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1.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 49(3): 409-415, 2020 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32693889

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the acute effects of exposure to fine particulate matter(PM_(2. 5))on children's respiratory inflammation and oxidative stress. METHODS: This study was a cross-sectional study. A total of 115 9-12 year-old children in boarding schools were selected as the research objects. The PM_(2. 5) exposure concentration was continuously monitored for 5 days, and the individual exposure level was estimated by using the time activity mode and the PM_(2. 5) microenvironment concentration. Exhaled breath condensate(EBC) and urine samples were collected on the 5 th day. Fractional exhaled nitric oxide(FeNO) was detected by a FeNO detector, EBC pH was measured by microelectrode potential analysis method, urine 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine(8-OHdG) was detected by ELISA kit, and the effect of PM_(2. 5) on three effect indicators was analyzed by a linear model. RESULTS: The highest individual exposure concentration was 102 µg/m~3 4 days before the physical examination, and the lowest individual exposure concentration was 9. 19 µg/m~3 2 days before the physical examination. The FeNO of boys was higher than that of girls, and the difference was significant(P<0. 05). There were no significant differences between gender in other indicators. Correlation analysis found that there was a significant correlation between the exposure concentration of PM_(2. 5) and FeNO, and the strongest correlation was 0 to 2 days before the physical examination with each 10 µg/m~3 increase in PM_(2. 5) caused a 29. 7% increase in FeNO, other indicators did not change significantly. Gender subgroup analysis found that PM_(2. 5) had a significant effect on boys' FeNO, every 10 µg/m~3 increase in PM_(2. 5) during the study period can cause an increase in boys' FeNO of 3. 47%-50. 97%, but had no significant effect on all three indicators of girls. CONCLUSION: PM_(2. 5) had significant effects on FeNO in healthy children with immediate and delayed effects, especially on boys.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Testes Respiratórios , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação , Masculino , Óxido Nítrico/análise , Estresse Oxidativo , Material Particulado/análise
2.
Bone Joint J ; 102-B(7_Supple_B): 116-121, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32600200

RESUMO

AIMS: This study aimed to determine if macrophages can attach and directly affect the oxide layers of 316L stainless steel, titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V), and cobalt-chromium-molybdenum alloy (CoCrMo) by releasing components of these alloys. METHODS: Murine peritoneal macrophages were cultured and placed on stainless steel, CoCrMo, and Ti6Al4V discs into a 96-well plate. Cells were activated with interferon gamma and lipopolysaccharide. Macrophages on stainless steel discs produced significantly more nitric oxide (NO) compared to their control counterparts after eight to ten days and remained elevated for the duration of the experiment. RESULTS: On stainless steel, both nonactivated and activated cell groups were shown to have a significant increase in metal ion release for Cr, Fe, and Ni (p < 0.001, p = 0.002, and p = 0.020 respectively) compared with medium only and showed macrophage-sized corrosive pits on the stainless steel surface. On titanium alloy discs there was a significant increase in aluminum (p < 0.001) among all groups compared with medium only. CONCLUSION: These results indicated that macrophages were able to attach to and affect the oxide surface of stainless steel and titanium alloy discs. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2020;102-B(7 Supple B):116-121.


Assuntos
Prótese Articular , Macrófagos/química , Aço Inoxidável , Titânio , Vitálio , Ligas , Animais , Sobrevivência Celular , Cromo/análise , Meios de Cultura , Íons , Ferro/análise , Camundongos , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Níquel/análise , Óxido Nítrico/análise
3.
Exp Parasitol ; 215: 107933, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32525006

RESUMO

Schistosomiasis is still a public health problem. Praziquantel is the only drug available for treatment of all forms of human schistosomiasis. Although praziquantel is an effective drug against all species of human schistosomes, concerns about resistance have been raised, especially in endemic areas. A hybrid compound containing several pharmacophore within a single molecule is a promising strategy. Here, we described the anti-schistosomal effect of 4-(2-Chloroquinolin-3-yl)-2-oxo-6-(p-tolyl)-1,2-dihydropyridine-3-carbonitrile (PPQ-6), a hybrid drug based on quinoline and pyridine. PPQ-6 was given as two regimens (20 or 40 mg/kg). In both regimens, PPQ-6 significantly reduced liver and spleen indices, nitric oxide production, tissue egg load, hepatic granuloma size and count, immature eggs and total worm burden especially females. Our findings suggested that PPQ-6 is a promising anti-schistosomal agent; however more research is needed to elucidate its mechanism of action and report its activity on juvenile schistosomes and other species of human schistosomes.


