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1.
Lancet ; 396(10254): 854-866, 2020 09 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32910907

RESUMO

Asthma is a complex disease that often starts in childhood. Genomic and environmental factors as well as aberrant immune maturation early in life can contribute to the onset of disease, with great disparity over time and geographical regions. Epidemiological studies have scrutinised environmental exposures and attempted to translate these exposures into prevention strategies. Some approaches for patients with asthma have been successful (eg, smoking ban, the Finnish Asthma Programme), and primary prevention of wheeze in pre-school children (age 0-5 years) by the supplementation of vitamin D or fish oil, or both, to pregnant women seems promising. Several recent prevention initiatives are based on strong asthma-protective environmental microbial exposures associated with traditional rural lifestyles. Preclinical studies with various bacterial lysates, bacterial and dietary metabolites, or helminthic compounds have yielded promising results that await translation into clinical practice. Given the immense societal and individual burden of asthma, there is an urgent need to further develop novel strategies to eradicate the disease.


Assuntos
Asma/epidemiologia , Asma/prevenção & controle , Prevenção Primária/métodos , Asma/dietoterapia , Asma/imunologia , Pré-Escolar , Suplementos Nutricionais/provisão & distribução , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Óleos de Peixe/administração & dosagem , Óleos de Peixe/provisão & distribução , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez , Prevalência , Fatores de Proteção , Fatores de Risco , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Vitamina D/administração & dosagem , Vitamina D/provisão & distribução
2.
Food Chem ; 326: 126963, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32413754

RESUMO

Neat epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) has low bioavailability and tuna oil (TO) is prone to oxidation. Broccoli byproducts (BBP) were used for preparing TO-BBP (25% oil, dry basis) and TO-EGCG-BBP (20% oil and 20% EGCG, dry basis) powders. The gross composition and surface fat of powders and morphology of reconstituted emulsions were characterized. Oxipres® data (80 °C, 5 bar oxygen pressure) showed that the TO-EGCG-BBP formulation was more oxidatively stable [Induction period (IP) > 100 h] than TO-BBP (IP ~ 20 h). During in vitro digestion, 90% of EGCG was recovered in the whole intestinal digesta of the TO-EGCG-BBP formulation compared to 76% for the EGCG-BBP formulation and 66% for the neat EGCG. The use of BBP for co-delivering EGCG and TO increases oxidative stability of TO and improves EGCG stability during in vitro digestion. This study highlights the potential for formulating functional ingredient with BBP and contribute to food waste reduction.


Assuntos
Brassica , Catequina/análogos & derivados , Emulsões/química , Óleos de Peixe/administração & dosagem , Atum , Animais , Disponibilidade Biológica , Catequina/administração & dosagem , Catequina/química , Catequina/farmacocinética , Suplementos Nutricionais , Digestão , Óleos de Peixe/química , Óleos de Peixe/farmacocinética , Alimentos , Oxirredução , Pós , Eliminação de Resíduos , Resíduos
3.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 30(4): 625-633, 2020 04 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32127335

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Chronic conditions such as obesity, which contribute to endothelial dysfunction in older adults, can cause impairments in cerebrovascular perfusion, which is associated with accelerated cognitive decline. Supplementing the diet with bioactive nutrients that can enhance endothelial function, such as fish oil or curcumin, may help to counteract cerebrovascular dysfunction. METHODS AND RESULTS: A 16-week double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial was undertaken in 152 older sedentary overweight/obese adults (50-80 years, body mass index: 25-40 kg/m2) to investigate effects of fish oil (2000 mg docosahexaenoic acid + 400 mg eicosapentaenoic acid/day), curcumin (160 mg/day) or a combination of both on cerebrovascular function (measured by Transcranial Doppler ultrasound), systemic vascular function (blood pressure, heart rate and arterial compliance) and cardiometabolic (fasting glucose and blood lipids) and inflammatory (C-reactive protein) biomarkers. The primary outcome, cerebrovascular responsiveness to hypercapnia, was not affected by the interventions. However, cerebral artery stiffness was significantly reduced in males following fish oil supplementation (P = 0.007). Furthermore, fish oil reduced heart rate (P = 0.038) and serum triglycerides (P = 0.006) and increased HDL cholesterol (P = 0.002). Curcumin did not significantly affect these outcomes either alone or in combination with fish oil. CONCLUSION: Regular supplementation with fish oil but not curcumin improved biomarkers of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular function. The combined supplementation did not result in additional benefits. Further studies are warranted to identify an efficacious curcumin dose and to characterize (in terms of sex, BMI, cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors) populations whose cerebrovascular and cognitive functions might benefit from either intervention. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ACTRN12616000732482p.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Cardiovascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Circulação Cerebrovascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Curcumina/administração & dosagem , Suplementos Nutricionais , Óleos de Peixe/administração & dosagem , Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Rigidez Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicemia/metabolismo , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Sistema Cardiovascular/fisiopatologia , Curcumina/efeitos adversos , Suplementos Nutricionais/efeitos adversos , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/administração & dosagem , Método Duplo-Cego , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Óleos de Peixe/efeitos adversos , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/sangue , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , New South Wales , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
BMJ ; 368: m456, 2020 03 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32131999

