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1.
Mol Immunol ; 126: 129-135, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32823237

RESUMO

Kalliklectin is a unique fish-specific lectin, whose sequence is similar to the heavy chain of mammalian plasma kallikrein and coagulation factor XI. In this study, we aimed to evaluate dynamic expression profiles of the lectin gene, during early developmental stages, in fugu, Takifugu rubripes. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) showed that the kalliklectin gene was not expressed until 14 h post-fertilization (hpf), while the mRNA was detected after 30 hpf. In real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR), the gene was first expressed at 10.5 hpf; then, the expression level increased with a peak at 30 hpf and then gradually decreased. On the other hand, western blotting with specific antibody detected the lectin protein at all tested stages, including the unfertilized egg, which suggests that the lectin detected in the early stages was a maternal factor. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that kalliklectin was localized at the basement membranes of the newly hatched larvae, while the lectin was widely detected in epidermal cells in larva at 5 dph. A 40-kDa lectin was partially purified from unfertilized eggs using mannose-affinity chromatography, and the lectin was determined as kalliklectin by liquid chromatography with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (LC/Q-TOF-MS) analysis, which indicated that the lectin is functional in the eggs. The egg lectin can bind to Gram-positive bacterial pathogens of fish, such as Lactococcus garvieae and Streptococcus iniae. We conclude that fugu kalliklectin might be an important immunocomponent, transferred from mother to offspring.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Embrionário/imunologia , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Imunidade Materno-Adquirida , Lectinas Tipo C/metabolismo , Lectinas de Ligação a Manose/metabolismo , Receptores de Superfície Celular/metabolismo , Takifugu/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Embrião não Mamífero , Feminino , Proteínas de Peixes/imunologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Lactococcus/imunologia , Lectinas Tipo C/imunologia , Lectinas de Ligação a Manose/imunologia , Óvulo/imunologia , Óvulo/metabolismo , Receptores de Superfície Celular/imunologia , Streptococcus iniae/imunologia , Takifugu/imunologia , Takifugu/microbiologia
2.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2445, 2020 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32415074

RESUMO

The 2019-2020 Northern Hemisphere influenza vaccine includes antigens from 3c3.A H3N2 viruses; however, over half of circulating H3N2 viruses belong to subclade 3c2.A1b. Here, we analyze antibody responses elicited by the egg-adapted 3c3.A H3N2 vaccine strain in ferrets and humans. We find that this vaccine strain elicits antibodies that have reduced reactivity to a wild-type 3c3.A strain and very limited reactivity to 3c2.A strains, including the currently circulating 3c2.A1b strain.


Assuntos
Antígenos Virais/imunologia , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N2/imunologia , Vacinas contra Influenza/imunologia , Adulto , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Antígenos Virais/química , Furões/imunologia , Glicoproteínas de Hemaglutininação de Vírus da Influenza/imunologia , Humanos , Óvulo/imunologia
3.
Arch Virol ; 165(4): 835-843, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32025807

RESUMO

Avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is a coronavirus with great economic impact on the poultry industry, causing an acute and highly contagious disease in chickens that primarily affects the respiratory and reproductive systems. The cellular regulation of IBV pathogenesis and the host immune responses involved remain to be fully elucidated. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as a class of crucial regulators of numerous cellular processes, including responses to viral infections. Here, we employed a high-throughput sequencing approach to analyze the miRNA composition of the spleen and the lungs of chicken embryos upon IBV infection. Compared to healthy chicken embryos, 13 and six miRNAs were upregulated in the spleen and the lungs, respectively, all predicted to influence viral transcription, cytokine production, and lymphocyte functioning. Subsequent downregulation of NFATC3, NFAT5, SPPL3, and TGFB2 genes in particular was observed only in the spleen, demonstrating the biological functionality of the miRNAs in this lymphoid organ. This is the first study that describes the modulation of miRNAs and the related host immune factors by IBV in chicken embryos. Our data provide novel insight into complex virus-host interactions and specifically highlight components that could affect the host's immune response to IBV infection.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Gammacoronavirus/fisiologia , MicroRNAs/imunologia , Óvulo/virologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/imunologia , Animais , Galinhas , Infecções por Coronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/imunologia , Gammacoronavirus/genética , Pulmão/imunologia , Pulmão/patologia , MicroRNAs/genética , Óvulo/imunologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/genética , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/patologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Baço/imunologia , Baço/patologia
4.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0228184, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31995591

