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1.
Undersea Hyperb Med ; 46(4): 509-519, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31509907

RESUMO

Nitric oxide (NO) may protect against gas bubble formation and risk of decompression sickness. We have previously shown that the crucial co-factor tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is oxidized in a dose-dependent manner when exposed to hyperoxia similar to diving conditions but with minor effects on the NO production by nitric oxide synthase. By manipulating the intracellular redox state, we further investigated the relationship between BH4 levels and production of NO in human endothelial cells (HUVECs). HUVECs were cultured with and without ascorbic acid (AA) and the glutathione (GSH) synthesis inhibitor buthionine sulfoximine, prior to hyperoxic exposure. The levels of biopterins and GSH were determined in cell lysates while the production of NO was determined in intact cells. Omitting AA resulted in a 91% decrease in BH4 levels (0.49 ± 0.08 to 0.04 ± 0.01 pmol/106 cells, p⟨0.001) at 20 kPa oxygen (O2), and 88% decrease (0.24 ± 0.03 to 0.03 ± 0.01 pmol/106 cells, p=0.01) after exposure to 60 kPa O2. The NO generation was decreased by 23% (74.5 ± 2.2 to 57.3 ± 5.6 pmol/min/mg protein, p⟨0.001) at 20 kPa O2, but no significant change was observed at 60 kPa O2. GSH depletion had no effects on the NO generation. No correlation was found between NO generation and the corresponding intracellular BH4 concentration (p=0.675, r=-0.055) or the BH4 to BH2 ratio (p=0.983, r=0.003), determined across 18 in vitro experiments. Decreased BH4 in HUVECs, due to hyperoxia or lack of ascorbic acid, does not imply corresponding decreases in NO generation.


Assuntos
Ácido Ascórbico/administração & dosagem , Biopterina/análogos & derivados , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Hiperóxia/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/biossíntese , Antimetabólitos , Biopterina/análise , Biopterina/metabolismo , Butionina Sulfoximina , Doença da Descompressão/etiologia , Doença da Descompressão/prevenção & controle , Endotélio Vascular , Glutationa/análise , Glutationa/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana , Humanos , Óxido Nítrico Sintase/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Oxigênio , Pressão Parcial
2.
Phytochemistry ; 167: 112085, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31437665

RESUMO

Six undescribed phenolic derivatives along with thirty two known compounds were isolated from the twigs of Betula schmidtii. The chemical structures were characterized through extensive spectroscopic analysis and chemical methods. All known compounds were first isolated in this plant. The anti-inflammatory effect of the isolates was tested by measuring nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-activated BV-2 cells. Isotachioside, 4-allyl-2-hydrophenyl 1-O-ß-D-apiosyl-(1 → 6)-ß-D-glucopyranoside, genistein 5-O-ß-D-glucoside, and prunetinoside showed a slight potency to lower the NO production against LPS-activated microglia with IC50 values of 23.9, 25.3, 28.8, and 34.0 µM, respectively.


Assuntos
Betula/química , Fenóis/química , Linhagem Celular , Microglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Microglia/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/biossíntese , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Fenóis/farmacologia , República da Coreia
3.
Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) ; 67(7): 640-647, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31257319

RESUMO

Neuroinflammation manifested by over-activation of microglial cells plays an essential role in neurodegenerative diseases. Short-term activation of microglia can be beneficial, but chronically activated microglia can aggravate neuronal dysfunction possibly by secreting potentially cytotoxic substances such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and nitric oxide (NO), which can result in dysfunction and death of neurons. Therefore inhibiting over-activation of microglia and the production of cytotoxic intermediates may become an effective therapeutic approach for neuroinflammation. In this paper, we review our continuous research on natural inhibitors of over-activated microglia from traditional herbals, including flavonoids, lignans, sesquiterpene coumarins, and stilbenes.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos/química , Microglia/metabolismo , Animais , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Cumarínicos/química , Cumarínicos/farmacologia , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Lignanas/química , Lignanas/farmacologia , Microglia/citologia , Microglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Óxido Nítrico/biossíntese , Estilbenos/química , Estilbenos/farmacologia , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
4.
Eur J Med Chem ; 179: 233-245, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31255924

