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1.
J Environ Manage ; 261: 109911, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32148250

RESUMO

The leaking of harmful organic liquids into water resources has had hazardous impacts on living organisms. Herein, we demonstrated the fabrication of hybrid sorbents using s-PPG and organosilane cross-linker. The final product exhibited high, quick absorption capacity, great reusability and excellent oil separation performance from wastewater. They also selectively absorb different oils from the bottom and surface of water without any capacity change, even in harsh conditions like wavy and sub-zero water environment. Experimental results demonstrated that the obtained sorbents are efficient to successfully remove oil from water surface, even at harsh conditions, and float on the water surface before and after oil sorption without any capacity loss and structural change. Simple preparation by avoiding time consuming multistep process, initiator, solvent, activator free reaction medium, high and selective sorption characteristics and great reusability could make these sorbents a promising candidate for the cleaning of water from harmful organic liquids, by absorbing them.


Assuntos
Poluição por Petróleo , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Adsorção , Óleos , Águas Residuárias
2.
J Environ Manage ; 261: 110112, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32001431

RESUMO

The current energy demand and diminishing conventional fuels have forced researchers to find an alternative source of energy. Waste to energy is the current trend for converting waste materials (plastic waste) into valuable fuels. This article mainly discussed the detailed characterization of the pyrolytic products, their comparative analysis and the reaction mechanism at varying operating temperature. This article is a successor of part 1, which primarily focused on the characterization of different waste plastics, their TG analysis, the effect of reactor temperature on yield analysis in a batch reactor and their detailed degradation mechanism. Furthermore, the results presented in this article report the characterization of products at three processing temperatures of 450, 500 and 550 °C. The pyrolytic oils from all wastes excluding PS show a very low density ranging from 0.71 to 0.76 kg/m3, whereas PS pyrolytic density is reported between 0.86 and 0.88 kg/m3. The viscosity of oils increases with an increase in the processing temperature and is similar to the conventional fuels. The FTIR analysis of the products (oil & gases) obtained from HDPE, PP and mixed plastic waste (MIX) shows a large presence of alkanes and a higher presence of aromatics. PS analysis reported a large presence of aromatics (~75%). The GC-MS analysis of all pyrolytic oils from waste plastics, simulated wastes (virgin plastics) and distilled fraction of MIX pyrolysis oil is compared. The GC analysis of non-condensable gases at all processing temperature reports that MIX produce the maximum H2; HDPE, PS and MIX produces a high amounts of CH4 too. The formation of lower hydrocarbons (C5-C12) in pyrolysis oil shows a trend as MIX > PP > PS > HDPE, while for the heavier hydrocarbons (>C19) it is HDPE > PP > PS > MIX. The potential of the utilization of these products has been discussed in different sectors for future research.


Assuntos
Plásticos , Resíduos , Hidrocarbonetos , Óleos , Temperatura Ambiente
3.
Waste Manag ; 105: 18-26, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32014796

RESUMO

The co-feeding of scrap tires pyrolysis oil (STPO) on the catalytic cracking of vacuum gasoil (VGO) has been investigated with the aim of exploring the capacity of the refinery fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) unit to upgrade discarded tires at large-scale. The runs have been carried out in a CREC (Chemical Reactor Engineering Centre) riser simulator reactor that mimics the behavior of the industrial unit at the following conditions: 500-560 °C; catalyst/oil ratio, 3-7 gcat goil-1; contact time, 6 s. Obtained results with the blend of 20 wt% STPO in VGO have been compared with those obtained in the cracking of the pure streams, i.e., STPO and VGO, to get a proper idea of the synergetic effects that could be involved in the co-feeding. This way, when the STPO is co-fed with the VGO the production of naphtha (C5-C12) and light cycle oil (C13-C20) lumps are maximized, as the over-cracking reactions that convert them into gaseous products (C1-C4) are mitigated. Consequently, the co-feeding promotes the production of high-interest hydrocarbons for refineries. Additionally, the naphtha obtained in the cracking of the blend shows a lower content of paraffins and naphthenes than that obtained with the VGO, and higher of olefins and aromatics.