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The existing diagnostic techniques for detecting schistosomiasis turkestanica, such as aetiological assays, identify infection by parasitic worms via the incubation of miracidia from faeces or observing eggs under microscopy. However, they are limited in the diagnosis of low-grade and prepatent infections, which lead to a high misdetection rates. Therefore, a new method for parasite diagnosis with increased sensitivity is urgently needed. METHODS: Goats in Nimu County (Tibet, China) infected with Schistosoma turkestanicum in an epidemic area were selected according positivity for the infection by faecal examination. Adult worms were collected, eggs were extracted by the sodium hydroxide (NaOH) erosion method, and soluble worm antigen preparation (SWAP) and soluble egg antigen (SEA) were isolated. The best coating concentration of the antigens and the best degree of dilution for serum were determined by square array experiments, and the optimal blocking solution and serum diluents were selected. The specificity, sensitivity and crossover of the ELISA method were determined using 48 samples of goat sera positive for S. turkestanicum, 100 samples of goat sera negative for S. turkestanicum, and 54 samples of buffalo sera positive for S. japonicum. Serological assays were established with samples from goats naturally grazed in a rural area of Nimu County, Tibet Province, by using the indirect ELISA method for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis, and faeces were collected for miracidia hatching. The sensitivity of the two detection methods was compared. RESULTS: Eggs of S. turkestanicum were distributed in the host duodenum and small intestine. Eggs in the host intestinal wall were extracted by the NaOH erosion method, which provided intact eggs with reduced impurities. The testing results obtained by isolating SEA were more stable than those obtained by using SWAP and less affected by the coating concentration and serum dilution. Additionally, the value of positive serum/negative (P/N) serum for SEA was much higher than that for SWAP. The optimal coating concentration of SEA was 0.5 µg/ml, and the optimal serum dilution was 1:100. The specificity and sensitivity of the indirect ELISA based on SEA (S. turkestanicum) were both 100%, and no cross-reactivity was found with schistosomiasis japonica. An epidemiological survey of goats in naturally infected areas showed that the prevalence rate of schistosomiasis turkestanica was 93%, and the infection rate increased with the ages of the goats. CONCLUSION: We aimed to develop a sensitive method to utilize in the mass field screening of livestock. As a diagnostic antigen, SEA (S. turkestanicum) was more suitable for serological testing than SWAP (S. turkestanicum). The indirect ELISA using SEA (S. turkestanicum) exhibited good sensitivity, specificity and no cross-reactivity with schistosomiasis japonica. The degree of infectivity and prevalence of S. turkestanicum infection in endemic areas are serious and should be a focus of concern among local departments.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Helmintos/imunologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Schistosoma , Esquistossomose/veterinária , Testes Sorológicos/veterinária , Animais , Reações Cruzadas/imunologia , Doenças das Cabras/diagnóstico , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Cabras/parasitologia , Óvulo/imunologia , Schistosoma/imunologia , Schistosoma japonicum/imunologia , Esquistossomose/diagnóstico , Esquistossomose/imunologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Tibet
5.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(49): 24668-24675, 2019 12 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31748269

RESUMO

Plants respond to insect infestation with defenses targeting insect eggs on their leaves and the feeding insects. Upon perceiving cues indicating imminent herbivory, such as damage-induced leaf odors emitted by neighboring plants, they are able to prime their defenses against feeding insects. Yet it remains unknown whether plants can amplify their defenses against insect eggs by responding to cues indicating imminent egg deposition. Here, we tested the hypothesis that a plant strengthens its defenses against insect eggs by responding to insect sex pheromones. Our study shows that preexposure of Pinus sylvestris to pine sawfly sex pheromones reduces the survival rate of subsequently laid sawfly eggs. Exposure to pheromones does not significantly affect the pine needle water content, but results in increased needle hydrogen peroxide concentrations and increased expression of defense-related pine genes such as SOD (superoxide dismutase), LOX (lipoxygenase), PAL (phenylalanine ammonia lyase), and PR-1 (pathogenesis related protein 1) after egg deposition. These results support our hypothesis that plant responses to sex pheromones emitted by an herbivorous insect can boost plant defensive responses to insect egg deposition, thus highlighting the ability of a plant to mobilize its defenses very early against an initial phase of insect attack, the egg deposition.


Assuntos
Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/imunologia , Himenópteros/patogenicidade , Óvulo/imunologia , Pinus sylvestris/imunologia , Atrativos Sexuais/imunologia , Animais , Feminino , Herbivoria/fisiologia , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/imunologia , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Himenópteros/fisiologia , Masculino , Odorantes , Oviposição/imunologia , Pinus sylvestris/parasitologia , Folhas de Planta/imunologia , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/parasitologia , Proteínas de Plantas/imunologia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Atrativos Sexuais/metabolismo
6.
Front Immunol ; 10: 1471, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31297120