RESUMO

A series of S-allyl-l-cysteine (SAC) with garlic acid conjugates as anti-inflammatory agents were designed and synthesized. Among the 40 tested compounds, SMU-8c exhibited the most potent inhibitory activity to Pam3CSK4-induced nitric oxide (NO) in RAW264.7 macrophages with IC50 of 22.54 ±â€¯2.60 µM. The structure-activity relationship (SAR) study suggested that the esterified carboxyl group, carbon chain extension and methoxylation phenol hydroxy could improve the anti-inflammatory efficacy. Preliminary anti-inflammatory mechanism studies showed that SMU-8c significantly down-regulated the levels of Pam3CSK4 triggered TNF-α cytokine in human THP-1 cells, mouse RAW 264.7 macrophages, as well as in ex-vivo human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) with no influence on cell viability. SMU-8c specifically blocked the Pam3CSK4 ignited secreted embryonic alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) signaling with no influence to Poly I:C or LPS triggered TLR3 or TLR4 signaling. Moreover, SMU-8c suppressed TLR2 in HEK-Blue hTLR2 cells and inhibited the formation of TLR1-TLR2, and TLR2-TLR6 complex in human PBMC. In summary, SMU-8c inhibited the TLR2 signaling pathway to down-regulate the inflammation cytokines, such as NO, SEAP and TNF-α, to realize its anti-inflammatory activity.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacologia , Cisteína/análogos & derivados , Alho/química , Hidroxibenzoatos/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/síntese química , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/química , Cisteína/química , Cisteína/farmacologia , Citocinas/antagonistas & inibidores , Citocinas/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Hidroxibenzoatos/química , Lipopeptídeos/antagonistas & inibidores , Lipopeptídeos/farmacologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Estrutura Molecular , Óxido Nítrico/antagonistas & inibidores , Óxido Nítrico/biossíntese , Células RAW 264.7 , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Células THP-1
5.
Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) ; 67(9): 966-976, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31257308

RESUMO

Honokiol, a biphenolic neolignan isolated from Magnolia officinalis, was reported to have a promising anti-inflammatory activity for the treatment of various diseases. There are many efforts on the synthesis and structure-activity relationship of honokiol derivatives. However, regioselective O-alkylation of honokiol remains a challenge and serves as a tool to provide not only some derivatives but also chemical probes for target identification and mode of action. In this study, we examined the reaction condition for regioselective O-alkylation, in which C2 and C4'-alkylated analogs of honokiol were synthesized and evaluated for inhibitory activity on nitric oxide production and cyclooxygenase-2 expression. Furthermore, we successfully synthesized a potential photoaffinity probe consisting of biotin and benzophenone based on a C4'-alkylated derivative.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacologia , Compostos de Bifenilo/farmacologia , Inibidores de Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/farmacologia , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Lignanas/farmacologia , Alquilação , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/síntese química , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/química , Compostos de Bifenilo/síntese química , Compostos de Bifenilo/química , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Inibidores de Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/síntese química , Inibidores de Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/química , Humanos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Lignanas/síntese química , Lignanas/química , Lipopolissacarídeos/antagonistas & inibidores , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Camundongos , Estrutura Molecular , Óxido Nítrico/antagonistas & inibidores , Óxido Nítrico/biossíntese , Células RAW 264.7 , Estereoisomerismo
6.
Phytochemistry ; 166: 112076, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31351331

RESUMO

Biotransformation of lupane-type triterpenoid betulin was carried out with Mucor subtilissimus CGMCC 3.2456. Yielded nine previously undescribed hydroxylated compounds. M. subtilissimus biotransformation provided C-7, C-11, C-15 and C-24 hydroxylated compounds along with C-7 oxidized and C-28 acetylated derivatives. The structures of the metabolites were established based on extensive NMR and HR-ESI-MS data analyses. Furthermore, we found that most of the metabolites exhibited pronounced inhibitory activities on lipopolysaccharides-induced NO production in RAW264.7 cells.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/metabolismo , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Mucor/metabolismo , Triterpenos/metabolismo , Triterpenos/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Biotransformação , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Molecular , Óxido Nítrico/biossíntese , Células RAW 264.7 , Triterpenos/química
7.
Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol ; 47(1): 2325-2332, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31174433