Assuntos
Pirólise , Rios , Catálise , Óleos , Vácuo
4.
Water Res ; 174: 115600, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32088385

RESUMO

A hierarchically assembled superomniphobic membrane with three levels of reentrant structure was designed and fabricated to enable effective treatment of low surface tension, hypersaline oily wastewaters using direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD). The overall structure is a combination of macro corrugations obtained by surface imprinting, with the micro spherulites morphology achieved through the applied phase inversion method and nano patterns obtained by fluorinated Silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) coating. This resulted in a superomniphobic membrane surface with remarkable anti-wetting properties repelling both high surface tension water and low surface tension oils. Measurements of contact angle (CA) with DI water, an anionic surfactant, oil, and ethanol demonstrated a robust wetting resistance against low surface tension liquids showing both superhydrophobicity and superoleophobicity. CA values of 160.8 ± 2.3° and 154.3 ± 1.9° for water and oil were obtained, respectively. Calculations revealed a high liquid-vapor interface for the fabricated membrane with more than 89% of the water droplet contact area being with air pockets entrapped between adjacent SiNPs and only 11% come into contact with the solid membrane surface. Moreover, the high liquid-vapor interface imparts the membrane with high liquid repellency, self-cleaning and slippery effects, characterized by a minimum droplet-membrane interaction and complete water droplet bouncing on the surface within only 18 ms. When tested in DCMD with synthetic hypersaline oily wastewaters, the fabricated superomniphobic membrane demonstrated stable, non-wetting MD operation over 24 h, even at high concentrations of low surface tension 1.0 mM Sodium dodecyl sulfate and 400 ppm oil, potentially offering a sustainable option for treatment of low surface tension oily industrial wastewater.


Assuntos
Destilação , Purificação da Água , Membranas Artificiais , Óleos , Tensão Superficial , Águas Residuárias
5.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(5): 1457-1467, 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31931568

RESUMO

Antarctic krill oil (AKO) is susceptible to oxidation due to the high unsaturation degree of bioactive substances. Herein, a lipidomics method for in situ monitoring of the dynamic oxidation characteristics in AKO was explored based on electric soldering iron ion source (ESII) coupling with rapid evaporative ionization mass spectrometry (REIMS). The lipidomics profiles of AKO at different storage periods were successfully acquired. On the basis of principal component analysis and orthogonal partial least-squares analysis, the obtained REIMS data were employed to build a multivariate recognition model. The ions of m/z 707.50, 721.50, 833.49, and 837.54 contributed the most significant effect on the multivariate data model for the authentication of different AKO samples. Besides, the variation of viscosity, astaxanthin, and volatile compounds were also evaluated to corroborate the oxidation characteristics. The results indicated that the ESII-REIMS technology could be applied as an advanced rapid detection method to secure oil and fat quality during storage.


Assuntos
Euphausiacea/química , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Óleos/química , Animais , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Oxirredução , Controle de Qualidade
6.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 95(1): 200, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31902417

Assuntos
Canabidiol , Cannabis , Ouro , Óleos
8.
Food Chem ; 312: 126041, 2020 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31901829

RESUMO

Effect of fried food, oil type, moisture, fatty acid and molecular distribution on the effectiveness of rapid test of Total Polar Compounds (TPC) in frying oil based on dielectric constant was explored. Effects of all factors were compared and found to be significant (P < 0.05). Throughout the life cycle of frying oil, its rapid results were correlated well with those of conventional chromatography (Y = 0.7625X + 3.681, R2 = 0.8734). But the discrepancy was found within selected TPC ranges of 0%-10% and 20%-30%. According to the definition of TPC, three potential reasons for the high TPC values of fresh oils were discussed. For the deteriorated oils, the triglyceride dimers, mono-unsaturated and di-unsaturated fatty acids were found to be the main compositional factors by stepwise multivariate regression analysis. Pieces of advice about the operation guideline, internal control indices, calibration, reference oil, sensor, and detection range were proposed for instrument users and producers.