RESUMO

Type 2 diabetes is a metabolic disorder characterized by persistently elevated glucose levels. There is no effective treatment strategy for this condition, and it poses a massive economic burden globally. Schistosoma soluble egg antigen (SEA)-induced immunomodulatory mechanisms have been reported in the treatment of autoimmune disease. This study aimed to determine the ability of Schistosoma japonicum SEA to protect against type 2 diabetes in Lepr db/db mice and understand the associated mechanisms. The mice were divided into four groups: C57BL/6 (the normal group), SEA (C57BL/6 mice treated with SEA), Lepr db/db , and SEA and Lepr db/db co-treatment groups. The mice in the SEA and co-treatment groups were injected with 50 µg of SEA (twice a week for 6 weeks), and the same volume of PBS was used as control. Blood glucose, insulin, and HOMA-IR levels were measured in all mice, which were sacrificed 6 weeks after the last SEA administration. Flow cytometry was used to detect the percentages of regulatory T cells in splenocytes. ELISA was used to detect the levels of IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4, and IL-5 in cell culture supernatants. Compared with the mice in the Lepr db/db group, the mice in the SEA + Lepr db/db group exhibited significantly reduced insulin resistance, as evidenced by the enhancement of wound healing. The frequency of spleen regulatory T cells increased significantly after SEA administration; meanwhile, the secretion of IL-4 and IL-5 in spleen cells was elevated. These results indicate that SEA can reduce insulin resistance and provide new targets for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. The potential mechanisms might be associated with increases in regulatory T cells and Th2 cytokines in Lepr db/db mice, which warrants further investigation.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Helmintos , Citocinas/imunologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Óvulo/química , Schistosoma japonicum/química , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Células Th2/imunologia , Animais , Antígenos de Helmintos/química , Antígenos de Helmintos/imunologia , Antígenos de Helmintos/farmacologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/imunologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/patologia , Camundongos , Óvulo/imunologia , Schistosoma japonicum/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/patologia , Células Th2/patologia
7.
Exp Parasitol ; 204: 107725, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31306646

RESUMO

Characterisation of the cellular immune response to schistosomiasis is well established for Schistosoma mansoni but a comprehensive description of T cell-mediated immune responses against S. japonicum infection is lacking. Accordingly, 20 CBA mice were infected with cercariae of S. japonicum and the immune response at different time points was determined. Mouse spleen and liver lymphocytes were isolated from the mice and stimulated with schistosomal adult worm antigen preparation (SWAP) and schistosomal soluble egg antigen (SEA). There was a relatively higher Th1 immune response to SWAP compared to SEA at the early phase of infection (up to week 5 post challenge). However, a Th2 immune response directed against SEA was dominant at week 6 post-infection, a time point when the highest IgG response against both SWAP and, especially, SEA was generated. The regulatory immune response was highest at the early phase of the immune response (up to week 5 post challenge) followed by a rapid decline at week 6-post infection. Before egg-laying, S. japonicum induced a regulatory T cell immune response which may limit the early Th1-mediated immune response that is believed to be protective in murine schistosomiasis. Following egg laying, the immune response was polarized to a Th2 immune response mainly directed against the eggs and this may contribute to parasite survival.


Assuntos
Imunidade Celular , Schistosoma japonicum/imunologia , Esquistossomose Japônica/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Animais , Antígenos de Helmintos/imunologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Interleucina-17/imunologia , Interleucina-17/metabolismo , Fígado/citologia , Fígado/imunologia , Fígado/parasitologia , Linfócitos/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos CBA , Óvulo/imunologia , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T gama-delta/imunologia , Caramujos/parasitologia , Baço/citologia , Baço/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Células Th1/imunologia , Células Th2/imunologia
8.
Avian Dis ; 63(2): 351-358, 2019 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31251537

RESUMO

Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is a highly contagious respiratory disease of chickens that produces significant economic losses to the poultry industry. The disease is caused by Gallid alpha herpesvirus-1 (GaHV-1), commonly known as the infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV). Vaccination remains necessary for the control of the disease. Due to the inherent virulence of live attenuated vaccines, in particular that of the chicken embryo origin (CEO) vaccines, the use of ILT viral vector recombinant vaccines has significantly expanded worldwide as a safer vaccination strategy. However, the protective efficacy of recombinant ILT vaccines can be compromised by the use of fractional doses and improper handling and administration of the vaccine. The objective of this study was twofold: 1) to evaluate the protection efficacy induced by a commercial recombinant HVT-LT (rHVT-LT) vaccine when administered in ovo to broilers at three standardized doses (6000 plaque-forming units [PFU], 3000 PFU, and 1000 PFU), and 2) to assess the potential of rHVT-LT-vaccinated chickens to spread virus to contact chickens after challenge. Independently of the vaccine dose, vaccinated chickens showed reduction in clinical signs, maintained body weight gain after challenge, and lessened the challenge virus replication in the trachea at a rate of 52%-65%. However, in spite of this reduction, transmission of challenge virus from rHVT-LT-vaccinated (6000/Ch, 3000/Ch) to contact-naive chickens was evident. This study is the first to support that rHVT-LT vaccination did not prevent spread of challenge virus to contact birds.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Infecções por Herpesviridae/veterinária , Herpesvirus Galináceo 1/imunologia , Vacinas contra Herpesvirus/farmacologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta Imunológica , Infecções por Herpesviridae/prevenção & controle , Óvulo/imunologia , Vacinas Sintéticas/farmacologia
9.
Vaccine ; 37(29): 3785-3792, 2019 06 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31171394

