 [0-3] and from 1 [0-3] to 0 [0-2] tablets respectively), a multivariate regression analysis considering age, gender, graft width/length, tissue thickness, analgesics intake, and dressing type demonstrated no statistically significant effect of any factor, including dressing type on VAS pain scores. At 4 weeks, 22.2% of patients in the intervention group versus 11.1% in the control group demonstrated complete re-epithelization of their palatal engraftment site, before complete re-epithelization in both groups at 5 weeks. No post-surgical bleeding was reported with both dressings. CONCLUSIONS: Within the study's limitations, results suggest Alvogyl as a practical palatal surgical dressing, comparable with absorbable gelatin sponge in cost, pain reduction, hemostasis, and re-epithelization properties. TRIAL REGISTRATION: www.ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03402321 CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Alvogyl could present a novel palatal wound dressing material, comparable with gelatin sponge.


Assuntos
Eugenol/uso terapêutico , Esponja de Gelatina Absorvível/uso terapêutico , Gengiva/transplante , Hidrocarbonetos Iodados/uso terapêutico , Óleos Voláteis/uso terapêutico , Palato , Cicatrização , para-Aminobenzoatos/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Bandagens , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
16.
Phytother Res ; 34(8): 1761-1769, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32067278

RESUMO

Schistosoma mansoni is endemic in 55 countries around the world. S. mansoni is a water-borne parasite of humans belonging to the group of blood flukes. Generally, schistosomiasis is treated with praziquantel, which results in frequent treatment failures and reinfections. Essential oils have diverse biological effects, including antimicrobial, antiprotozoal and antiparasitic. This review aimed at summarizing available in vitro, in vivo and clinical trials showing evidence and mechanisms of actions of essential oils and their derivatives acting against S. mansoni. The findings suggest that a number of essential oils and/or their components act against S. mansoni. Essential oils and/or their derivatives may be one of the potential sources of antischistosomal drugs.


Assuntos
Óleos Voláteis/uso terapêutico , Schistosoma mansoni/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia
17.
Prev Vet Med ; 176: 104914, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32066028

RESUMO

Investigation of thymol efficacy to control pigeon coccidiosis was performed using in-vitro and in-vivo studies. The in-vitro experiment was conducted by treatment of unsporulated oocysts of Eimeria species of pigeon by five concentrations (0.625-10%) from either thymol, eucalyptus essential oil or amprolium anticoccidial drug and incubation for 72 h. The in-vitro study revealed that thymol concentrations ≥1.25 % caused significant deformity on sporulated and unsporulated oocysts compared to the other two products. Eucalyptus oil was active at both 5 and 10 % concentrations on unsporulated oocysts but showed non-significant changes on sporulated ones at all tested concentration. Meanwhile, in-vivo testing of thymol was conducted using 45 squabs which were equally divided into three groups; untreated uninfected (UU) negative control, untreated infected (UI) positive control and thymol treated (TT). TT group received 40 mg/kg BWt thymol in feed for 15 days. At day five post thymol supplementation, the UI and TT groups were orally infected by 25 × 103sporulated oocysts of pigeon Eimeria labbeana. The in-vivo study showed that thymol minimized the adverse effect of Eimeria infection in pigeon as observed by less severity of clinical signs, low oocysts count and improvement of body weight when compared with untreated infected birds. In addition, the biochemical parameters including liver and kidney functions tests proved thymol safety in pigeon. Moreover, thymol showed excellent antioxidant activity that was estimated by significantly lower value of malondialdehyde in TT than UI groups. The histopathological findings of TT group showed intact intestinal villi with mild sloughed epithelium, degenerated coccidian developmental stages and massive infiltrations of mononuclear cells in lamina propria. In conclusion, thymol can be safely used to control pigeon coccidiosis as a natural effective compound.