RESUMO

Increased free fatty acids (FFA) are one of the risk factors for type 2 diabetes. FFA also contribute to endothelial dysfunction in both the prediabetes and diabetes conditions. Therefore, FFA are an important link between diabetes and endothelial dysfunction. In therapeutic application, GLP-1 receptor agonists have been implemented to lower blood glucose in diabetes. Here, we investigate the role of the common clinically used GLP-1 receptor agonist lixisenatide in endothelial cells. We demonstrate that lixisenatide could protect endothelial cells from high FFA-induced toxicity and cell death. Lixisenatide also suppresses FFA-caused cellular ROS generation and production of the lipid oxidation byproduct 4-HNE. Lixisenatide inhibits FFA-triggered production of TNF-α, IL-6, VCAM-1 and ICAM-1. The presence of lixisenatide in co-culture experiments suppresses adhesion of monocytes to endothelial cells. Moreover, lixisenatide ameliorates FFA-induced decreased eNOS phosphorylation and NO reduction. We also demonstrate that lixisenatide inhibits FFA-induced IκBα activation, nuclear p65 translocation and NF-κB activation. This evidence indicates that lixisenatide suppresses activation of the NF-κB pathway in endothelial cells. Collectively, our findings suggest that lixisenatide might have therapeutic potential to modulate diabetes-associated vascular complications.


Assuntos
Citoproteção/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados/farmacologia , Receptor do Peptídeo Semelhante ao Glucagon 1/agonistas , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Adesão Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Citocinas/biossíntese , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/citologia , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/metabolismo , Humanos , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/biossíntese , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III/metabolismo , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos
8.
Eur J Med Chem ; 179: 182-195, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31254920

RESUMO

A series of (1,2,4)triazole[4,3-a]pyridine (TZP) derivatives have been designed and synthesized. Compound 8d was identified as having the most potent inhibitory activity on NO release in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation and inhibition of the migration induced by MCP-1 protein on RAW264.7 macrophages. Based on the screening data, an immunofluorescence assay and a real-time qPCR assay were conducted, indicating that compound 8d suppressed NF-κB p65 translocation and expression of inflammatory genes by concanavalin A (Con A)-induced RAW264.7 macrophages. More importantly, 8d also exhibited potent efficacy, alleviating Con A-induced hepatitis by downregulating the levels of plasma alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST) and inflammatory infiltration in a mouse autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) model. In addition, the flow cytometry (FCM) data showed that compound 8d inhibited the accumulation of MDSCs in the liver of Con A-induced mice. These findings raise the possibility that compound 8d might serve as a potential agent for the treatment of AIH.


Assuntos
Concanavalina A/antagonistas & inibidores , Hepatite/tratamento farmacológico , Piridinas/farmacologia , Triazóis/farmacologia , Animais , Sobrevivência Celular , Células Cultivadas , Concanavalina A/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Desenho de Drogas , Feminino , Hepatite/metabolismo , Humanos , Lipopolissacarídeos/antagonistas & inibidores , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Estrutura Molecular , Óxido Nítrico/análise , Óxido Nítrico/biossíntese , Piridinas/síntese química , Piridinas/química , Células RAW 264.7 , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Triazóis/síntese química , Triazóis/química
9.
Molecules ; 24(11)2019 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31167364

RESUMO

Currently available drugs for treatment of glioblastoma, the most aggressive brain tumor, remain inefficient, thus a plethora of natural compounds have already been shown to have antimalignant effects. However, these have not been tested for their impact on tumor cells in their microenvironment-simulated cell models, e.g., mesenchymal stem cells in coculture with glioblastoma cell U87 (GB). Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) chemotactically infiltrate the glioblastoma microenvironment. Our previous studies have shown that bone-marrow derived MSCs impair U87 growth and invasion via paracrine and cell-cell contact-mediated cross-talk. Here, we report on a plant-derived protein, obtained from Crataeva tapia tree Bark Lectin (CrataBL), having protease inhibitory/lectin activities, and demonstrate its effects on glioblastoma cells U87 alone and their cocultures with MSCs. CrataBL inhibited U87 cell invasion and adhesion. Using a simplified model of the stromal microenvironment, i.e., GB/MSC direct cocultures, we demonstrated that CrataBL, when added in increased concentrations, caused cell cycle arrest and decreased cocultured cells' viability and proliferation, but not invasion. The cocultured cells' phenotypes were affected by CrataBL via a variety of secreted immunomodulatory cytokines, i.e., G-CSF, GM-CSF, IL-6, IL-8, and VEGF. We hypothesize that CrataBL plays a role by boosting the modulatory effects of MSCs on these glioblastoma cell lines and thus the effects of this and other natural lectins and/or inhibitors would certainly be different in the tumor microenvironment compared to tumor cells alone. We have provided clear evidence that it makes much more sense testing these potential therapeutic adjuvants in cocultures, mimicking heterogeneous tumor-stroma interactions with cancer cells in vivo. As such, CrataBL is suggested as a new candidate to approach adjuvant treatment of this deadly tumor.