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the associations of habitual fish oil supplementation with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality in a large prospective cohort. DESIGN: Population based, prospective cohort study. SETTING: UK Biobank. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 427 678 men and women aged between 40 and 69 who had no CVD or cancer at baseline were enrolled between 2006 and 2010 and followed up to the end of 2018. MAIN EXPOSURE: All participants answered questions on the habitual use of supplements, including fish oil. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: All cause mortality, CVD mortality, and CVD events. RESULTS: At baseline, 133 438 (31.2%) of the 427 678 participants reported habitual use of fish oil supplements. The multivariable adjusted hazard ratios for habitual users of fish oil versus non-users were 0.87 (95% confidence interval 0.83 to 0.90) for all cause mortality, 0.84 (0.78 to 0.91) for CVD mortality, and 0.93 (0.90 to 0.96) for incident CVD events. For CVD events, the association seemed to be stronger among those with prevalent hypertension (P for interaction=0.005). CONCLUSIONS: Habitual use of fish oil seems to be associated with a lower risk of all cause and CVD mortality and to provide a marginal benefit against CVD events among the general population.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Suplementos Nutricionais/estatística & dados numéricos , Óleos de Peixe/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
5.
J Pediatr ; 219: 98-105.e4, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32059815

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare growth in children with intestinal failure-associated liver disease (IFALD) who received a fish oil intravenous lipid emulsion (FOLE) to those who received a soybean oil intravenous lipid emulsion (SOLE). STUDY DESIGN: This multisite, retrospective study pair-matched FOLE (n = 82) to SOLE recipients (n = 41) using baseline serum direct bilirubin levels and postmenstrual age. Study subjects received open-label FOLE (1 g/kg/day) until IFALD resolved or parenteral nutrition was stopped. Historical control subjects received SOLE (up to 3 g/kg/day). Growth measures (changes in body weight, height/length, and head circumference), prealbumin, triglycerides, and glucose were compared between groups over time using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. RESULTS: Although changes in all of the growth measures were similar for both groups (P > .05), FOLE recipients demonstrated an overall improved growth trajectory. After 28 weeks, FOLE recipients had a mean body weight within a z score range of -1 to 1 indicating age-appropriate growth. FOLE recipients consistently had higher prealbumin, lower triglyceride, and more normal glucose concentrations over time compared with SOLE recipients. CONCLUSIONS: Children with IFALD who received FOLE had similar growth and fewer metabolic abnormalities compared with those who received SOLE. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT00910104 and NCT00738101.


Assuntos
Óleos de Peixe/administração & dosagem , Crescimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Enteropatias/terapia , Hepatopatias/terapia , Nutrição Parenteral/métodos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Pré-Escolar , Ingestão de Energia , Emulsões Gordurosas Intravenosas , Ácidos Graxos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos
6.
J Nutr ; 150(5): 1144-1150, 2020 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32072161

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is evidence that microRNA (MIR) 122 is a biomarker for various liver diseases in adults and children. To date, MIR122 has not been explored in children with intestinal failure-associated liver disease (IFALD, or hyperbilirubinemia associated with prolonged parenteral nutrition). OBJECTIVES: This study's purpose was to investigate changes in plasma miR-122, correlate miR-122 with serum liver function tests and enzymes, and investigate changes in whole blood transcripts including miR-122 targets in a group of children with IFALD who received pure intravenous fish oil (FO) as a treatment for cholestasis. METHODS: This was a prospective, observational study that enrolled children with IFALD who received intravenous FO (1 g/kg/d) and whose cholestasis resolved with FO. Plasma miR-122 was measured using reverse transcription-quantitative real-time PCR, and whole blood miR-122 targets were quantified using RNA sequencing. RESULTS: Fourteen subjects with median age 6 mo (IQR: 3-65 mo) were enrolled. RNA sequence data were available for 4 subjects. When compared with the start of FO, median miR-122 concentrations at 6 mo of FO therapy decreased [1.0 (IQR: 1.0-1.0) compared with 0.04 (IQR: 0.01-0.6), P = 0.009]. At the start of FO, miR-122 correlated with conjugated bilirubin (r = 0.56; P = 0.038). At ∼3 mo of FO, miR-122 correlated with conjugated bilirubin (r = 0.56; P = 0.045). Reactive oxygen species, heme metabolism, coagulation, adipogenesis, IL-6-Janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK-STAT) 3, IL-2-STAT5, transforming growth factor-ß, TNF-α, inflammatory response, mammalian target of rapamycin gene families (normalized enrichment scores < -1.4), and miR-122 target genes were significantly downregulated with FO. CONCLUSIONS: In this small cohort of young children with IFALD, miR-122 decreased with FO therapy and correlated with conjugated bilirubin. Key pathways involving oxidation, inflammation, cellular differentiation, and nutrient regulation were downregulated. Data from this study provide information about IFALD and FO. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00969332.


