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1.
Wiad Lek ; 73(4): 818-822, 2020.
Artigo em Polonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32731724

RESUMO

The orbital pseudo-tumor is an orbital inflammatory disease of unknown origin that can affect all the anatomical structures that make up the orbit. The diagnosis is based on the assessment of clinical symptoms, imaging tests and the exclusion of other possible causes. Glucocorticosteroids are used for treatment, but other immunosuppressants as well as biological treatments can be used. The aim of the study is to present, based on the literature review, the current state of knowledge about pathogenesis, symptoms, differential diagnosis, and treatment of the orbital pseudotumor.


Assuntos
Pseudotumor Orbitário , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Humanos , Imunossupressores , Órbita , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(29): e21277, 2020 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32702918

RESUMO

To report the clinical characteristics and retinal abnormalities associated with orbital infarction syndrome after cerebral aneurysm clipping surgery.In this retrospective case series, we evaluated 4 cases of orbital infarction syndrome using fluorescein angiography, optical coherence tomography, and computed tomography images from January 2011 to May 2014. The medical records of these patients including age, sex, laterality of the eyes, visual acuity, intraocular pressure, duration of the operation, location of the aneurysms, and surgical method with the type of approach used to reach the aneurysmal lesions were evaluated.Aneurysms were located in either the anterior or the posterior communicating artery. Two patients had subarachnoid hemorrhage arising from a ruptured aneurysm, whereas 2 other patients had unruptured aneurysms. Clipping was performed by 3 different surgeons using the pterional craniotomy. The mean time interval from aneurysmal clipping to awareness of vision loss was 10.75 ±â€Š13.8 days. In all patients, optic atrophy and irreversible deterioration of visual acuity ensued. Retinal edema, retinal vascular abnormality, or choroidal hypoperfusion was identified in these patients.Orbital infarction syndrome is a rare but devastating complication of brain aneurysm clipping surgery. The associated retinal ischemia is not only due to the involvement of the retinal vessels, but also the choroidal circulation.


Assuntos
Infarto/etiologia , Aneurisma Intracraniano/cirurgia , Órbita/irrigação sanguínea , Feminino , Angiofluoresceinografia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Síndrome , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Transtornos da Visão/etiologia
4.
Middle East Afr J Ophthalmol ; 27(1): 22-27, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32549720

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The present study aimed to compare lower eyelid retraction (LER) in individuals with a positive orbital vector with that of individuals with a negative orbital vector. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 123 normal individuals including 64 men and 59 women aged 20-80 years. After the individuals underwent Hertel exophthalmometry, two side-view and front-view photos were taken using a camera. The orbital vector angle and the extent of scleral show were then measured in millimeter, using the Photoshop software. Eventually, the recorded data were analyzed through statistical software. RESULTS: The findings of this study showed that LER has a significant correlation with orbital vector angle and the extent of proptosis (P < 0.05). The mean value of orbital vector angle in individuals without LER was 9.76°, while this figure was calculated to be - 13.65° in individuals with LER. The mean protrusion value based on Hertel exophthalmometry was 14.08 mm in individuals without LER and 16.27 mm in individuals with LER. The extent of scleral show had a significant correlation with proptosis and orbital vector angle (P = 0.01), with a mean value of - 0.41 mm in individuals without LER and 0.94 mm in participants with LER. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of LER and scleral show is positively correlated with the extent of proptosis and negatively correlated with orbital vector angle.


Assuntos
Exoftalmia/diagnóstico , Doenças Palpebrais/diagnóstico , Órbita/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biometria , Estudos Transversais , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Oftalmológico/instrumentação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
5.
Nature ; 582(7811): 186-187, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32528088
6.
Vestn Oftalmol ; 136(2): 13-19, 2020.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32366064

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Recently, hyaluronic acid gel (HAG) fillers were proposed as an effective alternative treatment option for surgical orbital volume augmentation. Several authors reported about long-standing effect of the filler. PURPOSE: To assess the features of HAG biodegradation after intraorbital injection in experimental environment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In the course of the experiment, 7 chinchilla rabbits (14 eyes) received a single 1ml intraorbital HAG injection (Restylane SubQ, Galderma, Sweden) using a cannula. The animals' orbits were examined by ultrasound scan after the injection and at 1, 3, 6, 9, 12 and 18 months. The animals were subsequently sacrificed for morphological study of orbital tissue containing the HAG filler. RESULTS: The HAG filler persisted in the orbit of experimental animals during the whole follow-up period. The volume of HAG depot and its density diminished gradually till the 18th month, after which the particles of HAG could still be detected with the morphological study and ultrasound. CONCLUSION: The HAG filler persisted in the orbit of experimental animals up to 18 months. Incomplete biodegradation explains the longstanding duration of the injection effect.