Assuntos
Óleos/química , Culinária , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Alimentos , Restaurantes , Fatores de Tempo , Triglicerídeos/análise
9.
Environ Sci Technol ; 54(4): 2054-2067, 2020 02 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31904944

RESUMO

It is a general understanding that unconventional oil is petroleum-extracted and processed into petroleum products using unconventional means. The recent growth in the United States shale oil production and the lack of refineries in Canada built for heavy crude processes have resulted in a significant increase in U.S imports of unconventional oil since 2018. This has increased the risk of incidents and catastrophic emergencies during the transportation of unconventional oils using transmission pipelines and train rails. A great deal of effort has been made to address the remediation of contaminated soil/sediment following the traditional oil spills. However, spill response and cleanup techniques (e.g., oil recuperation, soil-sediment-water treatments) showed slow and inefficient performance when it came to unconventional oil, bringing larger associated environmental impacts in need of investigation. To the best of our knowledge, there is no coherent review available on the biodegradability of unconventional oil, including Dilbit and Bakken oil. Hence, in view of the insufficient information and contrasting results obtained on the remediation of petroleum, this review is an attempt to fill the gap by presenting the collective understanding and critical analysis of the literature on bioremediation of products from the oil sand and shale (e.g., Dilbit and Bakken oil). This can help evaluate the different aspects of hydrocarbon biodegradation and identify the knowledge gaps in the literature.


Assuntos
Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental , Poluição por Petróleo , Petróleo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Canadá , Ecossistema , Óleos
10.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(4): 1470-1478, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31756278

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The egg yolk is complex, which makes it difficult to understand why mayonnaise can be stabilized into a high internal-phase emulsion. This study aimed to assess the possibility of developing oil-in-water emulsions through unmodified natural egg-yolk granules (EYGs) at various pH levels, to further understand the precise mechanism of mayonnaise. RESULTS: Egg-yolk granules were obtained from hen egg yolk by centrifugation. The sizes of the EYGs were characterized using dynamic light scattering (DLS). Zeta potential of EYGs was detected by DLS and its microstructure was observed by microscope and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Oil / water emulsions were made with EYGs and the size distribution and creaming index of those emulsions were measured at different storage times (1 h and 14 days). The interfacial morphology of EYGs was observed using the emulsion polymerization method. Our results suggested that the prepared EYGs were mainly in an aggregated state but individual EYGs displayed spherical shapes, with a size of 1.0 ± 0.2 µm. The emulsion stabilized by EYGs displayed better stability against creaming at acidic pH (<4.0). At the same time, the interfacial morphology and microscopic observation of the emulsions strongly demonstrated that the emulsions were of the Pickering type. CONCLUSION: The above results are of great importance for an understanding of the mechanism by which mayonnaise is stabilized by egg, together with the applications of egg in food formulations. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Gema de Ovo/química , Emulsões/química , Animais , Galinhas , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Óleos/química , Tamanho da Partícula
11.
Sci Total Environ ; 706: 135807, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31862593

RESUMO

The traditional fluorinated porous material with super-hydrophobicity and super-oleophilicity is an effective strategy for oil-water separation. However, in recent years, fluorinated materials have been classified as "Emerging Environmental Pollutants" by U. S. Environmental Protection Agency because of difficult degradation and bio-accumulation. It is unacceptable to introduce new pollutants while solving environmental disasters. Therefore, it is great requirement to explore a low-cost, environmentally friendly, and renewable technique for the fabrication of novel porous materials with super-hydrophobicity and super-oleophilicity to separate oil-water mixtures. In this work, renewable beeswax, lignin, and cotton have been chosen to prepare the biomass-based porous materials with super-hydrophobicity and super-oleophilicity for oil-water separation. The mixture of beeswax and lignin is modified on the surface of cotton to obtain the biomass-based porous materials with super-hydrophobicity and super-oleophilicity. The beeswax and lignin provide low surface energy and micro/nanoscale structures, respectively. The introduction of lignin effectively improves the thermal stability of the porous materials. The apparent contact angle still remains to be above 150° after a long-time heating. The porous materials effectively separate oil-water mixtures and have good absorption effect for heavy oil (density greater than water). Moreover, the porous materials are easily recyclable after reactivation. This strategy of preparing oil-water separation materials from renewable natural polymers not only helps to clean the environment, but also helps to recover valuable oil.