Assuntos
Capparaceae/química , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/efeitos dos fármacos , Casca de Planta/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Lectinas de Plantas/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteases/farmacologia , Adesão Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Técnicas de Cocultura , Citocinas/biossíntese , Glioblastoma/metabolismo , Humanos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Metaloproteases/antagonistas & inibidores , Óxido Nítrico/biossíntese , Extratos Vegetais/química , Lectinas de Plantas/química , Inibidores de Proteases/química
10.
Phytochemistry ; 165: 112044, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31202041

RESUMO

Oligostilbenes are polyphenol oligomers derived from resveratrol and are commonly produced by members of the Gnetaceae family, and many researchers have focused on their anti-inflammatory activities. The EtOAc fraction of a Gnetum latifolium extract showed inhibitory activity against neuroinflammation induced by the transfection of Aß1-42 into microglial BV-2 cells. The bioassay-guided isolation of the 70% EtOH extract of this plant resulted in three previously undescribed resveratrol oligostilbenes and ten known stilbene derivatives. The structures of the isolated compounds were established based on extensive NMR spectroscopic analysis. The absolute configurations of the three undescribed compounds were confirmed by comparison with available compounds with known stereochemistry and by ECD calculations and molecular modelling. Latifoliols A and B are the first reported oligostilbenes with a bridged 3-oxabicyclo[3.3.0]octane moiety, and latifoliol C was formed by the condensation of gnemontanin G with oxyresveratrol. Moreover, the hypothetical biogenetic pathway of latifoliols A, B and C was proposed. The potential anti-inflammatory activities of the thirteen isolated compounds were tested by measuring their effect on the secreted NO concentrations induced by transfection with plasmids expressing the Aß1-42 gene in the BV-2 cell line. Interestingly, cis- and trans-shegansu B and latifolol, whose structures contained double bonds, strongly inhibited NO secretion in BV-2 cells, supporting the double binding effect of the stilbene derivative on inhibitory activity.


Assuntos
Gnetum/química , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Folhas de Planta/química , Estilbenos/farmacologia , Animais , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Teoria da Densidade Funcional , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Inflamação/patologia , Camundongos , Conformação Molecular , Óxido Nítrico/antagonistas & inibidores , Óxido Nítrico/biossíntese , Estilbenos/química , Estilbenos/isolamento & purificação , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
11.
Aquat Toxicol ; 213: 105223, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31207538

RESUMO

Methylmercury (MeHg), cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (As(III)) are among the most toxic metals in aquatic systems that have been associated with multiple animal and human health problems. This study investigated cytotoxic, oxidative stress, and apoptosis effects on fish leukocytes following their exposure to metals. A preliminary study indicated that leukocytes exposed to MeHg at a concentration of 0.01 mM, Cd at 0.05 mM, and As(III) at 2 mM showed a time-dependent cell viability reduction (around 40%), so they were selected for further experiments. To evaluate the effect of MeHg, Cd and As(III) on Pacific red snapper Lutjanus peru, we measured cytotoxicity, reactive oxygen species, antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT)), nitric oxide production, apoptosis-related and immune-related genes on head-kidney and spleen leukocytes following exposure to MeHg (0.01 mM), Cd (0.05 mM) and As(III) (2 mM) for 30 min and 2 h. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation highly increased in time-dependent doses in head-kidney leukocytes compared with the control group. Regarding antioxidant activity, SOD increased significantly in leukocytes exposed to any heavy metals after two h. Expressly, CAT activity decreased in those leukocytes exposed to Cd and As(III). Apoptotic function genes (Casp-2, Casp-3, and Casp-7) strongly up-regulated after heavy metal exposure, but Cd was more toxic. Finally, granzyme A and perforin 1 strongly up-regulated in leukocytes exposed to MeHg and As(III) compared with the control group. Our data showed that MeHg, Cd, and As(III) might have been cytotoxic and induced oxidative stress and apoptosis with possible biological consequences in fish.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Arsênico/toxicidade , Cádmio/toxicidade , Leucócitos/metabolismo , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Perciformes/metabolismo , Testes de Toxicidade , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Catalase/metabolismo , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Granzimas/metabolismo , Leucócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/biossíntese , Perforina/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
12.
Phytochemistry ; 164: 206-214, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31177053

