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1.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 2529-2539, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32346290

RESUMO

Background: Peptic ulcer disease, a painful lesion of the gastric mucosa, is considered one of the most common gastrointestinal disorders. This study aims to investigate the formulation of pumpkin seed oil (PSO)-based nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) to utilize PSO as the liquid lipid component of NLCs and to achieve oil dispersion in the nano-range in the stomach. Methods: Box-Behnken design was utilized to deduce the optimum formula with minimum particle size. The optimized PSO-NLCs formula was investigated for gastric ulcer protective effects in Wistar rats by evaluating ulcer index and determination of gastric mucosa oxidative stress parameters. Results: PSO was successfully incorporated as the liquid lipid (LL) component of NLCs. The prepared optimum PSO-NLCs formula showed a size of 64.3 nm. Pretreatment of animals using the optimized PSO-NLCs formula showed significantly (p< 0.001) lower ulcer index compared to indomethacin alone group and significantly (p<0.05) less mucosal lesions compared to the raw oil. Conclusion: These results indicated great potential for future application of optimized PSO-NLCs formula for antiulcer effect in non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-induced gastric ulcer.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Cucurbita/química , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Lipídeos/química , Nanoestruturas/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Úlcera Gástrica/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Mucosa Gástrica/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Gástrica/patologia , Indometacina/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Tamanho da Partícula , Ratos Wistar , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Estômago/efeitos dos fármacos , Estômago/patologia , Úlcera Gástrica/patologia
2.
J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 35(9): 1532-1539, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32083327

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: The aim of this study was to identify factors affecting persistent gastric regenerating atypia and determine the effect of Helicobacter pylori eradication on the course of this lesion. METHODS: In cross-sectional setting, comprehensive health check-up subjects who underwent both endoscopy and H. pylori test from 2001 to 2009 were included. The association between H. pylori and gastric regenerating atypia was evaluated. In cohort setting, patients with regenerating atypia who underwent H. pylori test from 2001 to 2013 were included. Factors affecting positive pathology (persistent regenerating atypia or new development of neoplasm) in patients with regenerating atypia at baseline were investigated. RESULTS: In cross-sectional setting, regenerating atypia was observed in 1.1% (241/22 133). H. pylori infection was associated with gastric regenerating atypia (adjusted odds ratio, 1.47; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.12-1.91). In cohort setting, 310 patients with regenerating atypia were finally eligible. Positive pathology rate during follow up was 16.1% (15/93) in the persistent infection group, 2.8% (3/106) in successful eradication group, and 4.5% (5/111) in baseline H. pylori-negative group. Persistent H. pylori infection increased the risk of positive pathology (adjusted risk ratio [RR], 7.18; 95% CI, 1.95-26.48) compared to H. pylori eradication group. Persistent H. pylori infection increased the risk of regenerative atypia (adjusted RR, 5.70; 95% CI, 1.46-22.17) and new neoplasm (adjusted RR, 10.74; 95% CI, 1.10-105.17) compared to baseline negative H. pylori. CONCLUSIONS: H. pylori infection is an independent risk factor for gastric regenerating atypia. Eradication of H. pylori seems helpful for regression of regenerating atypia.


Assuntos
Mucosa Gástrica/patologia , Infecções por Helicobacter/complicações , Infecções por Helicobacter/tratamento farmacológico , Helicobacter pylori , Neoplasias Gástricas/etiologia , Úlcera Gástrica/etiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/terapia , Úlcera Gástrica/patologia , Úlcera Gástrica/terapia
3.
Planta Med ; 86(1): 32-44, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31689719

RESUMO

Gastric ulcer is a major health problem. Current treatment options of gastric ulcer, including antagonists of histamine H2 receptor and inhibitors of the proton pump, do not cure gastric ulcers, but only provide temporary relief of symptoms and can be associated with severe side effects. The lack of effective and safe medications for this global health problem urges for the discovery of novel classes of compounds with potent activity and an acceptable safety profile. Ethanol-induced ulceration in rats was used to evaluate the gastroprotective activity of casuarinin, an ellagitannin isolated from Melaleuca leucadendra. Casuarinin (25, 50, and 100 mg/kg) reduced the ulcer area by 45, 78, and 99%, respectively, compared with the ulcer group. Casuarinin (100 mg/kg) increased mucin content by 1.8-fold and reduced acidity by 42%. At the same dose, it also increased the levels of reduced glutathione by 194%, catalase by 586%, and prostaglandin E2 to its normal level. In contrast, it attenuated the ethanol-increased levels of malondialdehyde by 56%, TNF-α by 58%, and caspase-3 by 87%. Histological findings demonstrated that casuarinin exhibited a protective effect against tissue alterations in response to the ethanol-induced ulcer. Casuarinin suppressed the immunoexpression of nuclear factor-kappa B, cyclooxygenase-2, and inducible nitric oxide synthase to their normal values. It also induced the expression of heat shock protein-70, reaching up to 4.9-fold in comparison with the ulcer group. The potent gastroprotective effect of casuarinin was thus attributed to its anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antiapoptotic effects. Our results suggest the potential application of casuarinin as an antiulcer agent from natural sources.