Assuntos
Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Fibra de Algodão , Lignina , Óleos , Porosidade , Ceras
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 709: 136174, 2020 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31884285

RESUMO

Petroleum products including crude oils and refined distillates are unique environmental pollutants consisting of thousands of compounds with varying physical-chemical properties and resulting toxicity for aquatic biota. Hence, for a reliable risk assessment individual petroleum product toxicity profiles are needed. Furthermore, the influence of oil spill response strategies like the application of chemical dispersants has to be implemented. The present study addressed the toxicity of water-accommodated fractions (WAFs) of two different oil types on fish early life stages on different biological organization levels in the laboratory model species Danio rerio. Experiments with a 3rd generation dispersant used in loading rated resembling the exposure in experiments with chemically dispersed oils were included, enabling a direct comparability of results. This approach is of high importance as especially the investigation of dispersant toxicity in relevant exposure concentrations is rather scarce. Zebrafish embryos were exposed to different WAFs shortly after and up to 120 hour post fertilization (hpf). Besides phenotypic effects including edema and spine deformations, reduced responses to dark stimuli, increased CYP1A activity and marginal AChE inhibition were observed in sublethal effect concentrations. Both oil types had varying strength of toxicity, which did not correlate with corresponding chemical analysis of target PAHs. Chemically dispersed oils induced stronger acute toxicity in zebrafish embryos compared to native (initial) oil exposure, which was further reflected by very low exposure concentrations for biomarker endpoints. Based on a comparison to the dispersant alone, a higher toxicity of dispersed oils was related to a combination of dispersant toxicity and an elevated crude oil compound bioavailability, due to dispersion-related partitioning kinetics. In contrast to LEWAF and CEWAF neither typical morphological effects nor mechanism-specific toxicity were observed for the dispersant alone, indicating narcosis as the responsible cause of effects.


Assuntos
Poluição por Petróleo , Petróleo , Animais , Biomarcadores , Fósseis , Óleos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Peixe-Zebra
13.
Food Chem ; 302: 125349, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442700

RESUMO

Knowledge about the critical interfacial concentration of a protein supports our understanding of the kinetic stability of an emulsion. Its determination is currently limited to either invasive or indirect methods. The aim of our study was the determination of the critical interfacial concentration of whey protein ß-lactoglobulin at oil/water-interfaces through fluorescence and pendant drop analysis and the comparison to an in situ Fourier-transform-infrared-spectroscopy (FTIR) method. Exponentially decreasing interfacial tension with increasing ß-lactoglobulin content (0.10-1.00 wt%) in pendant drop analysis could partly be confirmed by fluorescence spectra. A critical interfacial concentration of 0.20-0.31 wt% ß-lactoglobulin (1.80-2.69 mg/m2) in oil/water (5/95)-emulsions was determined via FTIR, analyzing the Amide I/Amide II peak intensity ratio. This was confirmed by the increasing formation of intermolecular ß-sheets, revealed by second derivative spectra. With this FTIR method we expand current options to investigate the interfacial behavior of food proteins by determination of secondary structure elements.


Assuntos
Lactoglobulinas/química , Óleos/química , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier/métodos , Emulsões/química , Cinética , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Dodecilsulfato de Sódio/química , Tensão Superficial , Água/química
14.
Prep Biochem Biotechnol ; 50(2): 172-180, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31846387

RESUMO

The ß-amylase was encapsulated in emulsion liquid membrane (ELM), which acted as a reactor for conversion of starch to maltose. The membrane phase was consisted of surfactant (span 80), stabilizer (polystyrene), carrier for maltose transport (methyl cholate) and solvent (xylene). The substrate starch in feed phase entered into the internal phase by the process of diffusion and hydrolyzed to maltose by encapsulated ß-amylase. Methyl cholate present in the membrane acts as a carrier for the product maltose, which helps in transport of maltose to feed phase from internal aqueous phase. The residual activity of ß-amylase after the five-reaction cycle was found to decrease to ∼70%, which indicated possibility to recycle the components of the emulsion and enzyme. The pH and temperature of the encapsulated enzyme were found to be optimum at 5.5 and 60 °C, respectively. The novelty of the present work lies in the development of Enzyme Emulsion Liquid Membranes (EELM) bioreactor for the hydrolysis of starch into maltose mediated by encapsulated ß-amylase. The attempt has been made for the first time for the successful encapsulation of ß-amylase into EELM. The best results gave the highest residual enzyme activity (94.1%) and maltose production (29.13 mg/mL).


