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1.
Georgian Med News ; (291): 7-13, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31418722

RESUMO

The purpose of the study was to identify the pathogenesis features of prepiloric and pyloric ulcers and to establish the cause of resistance to conservative therapy and the tendency to complicated course of type III ulcers according to H.D. Johnson. A comparative analysis of acid production was carried out in 150 patents with duodenal ulcer (n-80) and peptic ulcer of type III according to H.D. Johnson classification (n-70). We revealed a definite individual rhythm of daily intragastric acidity with a maximum rise at night in patients with duodenal ulcer. The paper explores the peculiarities of digestive juice secretion depending on ulcerative substratum localization. The pathogenetic validity of the use of antisecretory drugs for duodenal ulcer treatment and the need to further improve the algorithm for pyloric and prepyloric ulcer therapy are shown. For pyloric and prepiloric ulcers characteristic specific morphological changes in the muscle layer of the wall of the antrum, leading to the motor-evacuation disorders and promoting duodenogastric reflux - dystrophy myocytes circular muscle layer vacuolation of the cytoplasm, edema and hypertrophy ganglia intermuscular plexus, hemorrhages in the muscle sheath, violation of muscle bundles.


Assuntos
Úlcera Duodenal/complicações , Úlcera Duodenal/patologia , Ácido Gástrico/metabolismo , Piloro/patologia , Úlcera Gástrica/complicações , Úlcera Gástrica/patologia , Úlcera Duodenal/metabolismo , Humanos , Úlcera Gástrica/metabolismo
2.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 14: 4911-4929, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31456637

RESUMO

Background: Apocynin (APO) is a bioactive phytochemical with prominent anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activities. Designing a nano-delivery system targeted to potentiate the gastric antiulcerogenic activity of APO has not been investigated yet. Chitosan oligosaccharide (COS) is a low molecular weight chitosan and its oral nanoparticulate system for potentiating the antiulcerogenic activity of the loaded APO has been described here. Methods: COS-nanoparticles (NPs) loaded with APO (using tripolyphosphate [TPP] as a cross-linker) were prepared by ionic gelation method and fully characterized. The chosen formula was extensively evaluated regarding in vitro release profile, kinetic analysis, and stability at refrigerated and room temperatures. Ultimately, the in vivo antiulcerogenic activity against ketoprofen (KP)-induced gastric ulceration in rats was assessed by macroscopic parameters including Paul's index and antiulcerogenic activity, histopathological examination, immunohistochemical (IHC) evaluation of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression level in ulcerated gastric tissue, and biochemical measurement of oxidative stress markers and nitric oxide (NO) levels. Results: The selected NPs formula with COS (0.5 % w/v) and TPP (0.1% w/v) was the most appropriate one with drug entrapment efficiency percentage of 35.06%, particle size of 436.20 nm, zeta potential of +38.20 mV, and mucoadhesive strength of 51.22%. It exhibited a biphasic in vitro release pattern as well as high stability at refrigerated temperature for a 6-month storage period. APO-loaded COS-NPs provoked marvelous antiulcerogenic activity against KP-induced gastric ulceration in rats compared with free APO treated group, which was emphasized by histopathological, IHC, and biochemical studies. Conclusion: In conclusion, APO-loaded COS-NPs could be considered as a promising oral phytopharmaceutical nanoparticulate system for management of gastric ulceration.


Assuntos
Acetofenonas/administração & dosagem , Acetofenonas/farmacologia , Quitosana/química , Mucosa Gástrica/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas/química , Oligossacarídeos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/administração & dosagem , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Acetofenonas/uso terapêutico , Administração através da Mucosa , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Varredura Diferencial de Calorimetria , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Cinética , Masculino , Nanopartículas/ultraestrutura , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Tamanho da Partícula , Ratos Wistar , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Eletricidade Estática , Estômago/efeitos dos fármacos , Estômago/patologia , Úlcera Gástrica/tratamento farmacológico , Úlcera Gástrica/patologia , Suínos , Difração de Raios X
3.
Food Funct ; 10(7): 3965-3976, 2019 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31204764

RESUMO

The dry root of Hedysarum polybotrys Hand.-Mazz., commonly known as "Hong Qi", has a variety of health benefits. The present study was undertaken to explore the anti-gastric ulcer potential effect of Hedysarum polysaccharides (HPS; HPS-50, HPS-80), the principal active fraction of Radix Hedysari (RH). The anti-gastric ulcer effects of HPS were evaluated using an animal model of ulcerative lesions induced by acetic acid. The effects of antioxidant factors, anti-inflammatory cytokines, and mucosal blood flow regulatory factor levels in the gastric tissue homogenate of rats were analyzed for the bioactivities of HPS. The results showed that, compared with the acetic acid-induced ulcerated group, the ulcer inhibition rate of HPS-treated rats was significantly increased. The pathological findings suggested that mucosal regeneration, cell migration, and inflammatory cell infiltration were decreased, and collagen fibers were significantly reduced. Extensive granulation tissue proliferation indicated the healing stage was initiated, suggesting a good prognosis. The oxidative stress status of the gastric ulcer rats was improved, the levels of TNF-α and IL-6 were significantly decreased, and the levels of PGE-2 and NO were increased (P < 0.05). HPS-80-H may be a promising ingredient for incorporation into functional foods or nutritional supplements for the prevention of gastric ulcers.


