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1.
Onderstepoort J Vet Res ; 88(1): e1-e8, 2021 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33567843

RESUMO

Human coronaviruses are known respiratory pathogens associated with a range of respiratory illnesses, and there are considerable morbidity and hospitalisation amongst immune-compromised individuals of all age groups. The emergence of a highly pathogenic human coronavirus in China in 2019 has confirmed the long-held opinion that these viruses are important emerging and re-emerging pathogens. In this review article, we trace the discovery and emergence of coronaviruses (CoVs) over time since they were first reported. The review article will enrich our understanding on the host range, diversity and evolution, transmission of human CoVs and the threat posed by these viruses circulating in animal populations but overtime have spilled over to humans because of the increased proximity between humans and animals.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Coronavirus/classificação , Animais , Coronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Surtos de Doenças , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Humanos
2.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 816, 2021 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33547301

RESUMO

Serum liver enzyme concentrations are the most frequently-used laboratory markers of liver disease, a major cause of mortality. We conduct a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of liver enzymes from UK BioBank and BioBank Japan. We identified 160 previously-unreported independent alanine aminotransferase, 190 aspartate aminotransferase, and 199 alkaline phosphatase genome-wide significant associations, with some affecting multiple different enzymes. Associated variants implicate genes that demonstrate diverse liver cell type expression and promote a range of metabolic and liver diseases. These findings provide insight into the pathophysiology of liver and other metabolic diseases that are associated with serum liver enzyme concentrations.


Assuntos
Alanina Transaminase/genética , Fosfatase Alcalina/genética , Aspartato Aminotransferases/genética , Genoma Humano , Hepatopatias/genética , Fígado/enzimologia , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Fosfatase Alcalina/sangue , Aspartato Aminotransferases/sangue , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Células Endoteliais/enzimologia , Células Endoteliais/patologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Hepatócitos/enzimologia , Hepatócitos/patologia , Humanos , Japão , Células Matadoras Naturais/enzimologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/patologia , Macrófagos do Fígado/enzimologia , Macrófagos do Fígado/patologia , Fígado/patologia , Hepatopatias/sangue , Hepatopatias/classificação , Hepatopatias/patologia , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Análise de Célula Única , Reino Unido
3.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 829, 2021 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33547303

RESUMO

Among legumes (Fabaceae) capable of nitrogen-fixing nodulation, several Aeschynomene spp. use a unique symbiotic process that is independent of Nod factors and infection threads. They are also distinctive in developing root and stem nodules with photosynthetic bradyrhizobia. Despite the significance of these symbiotic features, their understanding remains limited. To overcome such limitations, we conduct genetic studies of nodulation in Aeschynomene evenia, supported by the development of a genome sequence for A. evenia and transcriptomic resources for 10 additional Aeschynomene spp. Comparative analysis of symbiotic genes substantiates singular mechanisms in the early and late nodulation steps. A forward genetic screen also shows that AeCRK, coding a receptor-like kinase, and the symbiotic signaling genes AePOLLUX, AeCCamK, AeCYCLOPS, AeNSP2, and AeNIN are required to trigger both root and stem nodulation. This work demonstrates the utility of the A. evenia model and provides a cornerstone to unravel mechanisms underlying the rhizobium-legume symbiosis.


Assuntos
Bradyrhizobium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fabaceae/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genoma de Planta , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Nodulação/genética , Simbiose/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Evolução Biológica , Fabaceae/classificação , Fabaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fabaceae/microbiologia , Ontologia Genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Fotossíntese/genética , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Caules de Planta/genética , Caules de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Caules de Planta/microbiologia , Transdução de Sinais , Transcriptoma
4.
Viruses ; 13(2)2021 01 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33525386