Assuntos
Órbita , Animais , Olho , Géis , Ácido Hialurônico , Injeções , Coelhos
7.
Orv Hetil ; 161(21): 889-894, 2020 05.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32427574

RESUMO

The surgical procedure of orbital foreign bodies with its complications is not yet solved in Hungary. Despite the fact that many specialities are involved, until the present day, an orbital surgical centre was not developed. The main goal of this case report is to highlight the importance of these events, to develop a surgical approach, to recognize and solve the complications if they are present even in the cases of organic foreign bodies affecting more head and neck anatomical regions and structures. Orv Hetil. 2020; 161(21): 889-894.


Assuntos
Corpos Estranhos no Olho/cirurgia , Órbita/lesões , Emergências , Corpos Estranhos no Olho/diagnóstico , Humanos , Hungria , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Órbita/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Indian J Dent Res ; 31(2): 312-314, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32436914

RESUMO

Identification and management of ectopic supplemental tooth in anatomically complex areas such as the floor of orbit are challenging. This arises from the rarity and lack of consensus over management. The situation gets complex when there is an evidence of follicular pathology such as dentigerous cyst. In this report, a case of maxillary third molar associated with maxillary sinus and a distomolar in association with the floor of orbit medially to the inferior-orbital canal is presented. The surgical management of the condition is presented.


Assuntos
Cisto Dentígero , Dente Impactado , Humanos , Seio Maxilar , Dente Serotino , Órbita
11.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 61(3): 42, 2020 03 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32232342

RESUMO

Purpose: While the association between the gut microbiome and the immune system has been studied in autoimmune disorders, little is known about ocular disease. Previously we reported that IRT5, a mixture of five probiotic strains, could suppress autoimmune dry eye. In this study, we investigated the mechanism by which IRT5 performs its immunomodulatory function in a mouse model of autoimmune dry eye. Methods: NOD.B10.H2b mice were used as an autoimmune dry eye model. Either IRT5 or PBS was gavaged orally for 3 weeks, with or without 5 days of antibiotic pretreatment. The effects on clinical features, extraorbital lacrimal gland and spleen proteins, and fecal microbiota were analyzed. Results: The ocular staining score was lower, and tear secretion was higher, in the IRT5-treated groups than in the PBS-treated groups. After IRT5 treatment, the downregulated lacrimal gland proteins were enriched in the biological processes of defense response and immune system process. The relative abundances of 33 operational taxonomic units were higher, and 53 were lower, in the feces of the IRT5-treated groups than in those of the PBS-treated groups. IRT5 administration without antibiotic pretreatment also showed immunomodulatory functions with increases in the Lactobacillus helveticus group and Lactobacillus hamsteri. Additional proteomic assays revealed a decrease of proteins related to antigen-presenting processes in the CD11b+ and CD11c+ cells of spleen in the IRT5-treated groups. Conclusions: Changes in the gut microbiome after IRT5 treatment improved clinical manifestations in the autoimmune dry eye model via the downregulation of antigen-presenting processes in immune networks.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes/tratamento farmacológico , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Síndromes do Olho Seco/tratamento farmacológico , Fatores Imunológicos/metabolismo , Aparelho Lacrimal/metabolismo , Órbita/metabolismo , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Animais , Doenças Autoimunes/metabolismo , Síndromes do Olho Seco/metabolismo , Fezes/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Transporte de Íons/fisiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Microbiota , Proteômica , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Lágrimas/fisiologia
12.
Chin J Dent Res ; 23(1): 51-55, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32232229