Assuntos
Ácido Acético/efeitos adversos , Antiulcerosos/farmacologia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Ranunculaceae/química , Úlcera Gástrica/tratamento farmacológico , Úlcera Gástrica/prevenção & controle , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , China , Citocinas/metabolismo , Dinoprostona/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Mucosa Gástrica/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Gástrica/patologia , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Masculino , Membrana Mucosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Ratos Wistar , Estômago/efeitos dos fármacos , Estômago/patologia , Úlcera Gástrica/induzido quimicamente , Úlcera Gástrica/patologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos
4.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 91(2): e20181044, 2019 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31241706

RESUMO

Myristica fragrans seeds are traditionally used to treat dyspepsia, vomiting and abdominal pain. The purpose of this study was to investigate the protective effect of Myristica fragrans in ethanol induced gastric ulcer. Study was carried out on rats, divided into four groups; negative control, positive control, standard drug control, and Myristica fragrans extract treated rats. The pH, ulcer index, acidity values and histopathological examination of stomach were evaluated. Myristica fragrans significantly (P<0.05) reduced gastric lesions by 41.68% in ethanol induced ulcer model at 200 mg/kg when compared to sucralfate (60.41%). However, histopathological findings appeared similar in Myristica fragrans extract treated and standard drug control groups, where stomachs were found with mild erosion of superficial epithelium and few infiltrated inflammatory cells. pH of gastric contents of rats from extract treated was increased (4.25 ± 0.25) as compared to positive control group (2.25 ± 0.25). Ulcer index of extract treated rats was improved (41.74%). Moreover, total acidity of extract treated group (60.0 ± 0.47) was decreased as compared to control group (74.50 ± 1.04). It is concluded that Myristica fragrans showed significant protecting activity in ethanol induced ulcer. Isolation and purification of phytochemicals responsible for gastroprotective activity becomes necessary.


Assuntos
Antiulcerosos/uso terapêutico , Myristica/química , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Substâncias Protetoras/uso terapêutico , Úlcera Gástrica/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Antiulcerosos/isolamento & purificação , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Etanol , Masculino , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Substâncias Protetoras/isolamento & purificação , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Sementes , Úlcera Gástrica/induzido quimicamente , Úlcera Gástrica/patologia
5.
Res Vet Sci ; 124: 366-374, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31075614

RESUMO

This study involved 145 cows with type-2 abomasal ulcer. The most common clinical signs were, in decreasing order of frequency, depressed demeanour (100%), partial or complete anorexia (93%), rumen atony (91%), tachycardia (90%), dark or black manure (80%), prolonged capillary refill time (71%), pale mucous membranes (69%) and tachypnoea (62%). The most common abnormal laboratory findings were azotaemia (89%), low haematocrit (82%), hypokalaemia (81%), hypoproteinaemia (74%) and metabolic acidosis (61%). Ten cows were euthanased immediately after, or died during, the initial examination, and treatment was started (day 0) in 135 cows. Treatment included blood transfusion, sodium chloride/glucose solution, calcium borogluconate, vitamin C and metamizole. Fourteen cows also underwent right-flank laparotomy because of displaced abomasum (n = 7) or to rule out other causes of gastrointestinal haemorrhage (n = 7). The mean heart rate decreased significantly from 108 bpm on day 0 to 88 bpm on day 3. The haematocrit decreased significantly in cows that did not receive blood and increased significantly in the transfused cows during this period. The plasma protein concentration also increased significantly in transfused cows. Ninety-one (67%) of the 135 treated cows recovered and were discharged after a mean hospitalisation period of nine days, and 44 cows (33%) failed to respond to treatment and were euthanased or died. Aggressive treatment, which should include blood transfusion when indicated, is warranted in valuable cows because >50% can be expected to return to full production in the long term.


