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1.
Life Sci ; 248: 117475, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32119963

RESUMO

AIMS: Liver fibrosis is a crucial pathological feature which could result in cirrhosis and hepatocarcinoma. But until now, there is no favourable treatment for it. Apigenin (APG) is a flavonoid, which exhibits efficient anti-liver fibrosis activity, but its underlying mechanisms were rarely studied. So this work aims to estimate the potential therapeutic action of APG on liver fibrosis rats and to gain insight into its system-level mechanisms. MAIN METHODS: Hepatic fibrosis was induced by CCl4 in Wistar rats, and APG was given in the light of the regimen. Biochemical indexes, histopathological change and immunohistochemistry of liver were evaluated. The optimal effect group of APG was selected for further transcriptomic and proteomic analysis. KEY FINDINGS: APG ameliorated liver fibrosis via reducing the levels of AST, ALT, ALP, LDH, Hyp, TP, TB, DB, HA, LN, PCIII and IV-C, mitigating fibrosis and inflammation of liver in H&E and Masson staining. Mechanistically, APG elevated the activity of ALB, SOD and GSH-PX with reducing the level of MDA. The results of microarray and TMT revealed that 4919 genes and 4876 proteins were differentially expressed in the APG and model groups. Besides, transcriptomics and proteomics analyses unfolded 120 overlapped proteins, enriched in 111 GO terms containing apoptotic process, angiogenesis, cell migration and proliferation, etc. Meanwhile, KEGG pathway analysis showed that 26 pathways containing HIF-1/MAPK/eNOS/VEGF/PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, regulation of actin cytoskeleton and focal adhesion mostly. SIGNIFICANCE: APG can ameliorate CCl4-induced liver fibrosis via VEGF-mediated FAK phosphorylation through the MAPKs, PI3K/Akt, HIF-1, ROS, and eNOS pathways, which may hopefully become the anti-liver fibrosis activity of natural product.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Apigenina/farmacologia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/prevenção & controle , Cirrose Hepática/prevenção & controle , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Alanina Transaminase/genética , Alanina Transaminase/metabolismo , Albuminas/metabolismo , Fosfatase Alcalina/genética , Fosfatase Alcalina/metabolismo , Animais , Aspartato Aminotransferases/genética , Aspartato Aminotransferases/metabolismo , Bilirrubina/sangue , Tetracloreto de Carbono/administração & dosagem , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/etiologia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/genética , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/patologia , Quinase 1 de Adesão Focal/genética , Quinase 1 de Adesão Focal/metabolismo , Glutationa Peroxidase/genética , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/genética , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/metabolismo , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/genética , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Cirrose Hepática/induzido quimicamente , Cirrose Hepática/genética , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Masculino , Malondialdeído/antagonistas & inibidores , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III/genética , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III/metabolismo , Proteômica/métodos , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Superóxido Dismutase/genética , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/genética , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo
2.
Environ Sci Technol ; 54(5): 2922-2930, 2020 03 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32022550

RESUMO

Nitrated and oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs and OPAHs) from the direct atmospheric emission or the degradation of parent PAHs are increasingly recognized because of their potential health risks. Herein, we investigated the effects of four NPAHs/OPAHs (1-NNAP, 9-NANT, 9,10-AQ, and 9-FLU) and their parent PAHs (NAP, ANT, and FLU) on endothelium function with regard to endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and endothelium-derived nitric oxide (NO) production in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. The eNOS enzymatic activity and NO production were promoted by NAP, ANT, and FLU; however, eNOS activity was dropped by 52.8, 52.1, 52.5, and 44.5%, and NO production was decreased by 31.1, 50.3, 65.0, and 35.0% after 24 h exposure to 0.01 µM 1-NNAP, 9-NANT, 9,10-AQ, and 9-FLU, respectively. The mRNA expression of eNOS and protein expression of phosphorylated eNOS (Ser1177) were increased by three PAHs but decreased by four NPAHs/OPAHs. The 100 ns molecular dynamics simulations reveal the conformational alteration in the key propionate of heme upon the binding of NPAHs/OPAHs. Our findings provide the first in silico and in vitro evidence for the potential endothelial dysfunction of nitrated and oxygenated PAHs. The health risk implications of NPAHs/OPAHs and corresponding parent PAHs warrant further research.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Células Endoteliais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Nitratos , Óxido Nítrico , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III
3.
Life Sci ; 246: 117423, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32057902