RESUMO

Campylobacter is the leading bacterial cause of human enteritis in developed countries. Chicken is a major natural host of Campylobacter. Thus, on-farm control of Campylobacter load in poultry would reduce the risk of human exposure to this pathogen. Vaccination is an attractive intervention measure to mitigate Campylobacter in poultry. Our previous studies have demonstrated that Campylobacter outer membrane proteins CmeC (a component of multidrug efflux pump) and CfrA (ferric enterobactin receptor) are feasible and promising candidates for vaccine development. In this study, by targeting these two attractive vaccine candidates, we explored and evaluated a new vaccination strategy, which combines the in ovo vaccination route and novel DNA vaccine formulation, for Campylobacter control in broilers. We observed that direct cloning of cfrA or cmeC gene into the eukaryotic expression vector pCAGGS did not lead to sufficient level of production of the target proteins in the eukaryotic HEK-293 cell line. However, introduction of the Kozak consensus sequence (ACCATGG) in the cloned bacterial genes greatly enhanced production of inserted gene in eukaryotic cells, creating desired DNA vaccines. Subsequently, the validated DNA vaccines were prepared and used for two independent in ovo vaccination trials to evaluate their immune response and protective efficacy. However, single in ovo injection of specific DNA vaccine at 18th day of embryonation, regardless using neutral lipid-protected vector or not, failed to trigger significant IgG and IgA immune responses and did not confer protection against C. jejuni colonization in the intestine of chickens. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that the Kozak sequence is critically important for construction of the DNA vaccine expressing prokaryotic gene. The optimal regimen for in ovo vaccination of DNA vaccine for Campylobacter control in poultry needs to be determined in future studies.


Assuntos
Vacinas Bacterianas/imunologia , Infecções por Campylobacter/veterinária , Óvulo/imunologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Vacinação/veterinária , Vacinas de DNA/imunologia , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/administração & dosagem , Proteínas de Bactérias/imunologia , Vacinas Bacterianas/administração & dosagem , Campylobacter , Infecções por Campylobacter/prevenção & controle , Embrião de Galinha , Galinhas/imunologia , Fazendas , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Óvulo/microbiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Vacinação/métodos , Vacinas de DNA/administração & dosagem
10.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(3): e0006974, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30870412

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite decades of use of control programs, schistosomiasis remains a global public health problem. To further reduce prevalence and intensity of infection, or to achieve the goal of elimination in low-endemic areas, there needs to be better diagnostic tools to detect low-intensity infections in low-endemic areas in Brazil. The rationale for development of new diagnostic tools is that the current standard test Kato-Katz (KK) is not sensitive enough to detect low-intensity infections in low-endemic areas. In order to develop new diagnostic tools, we employed a proteomics approach to identify biomarkers associated with schistosome-specific immune responses in hopes of developing sensitive and specific new methods for immunodiagnosis. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Immunoproteomic analyses were performed on egg extracts of Schistosoma mansoni using pooled sera from infected or non-infected individuals from a low-endemic area of Brazil. Cross reactivity with other soil-transmitted helminths (STH) was determined using pooled sera from individuals uniquely infected with different helminths. Using this approach, we identified 23 targets recognized by schistosome acute and chronic sera samples. To identify immunoreactive targets that were likely glycan epitopes, we compared these targets to the immunoreactivity of spots treated with sodium metaperiodate oxidation of egg extract. This treatment yielded 12/23 spots maintaining immunoreactivity, suggesting that they were protein epitopes. From these 12 spots, 11 spots cross-reacted with sera from individuals infected with other STH and 10 spots cross-reacted with the negative control group. Spot number 5 was exclusively immunoreactive with sera from S. mansoni-infected groups in native and deglycosylated conditions and corresponds to Major Egg Antigen (MEA). We expressed MEA as a recombinant protein and showed a similar recognition pattern to that of the native protein via western blot. IgG-ELISA gave a sensitivity of 87.10% and specificity of 89.09% represented by area under the ROC curve of 0.95. IgG-ELISA performed better than the conventional KK (2 slides), identifying 56/64 cases harboring 1-10 eggs per gram of feces that were undiagnosed by KK parasitological technique. CONCLUSIONS: The serological proteome approach was able to identify a new diagnostic candidate. The recombinant egg antigen provided good performance in IgG-ELISA to detect individuals with extreme low-intensity infections (1 egg per gram of feces). Therefore, the IgG-ELISA using this newly identified recombinant MEA can be a useful tool combined with other techniques in low-endemic areas to determine the true prevalence of schistosome infection that is underestimated by the KK method. Further, to overcome the complexity of ELISA in the field, a second generation of antibody-based rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) can be developed.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Helmintos/sangue , Proteínas de Helminto/sangue , Proteoma/metabolismo , Schistosoma mansoni/imunologia , Esquistossomose mansoni/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Antígenos de Helmintos/imunologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Brasil , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Proteínas de Helminto/imunologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Óvulo/imunologia , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas , Proteoma/imunologia , Proteômica , Proteínas Recombinantes/imunologia , Esquistossomose mansoni/sangue , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Testes Sorológicos/métodos
11.
Poult Sci ; 98(8): 3150-3157, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30919905