RESUMO

Parvoviruses are small single-stranded DNA viruses that can infect both vertebrates and invertebrates. We report here the full characterization of novel viruses we identified in ducks, including two viral species within the subfamily Hamaparvovirinae (duck-associated chapparvovirus, DAC) and a novel species within the subfamily Densovirinae (duck-associated ambidensovirus, DAAD). Overall, 5.7% and 21.1% of the 123 screened ducks (American black ducks, mallards, northern pintail) were positive for DAC and DAAD, respectively, and both viruses were more frequently detected in autumn than in winter. Genome organization and predicted transcription profiles of DAC and DAAD were similar to viruses of the genera Chaphamaparvovirus and Protoambidensovirus, respectively. Their association to these genera was also demonstrated by subfamily-wide phylogenetic and distance analyses of non-structural protein NS1 sequences. While DACs were included in a highly supported clade of avian viruses, no definitive conclusions could be drawn about the host type of DAAD because it was phylogenetically close to viruses found in vertebrates and invertebrates and analyses of codon usage bias and nucleotide frequencies of viruses within the family Parvoviridae showed no clear host-based viral segregation. This study highlights the high parvoviral diversity in the avian reservoir with many avian-associated parvoviruses likely yet to be discovered.


Assuntos
Patos/virologia , Infecções por Parvoviridae/veterinária , Parvoviridae/genética , Animais , Animais Selvagens/virologia , Uso do Códon , DNA Viral/genética , Patos/classificação , Genoma Viral/genética , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Parvoviridae/classificação , Infecções por Parvoviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Parvoviridae/virologia , Filogenia , Estações do Ano , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/genética
5.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0244050, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33566814

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization has declared that infection with SARS-CoV-2 is a pandemic. Experiences with SARS in 2003 and SARS-CoV-2 have shown that health professionals are at higher risk of contracting COVID-19. Hence, it has been recommended that aperiodic wide-scale assessment of the knowledge and preparedness of health professionals regarding the current COVID-19 pandemic is critical. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to assess the knowledge and preparedness of health professionals regarding COVID-19 among selected hospitals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. METHODS: A facility-based cross-sectional study was conducted from the last week of March to early April, 2020. Government (n = 6) and private hospitals (n = 4) were included. The front-line participants with high exposure were proportionally recruited from their departments. The collected data from a self-administered questionnaire were entered using EpiData and analyzed in SPSS software. Both descriptive statistics and inferential statistics (chi-square tests) are presented. RESULTS: A total of 1334 health professionals participated in the study. The majority (675, 50.7%) of the participants were female. Of the total, 532 (39.9%) subjects were nurses/midwives, followed by doctors (397, 29.8%) and pharmacists (193, 14.5%). Of these, one-third had received formal training on COVID-19. The mean knowledge score of participants was 16.45 (±4.4). Regarding knowledge about COVID-19, 783 (58.7%), 354 (26.5%), and 196 (14.7%) participants had moderate, good, and poor knowledge, respectively. Lower scores were seen in younger age groups, females, and non-physicians. Two-thirds (63.2%) of the subjects responded that they had been updated by their hospital on COVID-19. Of the total, 1020 (76.5%) participants responded that television, radio, and newspapers were their primary sources of information. Established hospital preparedness measures were confirmed by 43-57% of participants. CONCLUSION: The current study revealed that health professionals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, already know important facts but had moderate overall knowledge about the COVID-19 pandemic. There were unmet needs in younger age groups, non-physicians, and females. Half of the respondents mentioning inadequate preparedness of their hospitals point to the need for more global solidarity, especially concerning the shortage of consumables and lack of equipment.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde/classificação , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
6.
Viruses ; 13(2)2021 01 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33525437

RESUMO

The establishment of selective colonies of potential vertebrate hosts for viruses would provide experimental models for the understanding of pathogen-host interactions. This paper briefly surveys the reasons to conduct such studies and how the results might provide information that could be applied to disease prevention activities.


