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2.
Bioanalysis ; 13(2): 69-76, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33326307

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The SARS-CoV-2 antibody testing an important supplement to nucleic acid testing. In the process of emergency approval, the Center for Medical Device Evaluation of the China National Medical Products Administration released The Key Points of Technical Review for the Registration of SARS-CoV-2 Antigen/Antibody Detection Reagents. The Clinical Study Requirement section of the Key Point has put forward requirements in terms of reference methods and subject enrolment among others, which can ensure that the test results can meet the clinical needs. This article draws on the experience of the China NMPA in evaluating diagnostic reagents used to supplement the gold standard test method in the early stage of an epidemic of an infectious disease, as well as to serve as reference for clinicians and regulators.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/análise , Indicadores e Reagentes/normas , Reações Antígeno-Anticorpo , China , Aprovação de Equipamentos , Órgãos Governamentais , Humanos , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Pandemias , Seleção de Pacientes , Padrões de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Projetos de Pesquisa
4.
Pan Afr Med J ; 35(Suppl 2): 147, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33193962

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2-a new single-stranded RNA virus with respiratory system proclivity and epithelial cell- is a novel infectious disease that originated in Wuhan, China in December, 2019 and has spread to many countries with the total number of confirmed cases put at 20,259,579 cases as of 12th August, 2020. It is transmitted from human-to-human via droplets. When an infected person coughs or sneezes, these droplets find their way into the mouth or nostrils of another person that is within a close range. Alternatively it can be contracted by touching infected hard surfaces and using the same hands to touch the mouth, nose and eye(s). COVID-19 has been declared a global pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) on 11th March, 2020. There is currently no therapeutic substance accepted as a panacea for the prophylaxis of this infectious disease. As a result of this back drop, many nations have instituted fourteen (14) days quarantine for suspected cases, social distancing and border closure in an attempt to curb the spread of COVID-19. There has been several conspirary theories that emanated since the disease was declared a pandemic. This paper provides useful information to serve as reference to those who seek proper understanding of COVID-19 and its deleterious effects in the body, by distiguishing between the factsand the conspiracy theoriesof coronavirus disease.


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Saúde , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Delusões , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Aerossóis , Microbiologia do Ar , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Bioterrorismo , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/organização & administração , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Decepção , Fômites , Genocídio , Órgãos Governamentais , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Política , Quarentena , Pesquisadores , Mídias Sociais
5.
Br J Nurs ; 29(19): 1132-1133, 2020 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33104427

RESUMO

Emeritus Professor Alan Glasper, from the University of Southampton, discusses the role of the newly created Institute for Health Protection, which has subsumed the work of Public Health England and other organisations.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Órgãos Governamentais/organização & administração , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Papel Profissional , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia
6.
Respir Res ; 21(1): 257, 2020 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33032592

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) spread rapidly around the world. We aimed to describe the epidemiological characteristics and the entire evolution of COVID-19 in Wuhan, and to evaluate the effect of non-pharmaceutical intervention by the government. METHODS: The information of COVID-19 cases until Mar 18, 2020 in Wuhan were collected from the national infectious disease surveillance system in Hubei province. RESULTS: A total of 49,973 confirmed cases were reported until Mar 18, 2020 in Wuhan. Among whom, 2496 cases died and the overall mortality was 5.0%. Most confirmed cases (25,619, 51.3%) occurred during Jan 23 to Feb 4, with a spike on Feb 1 (new cases, 3374). The number of daily new cases started to decrease steadily on Feb 19 (new cases, 301) and decreased greatly on Mar 1 (new cases, 57). However, the mortality and the proportion of severe and critical cases has been decreasing over time, with the lowest of 2.0 and 10.1% during Feb 16 to Mar 18, 2020, respectively. The percentage of severe and critical cases among all cases was 19.6%, and the percentage of critical and dead cases aged over 60 was 70.1 and 82.0%, respectively. CONCLUSION: The number of new cases has dropped significantly after the government taking the isolation of four types of personnel and the community containment for 14 days. Our results indicate that the mortality and proportion of severe and critical cases gradually decreased over time, and critical and dead cases are more incline to be older individuals.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Órgãos Governamentais , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Isolamento Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Adulto Jovem
11.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238491, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32936804