RESUMO

Immunoglobulins, which are passed vertically from hens to their progeny, are first present in the eggs but with time also in the developing embryos and eventually in the serum of hatching chicks, and have protective function during embryogenesis and in the first few weeks of birds' life, before the immune system becomes fully efficient. Considering the above fact, the aim of this study was to determine total levels of IgM and IgY as well as specific IgY antibody titers against selected pathogens in the serum of breeder turkeys and their progeny, as well as in egg yolks and egg whites. Study results demonstrated that the level of IgY antibodies in the serum of turkey breeder hens reached 22.04 mg/mL on average in the whole egg laying cycle. In addition, the mean transfer percentage of IgY antibodies from turkey layers to their progeny reached approximately 31.4%, but the level of this transfer differed depending on pathogen character and accounted for 33.2%, 51.9%, 45.1%, and 44.3% in the case of antibodies against avian metapneumoviruses, Newcastle disease virus, Ornithobacterium rhinortacheale, and Pasteurella multocida, respectively. Antibody percentage transfer differed also as affected by the stage of the egg production cycle. Study results confirmed the earlier observed dependency concerning the class of antibodies transferred to eggs from laying hens, and while the IgY were mainly detected in the egg yolk extracts, the IgM were found only in egg white extracts; in comparison to IgY, the IgM antibodies were not transferred to the serum of turkey poults. To our best knowledge, this is the first study that describes in detail the phenomenon of maternal antibody transfer in turkeys.


Assuntos
Anticorpos/análise , Imunidade Materno-Adquirida , Óvulo/imunologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/imunologia , Animais , Feminino , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulinas/sangue , Metapneumovirus/imunologia , Vírus da Doença de Newcastle/imunologia , Ornithobacterium/imunologia , Pasteurella multocida/imunologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Perus/imunologia
12.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 1088, 2019 Dec 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31888505

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Egg-induced immune response and granuloma formation are thought to be the basis of central nervous system (CNS)-related clinical symptoms of Schistosoma japonicum. Microglia/macrophages are the major immune cells involved in detection and subsequent elimination of pathogens and injured tissue in the brain. However, little is known about their role in the pathogenesis of neuroschistosomiasis. The main purpose of the study is to clarify the pathological involvement of microglia/macrophages in the pathogenesis of neuroschistosomiasis (NS). METHODS: Staining techniques were applied to the granuloma tissues excised from 4 patients, as well as mice model which was established by microinjecting viable S. japonicum eggs into the brain. Clinical features of the patients and neurological symptoms in mice were also collected and analyzed in terms of their correlation with microglia/macrophages. RESULTS: Microglia/macrophages constituted the major portions of the granulomas surrounding the eggs in both all human cases and S. japonicum egg-injected mice. Granuloma persisted in all patients accompanied by unremitted neurological symptoms, while in mice granuloma formation initiated on day 3, peaked on day 7 and subsided on day 30 post injection with S. japonicum eggs. No neurological abnormalities were observed in egg-injected mice except for significant weight decrease on day 3 compared with saline-injected control. M1 polarization of microglia/macrophages was confirmed in egg-injected mice 3 days post injection and in all human cases. M2 polarization was absent in human patients despite the duration of complaints but dominated in the whole progression of egg-induced pathology in mice until the elimination of eggs and subsidence of neuroinflammation on day 30 post injection. CONCLUSIONS: Microglia/macrophages participated actively in the granuloma microenvironment of encephalic schistosomiasis japonicum in both human and mice. The polarization pattern of microglia/macrophages coincided with the symptomatic features in human cases and S. japonicum egg-injected mice, indicating M2 instead of M1 activation as a probably more important mediator in the battle against egg-induced pathology and concomitant manifestations. These new findings will shed light on the pathogenesis of NS from a brand-new perspective, and may contribute to the immunotherapy development for such disease, favoring perhaps M2 polarization of microglia/macrophages as a feasible strategy.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/patologia , Encéfalo/parasitologia , Granuloma/imunologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Microglia/imunologia , Schistosoma japonicum/fisiologia , Esquistossomose Japônica/parasitologia , Adulto , Animais , Polaridade Celular/imunologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Óvulo/imunologia , Coelhos , Schistosoma japonicum/isolamento & purificação
13.
Dev Comp Immunol ; 91: 17-25, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30278186