Assuntos
Antiulcerosos/isolamento & purificação , Taninos Hidrolisáveis/uso terapêutico , Melaleuca/química , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Úlcera Gástrica/prevenção & controle , Animais , Antiulcerosos/farmacologia , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Etanol , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP70/metabolismo , Taninos Hidrolisáveis/química , Taninos Hidrolisáveis/isolamento & purificação , Masculino , Estrutura Molecular , Mucinas/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Substâncias Protetoras/isolamento & purificação , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Úlcera Gástrica/induzido quimicamente , Úlcera Gástrica/patologia
4.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 248: 112297, 2020 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31606535

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Members of the genus Erythrina have been traditionally used in the treatment of various ailments such as inflammation and gastrointestinal disorders. Erythrina speciosa (Fabaceae) is a spiny, deciduous shrub or small tree native to Southern America in Brazil. It is cultivated in Africa and Asia. The traditional usage of E. speciosa indicated its antibacterial, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory activities. AIM OF THE STUDY: Evaluation of the phytochemical constituents, gastroprotective effects and possible mechanism of action of the ethyl acetate fraction obtained from the methanol extract of E. speciosa leaves (ESLE). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Chemical characterization of ESLE was done using high performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). The gastroprotective activity of ESLE was evaluated using ethanol-induced gastric-ulcer model in rats. Rats were pre-treated with ESLE 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg 1 h before the administration of absolute ethanol. Histological analysis, mucin content, and total acidity were evaluated. The possible mechanism of action of ESLE was studied through the examination of oxidative stress and inflammatory markers, PGE2, and NF-κB, iNOS, COX-2, and HSP-70 immunoexpression. In vitro, anti-Helicobacter pylori activity of ESLE was also studied using micro-well dilution method. RESULTS: Fourteen compounds were tentatively identified including alkaloids, flavonoids, and saponins. ESLE exerted a powerful gastroprotective effect. The pre-treatment with ESLE at different doses resulted in a significant reduction in gastric lesions and significant elevation in the mucin production. These effects could be partially mediated by the potent anti-inflammatory activity of ESLE as evidenced by the significant reduction in the immunoexpression of NF-κB, COX-2, iNOS and the reduction in the pro-inflammatory marker, TNF-α. ESLE counteracted the ethanol-induced oxidative stress by increasing the levels of depleted GSH and catalase as well as significantly attenuating the ethanol-induced lipid peroxidation tissue levels. In addition, ESLE exhibited in vitro antibacterial activity against H. pylori. CONCLUSIONS: The chemical constituents of ESLE strongly support its potent gastroprotective effect suggesting its future potential application in the management of gastric ulcer by eliminating its symptoms and causes including H. pylori.


Assuntos
Antiulcerosos/uso terapêutico , Fabaceae , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Úlcera Gástrica/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Antiulcerosos/farmacologia , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Egito , Etanol , Mucosa Gástrica/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Gástrica/metabolismo , Mucosa Gástrica/patologia , Helicobacter pylori/efeitos dos fármacos , Helicobacter pylori/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Masculino , Mucinas/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Úlcera Gástrica/induzido quimicamente , Úlcera Gástrica/metabolismo , Úlcera Gástrica/patologia
5.
Eur J Pharm Sci ; 143: 105204, 2020 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31870812

RESUMO

Liquid raft-forming formulations comprising solid dispersions of glycoside-rich Centella asiatica extract and Eudragit® EPO (GR-SD) were developed to achieve prolonged delivery of the glycosides, asiaticoside (AS) and madecassoside (MS) in the stomach and thus increase the effectiveness of gastric ulcer treatment. Solid dispersions of GR extract and Eudragit® EPO (GR-SD, weight ratio 1:0.5) resulted in the highest solubility of AS (41.7 mg/mL) and MS (29.3 mg/mL) and completed dissolution of both glycosides occurred in SGF within 10 min. The optimized raft-forming formulation was composed of alginate (2%), HPMC K-100 (0.5%), GR-SD (1.2%), and calcium carbonate (0.5%) as a calcium source and carbon dioxide producer. The formulation provided sufficient raft strength (> 7.0 g), rapid floating behavior in SGF (~30 s), and sustained release of AS (more than 80%) and MS (85%) over 8 h. GR-SD-based formulations administered once daily to rats for two days at a dose of 10 mg AS/kg reduced the severity of gastric ulcer induced by indomethacin with a greater curative efficacy than those of unformulated GR extract and a standard antiulcer agent: lansoprazole (p < 0.05). These findings demonstrate that GR-SD-based raft-forming systems offer significant promise for improving the treatment of gastric ulcers induced by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.


Assuntos
Antiulcerosos/administração & dosagem , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Ácidos Polimetacrílicos/administração & dosagem , Úlcera Gástrica/tratamento farmacológico , Triterpenos/administração & dosagem , Animais , Antiulcerosos/química , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Mucosa Gástrica/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Gástrica/metabolismo , Mucosa Gástrica/patologia , Indometacina , Masculino , Ácidos Polimetacrílicos/química , Ratos Wistar , Solubilidade , Úlcera Gástrica/metabolismo , Úlcera Gástrica/patologia , Triterpenos/química
6.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2019: 1568720, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31827668