Assuntos
Reatores Biológicos , Maltose/metabolismo , Amido/metabolismo , beta-Amilase/metabolismo , Óleos/química , Água/química
15.
Food Chem ; 303: 125401, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31466031

RESUMO

Salt addition and thermal pretreatment were used to improve the freeze-thaw stability of Pickering emulsion gels (PEGs) stabilized by compound proteins. Thermal pretreatment with the presence of salt could promote the formation of gel-like structure and alter the interactions between the emulsion droplets of PEGs, sequentially increase the resistance of the PEGs to water separation, creaming, and oiling-off during freeze-thaw cycles (freeze at -20 °C for 22 h and thawing at 37 °C for 2 h), especially at higher salt levels (200 and 500 mM). Microstructures indicated that the presence of high salt concentration and heat pretreatment could help to maintain the gel-like structures of PEGs during freeze-thaw cycles. Overall, our results showed that novel viscoelastic food materials with good freeze-thaw stability can be produced by controlling the electrostatic interactions between the emulsion droplets and the gelation of emulsion gels. These materials may be useful for application in frozen food products.


Assuntos
Fixadores/química , Géis/química , Emulsões/química , Congelamento , Temperatura Alta , Óleos/química , Concentração Osmolar , Cloreto de Sódio/análise , Água/química
16.
Phytochem Anal ; 31(1): 37-45, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31313408

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The consumption of health-promoting products such as oil seeds may improve human health and prevent certain diseases. Carvi seeds have the potential to produce oil with nutritional and functional properties rich in active compounds. OBJECTIVE: To extract bioactive lipids from Carum carvi seeds using green methodologies. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Supercritical-carbon dioxide (Sc-CO2 ) and ethanol as co-solvent and bio-based solvent 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (MeTHF) were used to extract the oil from Carum carvi. The yield, the chemical composition, as well as antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of green extracted oils were investigated and compared to those obtained with conventional methods (hexane and Folch system). RESULTS: MeTHF extraction gave higher oil yield than that obtained by hexane. Fatty acids composition of the two obtained green extracted oils was similar to conventional extracted ones where petroselinic (39-43%), linoleic (29-31%) and oleic (19-21%) acids were the major compounds. Furthermore, MeTHF and Sc-CO2 green extracted oils were enriched of bioactive compounds including sterols (5.4 and 7.3 mg/g oil) and total polyphenols (9.3 and 7.6 mg GAE/g oil) which were correlated to enhanced antiradical capacity. Moreover, the green extracted oils exhibited high anti-inflammatory capacity inhibiting nitric oxide (NO) release in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages with IC50 values of 28 and 24 µg/mL. CONCLUSION: Green solvents are a good alternative to petroleum solvents to recover oil from carvi seeds with high amount of nutritionally important fatty acids, along with significant antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential.


Assuntos
Carum , Cromatografia com Fluido Supercrítico , Anti-Inflamatórios , Antioxidantes , Dióxido de Carbono , Humanos , Óleos , Óleos Vegetais , Sementes , Solventes
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 698: 134238, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31505360

RESUMO

Different biomass materials (walnut shell, coconut shell or cottonwood sawdust) were co-pyrolyzed with carbon-enriched oily sludge to produce aqueous phase sulfamethoxazole (SMZ) adsorption materials. The co-pyrolysis char was activated with K2CO3 to modify its micro-structure and functional groups. Results show that ACs prepared from the mixture contained more mesopores than biomass-based ACs, more porous and higher yield than oily sludge-based ACs. One-step activation method was more attractive than two-step activation in larger specific surface area (up to almost 4 times), wider pore size distribution (2-3 nm), stronger SMZ adsorption ability (higher than 2 times). The maximum BET surface area was 1342 m2/g for the ACs prepared from the mixture of walnut shell and oily sludge by one-step activation and it had the maximum SMZ adsorption capacity up to 361.9 mg/g, which is higher than previous reported values. The capacity of SMZ adsorption of ACs was mainly attributed to pore size distribution, specific surface area and functional groups. Among them, the appropriate content of CO and CO functional groups, larger specific area and more pores range from 2 to 3 nm lead to higher adsorption capacity.