Assuntos
Abomaso/patologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/etiologia , Úlcera Gástrica/veterinária , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/patologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/terapia , Feminino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Úlcera Gástrica/etiologia , Úlcera Gástrica/patologia , Úlcera Gástrica/terapia , Suíça , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 4605748, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31111054

RESUMO

Background and Aims: Hydrotalcite plays an important role in the therapy of gastric ulcer induced by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), but little is known about the mechanism. We designed two experiments to study the preventive and curative effects of hydrotalcite on NSAIDs-related gastric injury in rats and to investigate the relationship between the protective and curative mechanism of hydrotalcite and the secretion of epidermal growth factor (EGF)/prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Methods: Two experiments were separately designed to evaluate the preventive and curative effects of hydrotalcite. A total of 25 male rats and 25 female rats were randomly divided into five groups (vehicle group, model group, omeprazole group, hydrotalcite group, and ranitidine group) in each experiment. Rats were treated with indomethacin by gavage to build the model of acute gastric mucosal injury. The concentrations of EGF and PGE2 in blood specimens and mucosal injury indexes by gross inspection were measured and an immunohistochemical technique was also employed to test the levels of EGF, cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in gastric mucosa. Results: Comparing with model group in both preventive and curative experiments, hydrotalcite decreased the gastric injury in the mucosa of stomach significantly (7±4.5 vs. 16±11.25, 1.5±2 vs. 2.5±6; P<0.01, P<0.05). The levels of EGF and PGE2 in blood serum were markedly higher in hydrotalcite group than that in model group and ranitidine group in preventive experiment (574.39±34.28 vs. 486.22±41.73, 488.07±24.44; P<0.01, P<0.01). The expression levels of COX-2 in gastric mucosa were also higher in hydrotalcite group than that in model group in both preventive and therapeutic experiments (12±4 vs. 9±6, 14±7 vs. 9±4; P<0.01, P<0.05). Conclusions: Hydrotalcite promotes gastric protection and healing via several mechanisms, including increased levels of PGE2 in blood serum, activation of EGF, and antagonising the inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX) caused by NSAIDs.


Assuntos
Hidróxido de Alumínio/farmacologia , Mucosa Gástrica/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Gástrica/lesões , Indometacina/efeitos adversos , Hidróxido de Magnésio/farmacologia , Úlcera Gástrica/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacologia , Ciclo-Oxigenase 1/metabolismo , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Dinoprostona/sangue , Dinoprostona/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fator de Crescimento Epidérmico/sangue , Fator de Crescimento Epidérmico/metabolismo , Feminino , Mucosa Gástrica/metabolismo , Mucosa Gástrica/patologia , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Omeprazol/farmacologia , Ranitidina/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Estômago/efeitos dos fármacos , Úlcera Gástrica/patologia
7.
Chem Biol Interact ; 308: 45-50, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31095933

RESUMO

The flavonoid hesperidin is abundantly found in citrus fruits and is used to treat vascular diseases. Previous studies described its gastroprotective actions against stress or ethanol-induced ulcer in rodents; however, results from indomethacin-induced ulcer were controversy. Therefore, given its clinical use and contradictory findings in acute models, this study aims to evaluate the effect of hesperidin (1-10 mg/kg, p.o) on chronic gastric ulcer induced by acetic acid in rats, a model that resembles the ulcer in humans. Moreover, the effects of hesperidin on mucin levels and on inflammatory and oxidative parameters at ulcer site were also measured. The treatment with hesperidin at 3 and 10 mg/kg, once a day, by seven days, accelerated by 34 and 62%, respectively, the ulcer healing process when compared to vehicle-treated group (99.1 ±â€¯6.4 mm2). Histological and histochemistry analyses confirmed the healing effect with significant favoring of mucin production. Hesperidin also promoted the preservation of reduced glutathione levels in the gastric mucosa tissue, as well as the normalization of superoxide dismutase and catalase activities at similar levels to those found in the non-ulcerated group. In addition, flavonoid administration increased the enzymatic activity of glutathione-S-transferase by 35%. Tissue lipoperoxides and myeloperoxidase activity were reduced after hesperidin treatment. In conclusion, the flavonoid hesperidin revealed a gastric healing activity in the ulcerated mucosa, an effect that showed to be associated with the reduction of oxidative damage at ulcer site, due to the reduction of the neutrophil migration and the strengthening of the mucus barrier next to the mucosa.


Assuntos
Glicosídeos/uso terapêutico , Hesperidina/uso terapêutico , Úlcera Gástrica/tratamento farmacológico , Ácido Acético/toxicidade , Animais , Catalase/metabolismo , Esquema de Medicação , Flavanonas/química , Mucosa Gástrica/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Gástrica/metabolismo , Glutationa/metabolismo , Glicosídeos/farmacologia , Hesperidina/farmacologia , Neutrófilos/citologia , Neutrófilos/efeitos dos fármacos , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Úlcera Gástrica/induzido quimicamente , Úlcera Gástrica/patologia , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(20): e15701, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31096515