RESUMO

Gastric ulcer is a painful lesion of the gastric mucosa which can be disabling, or even more very serious in the case of a perforation of the stomach and internal hemorrhage. Traditional pharmacopeias have shown the efficacy of various plant extracts in the treatment of this pathology. Some extracts from Opuntia ficus indica (OFI) have been proven to have medicinal therapeutic benefits. The aim of this study was to investigate the preventive and curative effects of OFI seed oil extracted by cold pressing on an ethanol-induced gastric ulcer model in rats. Gastroprotective activities of the oil were assessed as pretreatments prior to ethanol gavage of Wistar rats compared to reference drugs. Two oil dose effects were tested. Ulcer and gastric parameters were measured (ulcerated areas (mm2), % of ulcer inhibition, gastric juice volume and pH, and mucus weight). Macroscopical and microscopical assessments of the stomachs as well as gastric biopsy histological studies were carried out. OFI oil exhibited a high efficiency in the protection of the cytoarchitecture and function of the gastric mucosa against the severe damages provoked by ethanol intake. Ulcerated areas were very significantly reduced and the % of ulcer inhibition was the highest under OFI oil pretreatment. Mucus production was stimulated, gastric juice volume was reduced, and its pH was increased. Histopathological examination of H&E-stained biopsies collected from gastric mucosae from the different experimental groups confirmed the gastroprotective efficacy of OFI oil against ethanol-induced symptoms such as inflammation and damages like bleeding, erosions, lesions, necrosis, and ulcers. Furthermore, OFI oil treatment speeded-up the reduction of the surface of ethanol-induced ulcerated areas in a dose-dependent manner, leading to a time gain in the healing process. The healing rate reached 91% on day 2 and 99% on day 3, and a complete heal was attained at the fourth day under OFI oil treatment, while ulcer areas were still partially unhealed in all the other groups. The therapeutic effects of OFI oil against gastric ulcer could be mediated by its varied bioactive compounds that we have demonstrated in the analytical study. They could act synergistically or in a delayed manner to optimize the healing process through protective antioxidant properties, as well as an antagonism against histamine H2-receptors, a stimulation of the signaling pathways necessary for mucus and bicarbonate production, and reduction of inflammatory processes in the gastric mucosa. Additionally, OFI oil fatty acids (especially unsaturated) and triacylglycerols contribute to the reconstruction and the repair of the cell membrane lipid bilayer during the gastric ulcer healing process.


Assuntos
Opuntia/metabolismo , Óleos Vegetais/química , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antioxidantes/química , Cromatografia Gasosa , Etanol/toxicidade , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/farmacologia , Flavonoides/análise , Mucosa Gástrica/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Gástrica/metabolismo , Mucosa Gástrica/patologia , Antagonistas dos Receptores Histamínicos H2/química , Antagonistas dos Receptores Histamínicos H2/farmacologia , Antagonistas dos Receptores Histamínicos H2/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Extratos Vegetais/química , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Óleos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Substâncias Protetoras/química , Substâncias Protetoras/uso terapêutico , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Receptores Histamínicos H2/química , Receptores Histamínicos H2/metabolismo , Sementes/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Úlcera Gástrica/induzido quimicamente , Úlcera Gástrica/patologia , Úlcera Gástrica/prevenção & controle
7.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2019: 1983137, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31827669

RESUMO

Ethnomedicinal studies in the Amazon community and in the Northeast region of Brazil highlight the use of Libidibia ferrea fruits for the treatment of gastric problems. However, there are no data in the literature of this pharmacological activity. Thus, the aim of this paper is to provide a scientific basis for the use of the dry extract of L. ferrea pods (DELfp) for the treatment of peptic ulcers. Phytochemical characterization was performed by HPLC/MS. In vitro antioxidant activity was assessed using DPPH, ABTS, phosphomolybdenum, and superoxide radical scavenging activity. The gastroprotective activity, the ability to stimulate mucus production, the antisecretory activity, and the influence of -SH and NO compounds on the antiulcerogenic activity of DELfp were evaluated. The healing activity was determined by the acetic acid-induced chronic ulcer model. Anti-Helicobacter pylori activity was investigated. HPLC/MS results identified the presence of phenolic compounds, gallic acid and ellagic acid, in DELfp. The extract showed antioxidant activity in vitro. In ulcers induced by absolute ethanol and acidified ethanol, the ED50 values of DELfp were 113 and 185.7 mg/kg, respectively. DELfp (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) inhibited indomethacin-induced lesions by 66.7, 69.6, and 65.8%, respectively. DELfp (200 mg/kg) reduced gastric secretion and H+ concentration in the gastric contents and showed to be independent of nitric oxide (NO) and dependent on sulfhydryl (-SH) compounds in the protection of the gastric mucosa. In the chronic ulcer model, DELfp reduced the area of the gastric lesion. DELfp also showed anti-H. pylori activity. In conclusion, DELfp showed antioxidant, gastroprotective, healing, and antiulcerogenic activities. The mechanism of these actions seems to be mediated by different pathways and involves the reduction of gastric secretion and H+ concentration, dependence on sulfhydryl compounds, and anti-H. pylori activity. All these actions support the medicinal use of this species in the management of peptic ulcers.


Assuntos
Antiulcerosos/química , Antioxidantes/química , Fabaceae/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Ácido Acético/toxicidade , Animais , Antiulcerosos/farmacologia , Antiulcerosos/uso terapêutico , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Fabaceae/metabolismo , Feminino , Mucosa Gástrica/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Gástrica/patologia , Helicobacter pylori/efeitos dos fármacos , Espectrometria de Massas , Óxido Nítrico/química , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Fenóis/análise , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Úlcera Gástrica/induzido quimicamente , Úlcera Gástrica/tratamento farmacológico , Úlcera Gástrica/patologia , Compostos de Sulfidrila/química , Compostos de Sulfidrila/metabolismo
8.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 19(1): 345, 2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31791313