Assuntos
Óleos de Peixe/administração & dosagem , Enteropatias/complicações , Hepatopatias/sangue , Hepatopatias/terapia , Testes de Função Hepática , MicroRNAs/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Pré-Escolar , Colestase/terapia , Feminino , Óleos de Peixe/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Lactente , Enteropatias/terapia , Hepatopatias/etiologia , Masculino , Nutrição Parenteral/efeitos adversos , Estudos Prospectivos , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Óleo de Soja/efeitos adversos
7.
Circ Res ; 126(1): 112-128, 2020 01 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31895658

RESUMO

Whether marine omega-3 fatty acid (n-3 FA) or vitamin D supplementation can prevent cardiovascular disease (CVD) in general populations at usual risk for this outcome is unknown. A major goal of VITAL (Vitamin D and Omega-3 Trial) was to fill this knowledge gap. In this article, we review the results of VITAL, discuss relevant mechanistic studies regarding n-3 FAs, vitamin D, and vascular disease, and summarize recent meta-analyses of the randomized trial evidence on these agents. VITAL was a nationwide, randomized, placebo-controlled, 2×2 factorial trial of marine n-3 FAs (1 g/d) and vitamin D3 (2000 IU/d) in the primary prevention of CVD and cancer among 25 871 US men aged ≥50 and women aged ≥55 years, including 5106 blacks. Median treatment duration was 5.3 years. Supplemental n-3 FAs did not significantly reduce the primary cardiovascular end point of major CVD events (composite of myocardial infarction, stroke, and CVD mortality; hazard ratio [HR], 0.92 [95% CI, 0.80-1.06]) but were associated with significant reductions in total myocardial infarction (HR, 0.72 [95% CI, 0.59-0.90]), percutaneous coronary intervention (HR, 0.78 [95% CI, 0.63-0.95]), and fatal myocardial infarction (HR, 0.50 [95% CI, 0.26-0.97]) but not stroke or other cardiovascular end points. For major CVD events, a treatment benefit was seen in those with dietary fish intake below the cohort median of 1.5 servings/wk (HR, 0.81 [95% CI, 0.67-0.98]) but not in those above (P interaction=0.045). For myocardial infarction, the greatest risk reductions were in blacks (HR, 0.23 [95% CI, 0.11-0.47]; P interaction by race, 0.001). Vitamin D supplementation did not reduce major CVD events (HR, 0.97 [95% CI, 0.85-1.12]) or other cardiovascular end points. Updated meta-analyses that include VITAL and other recent trials document coronary risk reduction from supplemental marine n-3 FAs but no clear CVD risk reduction from supplemental vitamin D. Additional research is needed to determine which individuals may be most likely to derive net benefit from supplementation. Clinical Trial Registration: URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01169259.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/uso terapêutico , Óleos de Peixe/uso terapêutico , Vitamina D/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etnologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Método Duplo-Cego , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Óleos de Peixe/administração & dosagem , Seguimentos , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Revascularização Miocárdica/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Prevenção Primária , Utilização de Procedimentos e Técnicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Vitamina D/administração & dosagem
8.
Pediatr Neonatol ; 61(2): 224-230, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31866497

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to assess the impact of different types of parenteral emulsions on retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in very low birth weight (VLBW, birth body weight < 1500 g) infants by comparing fish oil-containing and soy-based parenteral emulsions. METHODS: Data of preterm infants with body weights below 1500 gm at birth and receiving total parenteral nutrition (TPN) for a minimum of 7 days during the period between January 2009 and November 2017 were analyzed in this retrospective study. We compared clinical outcomes in two epochs using different lipid emulsions: epoch 1 (soybean-based lipid emulsions, January 2009-February 2014) versus epoch 2 (fish oil-containing lipid emulsions, January 2015-November 2017). The primary outcomes measured were the incidence of ROP and the number of ROP cases requiring bevacizumab therapy. RESULTS: A total of 396 infants were enrolled in this study (203 in epoch 1 and 193 in epoch 2). A lower incidence of any stage ROP (24.1 vs. 11.4%, p < 0.001) and lower requirement of bevacizumab therapy (12.8 vs. 5.2%, p = 0.001) were observed in epoch 2. Gestational age, glutamic-pyruvic transaminase, total bilirubin, and alkaline phosphatase levels, and type of lipid emulsion in TPN were associated with higher ROP incidence. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that parenteral nutrition in the form of lipid emulsions containing fish oil was associated with a lower risk of development of ROP [Odds Ratio: 0.178, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.095-0.330, p < 0.001]. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with soybean-based lipid solutions, the use of fish oil-containing lipid solutions may be associated with a lower incidence of ROP and decreased need for bevacizumab treatment in preterm infants.