Assuntos
Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Animais , /transmissão , Quirópteros/virologia , Coronavirus/classificação , Coronavirus/genética , Coronavirus/patogenicidade , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Humanos , /genética , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle , Zoonoses/virologia
7.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 21(1): 64, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33588819

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The disparity of harvesting locations can influence the chemical composition of a plant species, which could affect its quality and bioactivity. Terminalia albida is widely used in traditional Guinean medicine whose activity against malaria has been validated in vitro and in murine models. The present work investigated the antimalarial properties and chemical composition of two samples of T. albida collected from different locations in Guinea. METHOD: T. albida samples were collected in different locations in Guinea, in Dubréka prefecture (West maritime Guinea) and in Kankan prefecture (eastern Guinea). The identity of the samples was confirmed by molecular analysis. In vitro antiplasmodial activity of the two extracts was determined against the chloroquine resistant strain PfK1. In vivo, extracts (100 mg/kg) were tested in two experimental murine models, respectively infected with P. chabaudi chabaudi and P. berghei ANKA. The chemical composition of the two samples was assessed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry. RESULTS: In vitro, the Dubréka sample (TaD) was more active with an IC50 of 1.5 µg/mL versus 8.5 µg/mL for the extract from Kankan (TaK). In vivo, the antiparasitic effect of TaD was substantial with 56% of parasite inhibition at Day 10 post-infection in P. chabaudi infection and 61% at Day 8 in P. berghei model, compared to 14 and 19% inhibition respectively for the treatment with TaK. In addition, treatment with TaD further improved the survival of P. berghei infected-mice by 50% at Day 20, while the mortality rate of mice treated with Tak was similar to the untreated group. The LC/MS analysis of the two extracts identified 38 compounds, 15 of which were common to both samples while 9 and 14 other compounds were unique to TaD and TaK respectively. CONCLUSION: This study highlights the variability in the chemical composition of the species T. albida when collected in different geographical locations. These chemical disparities were associated with variable antimalarial effects. From a public health perspective, these results underline the importance of defining chemical fingerprints related to botanical species identification and to biological activity, for the plants most commonly used in traditional medicine.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos/química , Malária/tratamento farmacológico , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Plasmodium/efeitos dos fármacos , Terminalia/química , Animais , Antimaláricos/farmacologia , Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Guiné , Malária/parasitologia , Masculino , Medicina Tradicional Africana , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Especificidade da Espécie , Terminalia/classificação
8.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1026, 2021 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33589589

RESUMO

Proprioceptive neurons (PNs) are essential for the proper execution of all our movements by providing muscle sensory feedback to the central motor network. Here, using deep single cell RNAseq of adult PNs coupled with virus and genetic tracings, we molecularly identify three main types of PNs (Ia, Ib and II) and find that they segregate into eight distinct subgroups. Our data unveil a highly sophisticated organization of PNs into discrete sensory input channels with distinct spatial distribution, innervation patterns and molecular profiles. Altogether, these features contribute to finely regulate proprioception during complex motor behavior. Moreover, while Ib- and II-PN subtypes are specified around birth, Ia-PN subtypes diversify later in life along with increased motor activity. We also show Ia-PNs plasticity following exercise training, suggesting Ia-PNs are important players in adaptive proprioceptive function in adult mice.


Assuntos
Retroalimentação Sensorial/fisiologia , Gânglios Espinais/metabolismo , Neurônios Motores/metabolismo , Propriocepção/fisiologia , Células Receptoras Sensoriais/metabolismo , Animais , Calbindina 1/genética , Calbindina 1/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/genética , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/metabolismo , Proteínas Correpressoras/genética , Proteínas Correpressoras/metabolismo , Subunidade alfa 2 de Fator de Ligação ao Core/genética , Subunidade alfa 2 de Fator de Ligação ao Core/metabolismo , Subunidade alfa 3 de Fator de Ligação ao Core/genética , Subunidade alfa 3 de Fator de Ligação ao Core/metabolismo , Gânglios Espinais/citologia , Expressão Gênica , Proteínas com Domínio LIM/genética , Proteínas com Domínio LIM/metabolismo , Lectinas Tipo C/genética , Lectinas Tipo C/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Neurônios Motores/classificação , Neurônios Motores/citologia , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Condicionamento Físico Animal , Células Receptoras Sensoriais/classificação , Células Receptoras Sensoriais/citologia , Análise de Célula Única , Medula Espinal/citologia , Medula Espinal/metabolismo
9.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1037, 2021 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33589612