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cuphea ignea is one of the herbal resources belonging to Lythraceae family. Some species of this family have been used traditionally in South and Central America's folk medicine for treating stomach disorders. Therefore, the present study was performed to evaluate the gastropreventive effect of aqueous ethanolic extract of C. ignea aerial parts on ethanol-induced gastric ulcer. METHODS: Gastric ulcers were induced in Sprague Dawley rats using one oral dose of absolute ethanol (1.5 mL/rat). The C. ignea aerial parts extract at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight and ranitidine (a reference drug) at a dose of 30 mg/kg body weight were orally administrated daily for 7 days before ulcer induction. One hour after ethanol administration blood samples were collected and then stomachs of sacrificed rats were subjected to biochemical, macroscopic and microscopic studies. RESULTS: Oral administration of C. ignea extract significantly attenuated gastric ulcer as revealed by significant reduction in the gastric ulcer index and volume of gastric juice while significantly increased preventive percentage, gastric pH value and pepsin activity. Pre-treatment of C. ignea extract markedly improved the serum level of TNF-α, the gastric MPO activity and NO content. Furthermore, C. ignea pre-treatment significantly increased the gastric levels of enzymatic and non- enzymatic antioxidants namely CAT, SOD, GSH-Px, and GSH with concomitant reduction in MDA level compared with those in the ethanol group. These results were further supported by histopathological findings which revealed the curing effect of C. ignea on the hemorrhagic shock induced by ethanol toxicity. CONCLUSIONS: C. ignea extract showed a potential gastroprotective effect on ethanol-induced gastric ulcer, and its effect may be mediated through suppression of oxidative stress and gastric inflammation.


Assuntos
Antiulcerosos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Cuphea , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Úlcera Gástrica , Animais , Etanol/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Estômago/efeitos dos fármacos , Estômago/patologia , Úlcera Gástrica/induzido quimicamente , Úlcera Gástrica/metabolismo , Úlcera Gástrica/patologia
9.
Nutrients ; 11(12)2019 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31847337

RESUMO

We investigated the effects of enteral nutrition formula on non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-induced gastric lesions in mice. Male ICR mice aged 7-9 weeks old were fasted, then orally given either purified water, Mermed® One, or 2-fold diluted Terumeal® 2.0α as enteral nutrition (25 or 50 mL/kg each). Indomethacin (IND) was orally administered at 20 mg/kg after 30 min, and the stomach was removed 6 h later and fixed in formalin. The number and area of lesions in the stomachs of the mice given enteral nutrition showed a significant, dose-dependent decrease compared to the purified water-treated group, and no significant difference was seen between the two enteral nutrition-treated groups. Comparable time courses of plasma IND concentrations suggest that enteral nutrition does not inhibit gastrointestinal absorption of IND. Our findings indicate that administering enteral nutrition could inhibit the onset of NSAID-induced gastric ulcers.


Assuntos
Nutrição Enteral , Alimentos Formulados , Indometacina/toxicidade , Úlcera Gástrica/induzido quimicamente , Úlcera Gástrica/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/toxicidade , Mucosa Gástrica/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Gástrica/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Úlcera Gástrica/patologia
10.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 4921086, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31886219

RESUMO

This study aims to delineate the effects of Manilkara zapota Linn. (Sapodilla) fruit chloroform (Mz.CHCl3) and aqueous (Mz.Aq) extracts tested through different techniques. Antidiarrheal activity and intestinal fluid accumulation were examined by using castor oil-induced diarrhea and castor oil fluid accumulation models. Isolated rabbit jejunum tissues were employed for in vitro experiments. Antimotility and antiulcer were performed through charcoal meal transient time and ethanol-induced ulcer assay, molecular studies were conducted through proteomic analysis, and virtual screening was performed by using a discovery studio visualizer (DSV). Mz.CHCl3 and Mz.Aq extracts attributed dose-dependent (50-300 mg/kg) protection (20-100%) against castor oil-induced diarrhea and dose-dependently (50-300 mg/kg) inhibited intestinal fluid secretions in mice. Mz.CHCl3 and Mz.Aq extracts produce relaxation of spontaneous and K+ (80 Mm) induced contractions in isolated tissue preparations and decreased the distance moved by charcoal in the gastrointestinal transit model in rats. It showed gastroprotective effect in ulcerative stomach of rats and decreased levels of IL-18 quantified by proteomic analysis. Histopathological results showed ethanol-induced significant gastric injury, leading to cloudy swelling, hydropic degeneration, apoptosis, and focal necrosis in all gastric zones using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining. Moreover, ethanol increased the activation and the expression of tumor necrotic factor (TNF-α), cyclooxygenase (COX-2), and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (p-NFκB). In silico results were comparative to in vitro results evaluated through virtual screening. Moreover, ethanol increased the activation and expression of tumor necrotic factor, cyclooxygenase, and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells. This study exhibits the gastroprotective effect of Manilkara zapota extracts in the peritoneal cavity using a proteomic and in silico approach which reveals different energy values against target proteins, which mediate the gastrointestinal functions.