Assuntos
Emulsões Gordurosas Intravenosas/administração & dosagem , Óleos de Peixe/administração & dosagem , Recém-Nascido de muito Baixo Peso , Retinopatia da Prematuridade/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Masculino , Nutrição Parenteral Total , Retinopatia da Prematuridade/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Óleo de Soja/administração & dosagem
9.
Arch Oral Biol ; 109: 104553, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31563004

RESUMO

This study evaluated the effects of replacing a saturated fat diet by n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3PUFA), on alveolar bone loss in hypercholesterolemic rats with experimental periodontitis (PD). METHODS: Eight week old Wistar rats were assigned according to dietary intake. Control group (C, n = 15) fed a commercial diet throughout the experiment. Atherogenic group (AT, n = 30) fed AT diet for 3 weeks; thereafter, AT was randomized to receive either a n-3PUFA (n = 15) or to continue with AT (n = 15) diet. Subsequently, PD was induced in all groups by unilateral ligature (L) of the first molar (M1) of the left mandible, non-ligated contralateral molars served as controls. After every week of PD induction, 5 rats per group were euthanized. Serum was collected for lipids assays and hemi-mandibles were subjected to histomorphometric (% upper and lower interradicular bone volume and periodontal ligament height, hPDL) and radiographic analyses (periodontal bone support, PBS, in ligated teeth, between M1-M2). RESULTS: Rats fed n-3PUFA diet rapidly induced a significant reduction in the serum lipids (p < 0.001). In all rats the ligated teeth showed a greater bone loss as compared with the unligated molars. At the end of the experiment the AT + L was the worst in % lower bone volume (p < 0.01), hPDL and PBS (p < 0.05). In contrast, rats fed n-3PUFA + L was similar to those rats fed C diet (p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Alveolar bone and dyslipidemia improved by substituting saturated fat intake for a n-3PUFA rich diet, in hypercholesterolemic rats with PD.


Assuntos
Perda do Osso Alveolar/terapia , Dieta , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/administração & dosagem , Óleos de Peixe/administração & dosagem , Hipercolesterolemia/fisiopatologia , Periodontite/fisiopatologia , Animais , Dislipidemias/terapia , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
10.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 401, 2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31703601

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dyslipidemias induce angiogenesis and accelerate the development and in vitro growth of breast tumors. The aim of this study was to assess the lipid and metabolic profile of female dogs with mammary carcinomas and their correlations with body condition score and degree of tumor malignancy, as well as to study the effect of dietary fish oil supplementation on these animals. RESULTS: Overweight or obese dogs had more aggressive carcinomas and higher triglyceride (p = 0.0363), VLDL (p = 0.0181), albumin (p = 0.0188), globulin (p = 0.0145) and lactate (p = 0.0255) concentrations. There was no change in the lipid profile after supplementation with fish oil at any concentration. However, in relation to the metabolic profile, glucose (p = 0.0067), total protein (p = 0.0002) and globulin (p = 0.0002) concentrations were increased when 90% omega-3 fish oil was used as a dietary supplement. CONCLUSION: Obese dogs showed altered lipid and metabolic profiles and more aggressive tumors, suggesting an important relationship between dyslipidemia and tumor aggressiveness. Supplementation with fish oil, rich in omega-3 fatty acids, may alter metabolic parameters in cancer patients.


Assuntos
Carcinoma/veterinária , Óleos de Peixe/farmacologia , Lipídeos/sangue , Neoplasias Mamárias Animais/metabolismo , Metaboloma , Animais , Carcinoma/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais , Cães , Feminino , Óleos de Peixe/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Mamárias Animais/cirurgia , Mastectomia/veterinária , Obesidade , Ovariectomia/veterinária
11.
Pak J Pharm Sci ; 32(4(Supplementary)): 1781-1788, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31680073

RESUMO

The study was planned to check the beneficial effects of various sources of omega-3 fatty acids (synthetic, flaxseed oil, fish oil) on 45 Wistar female rats. The rats were divided into five groups and assigned to different diets i.e. NC (Negative control), PC (Positive control), SO (Synthetic omega-3 250mg/kg/orally/daily), FO (flaxseed oil 250mg/kg/orally/daily) and F (fish oil 250mg/kg/orally/diet). Animals fed on different diets were induced PCOS by an intramuscular (IM) injection of estradiol-valerate (4mg/rat/IM) except NC group. Results of the lipid profile indicated that F showed highest increase in HDL level (35.67±1.45), while cholesterol, LDL, triglycerides, blood glucose and body weight were reduced in all three treatment groups. In case of a hormonal profile, testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH) and insulin levels showed a significant reduction after treatments. It can be concluded form the study that different sources of omega-3 fatty acids can be a new approach to treat the symptoms of PCOS.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/administração & dosagem , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/sangue , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/metabolismo , Animais , Glicemia/metabolismo , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Colesterol/sangue , Dieta , Feminino , Óleos de Peixe/administração & dosagem , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Triglicerídeos/sangue
12.
Nutrients ; 11(10)2019 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31627315