RESUMO

Bleomycin (BLM) is one of the most common anti-cancer drugs used to treat numerous types of tumors. However, pulmonary toxicity is considered the most dramatic effect of BLM. Therefore, BLM has been frequently used for induction of pulmonary fibrosis. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of nicorandil on BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis and explore the possible mechanisms. BLM was instilled intratracheally into male Sprague-Dawley rats as a single dose (5 mg/kg) and oral nicorandil was given (30 mg/kg/day) for 6 weeks after BLM challenge. At the end of experimental period, rats were sacrificed, and lung histopathology and biochemical parameters were evaluated. Nicorandil therapy attenuated lung inflammation and fibrosis elicited by BLM. Nicorandil significantly reduced total protein content, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and total and differential cell counts. Moreover, nicorandil diminished lung levels of malondialdehyde and total nitrite/nitrate, in addition to increasing lung contents of reduced glutathione and superoxide dismutase activity. Nicorandil reduced lung and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid contents of hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and lung content of thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP). Besides, nicorandil significantly improved histological lesions and reduced collagen deposition as well as hydroxyproline content. Immunohistochemical examination revealed that nicorandil-treated rats exhibited significant diminutions in protein expression levels of transforming growth factor beta-1(TGF-ß1) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and enhanced pulmonary protein expression of endothelial NOS (eNOS). In conclusion, these results illustrate the possible potential effects of nicorandil for managing pulmonary fibrosis caused by BLM.


Assuntos
Antibióticos Antineoplásicos/toxicidade , Bleomicina/toxicidade , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/metabolismo , Nicorandil/farmacologia , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III/antagonistas & inibidores , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/antagonistas & inibidores , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Fibrose Pulmonar/induzido quimicamente , Animais , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/química , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/análise , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/análise , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/patologia , Masculino , Nicorandil/uso terapêutico , Nitratos/análise , Óxido Nítrico/análise , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III/metabolismo , Nitritos/análise , Fibrose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
4.
Cell Physiol Biochem ; 54(2): 161-179, 2020 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32045141

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: We performed co-culture experiments between human RPE cells (ARPE-19) and human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVEC) in order to evaluate how anti-VEGF drugs could affect NO release, mitochondrial function, the oxidative status, proliferation and migration of RPE cells through modulation of their cross talk with vascular endothelial cells. METHODS: The co-culture HUVEC/RPE, was exposed to Ranibizumab/Aflibercept in the absence/presence of the NO synthase (NOS) inhibitor, the phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase (PI3K), the extracellular-signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) and the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) blockers. Specific kits were used for cell viability, mitochondrial membrane potential, NO, ROS and GSH production. Western blot was performed for apoptosis markers, NOS isoforms, and others kinases detection. Cell migration was analyzed by scratch assay, whereas cell proliferation and cell cycle through xCELLigence and flow cytometry. RESULTS: In RPE cells co-cultured with HUVEC in physiological conditions, Aflibercept/Ranibizumab increased NO release in a dose and time-dependent way. Opposite results were obtained in peroxidative conditions. Both anti-VEGF agents were able to prevent the fall of cell viability and mitochondrial membrane potential, an effect which was reduced by various inhibitors, and increased cell migration. Aflibercept/Ranibizumab counteracted the changes of apoptosis markers, NOS expression/activation, PI3K and ERK1/2 activation caused by peroxidation. These results were confirmed by cell cycle analysis. CONCLUSION: This study has shown new mechanisms at the basis of protective effects elicited by Aflibercept/Ranibizumab in RPE cells. HUVEC stimulated with Aflibercept/Ranibizumab, could release some paracrine factors that can modulate the RPE cells response in both physiologic and peroxidative conditions.


Assuntos
Comunicação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ranibizumab/farmacologia , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/farmacologia , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Técnicas de Cocultura , Glutationa/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana , Humanos , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III/metabolismo , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular , Epitélio Pigmentado da Retina/citologia , Epitélio Pigmentado da Retina/metabolismo
5.
Eur J Histochem ; 64(1)2020 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31988533

RESUMO

Emerging evidence suggests that red blood cells (RBCs) are involved in many functions essential for life. Nuclear factor-kB (NF-kB), nitric oxide synthases (inducible nitric oxide synthase -iNOS-, endothelial nitric oxide synthase -eNOS-) and interleukin-1ß (-IL-1ß-) are all proteins that have been identified in RBCs. In nucleated cells, such as white blood cells (WBCs), these proteins have well investigated roles, linked to stress and inflammation. It is not the same in erythrocytes, for this reason, we considered obese patients for studying the morphology of RBCs. We studied a possible correlation between their morphological changes and several protein expressions. Moreover, we compared the results about the aforementioned proteins and antioxidant markers with those obtained in WBCs from healthy and obese patients before and after omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation. This latter scientific point is important in order to determine whether there are differences in the expression of nucleated and anucleated cells. The morphology of RBCs changed in obese patients, but it is significantly restored after six weeks of supplementation. The expression of antioxidant enzymes changed in RBCs and WBCs in obesity but all proteins restore their positivity after supplementation. We found that: the presence of NF-kB, antioxidant enzymes and eNOS in healthy RBCs could indicate a role of these proteins as regulators of cellular metabolism; obese WBCs showed a higher NF-kB, iNOS and IL-1ß positivity, whereas eNOS presence did not significantly change in these cells. We tried to explain the different positivity of NF-kB, proposing a dual role for this protein, as prolifespan and as proinflammatory processes, depending on examined cells. In conclusion, we have considered the literature that focuses on the omega-6/omega-3 ratio. The ratio changed from the past, especially in people whose diet is strongly westernized worsening the state of health of the patient and leading to an higher incidence of obesity. Our study hypothesizes that the supplementation could help to restore the correct ratio.