RESUMO

Eight undescribed cholestane glycosides named osaundersioside A-H, along with three previously known compounds named osaundersioside I-K were isolated from Ornithogalum saundersiae Baker bulbs (Asparagaceae). Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis and chemical methods. All isolates were evaluated for their cytotoxic activity and inhibitory effects on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) production. Osaundersioside C was thus determined to exhibit specific cytotoxicity towards MCF-7 cell line with an IC50 value of 0.20 µM, Osaundersioside H exhibited inhibitory effect on NO production in macrophages at the concentration of 10-5 M, with inhibition rate of 56.81%.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Asparagaceae/química , Colestanos/farmacologia , Glicosídeos/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/química , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/isolamento & purificação , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/isolamento & purificação , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Colestanos/química , Colestanos/isolamento & purificação , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Glicosídeos/química , Glicosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Lipopolissacarídeos/antagonistas & inibidores , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Células MCF-7 , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Estrutura Molecular , Óxido Nítrico/antagonistas & inibidores , Óxido Nítrico/biossíntese , Casca de Planta/química , Raízes de Plantas/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
13.
Phytochemistry ; 164: 236-242, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31185420

RESUMO

Mangiterpenes A-C and 2',3'-seco-manginoid C, four undescribed sesquiterpene/monoterpene-shikimate-conjugated meroterpenoids with spiro ring systems, were isolated from Guignardia mangiferae. The structures and absolute configurations of these compounds were established by comprehensive spectroscopic analyses and electronic circular dichroism (ECD) calculations. Mangiterpenes A-C represent the first examples of sesquiterpene-shikimate-conjugated spirocyclic meroterpenoids, and 2',3'-seco-manginoid C features an unexpected 2',3'-seco-manginoids skeleton. Mangiterpene C strongly inhibited the production of NO inducted by LPS, with an IC50 value of 5.97 µM. It showed an anti-inflammatory effect by means of blocking in the NF-κB signaling pathway and decreasing the expression of inflammatory mediators.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacologia , Monoterpenos/farmacologia , Ácido Chiquímico/farmacologia , Compostos de Espiro/farmacologia , Terpenos/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/química , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/isolamento & purificação , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Lipopolissacarídeos/antagonistas & inibidores , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Camundongos , Estrutura Molecular , Monoterpenos/química , Monoterpenos/isolamento & purificação , NF-kappa B/antagonistas & inibidores , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/antagonistas & inibidores , Óxido Nítrico/biossíntese , Células RAW 264.7 , Ácido Chiquímico/química , Ácido Chiquímico/isolamento & purificação , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos de Espiro/química , Compostos de Espiro/isolamento & purificação , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Terpenos/química , Terpenos/isolamento & purificação
14.
Undersea Hyperb Med ; 46(2): 159-169, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31051061

RESUMO

Purpose: Nitric oxide (NO) has been shown to protect against bubble formation and the risk of decompression sickness. We hypothesize that oxidation of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) leads to a decreased production of NO during simulated diving. Methods: Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were exposed to hyperoxia or simulated diving for 24 hours. The levels of biopterins (BH4, BH2 and B) were determined by LC-MS/MS, and the production of NO by monitoring the conversion of L-arginine to L-citrulline. Results: Exposure to hyperoxia decreased BH4 in a dose-dependent manner; by 48 ± 15% following exposure to 40 kPa O2 (P⟨0.001 vs. control at 20 kPa O2), and 70 ± 16% following exposure to 60 kPa O2. Exposure to 40 kPa O2 decreased NO production by 25 ± 9%, but there was no further decrease when increasing oxygen exposure to 60 kPa (25 ± 10%). No additional effects of simulated diving were observed, indicating no additive or synergistic effects of hyperbaria and hyperoxia on the BH4 level or NO generation. Conclusion: NO generation in intact human endothelial cells was decreased by simulated diving, as well as by hyperoxic exposure, while BH4 levels seem to be affected only by hyperoxia. Hence, the results suggest that BH4 is not the sole determinant of NO generation in HUVEC.