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is a standard procedure for treating gastric neoplasms. However, ESD causes larger artificial ulcers other than mucosal resection methods. We conducted this prospective randomized controlled study to evaluate the effect of stronger acid suppression on ESD ulcers caused by doubling the proton pump inhibitor (PPI) dose and compare the effects of 20-mg (standard dose) and 40-mg (double dose) esomeprazole (EswonampTM, Daewon Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Seoul, Korea) on ulcer healing. METHODS: One hundred ninety-seven patients who underwent gastric ESD from July 2017 to December 2017 at Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital were enrolled and randomly assigned to the standard or double-dose group. Change in ulcer size from the day of ESD to 4 weeks after ESD and the scar-change rate were compared between the groups. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in ulcer contraction (84.5% in 20 mg group vs 86.3% in 40 mg group, P = .91) or scar-change rate (30.9% vs 30.6%, P > .99) between the groups. In a multivariate analysis, initial ulcer size [odds ratio (OR) 0.24; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.11-0.50] and early gastric cancer (OR 0.22, 95% CI 0.08-0.58) were significantly associated with delayed ulcer healing. CONCLUSIONS: Both 40 and 20-mg esomeprazole have similar effects on ESD-induced ulcer area reduction, suggesting that strong acid suppression does not necessarily result in rapid artificial ulcer healing. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: RCT no.: KCT0002885.


Assuntos
Ressecção Endoscópica de Mucosa/efeitos adversos , Esomeprazol/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Gástricas/cirurgia , Úlcera Gástrica/tratamento farmacológico , Ressecção Endoscópica de Mucosa/métodos , Esomeprazol/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/uso terapêutico , Pirróis/administração & dosagem , Pirróis/uso terapêutico , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/complicações , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia , Úlcera Gástrica/patologia , Sulfonamidas/administração & dosagem , Sulfonamidas/uso terapêutico , Úlcera/tratamento farmacológico , Úlcera/patologia , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos
9.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 854: 139-148, 2019 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30991046

RESUMO

The gastroprotective property of (-)-myrtenol, a monoterpenoid, has been demonstrated previously against acute gastric ulceration induced by ethanol. However, the healing property of (-)-myrtenol in a chronic gastric ulcer model remains to be verified. This study evaluated its healing efficacy and the mechanism involved using the rat model of chronic gastric ulcer induced by serosal injection of 80% acetic acid in vivo, and human gastric adenocarcinoma cells (AGS) in vitro. The results showed that compared to vehicle-treated ulcer controls, oral administration of (-)-myrtenol (50 and 100 mg/kg/day) for 7 days promoted ulcer healing, as indicated by significant decreases in ulcer area and volume. The macroscopic and microscopic findings confirmed the healing potential of (-)-myrtenol. The ulcer healing activity was also associated with significant increases in gastric mucin content, collagen deposition, number of cells with positive marking for proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and by changes in the expression of the inflammatory parameters tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1ß and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, as well as a decrease of metalloproteinases (MMP-9 and MMP-2) activity. Furthermore, in vitro assays using the AGS cultures revealed that (-)-myrtenol favors wound healing activity via stimulation of cell proliferation and migration without altering the cell viability. Taken together, these findings indicate that (-)-myrtenol has gastro-cytoprotective and ulcer healing properties that can be further explored to develop a new therapeutic agent from a natural source for the treatment of gastric ulcer.


Assuntos
Ácido Acético/efeitos adversos , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia , Úlcera Gástrica/fisiopatologia , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Colágeno/metabolismo , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicoproteínas/metabolismo , Humanos , Interleucina-1beta/genética , Masculino , Metaloproteinase 2 da Matriz/metabolismo , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/metabolismo , Antígeno Nuclear de Célula em Proliferação/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Estômago/efeitos dos fármacos , Estômago/patologia , Úlcera Gástrica/patologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética
10.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 9514703, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30949513

RESUMO

Gastric ulcers are a common problem in upper gastrointestinal tract (GI) disorders. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are one of the most aggressive factors leading to inducing gastric ulcers. Natural products with lower toxicity and safety are currently sought as a potential source to minimize the effect of the gastric ulcers. Perilla frutescens or Nga-mon (in Thai) leaves are rich in rosmarinic acid (RA), which has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer effects. This study investigates the protective effect of ethanolic extract (EE) and aqueous fraction (AF) from Perilla frutescens leaves, which are rich in RA, on indomethacin- (IND-) induced gastric ulcer in a rat model. The EE at the doses of 50 and 500 mg/kg body weight, AF at the doses of 50, 250, and 500 mg/kg body weight, or famotidine (a standard drug) were administered for 14 days prior to ulcer induction. The ulceration was performed by intragastric administration of IND. Gross gastric ulcers and biological and histological parameters were examined. The pretreatment with AF had more significant effects than EE, including reduced ulcer index, decreased gastric secretion volume and decreased acidity, but it had an elevated gastric pH relative to the IND-induced gastric ulcer. In a histopathological study, the EE and AF decreased mucosal ulcer, inflammatory infiltration, and degenerative lining cells. The IND-induced expression of inflammatory mediators was significantly attenuated with EE and AF. The experiment also remarkably showed the preservation of mucus and apoptosis protection of EE and AF on a gastric mucosal ulcer. The findings demonstrated that the EE and AF of perilla leaves were capable of protecting the stomach against gastric ulcers induced by IND through anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic mechanisms that should be further investigated. It is suggested that Perilla frutescens leaf could be a potential alternative source of RA as a therapeutic agent and food supplement for NSAID-induced gastric injuries.