Assuntos
Piridinas/farmacologia , Quinolinas/farmacologia , Schistosoma mansoni/efeitos dos fármacos , Esquistossomose mansoni/tratamento farmacológico , Esquistossomicidas/farmacologia , Análise de Variância , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Fígado/parasitologia , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Óxido Nítrico/análise , Piridinas/química , Piridinas/uso terapêutico , Quinolinas/química , Quinolinas/uso terapêutico , Distribuição Aleatória , Esquistossomicidas/química , Esquistossomicidas/uso terapêutico , Fatores Sexuais , Baço/parasitologia , Baço/patologia
4.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3207, 2020 06 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32587309

RESUMO

Real-time sensing of nitric oxide (NO) in physiological environments is critically important in monitoring neurotransmission, inflammatory responses, cardiovascular systems, etc. Conventional approaches for NO detection relying on indirect colorimetric measurement or built with rigid and permanent materials cannot provide continuous monitoring and/or require additional surgical retrieval of the implants, which comes with increased risks and hospital cost. Herein, we report a flexible, biologically degradable and wirelessly operated electrochemical sensor for real-time NO detection with a low detection limit (3.97 nmol), a wide sensing range (0.01-100 µM), and desirable anti-interference characteristics. The device successfully captures NO evolution in cultured cells and organs, with results comparable to those obtained from the standard Griess assay. Incorporated with a wireless circuit, the sensor platform achieves continuous sensing of NO levels in living mammals for several days. The work may provide essential diagnostic and therapeutic information for health assessment, treatment optimization and postsurgical monitoring.


Assuntos
Óxido Nítrico/análise , Animais , Técnicas Biossensoriais , Técnicas Eletroquímicas , Desenho de Equipamento
5.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3188, 2020 06 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32581225

RESUMO

Nitric oxide (NO) has been implicated in a variety of physiological and pathological processes. Monitoring cellular levels of NO requires a sensor to feature adequate sensitivity, transient recording ability and biocompatibility. Herein we report a single-atom catalysts (SACs)-based electrochemical sensor for the detection of NO in live cellular environment. The system employs nickel single atoms anchored on N-doped hollow carbon spheres (Ni SACs/N-C) that act as an excellent catalyst for electrochemical oxidation of NO. Notably, Ni SACs/N-C shows superior electrocatalytic performance to the commonly used Ni based nanomaterials, attributing from the greatly reduced Gibbs free energy that are required for Ni SACs/N-C in activating NO oxidation. Moreover, Ni SACs-based flexible and stretchable sensor shows high biocompatibility and low nanomolar sensitivity, enabling the real-time monitoring of NO release from cells upon drug and stretch stimulation. Our results demonstrate a promising means of using SACs for electrochemical sensing applications.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Níquel/química , Óxido Nítrico/análise , Nitrogênio/química , Técnicas Biossensoriais/instrumentação , Carbono/química , Catálise , Eletroquímica , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/metabolismo , Humanos , Nanoestruturas/química , Nanoestruturas/ultraestrutura , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Oxirredução
6.
Exp Parasitol ; 215: 107917, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32446699

RESUMO

Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a worldwide hazardous zoonotic parasitosis caused by Echinococcus granulosus. CE development involves complex immunological mechanisms, including participation of multiple immune cells and effector molecules. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are known to be involved in chronic and acute inflammatory conditions. In this study, we aimed to characterize the immune function of MDSCs in CE to improve the understanding, prevention and treatment of CE. Our results indicated that MDSCs overexpressing Ly6C and Ly6G inhibit the formation and activity of T helper 2 cells in a NO-dependent manner during E. granulosus infection.