RESUMO

As the most visible face of health expertise to the general public, health agencies have played a central role in alerting the public to the emerging COVID-19 threat, providing guidance for protective action, motivating compliance with health directives, and combating misinformation. Social media platforms such as Twitter have been a critical tool in this process, providing a communication channel that allows both rapid dissemination of messages to the public at large and individual-level engagement. Message dissemination and amplification is a necessary precursor to reaching audiences, both online and off, as well as inspiring action. Therefore, it is valuable for organizational risk communication to identify strategies and practices that may lead to increased message passing among online users. In this research, we examine message features shown in prior disasters to increase or decrease message retransmission under imminent threat conditions to develop models of official risk communicators' messages shared online from February 1, 2020-April 30, 2020. We develop a lexicon of keywords associated with risk communication about the pandemic response, then use automated coding to identify message content and message structural features. We conduct chi-square analyses and negative binomial regression modeling to identify the strategies used by official risk communicators that respectively increase and decrease message retransmission. Findings show systematic changes in message strategies over time and identify key features that affect message passing, both positively and negatively. These results have the potential to aid in message design strategies as the pandemic continues, or in similar future events.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes , Comunicação , Infecções por Coronavirus , Disseminação de Informação/métodos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Mídias Sociais , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Emergências , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/organização & administração , Órgãos Governamentais , Humanos , Internet , Meios de Comunicação de Massa , Modelos Estatísticos , Modelos Teóricos , Administração em Saúde Pública , Gestão da Segurança , Mídias Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos
12.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239026, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32936811

RESUMO

The Government of India in-network with the state governments has implemented the epidemic curtailment strategies inclusive of case-isolation, quarantine and lockdown in response to ongoing novel coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak. In this manuscript, we attempt to estimate the impact of these steps across ten selected Indian states using crowd-sourced data. The trajectory of the outbreak was parameterized by the reproduction number (R0), doubling time, and growth rate. These parameters were estimated at two time-periods after the enforcement of the lockdown on 24th March 2020, i.e. 15 days into lockdown and 30 days into lockdown. The authors used a crowd sourced database which is available in the public domain. After preparing the data for analysis, R0 was estimated using maximum likelihood (ML) method which is based on the expectation minimum algorithm where the distribution probability of secondary cases is maximized using the serial interval discretization. The doubling time and growth rate were estimated by the natural log transformation of the exponential growth equation. The overall analysis shows decreasing trends in time-varying reproduction numbers (R(t)) and growth rate (with a few exceptions) and increasing trends in doubling time. The curtailment strategies employed by the Indian government seem to be effective in reducing the transmission parameters of the COVID-19 epidemic. The estimated R(t) are still above the threshold of 1, and the resultant absolute case numbers show an increase with time. Future curtailment and mitigation strategies thus may take into account these findings while formulating further course of action.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Número Básico de Reprodução , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Crowdsourcing , Bases de Dados Factuais , Geografia Médica , Órgãos Governamentais , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Incidência , Índia/epidemiologia , Modelos Biológicos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Quarentena
13.
Cuad Bioet ; 31(102): 183-202, 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32910671

RESUMO

The article deals with the analysis of the criteria for the allocation of scarce health resources during the pandemic produced by the COVID 19 virus in Spain. It critically analyses the absence of a legal-constitutional perspective in the elaboration of such criteria and suggests the incorporation of the criterion of equity as a guarantee of the effective exercise of the constitutional right to health protection by vulnerable persons.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Recursos em Saúde/ética , Pandemias/ética , Alocação de Recursos/ética , Constituição e Estatutos , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Teoria Ética , Órgãos Governamentais , Prioridades em Saúde , Recursos em Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Recursos em Saúde/provisão & distribução , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/ética , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Direitos Humanos/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Grupos Minoritários , Pandemias/legislação & jurisprudência , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Publicações , Alocação de Recursos/legislação & jurisprudência , Papel (figurativo) , Justiça Social , Sociedades Médicas , Espanha/epidemiologia , Triagem/ética , Populações Vulneráveis
14.
Health Res Policy Syst ; 18(1): 105, 2020 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32943078

RESUMO

Mali, like the rest of the world, has seen a rapid spread of COVID-19 since the first report of imported cases. Despite being a low-income country, Mali has leveraged scientific research resources via coordinated approaches to enable public health emergency planning and response to the COVID-19 pandemic. Mali's approach includes the harmonization of research activities; leveraging of research laboratory capacity of the University Clinical Research Center, Mali International Center for Excellence and three other in-country laboratories for community COVID-19 testing; strengthening relationships amongst local and international stakeholders; and collaboration with the Ministry of Health to integrate scientific evidence into public policy and emergency management of COVID-19 through a platform of consultation and open communication. The country has implemented national coordination of its COVID-19 response by establishing a COVID-19 Scientific Advisory Committee and a COVID-19 Technical Coordination Committee, both within the Ministry of Health and working collaboratively with other stakeholders. Members of Mali's COVID-19 Scientific Advisory Committee also serve as leaders of its principal academic and government clinical and public health research entities. This centralised approach has enabled the prioritisation of COVID-19 control activities, informed allocation of resources, evidence-based public health practices and timely decision-making in the pandemic setting. Though challenges remain, lessons learned from Mali's harnessing of clinical research capacity to guide and support its COVID-19 response can be applied to future global health research challenges and illustrate the power of building public health-responsive research capacity in resource-limited settings through international collaboration.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Países em Desenvolvimento , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Saúde Pública , Pesquisa , Betacoronavirus , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Comportamento Cooperativo , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências , Governo , Órgãos Governamentais , Humanos , Laboratórios , Mali/epidemiologia , Organizações , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Política Pública , Alocação de Recursos
16.
Probl Sotsialnoi Gig Zdravookhranenniiai Istor Med ; 28(Special Issue): 687-693, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32856809