Assuntos
Biopterina/análogos & derivados , Mergulho , Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/biossíntese , Arginina/metabolismo , Biopterina/metabolismo , Citrulina/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/metabolismo , Humanos , Hiperóxia/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Pressão/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Tempo
15.
Molecules ; 24(9)2019 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31072069

RESUMO

Nandina domestica (Berberidaceae) has been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of cough. This plant is distributed in Korea, Japan, China, and India This study aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory phytochemicals obtained from the N. domestica fruits. We isolated a biflavonoid-type phytochemical, robustaflavone (R), from N. domestica fruits through bioactivity-guided fractionation based on its capacity to inhibit inflammation. The anti-inflammatory mechanism of R isolated from N. domestica has not yet been studied. In the present study, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory activities of R using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. We have shown that R reduces the production of nitric oxide (NO), pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1 beta (IL-1ß), and IL-6. Western blot analysis showed that R suppresses the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and downregulates the expression of LPS-induced nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and the phosphorylation of extracellular-regulated kinases (pERK 1/2). Moreover, R inhibited IL-8 release in LPS-induced human colonic epithelial cells (HT-29). These results suggest that R could be a potential therapeutic candidate for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).


Assuntos
Berberidaceae/química , Biflavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Biflavonoides/farmacologia , Regulação para Baixo , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Animais , Biflavonoides/química , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Fracionamento Químico , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterócitos/metabolismo , MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular/metabolismo , Células HT29 , Humanos , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Interleucina-8/biossíntese , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/biossíntese , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Células RAW 264.7
16.
Chem Biodivers ; 16(7): e1900202, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31115136

RESUMO

Asprellosides A-K, nine new ursane-type triterpenoid glycosides (1-9), and two new oleanane-type triterpenoid glycosides (10 and 11), including six rare sulfated triterpenoid glycosides, were isolated from the roots of Ilex asprella. Their structures were determined on the basis of comprehensive spectroscopic analysis and chemical methods. Among these compounds, asprelloside B (2) and asprelloside C (3) are the first examples of triterpenoid glycosides bearing a rare 3,4-O-disulfo-xylopyranosyl residue. All the saponins isolated showed no significant effects against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide production in Raw264.7 macrophages.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Glicosídeos/farmacologia , Ilex/química , Óxido Nítrico/antagonistas & inibidores , Vírus Sinciciais Respiratórios/efeitos dos fármacos , Triterpenos/farmacologia , Animais , Antivirais/química , Antivirais/isolamento & purificação , Glicosídeos/química , Glicosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Lipopolissacarídeos/antagonistas & inibidores , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Conformação Molecular , Óxido Nítrico/biossíntese , Raízes de Plantas/química , Células RAW 264.7 , Triterpenos/química , Triterpenos/isolamento & purificação
17.
Environ Pollut ; 251: 45-55, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31071632

RESUMO

Hydrogen gas (H2) has been shown as an important factor in plant tolerance to abiotic stresses, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, the effects of H2 and its interaction with nitric oxide (NO) on alleviating cadmium (Cd) stress in Brassica campestris seedlings were investigated. NO donor (SNP) or hydrogen-rich water (HRW) treatment showed a significant improvement in growth of Cd-stressed seedlings. Cd treatment upregulated both endogenous NO and H2 (36% and 66%, respectively), and the increase of H2 was prior to NO increase. When treated with NO scavenger (PTIO) or NO biosynthesis enzyme inhibitors (L-NAME and Gln), HRW-induced alleviation under Cd stress was prevented. Under Cd stress, HRW pretreatment significantly enhanced the NO accumulation, and together up-regulated the activity of NR (nitrate reductase) and expression of NR. HRW induced lower reactive oxygen species (ROS), higher AsA content, enhanced activity of POD (peroxidase) and SOD (superoxide dismutase) in seedling roots were inhibited by PTIO, L-NAME and Gln. Through proteomic analysis, the level of 29 proteins were changed in response to H2 and NO-induced amelioration of Cd stress. Nearly half of them were involved in oxidation-reduction processes (about 20%) or antioxidant enzymes (approximately 20%). These results strongly indicate that in Cd-stressed seedlings, pretreatment with HRW induces the accumulation of H2 (biosynthesized or permeated), which further stimulates the biosynthesis of NO through the NR pathway. Finally, H2 and NO together enhance the antioxidant capabilities of seedlings in response to Cd toxicity.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Brassica/efeitos dos fármacos , Cádmio/toxicidade , Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Óxido Nítrico/biossíntese , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Brassica/enzimologia , Brassica/metabolismo , Cádmio/metabolismo , Doadores de Óxido Nítrico/farmacologia , Oxirredução , Proteômica , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/enzimologia , Plântula/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos
18.
Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand) ; 65(4): 37-42, 2019 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31078150