Assuntos
Antidiarreicos , Diarreia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Manilkara/química , Extratos Vegetais , Proteoma/biossíntese , Proteômica , Úlcera Gástrica , Animais , Antidiarreicos/química , Antidiarreicos/farmacologia , Óleo de Rícino/efeitos adversos , Óleo de Rícino/farmacologia , Diarreia/induzido quimicamente , Diarreia/tratamento farmacológico , Diarreia/metabolismo , Diarreia/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Coelhos , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Úlcera Gástrica/induzido quimicamente , Úlcera Gástrica/tratamento farmacológico , Úlcera Gástrica/metabolismo , Úlcera Gástrica/patologia
11.
Int J Med Mushrooms ; 21(8): 805-816, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31679287

RESUMO

The chaga medicinal mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) was traditionally used to treat various ailments. To establish the pharmacological properties of I. obliquus, studies were performed to show the antiulcer activity of the ethanolic extract. The ethanolic extract of I. obliquus was prepared. The antiulcer activity of I. obliquus was determined using gastric ulcerated rats (ulceration induced by ethanol). The ethanolic extract of I. obliquus (200 mg/kg) did not cause any sign of toxicity or sensitivity to rats when the extracts were administered by oral feed. Oral administration of ethanolic extract of I. obliquus exhibited antiulcer activity in all models used. The ethanolic extract of I. obliquus showed an effective antiulcer activity, which could be due to the presence of various biologically active compounds. This confirmed the traditional uses of I. obliquus in the treatment of ailments.


Assuntos
Antiulcerosos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Basidiomycota/química , Misturas Complexas/farmacologia , Úlcera Gástrica/tratamento farmacológico , Agaricales , Animais , Antiulcerosos/isolamento & purificação , Catalase/metabolismo , Misturas Complexas/isolamento & purificação , Dinoprostona/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Etanol , Glutationa/metabolismo , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Medicina Tradicional , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Úlcera Gástrica/induzido quimicamente , Úlcera Gástrica/patologia , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
12.
Drug Des Devel Ther ; 13: 2969-2984, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31686780

RESUMO

Background: Stress ulcer is a severe complication in critically ill patients and causes a high mortality. The proton pump inhibitor esomeprazole is widely applied in the treatment of stress ulcers because of its powerful acid suppression ability. However, the mechanism of stress ulcer and the precise gastroprotective effect of esomeprazole in stress ulcer remain unclear. Purpose: In the present study, the rats with water-immersed and restraint (WIR)-induced stress ulcer were used to further elucidate the anti-ulcerogenic capacity of esomeprazole in stress ulcer in addition to its anti-acid secreting ability. Methods and results: The rats were randomly divided into 5 groups: control group (NS), water-immersed and restraint group (WIR), high-dose application of esomeprazole plus stress ulcer-induced group (HE+WIR), low-dose application of esomeprazole plus stress ulcer-induced group (LE+WIR), and high-dose application of esomeprazole without stress ulcer-induced group (HE). Our study showed that the pretreatment of esomeprazole alleviated gastric tissue damage in both macroscopic and histopathological manifestations. Pretreatment of esomeprazole elevated the decline in PEG2 level affected by WIR; and it inhibited the secretion of gastric acid, gastrin and pepsin. Moreover, esomeprazole exerted its antioxidant effects by reducing malondialdehyde levels, enhancing the expressions of antioxidant factors like glutathione and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and reducing the compensatory transcriptional elevation of SOD1 gene. Esomeprazole also reduced the levels of MPO (myeloperoxidase), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-1ß according to its anti-inflammatory effects. We further explored the possible mechanism of esomeprazole pretreatment on stress ulcer and demonstrated that esomeprazole attenuated the high phosphorylation levels of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p65 and p38 MAPK, and decreased the NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation induced by WIR related stress ulcer. Conclusion: Our study provides some evidence that the esomeprazole pretreatment exerts gastroprotective effects in WIR-induced stress ulcer through not only its antisecretory effect but also its antioxidant effect by inactivating the p38 MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways.


Assuntos
Antiulcerosos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Esomeprazol/farmacologia , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , NF-kappa B/antagonistas & inibidores , Úlcera Gástrica/complicações , Úlcera Gástrica/tratamento farmacológico , Estresse Psicológico/complicações , Administração Oral , Animais , Antiulcerosos/administração & dosagem , Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Esomeprazol/administração & dosagem , Mucosa Gástrica/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Gástrica/patologia , Injeções Intraperitoneais , Masculino , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Úlcera Gástrica/patologia , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo
13.
World J Gastroenterol ; 25(39): 5926-5935, 2019 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31660030

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Proton pump inhibitors are often used to prevent gastro-intestinal lesions induced by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. However, they are not always effective against both gastric and duodenal lesions and their use is not devoid of side effects. AIM: To explore the mechanisms mediating the clinical efficacy of STW 5 in gastro-duodenal lesions induced by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), exemplified here by diclofenac, in a comparison to omeprazole. METHODS: Gastro-duodenal lesions were induced in rats by oral administration of diclofenac (5 mg/kg) for 6 successive days. One group was given concurrently STW 5 (5 mL/kg) while another was given omeprazole (20 mg/kg). A day later, animals were sacrificed, stomach and duodenum excised and divided into 2 segments: One for histological examination and one for measuring inflammatory mediators (tumor necrosis factor α, interleukins-1ß and 10), oxidative stress enzyme (heme oxygenase-1) and apoptosis regulator (B-cell lymphoma 2). RESULTS: Diclofenac caused overt histological damage in both tissues, associated with parallel changes in all parameters measured. STW 5 and omeprazole effectively prevented these changes, but STW 5 superseded omeprazole in protecting against histological damage, particularly in the duodenum. CONCLUSION: The findings support the therapeutic usefulness of STW 5 and its superiority over omeprazole as adjuvant therapy to NSAIDs to protect against their possible gastro-duodenal side effects.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/efeitos adversos , Úlcera Duodenal/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Substâncias Protetoras/administração & dosagem , Úlcera Gástrica/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Diclofenaco/efeitos adversos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Úlcera Duodenal/induzido quimicamente , Úlcera Duodenal/patologia , Duodeno/efeitos dos fármacos , Duodeno/patologia , Feminino , Mucosa Gástrica/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Gástrica/patologia , Humanos , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Úlcera Gástrica/induzido quimicamente , Úlcera Gástrica/patologia , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
World J Gastroenterol ; 25(39): 6025-6040, 2019 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31660038