Assuntos
Eritrócitos/metabolismo , Subunidade p50 de NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Catalase/metabolismo , Eritrócitos/patologia , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/fisiopatologia , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/patologia , Superóxido Dismutase-1/metabolismo
6.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 19(1): 355, 2019 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31805910

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Astragaloside IV (AS-IV) was reported to play a role in improving diabetic nephropathy (DN), however, the underlying mechanisms still remain unclear. The aim of the present study is to investigate whether AS-IV ameliorates DN via the regulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). METHODS: DN model was induced in Sprague-Dawley (SD) male rats by intraperitoneal injection of 65 mg/kg streptozotocin (STZ). Rats in the AS-IV treatment group were orally gavaged with 5 mg/kg/day or 10 mg/kg/day AS-IV for eight consecutive weeks. Body weight, blood glucose, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), Serum creatinine (Scr), proteinuria and Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels were measured. Hematoxylin-Eosin (HE) and Periodic Acid-Schiff (PAS) staining were used to detect the renal pathology. The apoptosis status of glomerular cells was measured by TUNEL assay. The phosphorylation and acetylation of eNOS were detected by western blot. The effects of AS-IV on high-glucose (HG)-induced apoptosis and eNOS activity were also investigated in human renal glomerular endothelial cells (HRGECs) in vitro. RESULTS: Treatment with AS-IV apparently reduced DN symptoms in diabetic rats, as evidenced by reduced BUN, Scr, proteinuria, HbA1c levels and expanding mesangial matrix. AS-IV treatment also promoted the synthesis of nitric oxide (NO) in serum and renal tissues and ameliorated the phosphorylation of eNOS at Ser 1177 with decreased eNOS acetylation. Moreover, HG-induced dysfunction of HRGECs including increased cell permeability and apoptosis, impaired eNOS phosphorylation at Ser 1177, and decreased NO production, were all reversed by AS-IV treatment. CONCLUSIONS: These novel findings suggest that AS-IV ameliorates functional abnormalities of DN through inhibiting acetylation of eNOS and activating its phosphorylation at Ser 1177. AS-IV could be served as a potential therapeutic drug for DN.


Assuntos
Nefropatias Diabéticas/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III/metabolismo , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Saponinas/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Triterpenos/farmacologia , Animais , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Nefropatias Diabéticas/patologia , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/patologia , Masculino , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
7.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 14: 8973-8987, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31819413

RESUMO

Background: Elevated levels of low density lipoprotein (LDL), "bad cholesterol", is not an accurate indicator of coronary disease. About 75% of patients with heart attacks have cholesterol levels that do not indicate a high risk for a cardiovascular event. LDL is comprised of three subclasses, with particles of different size and density. We used nanomedical systems to elucidate the noxious effects of LDL subclasses on endothelium. Experimental: Nanosensors were employed to measure the concentrations of nitric oxide (NO) and peroxynitrite (ONOO-) stimulated by LDL subclasses in HUVECs. N-LDL and ox-LDL (subclass A: 1.016-1.019 g/mL, subclass I: 1.024-1.029 g/mL, and subclass B: 1.034-1.053 g/mL) stimulated NO and ONOO- release. The concentrations ratio of (NO)/(ONOO-) was used to evaluate the noxious effects of the subclasses on endothelium. Results: In HUVECs, the (NO)/(ONOO-) ratio for normal endothelium is about 5, but shifts to 2.7±0.4, 0.5±0.1, and 0.9±0.1 for subclasses A, B, and I, respectively. Ratios below 1.0 indicate an imbalance between NO and ONOO-, affecting endothelial function. LDL of 50% B and 50% I produced the most severe imbalance (0.45±0.04), whereas LDL of 60% A, 20% B, and 20% I had the most favorable balance of 5.66±0.69. Subclass B significantly elevated the adhesion of molecules and monocytes. The noxious effect was significantly higher for ox-LDL than n-LDL. Conclusion: Subclass B of "bad cholesterol" is the most damaging to endothelial function and can contribute to the development of atherosclerosis. Contrary to the current national guidelines, this study suggests that it's not the total LDL, rather it is the concentration of subclass B in relation to subclasses A and/or I, that should be used for diagnosis of atherosclerosis and the risk of heart attack. By utilizing specific pharmacological therapy to address the concentration of subclass B, there is a potential to significantly reduce the risk of heart attack and atherosclerosis.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Colesterol/metabolismo , Lipoproteínas LDL/metabolismo , Ácido Peroxinitroso/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/patologia , Adesão Celular , Feminino , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monócitos/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III/metabolismo , Células THP-1
8.
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao ; 39(11): 1265-1272, 2019 Nov 30.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31852645