RESUMO

Orbital fracture and orbital floor reconstruction surgery is characterised by limited surgical exposure and high risks. Before the advent of digital technology, the design and implementation of the surgical scheme for orbital floor reconstruction surgery mainly depended on the intuitive understanding of imaging and the clinical experience of surgeons, with strong unpredictability and experience dependence. Surgical navigation systems with real-time positioning and imaging functions, when used in orbital reconstruction surgery, can detect the real-time intraoperative position, avoid risks, and assist in locating the reconstruction position to ensure the accuracy of orbital reconstruction, with the help of a preoperative surgical plan. Many studies have confirmed its effect. Unilateral orbital fracture and orbital floor reconstruction surgery is one of the earliest and most widely used surgical techniques in maxillofacial surgery. Experts from the Society of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Chinese Stomatological Association have fully discussed and formulated this expert consensus on navigation-guided unilateral orbital fracture and orbital floor reconstruction techniques to standardise the clinical surgical procedures and promote its application.


Assuntos
Fraturas Orbitárias , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos , Cirurgia Assistida por Computador , Consenso , Humanos , Órbita
14.
Vestn Oftalmol ; 136(1): 49-55, 2020.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32241969

RESUMO

Enucleation with primary orbital implantation and the use of ocular prosthesis does not exclude the risk of post-enucleation socket syndrome (PESS). Correction of such conditions requires modern visualization methods and software for calculation, modelling and control of the surgery. PURPOSE: To demonstrate the capabilities of modern computer technologies in diagnostics and treatment of patients with worsening post-enucleation enophthalmos. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The retrospective study included 6 patients (4 male and 2 female) aged 29-68 years who exhibited signs of PESS in 2017-2018. To define the orbital condition, patients underwent multispiral computed tomography (MSCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) followed by image analysis with computed exophthalmometry and step-by-step computed exophthalmometry. Results of these examinations helped construct 3D-models of patients' orbits, which were then used to calculate the parameters of the silicone implants. Patient-specific silicone implants were implanted into their orbits during surgery under general anesthesia. RESULTS: Implantation of the patient-specific silicone implant resulted in increase of the volume behind orbital prosthesis and correction of post-enucleation enophthalmos in all patients allowing them to use thinner, more mobile ocular prosthesis, and restore normal eyelid position. The patients also noted better appearance of the eye and personal comfort. CONCLUSION: Modern visualization methods along with computer analysis and modelling, as well as technologies to produce medical products enable creation of the best suitable patient-specific orbital implants. This allows achieving better clinical results and better quality of life for patients with monolateral anophthalmos.


Assuntos
Enoftalmia , Enucleação Ocular , Adulto , Idoso , Enoftalmia/diagnóstico , Enoftalmia/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Órbita , Implantes Orbitários , Qualidade de Vida , Estudos Retrospectivos
15.
Can Vet J ; 61(3): 257-262, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32165748

RESUMO

A 5-year-old spayed female German shepherd dog was referred for diagnostic evaluation and treatment of progressive exophthalmos, conjunctival hyperemia, and protrusion of the third eyelid of the left eye. Computed tomography revealed a retrobulbar mass of the orbit, exhibiting radio attenuation consistent with adipose tissue and well-defined margins. No evidence of metastasis was detected on thoracic radiographs or abdominal ultrasound. Cytological evaluation of ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspirates was inconclusive. A ventral transpalpebral anterior orbitotomy approach facilitated excision of the abnormal retrobulbar tissue. Histopathology revealed mature adipose cells compatible with a lipoma. The patient regained normal appearance and function 3 months after surgery. Key clinical message: While rare, consider a lipoma as a differential diagnosis for a retrobulbar mass. The ventral transpalpebral orbitotomy has been described in only 3 cases in the veterinary literature, and this is the only known report of utilizing this approach for excision of a neoplastic condition.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão , Exoftalmia/veterinária , Lipoma/veterinária , Animais , Cães , Feminino , Órbita , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
16.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 61(3): 39, 2020 03 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32196098