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Deterioration of liver function, or intestinal failure-associated liver disease, is often observed in long-term parenterally fed children. Fish oil-based intravenous lipids have been reported to play a role in the prevention and treatment of intestinal failure associated liver disease. METHODS: This retrospective analysis included 40 pediatric patients, (20 male and 20 female), median age 38 months (range 1.5-200 months) on long-term (≥1 month) parenteral nutrition who received the parenteral mixtures containing a combination of a third-generation lipid emulsion and pure fish oil because of laboratory liver function abnormalities. The total dose of fish oil from both emulsions for each patient exceeded 0.5 g/kg/day. Data from visits in an outpatient clinic were retrospectively analyzed using the Wilcoxon test, Mann-Whitney test, and Spearman correlation test. RESULTS: The median time of therapy was 149 days (range 28-418 days). There was a decrease of median total and direct (conjugated) bilirubin concentration from 22.23 µmol/L (range 3.42-243 µmol/L) to 10.26 µmol/L (range 3.42-180.58 µmol/L; p < 0.005) and 8.55 (range 1.71-212.04 µmol/L) to 6.84 µmol/L (range 1.71-150.48 µmol/L; p < 0.007) respectively. A significant decrease in median alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and gamma-glutamyl transferase was also observed. In 11 patients bilirubin concentrations increased or remained unchanged. When compared to the patients who responded to the combination therapy, the patients who did not respond received parenteral nutrition for a longer time prior to the start of the therapy (51 vs. 30 months; p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The mixture of an intravenous lipid emulsion containing soybean oil, medium-chain triglycerides, olive oil, and fish oil with the addition of pure fish oil emulsion may be helpful in the treatment of liver complications in children on long-term parenteral nutrition.


Assuntos
Emulsões Gordurosas Intravenosas/farmacologia , Óleos de Peixe/farmacologia , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Nutrição Parenteral/efeitos adversos , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Aspartato Aminotransferases/sangue , Bilirrubina/sangue , Criança , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Infantil , Esquema de Medicação , Emulsões Gordurosas Intravenosas/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Óleos de Peixe/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Fígado/enzimologia , Fígado/fisiologia , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos
13.
Br J Nutr ; 122(s1): S68-S79, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31638497

RESUMO

Variants in the human genes of fatty acid (FA) desaturase 1 (FADS1), 2 (FADS2) and 3 (FADS3) are associated with PUFA blood levels. We explored if maternal prenatal supplementation and children's genetic variation in seventeen SNP of the FADS1, FADS2 and FADS3 gene cluster influence twenty-one of the most relevant cheek cells' derived FA in glycerophospholipids (GPL-FA). The study was conducted in 147 Spanish and German mother-children pairs participating in the Nutraceuticals for a Healthier Life (NUHEAL) study at 8, 9 and 9·5 years. Linear and mixed model longitudinal regression analyses were performed. Maternal fish-oil (FO) or FO+5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-MTHF) supplementation during pregnancy was associated with a significant decrease of arachidonic acid (AA) concentrations in cheek cell GPL in the offspring, from 8 to 9·5 years; furthermore, maternal FO+5-MTHF supplementation was associated with higher n-6 docosapentaenoic acid concentrations in their children at age 8 years. FADS1 rs174556 polymorphism and different FADS2 genotypes were associated with higher concentrations of linoleic and α-linolenic acids in children; moreover, some FADS2 genotypes determined lower AA concentrations in children's cheek cells. It is suggested an interaction between type of prenatal supplementation and the offspring genetic background driving GPL-FA levels at school age. Prenatal FO supplementation, and/or with 5-MTHF, seems to stimulate n-3 and n-6 FA desaturation in the offspring, increasing long-chain PUFA concentrations at school age, but depending on children's FADS1 and FADS2 genotypes. These findings suggest potential early nutrition programming of FA metabolic pathways, but interacting with children's FADS polymorphisms.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Dessaturases/genética , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Glicerofosfolipídeos/química , Mucosa Bucal/química , Ácido Araquidônico/análise , Bochecha , Criança , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Óleos de Peixe/administração & dosagem , Genótipo , Alemanha , Humanos , Masculino , Mucosa Bucal/citologia , Família Multigênica/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal/métodos , Espanha , Tetra-Hidrofolatos/administração & dosagem
14.
Nutrients ; 11(10)2019 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31591312