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of atorvastatin on the expression of lectin- like oxLDL receptor 1 (LOX-1) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in collateral vessels of hypercholesterolemic rats. METHODS: Forty male SD rats were randomized equally into 4 groups: femoral ligation group (L), hypercholesterolemia + femoral ligation group (HL), hypercholesterolemia+atorvastatin+femoral ligation group (AL), and hypercholesterolemia+normal saline+femoral ligation group (NL). The rats in the latter 3 groups were fed atherogenic diet for 8 weeks. At the end of the 8 weeks, the rats were subjected to femoral artery ligation with or without intraperitoneal injection of atorvastatin (AL group) or saline (NL group). Two weeks later, all the rats were euthanized and the expressions of LOX-1 and eNOS in the collateral vessels were detected with immunofluorescence assay. In the in vitro experiment, cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were transfected with LOX-1 siRNA followed by treatment with oxLDL and/or atorvastatin. The expressions of LOX-1 and eNOS in the cells were detected with realtime PCR and Western blotting, and the cellular NO production was examined with Griess assay. RESULTS: The collateral vessels of rats with normal feeding expressed LOX-1, which was significantly increased in the collateral vessels of hypercholesterolemic rats; atorvastatin treatment significantly lowered LOX-1 expressions in the hypercholesterolemic rats. In normally fed rats, the growing collateral vessels exhibited strong eNOS expressions, which were lowered in hypercholesterolemic rats and enhanced after atorvastatin treatment. In the cell experiment, HUVECs with oxLDL treatment showed a high LOX-1 expression and a low eNOS expression, and atorvastatin treatment of the cells down-regulated LOX-1 and up-regulated eNOS expressions. Inhibition of LOX-1 mediated by a specific LOX-1 siRNA abolished the effect of oxLDL stimulation on eNOS expression in the cells. CONCLUSIONS: Both hypercholesterolemia and oxLDL can induce endothelial dysfunction and impair collateral vessel growth via the LOX-1/eNOS pathway in rats, and atorvastatin treatment can restore the LOX-1/eNOS pathway to promote the growth of the collateral vessels, suggesting the potential of atorvastatin as a therapeutic agent to promote repair of collateral vessel injuries in ischemic diseases.


Assuntos
Receptores Depuradores Classe E/metabolismo , Animais , Atorvastatina , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana , Humanos , Lipoproteínas LDL , Masculino , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
9.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 28(12): 104470, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31680031

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The nitric oxide (NO)-producing activity of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) plays a significant role in maintaining endothelial function and protecting against the stroke injury. However, the activity of the eNOS enzyme and the metabolism of major NO metabolite S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) are dysregulated after stroke, causing endothelial dysfunction. We investigated whether an administration of exogenous of GSNO or enhancing the level of endogenous GSNO protects against neurovascular injury in wild-type (WT) and eNOS-null (endothelial dysfunction) mouse models of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (IR). METHODS: Transient cerebral ischemic injury was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 60 minutes in male adult WT and eNOS null mice. GSNO (0.1 mg/kg body weight, intravenously) or N6022 (GSNO reductase inhibitor, 5.0 mg/kg body weight, intravenously) was administered 30 minutes before MCAO in preinjury and at the reperfusion in postinjury studies. Brain infarctions, edema, and neurobehavioral functions were evaluated at 24 hours after the reperfusion. RESULTS: eNOS-null mice had a higher degree (P< .05) of injury than WT. Pre- or postinjury treatment with either GSNO or N6022 significantly reduced infarct volume, improved neurological and sensorimotor function in both WT and eNOS-null mice. CONCLUSION: Reduced brain infarctions and edema, and improved neurobehavioral functions by pre- or postinjury GSNO treatment of eNOS knock out mice indicate that GSNO can attenuate IR injury, likely by mimicking the eNOS-derived NO-dependent anti-ischemic and anti-inflammatory functions. Neurovascular protection by GSNO/N6022 in both pre- and postischemic injury groups support GSNO as a promising drug candidate for the prevention and treatment of stroke injury.


Assuntos
Álcool Desidrogenase/antagonistas & inibidores , Benzamidas/farmacologia , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média/tratamento farmacológico , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Pirróis/farmacologia , S-Nitrosoglutationa/farmacologia , Álcool Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Animais , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/embriologia , Encéfalo/patologia , Edema Encefálico/enzimologia , Edema Encefálico/patologia , Edema Encefálico/prevenção & controle , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média/enzimologia , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média/genética , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III/deficiência , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III/genética
10.
Life Sci ; 239: 116882, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31705915

RESUMO

AIMS: Free fatty acids (FFA) is a key contributor to insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction. However, the precise mechanism underlying the role of FFA remains elusive. This study aimed to investigate the role of NLRP3 (NOD-like receptor pyrin domain containing-3) inflammasome in FFA induced endothelial dysfunction. MAIN METHODS: HUVECs were transfected with NLRP3 siRNA and then stimulated with LPS and palmitate. C57 BL/6 J mice transfected with NLRP3 Lenti-Virus were fed with a high-fat diet (HFD). The levels of NLRP3 inflammasome, AMPKα (AMP-activated protein kinase), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and the activity of the insulin signal pathway, in endothelial cells were determined via Western blotting. Endothelial function was determined by measuring the level of endothelium-dependent vasodilatation. KEY FINDINGS: FFA could activate NLRP3 inflammasome and induce IL-1ß release both in vitro. and in vivo. Using siRNA and Lenti-Virus to inhibit NLRP3 abolished palmitate-induced IL-1ß release and restored impaired phosphorylation of IRS-1 (Tyr), Akt (Ser473) and eNOS (Ser1177) and ACh-mediated endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation induced by palmitate. AMPKα activator AICAR(5-aminoimidazole-4-carbox-amide-1-ß-d-ribofuranoside) inhibited NLRP3 inflammasome activation and decreased IL-1ß release and restored impaired insulin signal pathway induced by palmitate. SIGNIFICANCE: NLRP3 inflammasome activation via AMPKα inactivation mediated palmitate-induced endothelial dysfunction through involves IL-1ß-induced insulin signal pathway.