Assuntos
Equinococose/imunologia , Echinococcus granulosus/imunologia , Células Supressoras Mieloides/imunologia , Células Th2/imunologia , Análise de Variância , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais , Arginase/análise , Medula Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Medula Óssea/imunologia , Citocinas/análise , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo , Humanos , Ceratolíticos/farmacologia , Camundongos , Células Supressoras Mieloides/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Supressoras Mieloides/enzimologia , Óxido Nítrico/análise , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/análise , Organismos Livres de Patógenos Específicos , Baço/citologia , Baço/efeitos dos fármacos , Baço/imunologia , Tretinoína/farmacologia
7.
Anticancer Res ; 40(5): 2591-2599, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32366404

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Physical plasma is a mixture of reactive particles and electromagnetic radiation. Due to the antimicrobial, immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, wound-healing promoting, and antineoplastic effects of body tempered physical plasma under atmospheric pressure (cold atmospheric plasma: CAP), CAP therapy is increasingly becoming the focus of surgical and oncological disciplines. However, when applied in practice, a potential emission of harmful noxae such as toxic nitrogen oxides must be taken into account, which was investigated in the following study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: MiniJet-R Ar CAP device was characterized with respect to NOX-specific spectra, ultraviolet radiation C (UVC) intensity in the range of 200-275 nm and the formation of NOX gases. Instrument-specific parameters such as gas flow, energy setting of the high-frequency generator, and flow rate of the carrier gas Ar were varied. To test the toxic properties of the NO2 concentrations formed by CAP, SK-OV-3 human ovarian cancer cells were incubated with different NO2 concentrations and cell growth was monitored for 120 h. RESULTS: The operation of MiniJet-R led to the formation of NO2 in the proximity of the CAP effluent. Synthesis of NO led to a NO-specific spectrum in the range of 100-275 nm, whereby UVC radiation produced reached intensities of up to 90 mW/m2 NO gas itself, however, was not detectable, as it was converted to NO2 rapidly. Cell culture incubation experiments demonstrated that NO2 in these concentration ranges had no influence on the cell growth of human cancer cells. CONCLUSION: Although no limit values were exceeded in the present study, the emission of high-energy UVC radiation and toxic NO2 is a risk factor with regard to the legal regulations on workplace protection (operator hazard) and the approval of medical devices (patient hazard). This is important for considerations regarding treatment frequency and duration. The growth inhibitory effect of CAP treatment on human cancer cells principally suggests a medical application of the MiniJet-R device, although more extensive studies will have to follow.


Assuntos
Pressão Atmosférica , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/toxicidade , Gases em Plasma/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Óxido Nítrico/análise , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Raios Ultravioleta
8.
Tunis Med ; 98(2): 144-149, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32395804

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Glaucoma is an optic neuropathy induced by many factors. Vascular dysfunction is involved in the mechanism underlying glaucoma. AIM: To determine the involvement of nitric oxide (NO), which is implicated in the regulation of ocular blood flow, in primary open angle glaucoma (POAG). Furthermore, lactate and uric acid (UA) levels were investigated. METHODS: Concentrations of NO, UA and lactate in plasma and aqueous humor (AH) were measured in 214 Tunisian patients (100 patients with POAG and 114 subjects with cataract as control group). NO metabolites, nitrate and nitrite (NOx) production were determined using the Griess reaction. UA and lactate concentrations were measured using enzymatic- colorimetric methods. RESULTS: NOx concentrations in patients with POAG were significantly lower compared to cataract group in plasma (5.23±1.55 µmol/L vs 18.35±6.87 µmol/L, p=0.01) and AH (20.54±7.41 µmol/L vs 45.25±10.92 µmol/L, p=0.02). Plasma and AH levels of lactate and UA were significantly higher in glaucoma patients than in control subjects. CONCLUSIONS: In the present study, decreased NO and increased UA and lactate levels were found in the AH and plasma of POAG patients compared to control subjects. These data suggest a possible involvement of these factors in glaucoma.