RESUMO

Purpose: Inflammation, hyaluronan production, and adipogenesis are the main pathological events leading to Graves' orbitopathy (GO). Guggulsterone (GS), a phytosterol found in the resin of the guggul plant, is a well-known treatment for several inflammatory disorders, such as arthritis, obesity, and hyperlipidemia. Here we investigated the effects of GS treatment on GO pathology. Methods: Using primary cultures of orbital fibroblasts from GO patients and non-GO controls, we examined the effects of GS on hyaluronan production and the production of proinflammatory cytokines induced by interleukin (IL)-1ß, using real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis, western blots, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Further, adipogenic differentiation was evaluated by quantification of Oil Red O staining and assessment of protein levels of peroxisome proliferator activator gamma (PPARγ), CCAAT-enhancer-binding proteins (C/EBP) α and ß, and sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 (SREBP-1). Results: Treatment with noncytotoxic concentrations of GS resulted in the dose-dependent inhibition of IL-1ß-induced inflammatory cytokines, including IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1, and COX-2, at both mRNA and protein levels. The hyaluronan level was also significantly suppressed by GS. Moreover, GS significantly decreased the formation of lipid droplets and expression of PPARγ, C/EBP α/ß, and SREBP-1 in a dose-dependent manner. GS pretreatment attenuated the phosphorylation of nuclear factor-kappa B induced by IL-1ß. Conclusions: Our data show significant inhibitory effects of GS on inflammation, production of hyaluronan, and adipogenesis in orbital fibroblasts. To our knowledge, this is the first in vitro preclinical evidence of the therapeutic effect of GS in GO.


Assuntos
Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Oftalmopatia de Graves/tratamento farmacológico , Órbita/efeitos dos fármacos , Pregnenodionas/uso terapêutico , Adipogenia/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Idoso , Western Blotting , Proteína alfa Estimuladora de Ligação a CCAAT/metabolismo , Proteína beta Intensificadora de Ligação a CCAAT/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular , Células Cultivadas , Commiphora/química , Citocinas/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Oftalmopatia de Graves/metabolismo , Humanos , Ácido Hialurônico/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Órbita/metabolismo , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Proteína de Ligação a Elemento Regulador de Esterol 1/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
17.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 61(2): 27, 2020 02 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32084270

RESUMO

Purpose: Hyaluronan (HA) overproduction by orbital fibroblasts (OFs) is a major factor in the pathogenesis of Graves' orbitopathy (GO). 4-methylumbelliferone (4-MU) is an inhibitor of HA synthesis in different cell types in vitro and has beneficial effects in animal models of autoimmune diseases. Methods: HA production and mRNA expression of HA synthases (HAS1, HAS2, and HAS3) and hyaluronidases (HYAL1 and HYAL2) were measured in the presence and absence of 4-MU in unstimulated and transforming growth factor-ß-stimulated fibroblasts from GO orbital (n = 4), non-GO orbital (n = 4), and dermal origin (n = 4). Results: The 4-MU treatment (1 mM) for 24 hours resulted in an average 87% reduction (P < 0.001) of HA synthesis, decreased the expression of the dominant HAS isoform (HAS2) by 80% (P < 0.0001), and increased the HYAL2 expression by 2.5-fold (P < 0.001) in control OFs, GO OFs, and dermal fibroblasts (DFs) regardless of the origin of the cells. The proliferation rate of all studied cell lines was reduced to an average 16% by 4-MU (P < 0.0001) without any effects on cell viability. HA production stimulated by transforming growth factor-ß was decreased by 4-MU via inhibition of stimulated HAS1 expression in addition to the observed effects of 4-MU in unstimulated cases. Characteristics of HA synthesis inhibition by 4-MU did not differ in OFs compared with DFs. Conclusions: 4-MU has been found to inhibit the HA synthesis and the proliferation rate in OFs in vitro, adding it to the list of putative therapeutic agents in a disease the cure of which is largely unresolved.


Assuntos
Fibroblastos , Ácido Hialurônico/metabolismo , Himecromona/farmacologia , Órbita , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Derme/citologia , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Humanos , Órbita/citologia , Órbita/metabolismo
18.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 16(2): e1007313, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32023239

RESUMO

We describe Orbit Image Analysis, an open-source whole slide image analysis tool. The tool consists of a generic tile-processing engine which allows the execution of various image analysis algorithms provided by either Orbit itself or from other open-source platforms using a tile-based map-reduce execution framework. Orbit Image Analysis is capable of sophisticated whole slide imaging analyses due to several key features. First, Orbit has machine-learning capabilities. This deep learning segmentation can be integrated with complex object detection for analysis of intricate tissues. In addition, Orbit can run locally as standalone or connect to the open-source image server OMERO. Another important characteristic is its scale-out functionality, using the Apache Spark framework for distributed computing. In this paper, we describe the use of Orbit in three different real-world applications: quantification of idiopathic lung fibrosis, nerve fibre density quantification, and glomeruli detection in the kidney.