Assuntos
Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Células Endoteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana , Humanos , Inflamassomos/fisiologia , Inflamação/metabolismo , Insulina/metabolismo , Resistência à Insulina , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/fisiologia , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III/metabolismo , Palmitatos/farmacologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
11.
Cell Physiol Biochem ; 53(5): 865-886, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31724838

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Heart failure is characterized by chronic low-grade vascular inflammation, which in itself can lead to endothelial dysfunction. Clinical trials showed reductions in heart failure-related hospitalizations of type 2 diabetic patients using sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i's). Whether and how SGLT2i's directly affect the endothelium under inflammatory conditions is not completely understood. The aim of the study was to investigate whether the SGLT2i Empagliflozin (EMPA) and Dapagliflozin (DAPA) reduce tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) induced endothelial inflammation in vitro. METHODS: Human coronary arterial endothelial cells (HCAECs) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were (pre-)incubated with 1 µM EMPA or DAPA and subsequently exposed to 10 ng/ml TNFα. ROS and NO were measured using live cell imaging. Target proteins were either determined by infrared western blotting or fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS). The connection between Cav-1 and eNOS was determined by co-immunoprecipitation. RESULTS: Nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability was reduced by TNFα and both EMPA and DAPA restored NO levels in TNFα-stimulated HCAECs. Intracellular ROS was increased by TNFα, and this increase was completely abolished by EMPA and DAPA in HCAECs by means of live cell imaging. eNOS signaling was significantly disturbed after 24 h when cells were exposed to TNFα for 24h, yet the presence of both SGLT2is did not prevent this disruption. TNFα-induced enhanced permeability at t=24h was unaffected in HUVECs by EMPA. Similarly, adhesion molecule expression (VCAM-1 and ICAM-1) was elevated after 4h TNFα (1.5-5.5 fold increase of VCAM-1 and 4-12 fold increase of ICAM-1) but were unaffected by EMPA and DAPA in both cell types. Although we detected expression of SGLT2 protein levels, the fact that we could not silence this expression by means of siRNA and the mRNA levels of SGLT2 were not detectable in HCAECs, suggests aspecificity or our SGLT2 antibody and absence of SGLT2 in our cells. CONCLUSION: These data suggest that EMPA and DAPA rather restore NO bioavailability by inhibiting ROS generation than by affecting eNOS expression or signaling, barrier function and adhesion molecules expression in TNFα-induced endothelial cells. Furthermore, the observed effects cannot be ascribed to the inhibition of SGLT2 in endothelial cells.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/farmacologia , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Glucosídeos/farmacologia , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/farmacologia , Vasos Coronários/citologia , Células Endoteliais/citologia , Células Endoteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana , Humanos , Molécula 1 de Adesão Intercelular/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III/metabolismo , Permeabilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transportador 2 de Glucose-Sódio/genética , Transportador 2 de Glucose-Sódio/metabolismo , Molécula 1 de Adesão de Célula Vascular
12.
Int Heart J ; 60(6): 1430-1434, 2019 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31735783

RESUMO

Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a fatal disease caused by pulmonary arterial vasoconstriction and organic stenosis due to the proliferation of pulmonary smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells. Endothelial dysfunction, including impaired nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability, plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of pulmonary hypertension, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) is an important modulator of pulmonary vasodilatation. Although senescence marker protein (SMP) 30 is known as an anti-aging protein, the role of SMP30 in pulmonary vessels is still unclear. In this study, we examined the role of SMP30 in pulmonary vasculature using SMP30-deficient mice.We used female SMP30-deficient mice and wild-type littermate (WT) mice at the age of 12 to 18 weeks. The WT and SMP30-deficient mice were exposed to normoxia or hypoxia (10% oxygen for 4 weeks). In normoxia, the right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP) was not different between the WT and SMP30-deficient mice, but in hypoxia, the RVSP was significantly higher in the SMP30-deficient mice compared to the WT mice (P < 0.05). The hypoxia-induced increases in right ventricular hypertrophy and medial smooth muscle area of the pulmonary artery were comparable between the WT and the SMP30-deficient mice. Western blotting showed that eNOS phosphorylation in lung tissue was reduced in the SMP30-deficient mice compared to the WT mice in normoxia. However, in hypoxic conditions, eNOS phosphorylation was reduced in both the WT and SMP30-deficient mice with no differences in Akt phosphorylation.Our study demonstrated that SMP30 is involved in the development of hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension by impairment of eNOS activity.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/fisiologia , Hipertensão Pulmonar/etiologia , Hipóxia/complicações , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/fisiologia , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Hipertensão Pulmonar/metabolismo , Hipóxia/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III/metabolismo
13.
Life Sci ; 239: 117047, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31730865