RESUMO

The oyster's immune system is capable of adapting upon exposure to a pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) to have an enhanced secondary response against the same type of pathogen. This has been demonstrated using poly(I:C) to elicit an antiviral response in the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) against Ostreid herpesvirus (OsHV-1). Improved survival following exposure to poly(I:C) has been found in later life stages (within-generational immune priming) and in the next generation (transgenerational immune priming). The mechanism that the oyster uses to transfer immunity to the next generation is unknown. Here we show that oyster larvae have higher survival to OsHV-1 when their mothers, but not their fathers, are exposed to poly(I:C) prior to spawning. RNA-seq provided no evidence to suggest that parental exposure to poly(I:C) reconfigures antiviral gene expression in unchallenged larvae. We conclude that the improved survival of larvae might occur via maternal provisioning of antiviral compounds in the eggs.


Assuntos
Crassostrea/imunologia , Infecções por Vírus de DNA/imunologia , Vírus de DNA/fisiologia , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Exposição Materna , Poli I-C/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Animais , Antivirais , Feminino , Imunidade Inata , Imunidade Materno-Adquirida , Larva , Masculino , Óvulo/imunologia , Óvulo/virologia , Exposição Paterna
14.
Parasite Immunol ; 41(1): e12602, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30417508

RESUMO

AIMS: Mouse bladder wall injection with Schistosoma haematobium eggs has been used to overcome limitations in animal models of urogenital schistosomiasis. However, the effect of the absence of cercarial infection on immune responses to eggs in this model is unknown. We hypothesized that cercarial infection would alter local bladder and systemic immune responses to eggs in this model. METHODS AND RESULTS: Mice were infected or not infected with S haematobium cercariae, and then, their bladder walls injected with S haematobium eggs or vehicle 5 weeks following cercarial infection. Three weeks later, mice were bled, sacrificed, perfused and their bladders harvested. Parasitological parameters and gross bladder pathology were not changed in egg-injected bladders by cercarial exposure. Figure S1 shows no changes in either granulomas or fibrosis. The only bladder cytokine upregulated in egg-injected bladders by cercarial exposure (vs no exposure) was leptin. Cercarial exposure, compared to no exposure, resulted in increased serum, IL-1α, IL-13 and TGF-ß in bladder egg-injected mice. CONCLUSION: Cercarial exposure altered systemic responses of several cytokines in bladder egg-injected mice, but surprisingly, only modified leptin expression in bladder tissue. This suggests that depending on the specific application, cercarial exposure may not be strictly necessary to model local immune responses in the bladder wall egg injection mouse model of urogenital schistosomiasis.


Assuntos
Schistosoma haematobium/imunologia , Esquistossomose Urinária/imunologia , Bexiga Urinária/imunologia , Animais , Cercárias/imunologia , Cricetinae , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Granuloma/patologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Óvulo/imunologia , Esquistossomose Urinária/patologia
15.
Avian Dis ; 62(3): 316-321, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30339510

RESUMO

Omphalitis or yolk sac infection (YSI) and colibacillosis are the most common infectious diseases that lead to high rates of early chick mortalities (ECMs) in young chicks. Out of numerous microbial causes, avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) or extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli infections are considered the most common cause of these conditions. YSI causes deterioration and decomposition of yolk, leading to deficiency of necessary nutrients and maternal antibodies, retarded growth, poor carcass quality, and increased susceptibility to other infections, including omphalitis, colibacillosis, and respiratory tract infection. Presently, in ovo injection of antibiotics, heavy culling, or after hatch use of antibiotics is practiced to manage ECM. However, increased antibiotic resistance and emergence of "super bugs" associated with use or misuse of antibiotics in the animal industry have raised serious concerns. These concerns urgently require a focus on host-driven nonantibiotic approaches for stimulation of protective antimicrobial immunity. Using an experimental YSI model in newborn chicks, we evaluated the prophylactic potential of three in ovo-administered innate immune stimulants and immune adjuvants for protection from ECM due to YSI. Our data have shown >80%, 65%, and 60% survival with in ovo use of cytosine-phosphodiester-guanine (CpG) oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN), polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid, and polyphosphazene, respectively. In conclusion, data from these studies suggest that in ovo administration of CpG ODN may serve as a potential candidate for replacement of antibiotics for the prevention and control of ECM due to YSI in young chicks.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Galinhas/imunologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Óvulo/imunologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Escherichia coli/prevenção & controle , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Injeções/veterinária , Oligodesoxirribonucleotídeos/administração & dosagem , Compostos Organofosforados/administração & dosagem , Poli I-C/administração & dosagem , Polímeros/administração & dosagem , Saco Vitelino/imunologia
16.
Parasite Immunol ; 40(10): e12579, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30107039