RESUMO

Diet plays a decisive role in heart physiology, with lipids having especial importance in pathology prevention and development. This study aimed to investigate how dietary lipids varying in lipid profile (virgin olive oil, sunflower oil or fish oil) affected the heart of rats during aging. Heart histopathology, mitochondrial morphometry, and oxidative status were assessed. Typical histopathological features associated with aging, such as valvular lesions, endomyocardical hyperplasia, or papillary muscle calcification, were found at a low extent in all the experimental groups. The most relevant finding was that inflammation registered by fish oil group was lower compared to the other treatments. At the ultrastructural level, heart mitochondrial area, perimeter, and aspect ratio were higher in fish oil-fed rats than in those fed on sunflower oil. Concerning oxidative stress markers, there were differences only in coenzyme Q levels and catalase activity, lower in sunflower oil-fed animals compared with those fed on fish oil. In summary, dietary intake for a long period on dietary fats with different fatty acids profile led to differences in some aspects associated with the aging process at the heart. Fish oil seems to be the fat most protective of heart during aging.


Assuntos
Óleos de Peixe/administração & dosagem , Cardiopatias/prevenção & controle , Longevidade , Mitocôndrias Cardíacas/ultraestrutura , Miocárdio/ultraestrutura , Azeite de Oliva/administração & dosagem , Óleo de Girassol/administração & dosagem , Fatores Etários , Ração Animal , Animais , Óleos de Peixe/metabolismo , Cardiopatias/metabolismo , Cardiopatias/patologia , Masculino , Mitocôndrias Cardíacas/metabolismo , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Azeite de Oliva/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Ratos Wistar , Óleo de Girassol/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo
15.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 184: 109598, 2019 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31476451

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Combined atmospheric oxidant capacity (Ox), represented by the sum of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ozone (O3), is an important hazardous property of outdoor air pollution mixture. It remains unknown whether its adverse effects can be ameliorated by dietary fish-oil supplementation. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of fish-oil supplementation against oxidative stress induced by acute Ox exposure. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, double-blinded and placebo-controlled study among 65 young adults in Shanghai, China between September 2017 and January 2018. We randomly assigned participants to receive either 2.5 g/day of fish oil or placebo, and conducted four repeated physical examinations during the last two months of treatments. Ox concentrations were calculated as the sum of hourly measurements of NO2 and O3. We measured six biomarkers on systemic oxidative stress and antioxidant activity. Linear mixed-effect models were used to assess the short-term effects of Ox on biomarkers in each group. RESULTS: During our study period, the 72-h average Ox concentration was 93.6 µg/m3. Short-term exposure to Ox led to weaker changes in all biomarkers in the fish oil group than in the placebo group. Compared with the placebo group, for a 10-µg/m3 increase in Ox, there were smaller decrements in myeloperoxidase (MPO, difference = 5.92%, lag = 0-2 d, p = 0.03) and malondialdehyde (MDA, difference = 5.00%, lag = 1 d, p = 0.04) in the fish-oil group; there were also larger increments in total antioxidant capacity (TAC, difference = 16.33%, lag = 2 d, p = 0.02) and in glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, difference = 8.89%, lag = 0-2 d, p = 0.03) in the fish-oil group. The estimated differences for MPO were robust to adjustment for all co-pollutants and the differences for other biomarkers remained for some co-pollutants. CONCLUSIONS: This trial provides first-hand evidence that dietary fish-oil supplementation may alleviate the systemic oxidative stress induced by Ox.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Suplementos Nutricionais , Óleos de Peixe/farmacologia , Oxidantes/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Antioxidantes/análise , Biomarcadores/sangue , China , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Óleos de Peixe/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Masculino , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/toxicidade , Ozônio/análise , Ozônio/toxicidade , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Anim Sci ; 97(11): 4453-4463, 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31545382