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Allicin (2-propene-1-sulfinothioic acid S-2-propenyl ester, diallyl thiosulfinate) extracted from garlic, has proven activity against Helicobacter pylori (H. Pylori) infection. In recent years, clinical trials have explored its utility as an add-on therapy with variable outcomes reported. AIM: To perform a systemic review of allicin as an add-on treatment for H. Pylori infection and assess its efficacy in randomized controlled trials (RCTs). METHODS: Electronic databases including MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Web of Science, the Cochrane Database, the China National Knowledge Infrastructure Database, Chinese VIP Information Databases, Chinese Medical Databases, and the Wan-Fang Database were searched for keywords including "allicin", "Helicobacter pylori", "randomized clinical trials", and their synonyms. A meta-analysis was performed using the fixed-effects model for low heterogeneity and the random-effects model for high heterogeneity with sensitivity analysis. Bias was evaluated using Egger's tests. Trial sequential analysis (TSA) was used to evaluate information size and treatment benefits. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) was used to assess the level of quality, and studies were classed as "high quality", "moderate quality", "low quality", and "very low quality". RESULTS: A total of eight RCTs consisting of 867 participants (435 from the allicin group and 432 from the control group) were included. Eradication rate in the allicin group (93.33%, 406/435) was significantly higher than that of the control group (83.56%, 361/432) [I 2 = 0%, odds ratio (OR) = 2.75, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.74-4.35, P < 0.001]. The healing rate of ulcers following H. pylori therapy in the allicin group (86.17%, 349/405) was significantly higher than that of the control group (75.87%, 305/402) [I 2 = 0%, OR = 2.05, 95%CI: 1.39-3.03, P < 0.001]. The total remission rate of peptic ulcers across all allicin groups was 97.16%, which was significantly higher than that of controls [96.05% (389/405) vs 86.55% (360/402), I 2 = 0, OR = 3.04, 95%CI: 1.51-6.12, P = 0.015]. No significant differences in side effects were observed. TSA suggested that the trials were of sufficient standard to draw reliable conclusions. The quality of outcomes including eradication rates and side effects was graded as "very low" due to downgrades for "risk of bias" and "indirectness". Other outcomes such as ulcer healing rates and total ulcer remission rates were graded as "low" due to downgrades for "risk of bias". CONCLUSION: Allicin as an add-on therapy improves H. pylori eradication, healing of ulcers, and remission of symptoms. These results are suggested to be treated with caution due to limited quality.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/administração & dosagem , Infecções por Helicobacter/tratamento farmacológico , Úlcera Gástrica/tratamento farmacológico , Ácidos Sulfínicos/administração & dosagem , Antiácidos/administração & dosagem , Antiácidos/efeitos adversos , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Anti-Infecciosos/efeitos adversos , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Quimioterapia Combinada/efeitos adversos , Quimioterapia Combinada/métodos , Mucosa Gástrica/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Gástrica/microbiologia , Mucosa Gástrica/patologia , Infecções por Helicobacter/microbiologia , Infecções por Helicobacter/patologia , Helicobacter pylori/efeitos dos fármacos , Helicobacter pylori/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/efeitos adversos , Indução de Remissão/métodos , Úlcera Gástrica/microbiologia , Úlcera Gástrica/patologia , Ácidos Sulfínicos/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Georgian Med News ; (291): 7-13, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31418722

RESUMO

The purpose of the study was to identify the pathogenesis features of prepiloric and pyloric ulcers and to establish the cause of resistance to conservative therapy and the tendency to complicated course of type III ulcers according to H.D. Johnson. A comparative analysis of acid production was carried out in 150 patents with duodenal ulcer (n-80) and peptic ulcer of type III according to H.D. Johnson classification (n-70). We revealed a definite individual rhythm of daily intragastric acidity with a maximum rise at night in patients with duodenal ulcer. The paper explores the peculiarities of digestive juice secretion depending on ulcerative substratum localization. The pathogenetic validity of the use of antisecretory drugs for duodenal ulcer treatment and the need to further improve the algorithm for pyloric and prepyloric ulcer therapy are shown. For pyloric and prepiloric ulcers characteristic specific morphological changes in the muscle layer of the wall of the antrum, leading to the motor-evacuation disorders and promoting duodenogastric reflux - dystrophy myocytes circular muscle layer vacuolation of the cytoplasm, edema and hypertrophy ganglia intermuscular plexus, hemorrhages in the muscle sheath, violation of muscle bundles.