Assuntos
Cinamatos , Depsídeos , Indometacina/efeitos adversos , Perilla frutescens/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Úlcera Gástrica , Animais , Cinamatos/química , Cinamatos/farmacologia , Depsídeos/química , Depsídeos/farmacologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Indometacina/farmacologia , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Úlcera Gástrica/induzido quimicamente , Úlcera Gástrica/patologia , Úlcera Gástrica/prevenção & controle
11.
Korean J Gastroenterol ; 73(3): 177-181, 2019 03 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31013561

RESUMO

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is the cause of infectious mononucleosis, which is characterized by fever, lymphadenopathy, and sore throat. On the other hand, gastrointestinal symptoms of EBV infection like dyspepsia, abdominal pain are non-specific and rarely encountered, which means it is difficult to diagnose gastric involvement of EBV infection without suspicion. The relation between gastric carcinoma and gastric lymphoma associated with EBV infection is well defined, but relations with other EBV-associated gastrointestinal diseases such as gastritis and peptic ulcer disease have rarely been reported. We report a case of benign gastric ulcer with EBV infection confirmed by endoscopic and histological findings.


Assuntos
Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/diagnóstico , Úlcera Gástrica/diagnóstico , Adulto , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Proteínas do Capsídeo/imunologia , DNA Viral/metabolismo , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Endoscopia do Sistema Digestório , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/complicações , Herpesvirus Humano 4/genética , Herpesvirus Humano 4/isolamento & purificação , Herpesvirus Humano 4/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Úlcera Gástrica/complicações , Úlcera Gástrica/patologia
12.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(6): 5403-5409, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30954266

RESUMO

Abomasal lesions in cattle are challenging to diagnose because the clinical signs are often subtle and nonspecific. An increasing number of studies suggests that abomasal lesions are commonly found in cattle of all ages, but the number of recent prevalence studies in dairy cows is limited. The main objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of abomasal lesions in a population of Danish Holstein dairy cattle in Denmark. An abattoir survey of 1,327 dairy cows apparently suitable for slaughter was performed in 2016 and 2017. Abomasal lesions are usually classified using a standardized protocol with the following types: abomasal ulcer type I: erosions and nonperforating ulcers; type II: ulcers with arterial bleeding; type III: perforating ulcer with localized peritonitis; and type IV: perforating ulcer with diffuse peritonitis. A further subdivision of the nonperforating abomasal ulcers type I were classified as subtype Ia: erosions; subtype Ib: small ulcers with localized hemorrhage; subtype Ic: ulcers with a crater-like appearance; and subtype Id: retention of the mucosa due to tissue loss with either radial wrinkles converging at a central point or perforations of the spiral folds. Type I abomasal lesions were found in 84% of the examined cows. No ulcers with arterial bleeding (type II) or perforating ulcers with diffuse peritonitis (type IV) were found, but one perforating abomasal ulcer (type III) was observed. The total number of lesions found was 7,418 and when the lesion subtypes were evaluated individually the majority of subtypes Ia and Ic were found in the pyloric area (85 and 94%, respectively), whereas lesion subtypes Ib and Id dominated the fundus/corpus area (71 and 67%, respectively). When considering lesion subtypes according to parity, there was a high prevalence of subtype Ib across the 3 groups of parity (51, 58, and 55% for parity 1, 2, and ≥3, respectively). The prevalence of lesion subtype Id seemed to increase with increasing parity, and the prevalence of lesion subtype Ia seemed to decrease with increasing parity. The prevalence of abomasal lesions was higher than that shown in similar studies of cattle at the time of slaughter. However, the expectedly most painful cases were rare, with only one perforating and no arterial bleeding ulcers found. The etiology of the different subtype I lesions is still unknown, and further investigations are needed to establish the possible influence these lesions might have on welfare and production.