RESUMO

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPAR-γ) agonist, pioglitazone, is used clinically to improve the glycemic state in patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus. Independent of its blood glucose-lowering properties, pioglitazone ameliorates different cardiovascular disorders. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of pioglitazone on cardiovascular complications of N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME)-induced hypertension and to determine the role of oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in its activity. Nitric oxide (NO) deficiency induced by chronic L-NAME administration was associated with high blood pressure (BP) and cardiac hypertrophy. L-NAME induced oxidative stress as indicated by reduced glutathione (GSH) levels, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activities as well as increased malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. Furthermore, L-NAME increased the expression of ER stress markers, activating transcription factor-4 (ATF-4) and C/EPBα-homologous protein-10 (CHOP-10) in both heart and aorta of hypertensive rats. Activation of PPAR-γ by pioglitazone reduced BP, restored the blunted NO levels, increased endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) expression, and restored the antioxidant status of L-NAME-induced hypertensive rats. Moreover, the antihypertensive activity of pioglitazone was associated with a reduction in ER stress and this effect was PPAR-γ dependent. Interestingly, the effect of ER stress inhibitor, 4-phenylbutyric acid (4-PBA) and antioxidant, N-acetylcysteine (NAC), on BP, NO availability, oxidative stress and ER stress mimics the activity of pioglitazone. Taken together, our data suggests that PPAR-γ is a potential target to inhibit vascular complications and cardiac damage associated with NO-deficient HTN and puts more emphasis on the importance of ER stress in regulating PPAR-γ activity.


Assuntos
Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Pioglitazona/farmacologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Aorta/metabolismo , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Catalase/metabolismo , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Glutationa/metabolismo , Coração/fisiologia , Hipertensão/metabolismo , Masculino , NG-Nitroarginina Metil Éster/farmacologia , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , PPAR gama/agonistas , Pioglitazona/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
14.
Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 35(9): 806-811, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31750822

RESUMO

Objective To explore the effect of tanshinone IIA (TSA) on hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced senescence of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and the underlying mechanism. Methods HUVECs were cultured in vitro and divided into the control group, model group and TSA group. The cells in the TSA group were pre-treated with TSA for 24 hours. H2O2 was used to induce cell senescence in the model and TSA groups. Transfection with SIRT1 siRNA was used for the knockdown of SIRT1 in HUVECs. CCK-8 assay was performed to detect cell viability. The expression levels of senescence-related proteins (P21 and P26), SIRT1, phosphorylated endothelial nitric oxide synthase (p-eNOS), and eNOS were detected by Western blot analysis. Senescence-associated ß-galactosidase (SA-ß-gal) staining was performed to evaluate cell senescence. Results Pretreatment with TSA at low concentrations (10, 20 and 40 µg/mL) for 24 hours did not affect cell viability, while high concentrations (80, 160 and 320 µg/mL) decreased cell viability significantly. In addition, 10, 20 and 40 µg/mL of TSA promoted H2O2-mediated cell viability of HUVECs in a concentration-dependent manner. Compared with the control group, the positive rate of SA-ß-gal staining in the model group increased, while the positive rate in the TSA group was significantly lower than that in the model group. The expression levels of P21 and P16 protein in the model group were higher than those in the control group, while SIRT1 and p-eNOS/eNOS were lower than those in the control group. Conversely, the expression of P21 and P16 proteins in the TSA group were lower than those in the model group, and SIRT1 and p-eNOS/eNOS were higher in the TSA group than those in the model group. Transfected with SIRT1 siRNA significantly down-regulated the expression of SIRT1 in HUVECs and the positive rate of SA-ß-gal staining was notably raised when SIRT1 was silenced in TSA-treated HUVECs. Conclusion TSA attenuates H2O2-induced endothelial cell senescence by activating SIRT1/eNOS signaling pathway.


Assuntos
/farmacologia , Senescência Celular , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III/metabolismo , Sirtuína 1/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/citologia , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Transdução de Sinais
15.
Life Sci ; 238: 116922, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31634463