RESUMO

Chronic helminth infection with Schistosoma (S.) mansoni protects against allergic airway inflammation (AAI) in mice and is associated with reduced Th2 responses to inhaled allergens in humans, despite the presence of schistosome-specific Th2 immunity. Schistosome eggs strongly induce type 2 immunity and allow to study the dynamics of Th2 versus regulatory responses in the absence of worms. Treatment with isolated S. mansoni eggs by i.p. injection prior to induction of AAI to ovalbumin (OVA)/alum led to significantly reduced AAI as assessed by less BAL and lung eosinophilia, less cellular influx into lung tissue, less OVA-specific Th2 cytokines in lungs and lung-draining mediastinal lymph nodes and less circulating allergen-specific IgG1 and IgE antibodies. While OVA-specific Th2 responses were inhibited, treatment induced a strong systemic Th2 response to the eggs. The protective effect of S. mansoni eggs was unaltered in µMT mice lacking mature (B2) B cells and unaffected by Treg cell depletion using anti-CD25 blocking antibodies during egg treatment and allergic sensitization. Notably, prophylactic egg treatment resulted in a reduced influx of pro-inflammatory, monocyte-derived dendritic cells into lung tissue of allergic mice following challenge. Altogether, S. mansoni eggs can protect against the development of AAI, despite strong egg-specific Th2 responses.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Asma/prevenção & controle , Óvulo/imunologia , Schistosoma mansoni/imunologia , Alérgenos/imunologia , Compostos de Alúmen/farmacologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/imunologia , Asma/imunologia , Citocinas/imunologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Eosinofilia/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Imunoglobulina E/sangue , Imunoglobulina E/imunologia , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Inflamação/patologia , Subunidade alfa de Receptor de Interleucina-2 , Pulmão/imunologia , Pulmão/parasitologia , Pulmão/patologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Ovalbumina/imunologia , Ovalbumina/farmacologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Células Th2/imunologia
17.
BMC Infect Dis ; 18(1): 404, 2018 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30111280

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis, caused by Schistosoma japonicum, remains one of the most important parasitic diseases, and detection of S. japonicum infections in humans plays a crucial role in control and treatment. However, comparisons between the parasitological and the immunological examinations in the fields of China are lacking. Therefore we performed a meta-analysis to compare the seroprevalence of Schistosoma japonicum, as determined by IHA or ELISA, with coprological prevalence, as determined by Kato-Katz, and estimate the ratio of the serological to the egg-positive prevalence in order to evaluate the potential threat of egg-negative but worm-positive schistosomiasis. METHODS: Studies published up to July 2018 on the parasitological and immunological examinations of schistosomiasis in the fields of China were searched in five databases including CNKI, WanFang, VIP, PubMed and Web of Science. The ratio of the serological to the egg-positive prevalence and its 95%CI for each study were calculated, and then point estimates and their 95%CIs of pooled prevalence ratio were meta-analyzed. Subgroup meta-analyses were also performed according to potential influential factors. RESULTS: A total of 23 articles were included. The prevalence ratio varied from 0.57 to 48.83 for IHA to Kato-Katz and ranged from 0.38 to 13.97 for ELISA to Kato-Katz. The pooled ratio was 4.72 (95%CI: 3.87~ 5.76) for IHA to KK and 4.65 (95%CI: 3.50~ 6.17) for ELISA to KK. Subgroup analyses implied that the ratio of the serological to the egg-positive prevalence may decrease with the endemic levels. The highest prevalence ratio was observed when Kato-Katz was performed with three slides per stool or in hilly and mountainous regions. CONCLUSIONS: The worm-determined prevalence by IHA or ELISA is 4- to 5-fold higher than the egg-determined prevalence by Kato-Katz, which implied Kato-Katz may largely underestimate the prevalence of S. japonicum in China. The degree of underestimation was greater when Kato-Katz with three slides per stool was carried out, especially in low endemic areas or in hilly and mountainous regions. Therefore, more attention should be paid to those egg-negative but worm-positive patients with the aim of final elimination of S. japonicum in China.


Assuntos
Esquistossomose Japônica/patologia , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Fezes/parasitologia , Técnica Indireta de Fluorescência para Anticorpo , Humanos , Óvulo/imunologia , Prevalência , Schistosoma japonicum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Schistosoma japonicum/imunologia , Schistosoma japonicum/isolamento & purificação , Esquistossomose Japônica/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose Japônica/parasitologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
18.
Exp Parasitol ; 191: 88-96, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30009810