Assuntos
Úlcera Duodenal/complicações , Úlcera Duodenal/patologia , Ácido Gástrico/metabolismo , Piloro/patologia , Úlcera Gástrica/complicações , Úlcera Gástrica/patologia , Úlcera Duodenal/metabolismo , Humanos , Úlcera Gástrica/metabolismo
16.
PLoS One ; 14(8): e0220548, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31404064

RESUMO

Ethanol consumption is one of the common causative agents implicated in gastric ulcer development. Oxidative stress plays a major role in the induction and development of gastric ulceration. NADPH oxidases (NOXs) and Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) are key players in ethanol-induced ulcers. High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), a ubiquitous nuclear protein, mediates various inflammation functions. However, the role of HMGB1 in ethanol-induced gastric ulcer is not yet elucidated. Raspberry Ketone (RK) is a natural phenolic compound with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. In the present study, absolute ethanol (7.5 ml/kg) was used to induce gastric ulceration in rats. Raspberry Ketone (RK) (50 mg/kg) was given orally one hour before the administration of absolute ethanol. Interestingly, ethanol-induced gastric ulcer was associated with Nrf2 downregulation, which was correlated with NOX-1, 2 NOX-4, and HMGB1 upregulation, and was significantly reversed by RK pre-treatment. RK pre-treatment provided 80% gastroprotection. Gastroprotective properties of RK were mediated via antioxidant, anti-inflammatory (suppression of NF-kB and tumor necrosis factor-α), and antiapoptotic activities (reduction of Bax/Bcl2 ratio). Gastroprotective properties of RK were confirmed by histopathological examination. In conclusion, this study is the first to provide evidence to the role of HMGB1 in ethanol-induced gastric ulcer, and the crosstalk of Nrf2, NOXs and HMGB1. It also demonstrates that RK represents a promising gastroprotective activity comparable to omeprazole.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Butanonas/uso terapêutico , Etanol/efeitos adversos , Fármacos Gastrointestinais/uso terapêutico , Proteína HMGB1/metabolismo , NADPH Oxidases/metabolismo , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Receptor Cross-Talk , Úlcera Gástrica/induzido quimicamente , Animais , Mucosa Gástrica/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Gástrica/patologia , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Receptor Cross-Talk/efeitos dos fármacos , Úlcera Gástrica/metabolismo , Úlcera Gástrica/patologia , Úlcera Gástrica/prevenção & controle
17.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 14: 4911-4929, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31456637

RESUMO

Background: Apocynin (APO) is a bioactive phytochemical with prominent anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activities. Designing a nano-delivery system targeted to potentiate the gastric antiulcerogenic activity of APO has not been investigated yet. Chitosan oligosaccharide (COS) is a low molecular weight chitosan and its oral nanoparticulate system for potentiating the antiulcerogenic activity of the loaded APO has been described here. Methods: COS-nanoparticles (NPs) loaded with APO (using tripolyphosphate [TPP] as a cross-linker) were prepared by ionic gelation method and fully characterized. The chosen formula was extensively evaluated regarding in vitro release profile, kinetic analysis, and stability at refrigerated and room temperatures. Ultimately, the in vivo antiulcerogenic activity against ketoprofen (KP)-induced gastric ulceration in rats was assessed by macroscopic parameters including Paul's index and antiulcerogenic activity, histopathological examination, immunohistochemical (IHC) evaluation of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression level in ulcerated gastric tissue, and biochemical measurement of oxidative stress markers and nitric oxide (NO) levels. Results: The selected NPs formula with COS (0.5 % w/v) and TPP (0.1% w/v) was the most appropriate one with drug entrapment efficiency percentage of 35.06%, particle size of 436.20 nm, zeta potential of +38.20 mV, and mucoadhesive strength of 51.22%. It exhibited a biphasic in vitro release pattern as well as high stability at refrigerated temperature for a 6-month storage period. APO-loaded COS-NPs provoked marvelous antiulcerogenic activity against KP-induced gastric ulceration in rats compared with free APO treated group, which was emphasized by histopathological, IHC, and biochemical studies. Conclusion: In conclusion, APO-loaded COS-NPs could be considered as a promising oral phytopharmaceutical nanoparticulate system for management of gastric ulceration.


Assuntos
Acetofenonas/administração & dosagem , Acetofenonas/farmacologia , Quitosana/química , Mucosa Gástrica/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas/química , Oligossacarídeos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/administração & dosagem , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Acetofenonas/uso terapêutico , Administração através da Mucosa , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Varredura Diferencial de Calorimetria , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Cinética , Masculino , Nanopartículas/ultraestrutura , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Tamanho da Partícula , Ratos Wistar , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Eletricidade Estática , Estômago/efeitos dos fármacos , Estômago/patologia , Úlcera Gástrica/tratamento farmacológico , Úlcera Gástrica/patologia , Suínos , Difração de Raios X
18.
Pharm Biol ; 57(1): 485-497, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31401911

RESUMO

Context: Genus Verbascum (Scrophulariaceae) comprises about 360 species of flowering plants. Verbascum has been used in traditional medicine as an astringent, antitussive, analgesic and anti-inflammatory. Objective: Nothing was found in the available literature concerning Verbascum nubicum Murb; therefore, the study evaluates the biological activities, isolated compounds and HPLC profile. Materials and methods: Methanol extract (VME) and butanol fraction (VBF) of air-dried powdered V. nubicum were obtained. Four compounds were isolated from VBE and identified by 1H- and 13C-NMR. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) profile was determined for (VME). LD50, in vitro antioxidant, in vivo antiulcerogenic and anti-inflammatory activities as well as hepatoprotective activity were assessed. Anti-ulcerogenic and hepatoprotective activities were supported by histopathological examinations. Results: HPLC analysis of VME revealed the presence of luteolin 7-glucoside (2215.43 mg/100 g), hesperidin (954.51 mg/100 g) and apigenin (233.15 mg/100 g) as major compounds. Four compounds were isolated and confirmed by NMR data, were identified as gentiopicroside, luteolin, aucubin and gallic acid. The LD50 of VME and VBF extracts were calculated to be 8200 and 4225 mg/kg b.w., respectively. IC50 values of VBE and VMF as measured by DPPH·method were 43.6 and 50 µg/mL, respectively. Also, anti-inflammatory effect of VME (400 mg/kg b.w.) and VBF (200 mg/kg b.w.) induced edema model after 120 min were 61.93 and 56.13%, respectively. Antiulcerogenic activity of VME (400 mg/kg b.w.) and VBF (200 mg/kg b.w.) in albino rats were 65.14 and 84.57%, respectively. Conclusions: The V. nubicum extracts displayed safe and promising antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective properties. It can be also applied in the pharmacy industry, food industry and healthcare.