Assuntos
Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Humor Aquoso/química , Humor Aquoso/metabolismo , Análise Química do Sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Catarata/sangue , Catarata/metabolismo , Catarata/patologia , Feminino , Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto/sangue , Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto/patologia , Humanos , Ácido Láctico/análise , Ácido Láctico/sangue , Ácido Láctico/metabolismo , Masculino , Óxido Nítrico/análise , Óxido Nítrico/sangue , Tunísia , Ácido Úrico/análise , Ácido Úrico/sangue , Ácido Úrico/metabolismo
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32295485

RESUMO

Despite a connection between road traffic and air pollution has been clearly identified, few integrated analyses on air quality and mobility policies are currently available worldwide. Aim of this work is to build a framework for the evaluation of the impact of mobility policies on air quality in 14 major Italian cities, on a long-time scale (2006-2016). Air quality data was collected from all PM10, PM2.5, and NO2 monitoring stations, installed in compliance with the European directive 2008/50/EC. A large dataset was collected, including public transport, environmental, and fuel categorization of the private vehicular fleet, low emissions zones and modal split. In the analyzed time period, both public transportation use and private motorization decreased. Considering the environmental classification standards of vehicles, Northern cities are more readily switching to newer and less polluting cars (e.g. Euro 5 and Euro 6). There has been a general reduction in PM and NO2 concentration. Nevertheless, exceedances are still above the targeted limit value, mainly in some Northern cities who made major investments in sustainable and shared mobility: this highlights a strong influence of climatic conditions and other sources. Dramatic variations in the CO/NO ratio were observed in Turin, while smaller changes are observed in Milan, Rome and Palermo.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Material Particulado/análise , Emissões de Veículos/análise , Automóveis , Monóxido de Carbono/análise , Cidades , Itália , Óxido Nítrico/análise
12.
Braz J Med Biol Res ; 53(4): e8604, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32294697

RESUMO

Maraba virus is a member of the genus Vesiculovirus of the Rhabdoviridae family that was isolated in 1983 from sandflies captured in the municipality of Maraba, state of Pará, Amazônia, Brazil. Despite 30 years having passed since its isolation, little is known about the neuropathology induced by the Maraba virus. Accordingly, in this study the histopathological features, inflammatory glial changes, cytokine concentrations, and nitric oxide activity in the encephalon of adult mice subjected to Maraba virus nostril infection were evaluated. The results showed that 6 days after intranasal inoculation, severe neuropathological-associated disease signs appeared, including edema, necrosis and pyknosis of neurons, generalized congestion of encephalic vessels, and intra- and perivascular meningeal lymphocytic infiltrates in several brain regions. Immunolabeling of viral antigens was observed in almost all central nervous system (CNS) areas and this was associated with intense microglial activation and astrogliosis. Compared to control animals, infected mice showed significant increases in interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interferon (INF)-γ, MCP-1, nitric oxide, and encephalic cytokine levels. We suggest that an exacerbated inflammatory response in several regions of the CNS of adult BALB/c mice might be responsible for their deaths.


Assuntos
Meningoencefalite/complicações , Estomatite Vesicular/complicações , Animais , Astrócitos/metabolismo , Brasil , Citocinas/análise , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Citometria de Fluxo , Masculino , Meningoencefalite/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Microglia/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/análise , Estomatite Vesicular/patologia , Vesiculovirus
13.
Parasite Immunol ; 42(6): e12713, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32173875

RESUMO

Canine leishmaniasis (CanL) is caused by the intracellular parasite Leishmania infantum. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) exerts potent regulatory effects on the immune system in experimental model Leishmania infection, but this influence has not yet been studied in CanL. In this study, PGE2 and PGE2 receptor levels and the regulatory effect of PGE2 on arginase activity, NO2 , IL-10, IL-17, IFN-γ, TNF-α and parasite load were evaluated in cultures of splenic leucocytes obtained from dogs with CanL in the presence of agonists and inhibitors. Our results showed that splenic leucocytes from dogs with CanL had lower EP2 receptor levels than those of splenic leucocytes from healthy animals. We observed that NO2 levels decreased when the cells were treated with a PGE2 receptor agonist (EP1/EP2/EP3) or COX-2 inhibitor (NS-398) and that TNF-α, IL-17 and IFN-γ cytokine levels decreased when the cells were treated with a PGE2 receptor agonist (EP2) or PGE2 itself. The parasite load in splenic leucocyte cell cultures from dogs with CanL decreased after stimulation of the cells with PGE2 . We conclude that Leishmania infection of dogs modulates PGE2 receptors and speculate that the binding of PGE2 to its receptors may activate the microbicidal capacity of cells.