Assuntos
Modelos Químicos , Sulfametoxazol/química , Adsorção , Biomassa , Carbono/química , Carvão Vegetal/química , Cinética , Óleos , Porosidade , Pirólise
18.
Chemosphere ; 239: 124793, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31726530

RESUMO

Developing an efficient and environmentally friendly strategy for oil-water separation is extremely important for practical application. In this study, a superhydrophobic and superoleophilic melamine sponge loaded with cross-linked and swellable polydivinylbenzene was successfully fabricated by a facile and effective one-step impregnation-curing method with adhesion of polydimethylsiloxane. The prepared sponge not only exhibited high oil absorption capacity, but it also enabled rapid oil collection in situ, which could be extended to practical application. Moreover, the modified superhydrophobic sponge showed excellent mechanical resistance and chemical stability. The surface morphology and chemical composition were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. This material has great development potential for large-scale oil spill clean-up and chemical spill accidents.


Assuntos
Dimetilpolisiloxanos/química , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental/métodos , Óleos/química , Poluição por Petróleo/análise , Polivinil/química , Triazinas/química , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Nanoporos , Espectroscopia Fotoeletrônica , Polímeros/química , Água/química
19.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 247: 112256, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586690

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The mushroom Ganoderma lucidum (G. lucidum) is a traditional Chinese medicine reported to have a variety of pharmacological properties, including anti-cancer activity. G. lucidum spore oil (GLSO) is a lipid substance extracted from sporoderm-broken spore of G. lucidum. However, the effect of GLSO on breast cancer and the underlying molecular mechanism remain unclear. AIM OF THE STUDY: The aim of this study was to identify the effects of GLSO on breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo as well as to investigate the mechanistic basis for the anticancer effect of GLSO. MATERIALS AND METHODS: First, in vitro MDA-MB-231 cells were treated with GLSO (0.2, 0.4, and 0.6 µL/mL). The protein levels of B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2), Bcl-2-associated X (Bax), X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP), total poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), caspase-3 and caspase-8 were examined using western blotting. The mRNA expression levels of Fas-associated protein with death domain (FADD), TNF receptor-associated factor 2 (TRAF2), caspases-3, -8, -9 and Bax were examined using qRT-PCR. Second, in vivo the anticancer properties of GLSO were assessed by H&E, TUNEL and immunohistochemistry in BALB/c mice injected with 4T1 cells. In addition, the levels of caspase-9/caspase-3 signaling pathway proteins in tumor tissue were evaluated by immunoblotting. Finally, MDA-MB-231 cells were treated with caspase inhibitors to measure cell viability, the protein levels were examined with western blotting. RESULTS: The results in vitro showed that GLSO up-regulated the expression of Bax and caspase-3 in MDA-MB-231 cells, but had no effect on the expression of caspase-8. Moreover, the growth of tumors in vivo was significantly suppressed in the GLSO-treated group. The results of Western blot were consistent with in vitro. In vitro, co-treatment of MDA-MB-231 cells with caspase inhibitors reduced the inhibitory effect of GLSO on cell growth. CONCLUSIONS: GLSO inhibits the growth of MDA-MB-231 cells and tumors in vivo by inducing apoptosis, which may be achieved through the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa/métodos , Óleos/farmacologia , Reishi/química , Animais , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Caspase 9/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral/transplante , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Camundongos , Óleos/uso terapêutico , Esporos Fúngicos/química
20.
Food Chem ; 309: 125681, 2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31670120

RESUMO

The oil-absorption behavior of native maize starch (NMS) during frying was investigated in the presence or absence of pullulan (PUL) using a LF-NMR method. The morphology, long-range order, short-range order, and thermal properties of fried NMS-PUL mixtures were further evaluated using SEM, XRD, ATR-FTIR, and DSC, respectively. Pullulan addition significantly reduced the oil content of the fried starch samples: 0.395, 0.310, 0.274, and 0.257 g/g in NMS with addition of 0, 1, 3, and 5% PUL, respectively (p < 0.05). SEM analysis showed that the intact granular morphology of the starch granules was preserved upon addition of pullulan. The XRD, FTIR, and DSC results showed that pullulan protected both the short-range double helices and long-range crystalline structure of the granules during frying. As a result, fried NMS-PUL mixtures were denser than fried NMS, thus inhibiting oil absorption during frying. These results may have important implications for creating healthier reduced-fat fried food products.


Assuntos
Manipulação de Alimentos , Glucanos , Óleos/química , Amido/química , Zea mays/química , Temperatura Alta , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética
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