RESUMO

Dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) are precursors for lipid metabolites that reduce inflammation. Two experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that enriching the sow diet in n-3 PUFA during late gestation and throughout lactation reduces stress and inflammation and promotes growth in weaned pigs. A protected fish oil product (PFO; Gromega) was used to enrich the diet in n-3 PUFA. In the initial experiment, time-bred gilts were fed a gestation and lactation diet supplemented with 0% (control; n = 5), 0.25% (n = 4), 0.5% (n = 4), or 1% (n = 5) PFO from 101 ± 2 d of gestation to day 16 of lactation. Adding 1% PFO to the diet increased the n-3:n-6 PUFA ratio in colostrum and milk compared with controls (P = 0.05). A subsequent experiment was performed to determine whether supplementing the sow diet with 1% PFO improved growth and reduced circulating markers of acute inflammation and stress in the offspring. Plasma was harvested from piglets (16 per treatment group) on day 0 (d of weaning) and days 1 and 3 postweaning. Pigs from the 1% PFO treatment group weighed more (P = 0.03) on day 3 postweaning and had a greater (P ˂ 0.05) n-3:n-6 PUFA ratio in plasma on each day sampled compared with 0% PFO controls. There was an overall treatment effect on plasma total cortisol (P = 0.03) and haptoglobin (P = 0.04), with lesser concentrations in pigs on the 1% PFO diet. Plasma corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) concentrations were not different between treatment groups but were less (P ˂ 0.001) on days 1 and 3 when compared with day 0. The resultant free cortisol index [FCI (cortisol/CBG)] was less (P = 0.02) on days 1 and 3 for pigs from the 1% treatment group compared with the controls. An ex vivo lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge of whole blood collected on days 0 and 1 was used to determine whether 1% PFO attenuated release of inflammatory cytokines (IL-1ß, IL-6, and TNF-α). Blood from pigs within the 1% PFO treatment group tended (P = 0.098) to have a lesser mean concentration of TNF-α in response to LPS compared with blood from controls. These results suggest that providing a PFO supplement as 1% of the diet to sows beginning in late gestation and during lactation can increase the n-3:n-6 PUFA ratio in their offspring, which may improve growth and reduce the acute physiological stress response in the pigs postweaning.


Assuntos
Colostro/química , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/administração & dosagem , Óleos de Peixe/administração & dosagem , Leite/química , Suínos/fisiologia , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/análise , Feminino , Lactação/efeitos dos fármacos , Leite/metabolismo , Gravidez , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Desmame
17.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 94: 199-210, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31499199

RESUMO

The poor understanding of nutrition needed has become a significant obstruction to artificial conservation of Yangtze sturgeon (Acipenser dabryanus) and the relationship between ployunsaturated fatty acid nutrition and the immune response of Yangtze sturgeon is remains unclear. To explore this relationship, the immune response was determined by the activities of serum immune-related enzymes and the transcriptome pattern in the spleen after feeding different fat source diets for 7 weeks. In addition, the gene expression pattern after a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge was investigated in the presence of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Long-term feeding of the fish oil diets increased the serum immune-related enzyme activities, including lysozyme, acid phosphatase, and alkaline phosphatase of Yangtze sturgeon. More than 653,999 transcripts with an N50 length of 1047 bp were obtained and a final set of 280,408 unigenes was generated. After annotating the unigenes, 3549 genes were assigned to the immune system and 2839 were identified to participate in the response to the different fat sources. A transcriptome assay showed the fish oil diets moderately upregulated immune-related signaling pathways in the spleen of Yangtze sturgeon, including NLR signaling, platelet activation, Fc gamma R-mediated phagocytosis, Th17 cell differentiation, and Th1 and Th2 cell differentiation. The quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) results of candidate genes for these pathways showed similar results. The LPS challenge study revealed that DHA and EPA moderately upregulated the candidate immune-related genes and modulated excessive activation of the immune pathway by the pathogen. This study confirmed the immunomodulatory function of unsaturated fatty acids in Yangtze sturgeon. This research will provide a reference for the preparation of artificial diets for Yangtze sturgeon.


Assuntos
Gorduras Insaturadas na Dieta/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/metabolismo , Óleos de Peixe/metabolismo , Peixes/imunologia , Imunidade Inata , Animais , Gorduras Insaturadas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/administração & dosagem , Óleos de Peixe/administração & dosagem , Peixes/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/veterinária , Técnicas Imunoenzimáticas/veterinária , Distribuição Aleatória , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/veterinária
18.
Vet Immunol Immunopathol ; 218: 109937, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31522084

RESUMO

Maternal stress, such as a bacterial infection occurring in late gestation, may predispose offspring to a variety of diseases later in life. It may also alter programming of developing systems within the fetus, such as the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and immune system. Dietary supplementation during the last trimester of pregnancy with immune-modulating compounds may be a means of reducing potential adverse effects of maternal stress on the developing fetus. Essential omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) such as docosahexanoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentanoic acid are well-known for their immune-modulating and anti-inflammatory properties. Sources of these n-3 PUFA include fish products such as fish oil and microalgae, which may be a suitable alternative to fish-based products. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of supplementing gestating sow diets with n-3 PUFA and inducing an immune stress challenge in late gestation on piglet growth and immune responsiveness when placed on either a high- or low-quality protein diet after weaning. Forty-eight sows were fed gestation diets containing either 3.12% microalgae, 3.1% fish oil or a corn oil control diet containing 1.89% corn oil starting on gestation day (gd) 75. On gd112, half the sows in each treatment were immune stress challenged with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) endotoxin (10 µg/kg administered i.m). After farrowing, piglet BW gain was monitored weekly during lactation and pigs were weaned at 21 days of age. One week after weaning, four piglets per sow were immune stress challenged with LPS (40 µg/kg administered i.m.). At the same time, four piglets per sow were vaccinated with the novel antigens chicken ovalbumin (OVA) and Candida cellular antigen (CAA) and received booster vaccinations two weeks later. Four weeks after the initial vaccination, a transdermal hypersensitivity immune challenge was performed using the same antigens. Blood samples were also collected to quantify IgG antibody responses to both antigens. PUFA enrichment in sow blood and piglet brain was detected after sows were on feed for 40 days. Piglet growth was increased in pigs fed a high-quality diet in nursery phase 1. Concentrations of the cytokines IL-1ra, IL-6 and IL-10 were elevated in pigs fed a high-quality protein diet following LPS immune challenge. Overall, it appears that in the current study piglet nursery diet quality was more important for determining piglet health and growth than maternal diet and immune stress.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Dieta/veterinária , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Microalgas , Sus scrofa/imunologia , Fatores Etários , Animais , Proteínas na Dieta/análise , Feminino , Óleos de Peixe/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Leite/química , Gravidez , Desmame
19.
J Anim Sci ; 97(11): 4608-4618, 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31513711