RESUMO

AIMS: Nitric oxide (NO) has a critical, but not well understood, influence in the physiology of the lower urinary tract. We evaluated the effect of NO/phosphodiesterase (PDE)5 signaling in voiding dysfunction in the sickle cell disease (SCD) mouse, characterized by low NO bioavailability. MAIN METHODS: Adult SCD (Sickle) and wild-type (WT) male mice were treated daily with sodium nitrate (10 mM) or vehicle. After 18 days, blood was obtained for nitrite measurement, urethra was collected for organ bath study, and bladder and urethra were collected for Western blot analysis of PDE5 phosphorylation (Ser-92) (activated form). Non-anesthetized mice underwent evaluation of urine volume by void spot assay. eNOS phosphorylation (Ser-1177) and nNOS phosphorylation (Ser-1412) (positive regulatory sites) were evaluated in the bladder and urethra of untreated mice. KEY FINDINGS: Sickle mice exhibited decreased eNOS, nNOS, and PDE5 phosphorylation in the bladder and urethra, decreased plasma nitrite levels, increased relaxation of phenylephrine-contracted urethral tissue to an NO donor sodium nitroprusside, and increased total urine volume, compared with WT mice. Nitrate treatment normalized plasma nitrite levels, relaxation of urethra to sodium nitroprusside, PDE5 phosphorylation in the urethra and bladder, and urine volume in Sickle mice. SIGNIFICANCE: Derangement in PDE5 activity associated with basally low NO bioavailability in the bladder and urethra contributes to the molecular basis for voiding abnormalities in Sickle mice. Inorganic nitrate supplementation normalized voiding in Sickle mice through mechanisms likely involving upregulation of PDE5 activity. These findings suggest that interventions targeting dysregulatory NO/PDE5 signaling may ameliorate overactive bladder in SCD.


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme/fisiopatologia , Nucleotídeo Cíclico Fosfodiesterase do Tipo 5/metabolismo , Nitratos/administração & dosagem , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Uretra/efeitos dos fármacos , Bexiga Urinária/efeitos dos fármacos , Administração Oral , Animais , Masculino , Camundongos , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo I/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III/metabolismo , Fosforilação , Uretra/metabolismo , Uretra/patologia , Bexiga Urinária/metabolismo , Bexiga Urinária/patologia
16.
Life Sci ; 239: 116912, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31634465

RESUMO

AIMS: Cardiac dysfunction is a major cause of multi-organ dysfunction in critical care units following severe burns. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in cardiac dysfunction in burned mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Wild-type and iNOS-knockout mice were subjected to 30% total body surface area burns. Next, the expression of iNOS was measured at 1, 3 and 7 days post-burn. Cardiac function, insulin sensitivity, inflammation, oxidative stress, and apoptosis in the hearts of the mice were assessed at 3 days post-burn. KEY FINDINGS: Compared to control mice, iNOS expression was increased and reached a maximum in the heart of burned mice at 3 days post-burn. iNOS deficiency significantly alleviated the cardiac dysfunction and insulin resistance in burned mice. In addition, burn-induced inflammation, oxidative stress, and apoptosis in the heart were markedly reduced in iNOS-knockout burned mice when compared to corresponding values in wild-type burned mice. SIGNIFICANCE: Our study demonstrates that iNOS contributes to insulin resistance in the hearts of mice following burn injury, and iNOS deficiency protects cardiac function against burn injury in mice, suggesting iNOS as a potential therapeutic target to treat burn injuries.


Assuntos
Queimaduras/fisiopatologia , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/fisiologia , Animais , Apoptose , Queimaduras/complicações , Coração , Cardiopatias/metabolismo , Inflamação/metabolismo , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo I/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/genética , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
17.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 29(12): 1418-1428, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31653519

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a state of slower fetal growth usually followed by a catch-up growth. Postnatal catch-up growth in IUGR models increases the incidence of pulmonary arterial hypertension in adulthood. Here, we hypothesize that the adverse pulmonary vascular consequences of IUGR may be improved by slowing down postnatal growth velocity. Meanwhile, cognitive function was also studied. METHODS AND RESULTS: We established an IUGR rat model by restricting maternal food throughout gestation. After birth, pups were fed a regular or restricted diet during lactation by changing litter size. Thus, there were three experimental groups according to the dam/offspring diet: C/C (gold standard), IUGR with catch-up growth (R/C) and IUGR with delayed growth (R/D). In adulthood (14 weeks of age), we assessed pulmonary vascular development by hemodynamic measurement and immunohistochemistry. Our results showed that adult R/C offspring developed an elevated mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP) and pulmonary arteriolar remodeling accompanied with decreased eNOS mRNA and protein expressions compared to C/C or R/D offspring. This suggested that delayed postnatal growth improved pulmonary circulation compared to postnatal catch-up growth. Conversely, adult R/D offspring performed poorly in cognition. Behavior test and electrophysiology results exhibited a reduced synaptic plasticity. Furthermore, decreased mRNA expression levels of the memory-related gene zif268 and transcription factor recruitment factor p300 in the hippocampus region were also observed in R/D group. CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that delayed postnatal growth results in cognitive impairment, but it reverses elevations in mPAP induced by postnatal catch-up growth following IUGR.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal , Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Restrição Calórica/efeitos adversos , Cognição , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/dietoterapia , Hipertensão Pulmonar/prevenção & controle , Artéria Pulmonar/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fatores Etários , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Disfunção Cognitiva/metabolismo , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Proteína p300 Associada a E1A/genética , Proteína p300 Associada a E1A/metabolismo , Proteína 1 de Resposta de Crescimento Precoce/genética , Proteína 1 de Resposta de Crescimento Precoce/metabolismo , Feminino , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/fisiopatologia , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/psicologia , Hemodinâmica , Hipertensão Pulmonar/etiologia , Hipertensão Pulmonar/metabolismo , Hipertensão Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Plasticidade Neuronal , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III/genética , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III/metabolismo , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Artéria Pulmonar/metabolismo , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Remodelação Vascular , Ganho de Peso
18.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4523, 2019 10 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586053