Assuntos
Citocinas/imunologia , Dinoprostona/metabolismo , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Leishmania infantum/imunologia , Leishmaniose/veterinária , Receptores de Prostaglandina E/metabolismo , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacologia , Inibidores de Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/farmacologia , Dinoprostona/agonistas , Dinoprostona/antagonistas & inibidores , Doenças do Cão/imunologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Leishmaniose/tratamento farmacológico , Leishmaniose/imunologia , Óxido Nítrico/análise , Nitrobenzenos/farmacologia , Carga Parasitária , Receptores de Prostaglandina E/agonistas , Receptores de Prostaglandina E/fisiologia , Sulfonamidas/farmacologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/imunologia
14.
Neumol. pediátr. (En línea) ; 15(1): 257-266, Mar. 2020. tab, ilus, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088094

RESUMO

Pulmonary function testing in children includes a large number of methods and aspects. Children constitute a very heterogeneous group of individuals, among which are non-collaborative infants and preschoolers who represent a challenge in the development of new methods that do not require collaboration or coordination. This review attempts to achieve a comprehensive approach to pulmonary function tests in children that allow the physician working in pediatrics to get to know: their pathophysiological bases; the reasons for a request for a pulmonary function test taking into account the underlying pathophysiological process that is suspected; the study procedures; the possible clinical findings and their interpretation; the advantages and limitations of several of the tests. Information related to spirometry is developed more specifically, since it is the most widespread, accessible and widely validated methods.


El estudio de la función pulmonar (FP) en niños abarca un gran número de métodos y aspectos. La edad pediátrica en sí constituye un grupo muy heterogéneo de individuos, entre los que se encuentran los de edades más tempranas que son no colaborativos y que representan un desafío en el desarrollo de nuevos métodos que no requieran colaboración ni coordinación. En esta revisión se describirá un enfoque integral de los estudios de FP más utilizados en niños. Se mencionan sus bases fisiopatológicas; los motivos de un pedido de estudio de FP teniendo en cuenta el proceso fisiopatológico subyacente que se sospecha; los posibles hallazgos clínicos y su interpretación y las ventajas y limitaciones de varios de los test.


Assuntos
Humanos , Criança , Testes de Função Respiratória/métodos , Pneumopatias/fisiopatologia , Pletismografia Total , Espirometria , Pneumopatias/diagnóstico , Óxido Nítrico/análise
15.
J Breath Res ; 14(3): 037101, 2020 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32191922

RESUMO

We report the spectrum of nitric oxide (NO) in the ultraviolet (UV) (225.4-227.0 nm) region based on cavity ringdown spectroscopy (CRDS). A cavity ringdown system, which consisted of a tunable UV laser source and a vacuum-pumped ringdown cavity, was constructed to measure NO at room temperature and atmospheric or reduced pressure. The measured spectra were validated using LIFBase simulations. The absorption cross-section of NO at the strongest absorption peak at 226.255 nm was measured to be 7.64 × 10-18 cm2 molecule-1. Using the measured mirror reflectivity of 99.55% at 226.255 nm, the detection limit of NO was determined to be 7.4 ppb (parts per billion) based on the standard 3-σ criteria. The stability and reproducibility of this CRDS system were also tested. Furthermore, exhaled gas samples from 203 human subjects (105 healthy people and 98 lung cancer patients) were measured using the system. Results demonstrated that the cavity ringdown spectroscopy in the deep-UV region has potential for breath NO test.