RESUMO

Schistosomiasis remains a global health problem. In the Mekong river basin, approximately 80,000 people are at risk of infection by Schistosoma mekongi. The parasite's eggs become entrapped in the host's organs and induce massive inflammation, contributing to the pathogenesis of schistosomiasis. In addition, egg antigens are important in circumoval precipitin tests (COPTs) and other diagnostic techniques. Little is known regarding the egg proteins of S. mekongi, and so we applied immunoblotting and mass spectrometry-based proteomic approaches to study these proteins and their antigenicity. A total of 360 unique proteins were identified in S. mekongi eggs using proteomic analyses. The major protein components of S. mekongi eggs were classified into several groups by functions, including proteins of unknown function, structural proteins, and regulators of transcription and translation. The most abundant proteins in S. mekongi eggs were antioxidant proteins, potentially reflecting the need to neutralize reactive oxidative species released from host immune cells. Immunomic analyses revealed that only DNA replication factor Cdt1 and heat shock protein 70 overlap between the proteins recognized by sera of infected mice and humans, illustrating the challenges of knowledge transfer from animal models to human patients. Forty-one immunoreactive protein bands were recognized by either mouse or patient sera. Phosphoglycerate kinase, fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase and elongation factor 1 appeared to be interesting immunogens of S. mekongi eggs as these proteins were recognized by polyclonal IgMs and IgGs in patient sera. Our findings provide new information on the protein composition of S. mekongi eggs as well as the beginnings of a S. mekongi immunogen dataset. These data may help us better understand the pathology of schistosomiasis as well as natural antibody responses against S. mekongi egg proteins, both of which may be useful in including S. mekongi to other schistosoma diagnostic, vaccine and immunotherapy development.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Helminto/química , Proteoma/análise , Proteômica , Schistosoma/química , Schistosoma/imunologia , Animais , Antígenos de Helmintos/análise , Antígenos de Helmintos/imunologia , Antioxidantes/análise , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Eletroforese em Gel Bidimensional , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida , Gastrópodes , Proteínas de Helminto/análise , Proteínas de Helminto/imunologia , Humanos , Soros Imunes/imunologia , Immunoblotting , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Imunoglobulina M/imunologia , Vale do Mecom/epidemiologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Óvulo/química , Óvulo/imunologia , Testes de Precipitina , Proteoma/química , Proteoma/imunologia , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose/imunologia , Esquistossomose/parasitologia , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
19.
Infect Immun ; 86(10)2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30037796

RESUMO

Alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is a lethal disease caused by infection with the metacestode stage of the helminth Echinococcus multilocularis, which develops into a tumorlike mass in susceptible intermediate hosts. The growth potential of this parasite stage is directly linked to the nature of the surrounding periparasitic immune-mediated processes. In a first step (experiment 1), mice were orally infected with E. multilocularis eggs, to be used for assessing the hepatic expression profiles of 15 selected cytokine and chemokine genes related to acquired immunity from 21 to 120 days postinfection. The early stage of infection in immunocompetent animals was marked by a mixed Th1/Th2 immune response, as characterized by the concomitant presence of gamma interferon (IFN-γ) and interleukin-4 (IL-4) and their related chemokines. At the late stage of AE, the profile extended to a combined tolerogenic mode including Foxp3, IL-10, and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-ß) as key components. In a second step (experiment 2), the effect of T regulatory cell (Treg) deficiency on metacestode growth was assessed in E. multilocularis-infected DEREG (depletion of regulatory T cells) mice upon induction of Treg deficiency with diphtheria toxin (DT). The parasite lesions were significantly smaller in the livers of treated mice than in corresponding control groups. Foxp3+ Tregs appear to be one of the key players in immune-regulatory processes favoring metacestode survival by affecting antigen presentation and suppressing Th1-type immune responses. For these reasons, we suggest that affecting Foxp3+ Tregs could offer an attractive target in the development of an immunotherapy against AE.


Assuntos
Equinococose/imunologia , Equinococose/terapia , Echinococcus multilocularis/imunologia , Imunoterapia , Óvulo/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Animais , Quimiocinas/genética , Quimiocinas/imunologia , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/imunologia , Equinococose/parasitologia , Echinococcus multilocularis/genética , Feminino , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/genética , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/imunologia , Humanos , Interferon gama/genética , Interferon gama/imunologia , Interleucina-4/genética , Interleucina-4/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Células Th1/imunologia , Células Th2/imunologia
20.
J Biophotonics ; 11(2)2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28700130

RESUMO

It is well known that, under exposure to bright light, eggs tend to hatch earlier than control, without any damage to the birds. This report aims to systematically show the effect and establishes a proposal for a possible application to accelerate chicken egg formation, which could be extrapolated or adapted as a great advance in premature human newborns. Comparing several protocols, the experiments show that lower doses of light slowly delivered for 24 h promote higher efficiency in embryo development, increasing on average 25% of its size and more than 70% in weight when compared to the control. This weight difference shows promising results compared to rates of up to 17% found in the literature. These results can be a first step to reduce the stay of premature human infants in hospitals because light, when applied in very low doses, can accelerate the natural biological processes without risks.


Assuntos
Luz , Óvulo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Óvulo/efeitos da radiação , Animais , Embrião de Galinha , Membrana Corioalantoide/efeitos da radiação , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Óvulo/imunologia , Fototerapia
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