Assuntos
Antiparasitários/metabolismo , Coccidiose/veterinária , Eimeria/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleos Voláteis/uso terapêutico , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Timol/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Antiparasitários/administração & dosagem , Coccidiose/prevenção & controle , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Egito , Timol/administração & dosagem
18.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 3307, 2020 02 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32094395

RESUMO

Essential oil of Homalomena pineodora inhibits diabetic pathogens; however, the activity was not sustainable when applied as wound dressing. This study aims to synthesise the essential oil nanoparticle using chitosan. The nanoparticles were synthesised with ion gelation method, confirmed by spectroscopic analysis. The spherical nanoparticles display a size of 70 nm, with strong surface charge of +24.10 mV. The nanoparticles showed an initial burst release followed by a slow release pattern for 72 h, following the first order of kinetic. The release behaviour was ideal for wound dressing. The antimicrobial activity was broad spectrum. The formation of nanoparticle enhanced the antimicrobial efficacy of the essential oil. The nanoparticle also showed a concentration-dependent killing behaviour on time-kill assay. In the 3D collagen wound models, the nanoparticles reduced the microbial growth by 60-80%. In conclusion, H. pineodora nanoparticles showed pharmaceutical potential in inhibiting microbial growth on diabetic ulcers.


Assuntos
Araceae/química , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus/microbiologia , Nanopartículas/química , Óleos Voláteis/uso terapêutico , Cicatrização , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Quitosana/química , Colágeno/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus/patologia , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Nanopartículas/ultraestrutura , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Tamanho da Partícula , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Difração de Raios X
19.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 2867, 2020 02 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32071337

RESUMO

Essential oils (EOs) have been used therapeutically for centuries. In recent decades, randomized controlled (clinical) trials have supported efficacy in specific therapeutic indications for a few of them. Some EOs, their components or derivatives thereof have been approved as drugs. Nevertheless, they are still considered products that are mainly used in complementary and alternative medicine. EO components occupy a special niche in chemical space, that offers unique opportunities based on their unusual physicochemical properties, because they are typically volatile and hydrophobic. Here we evaluate selected physicochemical parameters, used in conventional drug discovery, of EO components present in a range of commercially available EOs. We show that, contrary to generally held belief, most EO components meet current-day requirements of medicinal chemistry for good drug candidates. Moreover, they also offer attractive opportunities for lead optimization or even fragment-based drug discovery. Because their therapeutic potential is still under-scrutinized, we propose that this be explored more vigorously with present-day methods.


Assuntos
Química Farmacêutica/tendências , Descoberta de Drogas , Óleos Voláteis/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Óleos Voláteis/química
20.
Holist Nurs Pract ; 34(2): 83-90, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32049695

RESUMO

Changes in the aging process affect the duration and quality of sleep. Not having a quality night's sleep leads to a reduction in daytime wakefulness in older adults. We examined the effect of aromatherapy on the cognitive functions and daytime sleepiness of older adults living in a nursing home. The research was a pretest and posttest design, which was conducted without a control group. The sample included 39 elders. A rosemary-lemon oil mixture was smelled by elders in the mornings for a week. After a 1-week washout period, lavender oils were smelled in the evenings for a week. After application of the rosemary-lemon oil mixture, the mean score of participants' daytime sleepiness was lower, but that decline was not statistically meaningful (P > .050). After the same application, the mean score of the participants' cognitive functions was significantly lower (P < .001). After application of lavender oil, the scores were significantly lower (P < .001). Lower scores on the scales used indicate lower sleepiness. The results showed that the 2 applications can be used to improve cognitive functions in older adults; in addition, lavender oil has an advantage in reducing daytime sleepiness.


Assuntos
Aromaterapia/normas , Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , Sonolência , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Aromaterapia/métodos , Aromaterapia/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Casas de Saúde/organização & administração , Casas de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Óleos Voláteis/normas , Óleos Voláteis/uso terapêutico , Óleos Vegetais/normas , Óleos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Psicometria/instrumentação , Psicometria/métodos
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