Assuntos
Abomaso/patologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Úlcera Gástrica/veterinária , Matadouros , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/patologia , Indústria de Laticínios , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Feminino , Membrana Mucosa/patologia , Paridade , Gravidez , Prevalência , Úlcera Gástrica/epidemiologia , Úlcera Gástrica/patologia
13.
J Int Med Res ; 47(4): 1441-1452, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30816056

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Vonoprazan is a new a potassium-competitive acid blocker (P-CAB) that was recently developed in Japan. However, vonoprazan's efficacy in healing gastric ulcers after endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) remains controversial. This study aimed to compare the efficacy of P-CABs and proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) in healing post-ESD ulcers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective randomized controlled trial (UMIN000017386) enrolled 40 patients with gastric neoplasia, who underwent ESD at our hospital from April 2015 to January 2016. Before ESD, patients were randomly divided into the following two groups: group V, vonoprazan 20 mg/day; or group R, rabeprazole 10 mg/day. Medications were taken 1 day before to 4 weeks after ESD. The ESD-induced artificial ulcer size was measured just after ESD and 4 weeks after ESD to calculate the reduction rate as follows: (ulcer area 4 weeks after ESD)/(ulcer area just after ESD) × 100. RESULTS: Eighteen patients in group V and 15 patients in group R were analyzed. The mean reduction rate was significantly different in groups V and R (93.3% vs 96.6%, respectively). Post-ESD bleeding was observed in two patients in group R and drug-induced hepatic injury in one patient in group R. CONCLUSION: Rabeprazole facilitated the healing process post-ESD.


Assuntos
Ressecção Endoscópica de Mucosa/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/uso terapêutico , Pirróis/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Gástricas/cirurgia , Úlcera Gástrica/tratamento farmacológico , Sulfonamidas/uso terapêutico , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos , Idoso , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Úlcera Gástrica/etiologia , Úlcera Gástrica/patologia
14.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 8759708, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30906783

RESUMO

Rubus crataegifolius (black raspberry, RF), Ulmus macrocarpa (elm, UL), and Gardenia jasminoides (cape jasmine, GJ) are well known for hundreds of years as folk medicines in China and Korea to treat various gastrointestinal disturbance. The present study evaluated the gastroprotective effects of these plants either single or in combination against HCl/EtOH-induced gastritis and indomethacin-induced ulcer in rat model. Stomach ulcer was induced by oral ingestions of HCl/EtOH or indomethacin. Treatment with RF, UL, and GJ separately or in combination was done 1 h before ulcer induction. On HCl/EtOH-induced gastritis RF, UL, and GJ at a dose of 150 mg/kg showed comparable antigastritis effect (less than 50% inhibition) with lesion index of 94.97±8.05, 108.48±11.51, and 79.10±9.77 mm compared to cimetidine (45.33±23.73 mm). However, the combination of RF, UL, and GJ at a dose of 150 mg/kg with a ratio of 50:50:50 showed remarkable antigastritis effect with 77% inhibition. The observed lesion index at a ratio of 50:50:50 was 23.34±9.11 mm similar to cimetidine (18.88±19.88 mm). On indomethacin-induced ulcer, RF and GJ showed 38.28% and 51.8% inhibition whereas UL showed around 17.73% inhibition at 150 mg/kg. Combination of RF, UL, and GJ at 150 mg/kg showed strong antigastritis effect with 83.71% inhibition. These findings suggest strong gastroprotective effect of combined extract. In addition, these plants showed significant antioxidant activity in DPPH scavenging assay and antilipid peroxidation activity. Combination of black raspberry, elm, and cape jasmine might be a significant systemic gastroprotective agent that could be utilized for the treatment and/or protection of gastritis and gastric ulcer.


Assuntos
Mucosa Gástrica/lesões , Gastrite/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Úlcera Gástrica/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Mucosa Gástrica/metabolismo , Mucosa Gástrica/patologia , Gastrite/metabolismo , Gastrite/patologia , Indometacina/efeitos adversos , Indometacina/farmacologia , Masculino , Fitoterapia/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Úlcera Gástrica/induzido quimicamente , Úlcera Gástrica/metabolismo , Úlcera Gástrica/patologia
15.
Life Sci ; 224: 88-94, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30914317

RESUMO

AIMS: Several natural products have been evaluated for management of gastric ulcer induced by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Safranal, a plant-derived chemical, has a potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The present study was aimed to evaluate possible gastro-protective effects of safranal against indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer in rats. Lansoprazole (a proton pump inhibitor) was used as a reference drug. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty rats were divided into five groups. Groups 1 and 2 received vehicle. Groups 3, 4 and 5 treated with 0.063, 0.25 and 1 mg/kg safranal. Group 6 received 30 mg/kg lansoprazole. All groups except of group 1 received indomethacin (50 mg/kg) ingestion. Six hours later, animals were euthanized and their stomachs were removed. Gastric contents volume and pH were measured. Gastric ulcer area and protective index were evaluated using image J software. Histological changes were evaluated by light microscope. Malondialdehyde (MDA) level, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, total antioxidant capacity (TAC) content, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and Caspase-3 levels were determined in the gastric tissue. KEY FINDINGS: Safranal and lansoprazole normalized gastric volume and pH, reduced gastric ulcer area and produced gastric protection. Indomethacin-induced histological changes and tissue biochemical alterations were ameliorated by the above-mentioned treatments. SIGNIFICANCE: The results of the present study suggest the involvement of anti-secretory, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic mechanisms in gastro-protective effect of safranal. In addition, gastro-protective effect of safranal was comparable to lansoprazole.