RESUMO

The article examines the impact of advertising communications on the patient flow of medical organizations in the Russian healthcare system, reflecting significant changes in the global communication industry. The study of the current changes indicates the relevance of the topic of marketing communications among the heads of Russian and foreign medical companies, government agencies responsible for medicine, the media, advertising companies and consumers of medical services. Issues of concern to the medical services advertising industry and regulatory authorities in healthcare, the impact of advertising on the development of the medical market, and international experience in state regulation of advertising communications in the field of medicine are relevant. Today, the development of an effective policy aimed at attracting new customers and expanding the service sector is a prerequisite for the success of any medical organization. Along with the increasing competition of organizations working in the medical market for consumers of medical services, the need for effective management of advertising communications is also increasing, thanks to which the company's status is maintained, qualified, high-quality treatment is provided, and a high level of service is maintained. Thus, the management of advertising communications in medical organizations has its own specifics and requires compliance with Russian legislation. Ads for medical services must truthfully inform the patient about the nature and direction of the medical organization's work.


Assuntos
Publicidade , Marketing , Comunicação , Assistência à Saúde , Órgãos Governamentais , Humanos , Federação Russa
19.
Salud Publica Mex ; 62(5): 607-609, 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614545

RESUMO

The bioethical inquiry about allocating fairly scarce health resources is not new, all countries around the world that were seriously afflicted by SARS-CoV-2 have issued triage guidelines in order to address the dilemmas raised by the pandemic. There is no question about the need to create bioethical guidelines, since its creation provides a degree of certainty that fair and ethical decisions are taken. This also prevents that decisions are made in solitary and maybe motivated by corrupted actions. In Mexico, the creation of this guideline was a proactive and preventive measure to what was unavoidable, the exponential contagion phase of the pandemical scenario caused by Covid-19. On April 30, 2020 the General Sanitary Council published the Bioethical Guide to Allocate Scarce Resources on Critical Care Medicine in Emergency Situation. This guide has at its core that principle of utmost importance in social justice which main thesis is: "All lives have the same value". The aim of this contribution is to provide the ethical and legal principles established in the aforementioned bioethi-cal guideline. In sum, a brief exploration of the ethical reasons that support a specific way to allocate scarce health resources is provided, as well as the foundations of the procedural part from a human rights-based approach.


Assuntos
Temas Bioéticos/normas , Infecções por Coronavirus , Recursos em Saúde/provisão & distribução , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Alocação de Recursos/ética , Triagem/ética , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Tomada de Decisões , Órgãos Governamentais , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , México , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Justiça Social , Triagem/normas , Valor da Vida , Suspensão de Tratamento/ética , Suspensão de Tratamento/normas
20.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0234642, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614845

RESUMO

The role of external actors in national health policy in aid-independent countries has received relatively little attention in the literature, despite the fact that influence continues to be exerted once financial support is curtailed as countries graduate from lower income status. Focusing on a specific health policy in an aid-independent country, this qualitative study explores the role of external actors in shaping Thailand's migrant health insurance. Primary data were collected through in-depth interviews with eighteen key informants from September 2018 to January 2019. The data were analysed using thematic analysis, focusing on three channels of influence, financial resources, technical expertise and inter-sectoral leverage, and their effect on the different stages of the policy process. Given Thailand's export orientation and the importance of reputational effects, inter-sectoral leverage, mainly through the US TIP Reports and the EU carding decision, emerged as a very powerful channel of influence on priority setting, as it indirectly affected the migrant health insurance through efforts aimed at dealing with problems of human trafficking in the context of labour migration, especially after the 2014 coup d'état. This study helps understand the changed role external actors can play in filling health system gaps in aid-independent countries.


Assuntos
Política de Saúde , Pessoas sem Cobertura de Seguro de Saúde , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Migrantes , Cobertura Universal do Seguro de Saúde , Financiamento de Capital , Instituições de Caridade/economia , Países em Desenvolvimento , Órgãos Governamentais , Gastos em Saúde , Tráfico de Pessoas , Humanos , Agências Internacionais , Colaboração Intersetorial , Entrevistas como Assunto , Pessoas sem Cobertura de Seguro de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Organizações/economia , Política , Mudança Social , Tailândia , Migrantes/legislação & jurisprudência , Imigrantes Indocumentados/legislação & jurisprudência , Cobertura Universal do Seguro de Saúde/economia , Cobertura Universal do Seguro de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Cobertura Universal do Seguro de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos
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