RESUMO

Inflammation and insomnia are two types of symptoms very likely occur in life, seriously perplexing people's work and life. How to alleviate these symptoms is an urgent medical problem. Lucidone D (LUC) is a terpene from the ethanol extract of Ganoderma lucidum fruiting body. Triterpenoids are also the main pharmacological components of Ganoderma lucidum. In recent years, people pay more and more attention to its anti-inflammatory effect. In this study, LPS induced RAW264.7 macrophage inflammatory response model was used to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of LUC. The results showed that LUC could significantly inhibit the production of inflammatory mediators NO, which may play a role by down-regulating the expression level of iNOS and COX-2 proteins. Meanwhile, the production of TNF-α and IL-6 was significantly inhibited. These results indicate that LUC has obvious anti-inflammatory activity. Writhing and sedation tests in ICR male mice showed that LUC showed significant analgesic and sedative effects. In conclusion, these results suggest the anti-inflammatory, analgesic and sedative effects of LUC in vitro and in vivo.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/farmacologia , Reishi/química , Terpenos/farmacologia , Analgésicos/química , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Citocinas/biossíntese , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/química , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Óxido Nítrico/biossíntese , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Pentobarbital , Células RAW 264.7 , Latência do Sono/efeitos dos fármacos , Terpenos/química
19.
Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand) ; 65(4): 43-47, 2019 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31078151

RESUMO

The immune system is an important physiological defense system. Its balance and stability are closely related to the body's health. Once the immune system loses its dynamic balance, the immune response will be blocked, which will lead to the occurrence of various diseases. Hesperetin is a kind of natural flavonoids extracted from citrus fruits of Rutaceae and it has many pharmacological activities. However, its water solubility and liposolubility are poor, and it is easy to be quickly metabolized in vivo, so it is difficult to maintain high blood drug concentration. Therefore, its derivative (HES) was found by structural modification. In this study, THP-1 cells were used as experimental model to investigate the immunomodulatory effect of HES in vitro. The results showed that HES participates in immune response by enhancing phagocytosis of macrophages to promote the release of NO, IL-6 and IL-1ß, and enhancing immunity by up-regulating the expression of Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL proteins. This study provides a theoretical and practical basis for the development of HES as an immunomodulator in the future.


Assuntos
Hesperidina/farmacologia , Fatores Imunológicos/farmacologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Hesperidina/química , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos/química , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Macrófagos/citologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Óxido Nítrico/biossíntese , Fagocitose/efeitos dos fármacos , Células THP-1 , Proteína bcl-X/metabolismo
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(9)2019 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31058823

RESUMO

Silybin is a flavonolignan extracted from Silybum marianum (milk thistle) with hepatoprotective, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activity. Several studies have shown that silybin is highly effective to prevent and treat different types of cancer and that its antitumor mechanisms involve the arrest of the cell cycle and/or apoptosis. An MTT assay was performed to study cell viability, lipid peroxidation, extracellular NO production, and scavenger enzyme activity were studied by Thiobarbituric Acid-Reactive Species (TBARS) assay, NO assay, and MnSOD assay, respectively. Cell cycle and apoptosis analysis were performed by FACS. miRNA profiling were evaluated by real time PCR. In this study, we demonstrated that Silybin induced growth inhibition blocking the Hepg2 cells in G1 phase of cell cycle and activating the process of programmed cell death. Moreover, the antiproliferative effects of silybin were paralleled by a strong increase of the number of ceramides involved in the modulation of miRNA secretion. In particular, after treatment with silybin, miR223-3p and miR16-5p were upregulated, while miR-92-3p was downregulated (p < 0.05). In conclusion, our results suggest that silybin-Induced apoptosis occurs in parallel to the increase of ceramides synthesis and miRNAs secretion in HepG2 cells.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Ceramidas/biossíntese , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , MicroRNAs/genética , Silibina/farmacologia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/biossíntese
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