Assuntos
Antiulcerosos/farmacologia , Cicloexenos/farmacologia , Indometacina/toxicidade , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Úlcera Gástrica/prevenção & controle , Terpenos/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/toxicidade , Crocus/química , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Úlcera Gástrica/induzido quimicamente , Úlcera Gástrica/patologia
16.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 100, 2019 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30909917

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study evaluated the clinical, laboratory, ultrasonographic and pathological findings in 87 cows aged 2 to 10 years (4.5 ± 1.5 years) with type-4 abomasal ulcer. RESULTS: The most common clinical findings were in decreasing order compromised health status accompanied by partial or complete anorexia (100%), abdominal guarding (81%), congested scleral vessels (77%), ruminal atony (73%), tachycardia (68%), tachypnoea (65%), positive foreign body tests (58%), decreased skin surface temperature (53%), fever (49%), reduction in negative intraabdominal pressure assessed transrectally (39%), poorly subdivided plant fragments in faeces (35%) and arched back (28%). The principal haematological abnormalities were hypokalaemia (72%), haemoconcentration (69%), azotaemia (56%), metabolic acidosis (49%), hyperfibrinogenaemia (45%), leukopenia (35%) and hypoproteinaemia (29%). Other abnormalities were aciduria (56%), haematuria (44%), increased chloride concentration in rumen fluid (34%) and abnormal peritoneal fluid (98%). Of 75 examined cows, 65 (87%) had ultrasonographic evidence of local or generalised peritonitis. On postmortem examination all cows had a type-4 abomasal ulcer and generalised peritonitis. In addition, 36 cows had type-1 ulcers, 6 had type-2 ulcers and one cow had a type-3 ulcer. DISCUSSION: The clinical signs in cows with type-4 abomasal ulcer are associated with generalised peritonitis. An increased haematocrit, indicating shock-induced haemoconcentration is characteristic in contrast to cows with traumatic reticuloperitonitis. Ultrasonography is useful for visualising and assessing generalised peritonitis. CONCLUSIONS: The diagnosis of type-4 abomasal ulcer based on clinical signs alone is difficult and therefore requires additional diagnostic procedures including the determination of the haematocrit and plasma protein concentration, abdominal ultrasonography and analysis of peritoneal fluid. In most cases, these steps lead to a correct diagnosis and allow timely euthanasia of the cow to prevent further suffering and unnecessary treatment costs. METHODS: The cows underwent a clinical, laboratory, ultrasonographic and postmortem examination.


Assuntos
Abomaso , Doenças dos Bovinos/patologia , Úlcera Gástrica/veterinária , Abomaso/diagnóstico por imagem , Abomaso/patologia , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Feminino , Lactação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Úlcera Gástrica/diagnóstico por imagem , Úlcera Gástrica/epidemiologia , Úlcera Gástrica/patologia , Ultrassonografia/veterinária
18.
Ann Diagn Pathol ; 40: 40-44, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30921623

RESUMO

AIM: To assess the prevalence of the lesions in duodenal bulb mucosa and the relationship between duodenal lesions and upper gastrointestinal diseases, including helicobacter pylori infection. METHODS: Clinical, endoscopic and pathological data of the cases with duodenal bulb and gastric mucosal biopsy from January 2005 to May 2017 were analyzed retrospectively. RESULTS: A total of 3540 patients were enrolled. The biopsy from protuberant lesions with endoscopic morphology are mostly duodenal gastric heterotopia or adenoma. The biopsy from duodenal ulcers are often observed in inflammatory changes and gastric metaplasia. Patients with gastric heterotopia had a significantly lower prevalence of chronic atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, and gastric ulcer; and much higher prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease and gastric fundic polyps. Patients with gastric metaplasia had been positively associated with gastroesophageal reflux disease, and negatively associated with gastric fundic polyps. There were positive correlation between helicobacter pylori infection and duodenal active inflammation, Brunner gland hyperplasia, gastric metaplasia and duodenal ulcer. However, Patients with gastric heterotopia in bulb had been negatively associated with helicobacter pylori infection. CONCLUSIONS: The mucosa lesions in duodenal bulb were associated with concurrent gastric fundic gland polyps, gastroesophageal reflux disease, duodenal ulcer, and helicobacter pylori infection.