Assuntos
Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Verbascum/química , Analgésicos/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Apigenina/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Edema/induzido quimicamente , Edema/tratamento farmacológico , Glucosídeos/análise , Hesperidina/análise , Dose Letal Mediana , Luteolina/análise , Medicina Tradicional , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Ratos , Úlcera Gástrica/induzido quimicamente , Úlcera Gástrica/tratamento farmacológico , Úlcera Gástrica/patologia
19.
Mol Biol Rep ; 46(5): 4843-4860, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31297714

RESUMO

Gastric ulcer is a common problem affecting the gastrointestinal tract. Spirulina and wheatgrass are natural substances that have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. The aim of the Work was to elucidate the possible protective role of spirulina and wheatgrass versus standard treatment esomeprazole on indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer in adult male albino rats. Eighty adult male albino rats were divided into eight groups: group I (the control group), group II that received indomethacin (100 mg/kg orally), group III that received esomeprazole (20 mg/kg orally), group IV that received spirulina (1000 mg/kg orally), group V that received wheatgrass (1000 mg/kg orally), group VI that received indomethacin (100 mg/kg) + esomeprazole (20 mg/kg), group VII that received indomethacin (100 mg/kg) + spirulina (1000 mg/kg) and group VIII that received indomethacin (100 mg/kg) + wheatgrass (1000 mg/kg). Six hours after indomethacin treatment, all rats were anesthetized and their stomachs obtained for measures of gastric acidity, pepsin activity, mucin content, gastrin, ulcer index, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), tumor necrosis factor -α (TNF-α), interleukin-8 (IL8), proapoptotic protein (Bax). Histological (using H&E stain, PAS reaction) and immunohistochemical (using anti Ki67 immunostain) techniques were performed. Western immunoblot analysis for heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) was also done. Moreover, a morphometric study was done for area% of positive immunoreactive cells for Ki67 and optical density and area% of PAS reaction. All performed measurements were followed by statistical analysis. Indomethacin induced loss of normal architecture of gastric mucosa with sloughing of surface epithelium and inflammatory cellular infiltration. It also led to a significant increase in gastric acidity, inflammatory mediators (TNF-α, IL-8), pro-apoptotic protein Bax and a significant decrease in TAC levels and HSP-70 expression. There was also a significant decrease in area% of Ki67 immunoreactivity and area% and optical density of PAS reaction as compared with the control group and other pre-treated rats. These disturbed parameters were associated with increased ulcer index. In pre-treatment groups, the structure of the mucosa was similar to control with marked improvement in the biochemical assay. In conclusion, Spirulina and wheatgrass can partly protect the gastric mucosa against indomethacin-induced damage to a degree similar to that of the classical treatment esomeprazole.


Assuntos
Esomeprazol/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Poaceae/química , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Spirulina/química , Úlcera Gástrica/tratamento farmacológico , Úlcera Gástrica/etiologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Biomarcadores , Biópsia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Esomeprazol/química , Imuno-Histoquímica , Indometacina/efeitos adversos , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Masculino , Fenótipo , Extratos Vegetais/química , Substâncias Protetoras/química , Ratos , Úlcera Gástrica/metabolismo , Úlcera Gástrica/patologia
20.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 91(2): e20181044, 2019 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31241706

RESUMO

Myristica fragrans seeds are traditionally used to treat dyspepsia, vomiting and abdominal pain. The purpose of this study was to investigate the protective effect of Myristica fragrans in ethanol induced gastric ulcer. Study was carried out on rats, divided into four groups; negative control, positive control, standard drug control, and Myristica fragrans extract treated rats. The pH, ulcer index, acidity values and histopathological examination of stomach were evaluated. Myristica fragrans significantly (P<0.05) reduced gastric lesions by 41.68% in ethanol induced ulcer model at 200 mg/kg when compared to sucralfate (60.41%). However, histopathological findings appeared similar in Myristica fragrans extract treated and standard drug control groups, where stomachs were found with mild erosion of superficial epithelium and few infiltrated inflammatory cells. pH of gastric contents of rats from extract treated was increased (4.25 ± 0.25) as compared to positive control group (2.25 ± 0.25). Ulcer index of extract treated rats was improved (41.74%). Moreover, total acidity of extract treated group (60.0 ± 0.47) was decreased as compared to control group (74.50 ± 1.04). It is concluded that Myristica fragrans showed significant protecting activity in ethanol induced ulcer. Isolation and purification of phytochemicals responsible for gastroprotective activity becomes necessary.


Assuntos
Antiulcerosos/uso terapêutico , Myristica/química , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Substâncias Protetoras/uso terapêutico , Úlcera Gástrica/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Antiulcerosos/isolamento & purificação , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Etanol , Masculino , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Substâncias Protetoras/isolamento & purificação , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Sementes , Úlcera Gástrica/induzido quimicamente , Úlcera Gástrica/patologia
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