RESUMO

In this study, the effects of maternal energy sources during late gestation and lactation on the performance, glucolipid metabolism, and oxidative status of sows and their offspring were investigated using a total of 75 (2 to 6 of parity) Landrace × Large White sows at day 85 of gestation under 3 different dietary treatments: SO diet (basal diet plus 3.0% and 5.0% soybean oil during late gestation and lactation, respectively), FO diet (basal diet plus 3.0%/5.0% fish oil during late gestation and lactation, respectively), and CS diet (basal diet plus 32%/42% corn starch during late gestation and lactation, respectively). All the 3 groups showed no obvious differences (P > 0.05) in the number of total piglets born, born alive, after cross-fostering, and at weaning, whereas the CS group exhibited a shorter farrowing duration (P < 0.05) and lower stillbirth rate (P < 0.05) when compared with the SO group. In addition, litter weight at birth was significantly higher in the CS group than in the SO or FO group (P < 0.05). Despite no notable differences in the ADG of suckling piglets among dietary treatments (P > 0.05), the CS group had greater feed intake than the SO group during the lactation period (P < 0.05). In neonatal piglets with normal birth weight (NBW, 1.3 to 1.5 kg), the CS group was lower than the SO group in the content of liver glycogen (P < 0.05) and the mRNA abundances of fatty acid synthase, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, fatty acid-binding protein 1, and acyl-CoA oxidase (P < 0.05). Interestingly, compared with the SO group, the FO group had a lower preweaning mortality rate (P < 0.05), but greater liver glycogen pools (P < 0.05) in neonatal piglets with low birth weight (LBW, <1.1 kg). Compared with the CS group, the FO group showed an increase in the plasma malondialdehyde levels (P < 0.05) of sows, as well as an increase of 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine (P < 0.05) and a decrease of ferric reducing ability of plasma (P < 0.05) in NBW piglets. Overall, the diet rich in starch decreased the stillbirth rate and increased the litter weight of neonatal piglets, the dietary supplementation with fish oil decreased preweaning mortality rate, and the diet with a low n6:n3 ratio increased the oxidative status of sows and their offspring.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Ingestão de Energia , Óleos de Peixe/administração & dosagem , Óleo de Soja/administração & dosagem , Suínos/fisiologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Animais Lactentes , Dieta/veterinária , Feminino , Lactação , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Oxirredução , Estresse Oxidativo , Paridade , Gravidez
20.
Indian Pediatr ; 56(10): 841-844, 2019 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31441437

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of two different intravenous lipid emulsions on soluble adhesion markers in preterm infants with sepsis. METHODS: This randomized controlled pilot trial was conducted from February 2016 to February 2017. 40 preterm infants with sepsis were enrolled and assigned to receive either Medium chain triglyceride-Olive-Fish-Soy lipid emulsion (MOFS-LE) or soybean oil-based lipid emulsion (S-LE). Outcomes of the study were changes in sICAM-1 and leukocyte integrin b2 levels, and growth after 7 days of intervention. RESULTS: Leukocyte integrin b2 was significantly higher in MOFS-LE group. No statistically significant differences were observed for sICAM-1, duration of mechanical ventilation and antibiotics treatment, and mortality rate. CONCLUSIONS: Leukocyte integrin b2 was significantly higher in preterm septic neonates who received MOFS-LE.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Emulsões Gordurosas Intravenosas/administração & dosagem , Óleos de Peixe/administração & dosagem , Sepse/terapia , Óleo de Soja/administração & dosagem , Biomarcadores/sangue , Método Duplo-Cego , Egito , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal , Molécula 1 de Adesão Intercelular/sangue , Interferon-alfa/sangue , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Sepse/diagnóstico , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Resultado do Tratamento
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