Assuntos
Úlcera Duodenal/patologia , Gastroenteropatias/patologia , Infecções por Helicobacter/patologia , Helicobacter pylori/fisiologia , Metaplasia/patologia , Úlcera Gástrica/patologia , Biópsia , Úlcera Duodenal/microbiologia , Duodeno/microbiologia , Duodeno/patologia , Gastroenteropatias/microbiologia , Infecções por Helicobacter/microbiologia , Humanos , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , Metaplasia/microbiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estômago/microbiologia , Estômago/patologia , Úlcera Gástrica/microbiologia
19.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 55(3)2019 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30862060

RESUMO

Background and objectives: Zingerone is an ingredient of ginger (Zingiber officinale) with different pharmacological activities. Several studies have investigated the effect of zingerone on various gastrointestinal diseases, including irritable bowel syndrome and diarrhea. This study is aimed to evaluate the effect of zingerone on ethanol-induced gastric ulcers in rats. Materials and Methods: Gastric ulcers were induced by ethanol (96%, 5 mL/kg, po) in male wistar rats and zingerone (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg) was administrated orally. Normal saline and ranitidine were used as negative and positive control, respectively. In this study, the number and length of ulcers, and malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) levels in stomach tissues were determined. Results: The findings showed that the mean number and length of gastric ulcers were significantly lower in zingerone-received groups than ethanol group (P < 0.05). The level of malondialdehyde was decreased in the stomach of zingerone groups (P < 0.05) compared to the ethanol group. In addition, zingerone treatment prevented the decrease of nitric oxide level by ethanol in the stomach tissue. Conclusions: The present study showed that zingerone has a protective effect on the ethanol-induced gastric ulcer, which may be due to its free radical scavenging activity.


Assuntos
Antiulcerosos/uso terapêutico , Gengibre/química , Guaiacol/análogos & derivados , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Substâncias Protetoras/uso terapêutico , Úlcera Gástrica/tratamento farmacológico , Úlcera Gástrica/patologia , Animais , Antiulcerosos/administração & dosagem , Antiulcerosos/farmacologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Etanol/administração & dosagem , Etanol/efeitos adversos , Etanol/farmacologia , Mucosa Gástrica/metabolismo , Guaiacol/administração & dosagem , Guaiacol/farmacologia , Guaiacol/uso terapêutico , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Malondialdeído/análise , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Necrose , Óxido Nítrico/análise , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Substâncias Protetoras/administração & dosagem , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Solventes/administração & dosagem , Solventes/efeitos adversos , Solventes/farmacologia , Úlcera Gástrica/induzido quimicamente , Úlcera Gástrica/prevenção & controle
20.
Biochem Pharmacol ; 163: 71-83, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30753813

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Besides hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and nitric oxide (NO), carbon monoxide (CO) contributes to the maintenance of gastric mucosal integrity. We investigated increased CO bioavailability effects on time-dependent dynamics of gastric ulcer healing mediated by particular growth factors, anti-inflammatory and molecular pathways. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Wistar rats with gastric ulcers induced by serosal acetic acid application (day 0) were treated i.g. throughout 3, 6 or 14 days with vehicle or CO-releasing tricarbonyldichlororuthenium (II) dimer (CORM-2, 2.5 mg/kg). Gross and microscopic alterations in gastric ulcer size and gastric blood flow (GBF) at ulcer margin were determined by planimetry, histology and laser flowmetry, respectively. Gastric mRNA/protein expressions of platelet derived growth factors (PDGFA-D), insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1), epidermal growth factor (EGF), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGFA) and their receptors, heme oxygenases (HMOX), nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf-2), cyclooxygenase (COX-2), hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1α, anti-inflammatory annexin-1 and transforming growth factor (TGF-ß1) were assessed by real-time PCR or Western blot. TGF-ß1-3 and IL-10 plasma concentration were measured using Luminex platform. Prostaglandin E2 content at ulcer margin was assessed by ELISA. KEY RESULTS: CORM-2 decreased ulcer area and increased GBF after 6 and 14 days of treatment comparing to vehicle. CO donor upregulated HGF, HGFr, VEGFR1, VEGFR2, TGF-ß1, annexin-1 and maintained increased IGF-1, PDGFC and EGF expression at various time-intervals of ulcer healing. TGF-ß3 and IL-10 plasma concentration were significantly increased after COMR-2 vs. vehicle. CONCLUSIONS: CO time-dependently accelerates gastric ulcer healing and raises GBF at ulcer margin by mechanism involving subsequent upregulation of anti-inflammatory, growth promoting and angiogenic factors response, not observed physiologically.


Assuntos
Monóxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Gástrica/metabolismo , Compostos Organometálicos/administração & dosagem , Compostos Organometálicos/metabolismo , Úlcera Gástrica/metabolismo , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos/fisiologia , Mucosa Gástrica/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Gástrica/patologia , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/metabolismo , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Úlcera Gástrica/tratamento farmacológico , Úlcera Gástrica/patologia , Fatores de Tempo
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