Assuntos
Testes Respiratórios/métodos , Óxido Nítrico/análise , Análise Espectral , Raios Ultravioleta , Expiração , Humanos , Lasers , Limite de Detecção , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
16.
J Breath Res ; 14(2): 026013, 2020 03 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32120351

RESUMO

In bronchial asthma, both airway inflammation and reversible airway narrowing require assessment and treatment. These two pathologies are treated primarily with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) and long-acting ß2 agonists (LABA), respectively. Therefore, ICS-LABA combinations are widely used to treat asthma. Airway inflammation and reversible airway narrowing are assessed primarily with fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) and bronchodilator reversibility (BDR). The forced oscillation technique (FOT) has recently attracted attention as a method for assessing obstructive respiratory disturbance. However, little is known about the relationships among these assessments. Therefore, we investigated the relationships among BDR, FENO, and FOT during ICS-LABA combination therapy. The subjects comprised 87 patients (25 men and 62 women) with asthma undergoing ICS/LABA combination therapy from July to September 2017. We applied the FENO test, FOT, and BDR testing without the patients stopping their therapy. The rates of change in FEV1 (ΔFEV1%) was correlated with FENO (r = 0.278). Among the FOT parameters, X5 (r = -0.263), Fres (r = 0.292), and AX (r = 0.245) were significantly correlated with ΔFEV1%. FENO, Fres and %FEV1 at baseline in these stable asthmatics were significantly assosiated with ΔFEV1% independently of the effects of age, atopy and body mass index (BMI). These results suggest that FENO and the results of respiratory function testing and FOT reflect different aspects of asthma and should be combined and comprehensively evaluated.


Assuntos
Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2/uso terapêutico , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Asma/fisiopatologia , Broncodilatadores/uso terapêutico , Expiração , Óxido Nítrico/análise , Administração por Inalação , Corticosteroides/administração & dosagem , Corticosteroides/farmacologia , Adulto , Idoso , Testes Respiratórios , Broncodilatadores/administração & dosagem , Broncodilatadores/farmacologia , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Humanos , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Regressão
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32143339

RESUMO

Personal air formaldehyde (air-FA) was measured as risk factor of airways inflammation and oxidative stress (SO) induction. Overall, 154 police officers were enrolled from two differently urbanised Italian cities, Turin and Pavia. Urinary F2t-isoprostane (15-F2t-IsoP), a prostaglandin-like compound, was quantified as a biomarker of general OS in vivo and fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) was measured for monitoring local inflammatory processes. Urinary cotinine was quantified as a biomarker of tobacco smoking exposure. Traffic police officers living in Turin showed an increased level of log air-FA (p < 0.001), equal to +53.6% (p < 0.001). Log air-(FA) mean values were 3.38 (C.I. 95% 3.33-3.43) and 2.84 (C.I. 95% 2.77-2.92) in Turin and Pavia, respectively. Log (air-FA) was higher in "outdoor workers" (3.18, C.I. 95% 3.13-3.24, p = 0.035) compared to "indoor workers", showing an increase of +9.3%, even controlling for sex and city. The analyses on 15-F2t-IsoP and FeNO, both adjusted for log air-FA, highlighted that OS and inflammation were higher (+66.8%, p < 0.001 and +75%, p < 0.001, respectively) in Turin traffic police officers compared to those from Pavia. Our findings suggest that even low exposures to traffic-related emissions and urbanisation may influence both general oxidative stress levels and local inflammation.


Assuntos
Formaldeído , Óxido Nítrico , Exposição Ocupacional , Estresse Oxidativo , Polícia , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Testes Respiratórios , Cidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Cotinina/urina , Dinoprosta/análogos & derivados , Dinoprosta/urina , Feminino , Formaldeído/toxicidade , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Óxido Nítrico/análise , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Polícia/estatística & dados numéricos
18.
Environ Int ; 137: 105592, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32106050