Assuntos
Órbita/anatomia & histologia , Algoritmos , Aprendizado Profundo , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Interface Usuário-Computador
19.
Exp Eye Res ; 191: 107916, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31926133

RESUMO

Orbital venous malformations (OVMs) are the most common benign orbital vascular disorders in adults and are characterized as enlarging encapsulated vascular neoplasms. These painless lesions grow slowly and become symptomatic with proptosis or visual disturbance. However, the pathogenic mechanism and diagnostic markers of OVMs remain poorly understood. To identify potential pathways involved in OVM formation, a cDNA microarray analysis was conducted with OVM samples and normal vascular tissues. These data were deposited in the National Omics Data Encyclopedia (NODE) database (accession number: OER033009). These pathway expression data were further confirmed by reverse transcription qPCR (RT-qPCR) in an OVM cohort. To explore the diagnostic markers in OVM, an angiogenesis antibody array was analyzed. The altered factors were further validated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in the OVM cohort. Transcriptome screening revealed upregulated autophagy and VEGF pathways and downregulated Hippo, Wnt, hedgehog and vascular smooth muscle contraction signaling pathways in OVM samples. Furthermore, plasma EGF (p < 0.001) and Leptin (p < 0.01) levels were significantly elevated in OVM patients. Here, for the first time, we revealed the transcriptional background and plasma diagnostic markers in OVM, providing a novel understanding of OVM pathogenesis and facilitating the early diagnosis of OVM.


Assuntos
Proteínas Angiogênicas/genética , Fator de Crescimento Epidérmico/genética , Leptina/genética , Órbita/irrigação sanguínea , Malformações Vasculares/genética , Veias/anormalidades , Adolescente , Adulto , Autofagia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Marcadores Genéticos , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala , Humanos , Hibridização In Situ , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Órbita/diagnóstico por imagem , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Malformações Vasculares/diagnóstico por imagem , Veias/diagnóstico por imagem
20.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 145(2): 382e-390e, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31985648

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to determine what craniometric changes occur to both orbits of unicoronal craniosynostosis patients undergoing fronto-orbital advancement and remodeling, and which of these changes are associated with new onset of postoperative strabismus. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed of the preoperative and postoperative orbits of 24 unicoronal craniosynostosis patients and the orbits of 24 control subjects, totaling 144 orbits. Eight parameters were evaluated using multivariate logistic regression analysis. One of the parameters was modified orbital index, an indicator of severity of harlequin deformity. RESULTS: Significant differences in orbital dimensions and angles were present bilaterally in unicoronal craniosynostosis orbits when compared to controls. Fronto-orbital advancement and remodeling increased the ipsilateral unicoronal craniosynostosis orbital volume from 13,184 ± 2003 mm to 16,220 ± 2323 mm (p < 0.001). Ipsilateral horizontal cone angles were increased from 48 ± 5 degrees to 54 ± 7 degrees (p = 0.004). Ipsilateral vertical cone angles were decreased from 73 ± 8 degrees to 66 ± 10 degrees (p = 0.003). Ipsilateral modified orbital index improved from 0.83 ± 0.06 to 0.88 ± 0.06 (p = 0.003). Three of the 19 unicoronal craniosynostosis patients developed transient postoperative strabismus. Logistic regression analysis displayed a strong significant association between new-onset strabismus and a change in modified orbital index with a coefficient of 30.84 ± 14.51 (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The orbital dysmorphology in unicoronal craniosynostosis is bilateral in nature, and it is not wholly treated with conventional fronto-orbital advancement and remodeling. The severity of ipsilateral orbital dysmorphology is correlated with the incidence of postoperative strabismus following conventional fronto-orbital advancement and remodeling. Future research is needed to develop strategies to mitigate the risk of development of strabismus in this group of patients. CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Risk, III.


Assuntos
Craniossinostoses/complicações , Osso Frontal/cirurgia , Órbita/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos/métodos , Estrabismo/etiologia , Estrabismo/cirurgia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Órbita/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estrabismo/patologia
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