RESUMO

Arctigenin (ATG) is a major component of Fructus Arctii, a traditional herbal remedy that reduced proteinuria in diabetic patients. However, whether ATG specifically provides renoprotection in DKD is not known. Here we report that ATG administration is sufficient to attenuate proteinuria and podocyte injury in mouse models of diabetes. Transcriptomic analysis of diabetic mouse glomeruli showed that cell adhesion and inflammation are two key pathways affected by ATG treatment, and mass spectrometry analysis identified protein phosphatase 2 A (PP2A) as one of the top ATG-interacting proteins in renal cells. Enhanced PP2A activity by ATG reduces p65 NF-κB-mediated inflammatory response and high glucose-induced migration in cultured podocytes via interaction with Drebrin-1. Importantly, podocyte-specific Pp2a deletion in mice exacerbates DKD injury and abrogates the ATG-mediated renoprotection. Collectively, our results demonstrate a renoprotective mechanism of ATG via PP2A activation and establish PP2A as a potential target for DKD progression.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/complicações , Nefropatias Diabéticas/tratamento farmacológico , Furanos/farmacologia , Lignanas/farmacologia , Podócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína Fosfatase 2/metabolismo , Animais , Arctium/química , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/induzido quimicamente , Nefropatias Diabéticas/etiologia , Nefropatias Diabéticas/patologia , Progressão da Doença , Furanos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Lignanas/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III/genética , Podócitos/patologia , Podócitos/ultraestrutura , Proteína Fosfatase 2/genética , Estreptozocina/toxicidade , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(19)2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31574956

RESUMO

2-Cyano-3,12-dioxo-oleana-1,9(11)-dien-28-oic acid methyl ester (CDDO-Me) is a triterpenoid analogue of oleanolic acid that has anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and neuroprotective activities. In the present study, we evaluate the effects of CDDO-Me on serum extravasation and astroglial death in the rat piriform cortex (PC) induced by status epilepticus (a prolonged seizure activity, SE) in order to propose an underlying pharmacological mechanism of CDDO-Me and its availability for treatment of vasogenic edema. CDDO-Me effectively mitigated serum extravasation and a massive astroglial loss in the PC following SE. CDDO-Me abrogated tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) synthesis in activated microglia by inhibiting nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 serine 276 phosphorylation. CDDO-Me also abolished NF-κB threonine 435 phosphorylation in endothelial cells and TNF-α-mediated-phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT/endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) signaling cascades, which trigger vasogenic edema following SE. Furthermore, CDDO-Me increased astroglial viability via the up-regulation of nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) expression. Therefore, our findings suggest that CDDO-Me may ameliorate SE-induced vasogenic edema formation by regulating NF-κB p65 phosphorylations in microglia as well as endothelial cells and enhancing Nrf2 expression in astrocytes, respectively.


Assuntos
Astrócitos/metabolismo , Edema Encefálico/etiologia , Edema Encefálico/metabolismo , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , Ácido Oleanólico/análogos & derivados , Estado Epiléptico/complicações , Fator de Transcrição RelA/metabolismo , Edema Encefálico/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Microglia/metabolismo , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III/metabolismo , Ácido Oleanólico/farmacologia , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinase/metabolismo , Fosforilação , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
20.
J Biol Regul Homeost Agents ; 33(5): 1577-1580, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31576731

RESUMO

Nitric oxide (NO) plays a key role in inflammation. It is partly produced by three forms of NOS: eNOS of inflammatory cells, nNOS of neural cells and iNOS (inducible isoform). Estrogens can cause an anti-inflammatory effect, although it is not yet clear through which NOS isoforms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of the different NOS isoforms, as well as estrogen receptors (ERs) α and ß, on the anti-inflammatory effects of estrogens. To avoid the influence of endogenous glucocorticoids or sexual hormones, male rats were hypophysectomized. Animals were segregated into two control groups (no-treatment control group and SHAM-operated animals) and three hypophysectomized groups (no-hormonal treatment, with estradiol-17ß, or with testosterone replacement treatment). Freund's complete adjuvant (1 mg) was administered to the footpad of all animals. Measurements were made based on footpad inflammation (with a plethysmometer) such as eNOS, nNOS, iNOS and ER α and ß protein expression (by immunohistochemistry principle/method) on days 1, 7 and 14. Only estradiol decreased inflammation, accompanied by increased levels of eNOS and nNOS and differential expression of ERs α and ß in the inflammatory infiltrate. The higher levels of estradiol-induced eNOS and nNOS ocurred perhaps through the activation of ER ß.


Assuntos
Ressecção Endoscópica de Mucosa , Gastrite/cirurgia , Animais , Estradiol/farmacologia , Masculino , Óxido Nítrico , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III/metabolismo , Ratos , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo
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