RESUMO

In China, nitrate (NO3-) becomes the main contributor to fine particles (PM2.5) because the emissions of its precursor, nitrogen oxides (NOx), were not recognized and controlled well in recent years. In this work, sources, conversion, and geographical origin of NOx were interpreted combining the isotopic information (δ15N and δ18O) of NO3- and dual modelling at five Chinese megacities (Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Wuhan and Chengdu) during 2013-2014. Results showed that the δ15N-NO3- values (n = 512) ranged from -12.3‰ to +22.9‰, and the average δ18O-NO3- value was +83.4‰ ± 17.2‰. The isotopic compositions both had a rising tendency as ambient temperature dropped, attributing largely to the source changes. Bayesian model indicated the percentage for the OH pathway of NOx conversion had a clear seasonal variation with a higher value during summer (58.0% ± 9.82%) and a lower value during winter (11.1% ± 3.99%); it was also significantly correlated with latitude (p < 0.01). Coal combustion was the most important source of NOx (31.1%-41.0%), which was geographically derived from North China and other south-central developed regions implied by Potential Source Contribution Function (PSCF). Apart from Chengdu, mobile sources was the second largest contributor to NOx. This source was extensive but uniformly distributed all around the typical urban agglomerations of China. Biomass burning and microbial processes shared similar source areas, mostly originating from the North China Plain and Sichuan Basin. Based on the NOx features, we infer that residential coal combustion was the primary source of heavy PM2.5 pollution in Chinese megacities. Controlling the source categories of these regional priorities would help mitigate atmospheric pollution in these areas.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Óxido Nítrico , Isótopos de Nitrogênio , Teorema de Bayes , Pequim , China , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental , Óxido Nítrico/análise , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/análise , Estações do Ano
19.
Life Sci ; 246: 117423, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32057902

RESUMO

Bleomycin (BLM) is one of the most common anti-cancer drugs used to treat numerous types of tumors. However, pulmonary toxicity is considered the most dramatic effect of BLM. Therefore, BLM has been frequently used for induction of pulmonary fibrosis. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of nicorandil on BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis and explore the possible mechanisms. BLM was instilled intratracheally into male Sprague-Dawley rats as a single dose (5 mg/kg) and oral nicorandil was given (30 mg/kg/day) for 6 weeks after BLM challenge. At the end of experimental period, rats were sacrificed, and lung histopathology and biochemical parameters were evaluated. Nicorandil therapy attenuated lung inflammation and fibrosis elicited by BLM. Nicorandil significantly reduced total protein content, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and total and differential cell counts. Moreover, nicorandil diminished lung levels of malondialdehyde and total nitrite/nitrate, in addition to increasing lung contents of reduced glutathione and superoxide dismutase activity. Nicorandil reduced lung and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid contents of hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and lung content of thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP). Besides, nicorandil significantly improved histological lesions and reduced collagen deposition as well as hydroxyproline content. Immunohistochemical examination revealed that nicorandil-treated rats exhibited significant diminutions in protein expression levels of transforming growth factor beta-1(TGF-ß1) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and enhanced pulmonary protein expression of endothelial NOS (eNOS). In conclusion, these results illustrate the possible potential effects of nicorandil for managing pulmonary fibrosis caused by BLM.


Assuntos
Antibióticos Antineoplásicos/toxicidade , Bleomicina/toxicidade , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/metabolismo , Nicorandil/farmacologia , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III/antagonistas & inibidores , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/antagonistas & inibidores , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Fibrose Pulmonar/induzido quimicamente , Animais , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/química , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/análise , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/análise , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/patologia , Masculino , Nicorandil/uso terapêutico , Nitratos/análise , Óxido Nítrico/análise , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III/metabolismo , Nitritos/análise , Fibrose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
20.
Mar Environ Res ; 156: 104919, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32056798

RESUMO

This study investigated the role of the feeding regime on cellular (lysosomal membrane impairment), oxidative (superoxides and nitric oxides generation, as well as lipid peroxidation) and genotoxic (nuclear abnormalities) biomarkers measured in hemocytes of mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis treated with diclofenac (DCF). Specifically, unfed mussels, or mussels fed ad libitum with algal species Tisochrysis lutea or Tetraselmis suecica (Tiso/DCF- and Tetra/DCF- treated mussels, respectively) were exposed to DCF (20 µgL-1) for 4 days. The results showed that biomarkers' responsiveness against DCF, were more pronounced in unfed and Tetra/DCF-, rather than Tiso/DCF- treated mussel hemocytes, thus revealing food deprivation, changes in mussel feeding/filtration rate and digestion processes, as potent factors of mussels' immune efficiency and response against DCF. Those findings could provide valuable data for the optimization of mussels' feeding regime during laboratory studies, in order to assess reliably the effects of emerging contaminants on non-target sentinel organisms, such as mussels.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/análise , Diclofenaco/toxicidade , Mytilus/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Lisossomos , Óxido Nítrico/análise , Superóxidos/análise
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