RESUMO

Fossilized invertebrate embryonic and later developmental stages are rare and restricted largely to the Ediacaran-Cambrian, providing direct insight into development during the emergence of animal bodyplans. Here we report a new assemblage of eggs, embryos and bilaterian post-embryonic developmental stages from the early Cambrian Salanygol Formation of Dzhabkan Microcontinent of Mongolia. The post-embryonic developmental stages of the bilaterian are preserved with cellular fidelity, possessing a series of bilaterally arranged ridges that compare to co-occurring camenellan sclerites in which the initial growth stages retain the cellular morphology of modified juveniles. In this work we identify these fossils as early post-embryonic developmental stages of camenellans, an early clade of stem-brachiopods, known previously only from isolated sclerites. This interpretation corroborates previous reconstructions of camenellan scleritomes with sclerites arranged in medial and peripheral concentric zones. It further supports the conjecture that molluscs and brachiopods are descended from an ancestral vermiform and slug-like bodyplan.


Assuntos
Fósseis/anatomia & histologia , Invertebrados/classificação , Filogenia , Zigoto/ultraestrutura , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Embrião não Mamífero/anatomia & histologia , Embrião não Mamífero/ultraestrutura , Fósseis/história , História Antiga , Invertebrados/anatomia & histologia , Invertebrados/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mongólia , Zigoto/crescimento & desenvolvimento
10.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1020, 2021 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33589611

RESUMO

The extracellular matrix (ECM) is unique to each tissue and capable of guiding cell differentiation, migration, morphology, and function. The ECM proteome of different developmental stages has not been systematically studied in the human pancreas. In this study, we apply mass spectrometry-based quantitative proteomics strategies using N,N-dimethyl leucine isobaric tags to delineate proteome-wide and ECM-specific alterations in four age groups: fetal (18-20 weeks gestation), juvenile (5-16 years old), young adults (21-29 years old) and older adults (50-61 years old). We identify 3,523 proteins including 185 ECM proteins and quantify 117 of them. We detect previously unknown proteome and matrisome features during pancreas development and maturation. We also visualize specific ECM proteins of interest using immunofluorescent staining and investigate changes in ECM localization within islet or acinar compartments. This comprehensive proteomics analysis contributes to an improved understanding of the critical roles that ECM plays throughout human pancreas development and maturation.


Assuntos
Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Pâncreas/metabolismo , Proteoma/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cromatografia Líquida , Matriz Extracelular/genética , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/classificação , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Feminino , Feto , Imunofluorescência , Ontologia Genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Organogênese/genética , Pâncreas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteoma/classificação , Proteoma/metabolismo , Proteômica/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
11.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1019, 2021 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33589637

RESUMO

Genome-wide variation in introgression rates across hybrid zones offers a powerful opportunity for studying population differentiation. One poorly understood pattern of introgression is the geographic displacement of a trait implicated in lineage divergence from genome-wide population boundaries. While difficult to interpret, this pattern can facilitate the dissection of trait genetic architecture because traits become uncoupled from their ancestral genomic background. We studied an example of trait displacement generated by the introgression of head plumage coloration from personata to alba subspecies of the white wagtail. A previous study of their hybrid zone in Siberia revealed that the geographic transition in this sexual signal that mediates assortative mating was offset from other traits and genetic markers. Here we show that head plumage is associated with two small genetic regions. Despite having a simple genetic architecture, head plumage inheritance is consistent with partial dominance and epistasis, which could contribute to its asymmetric introgression.


Assuntos
Introgressão Genética , Genoma , Passeriformes/genética , Pigmentação/genética , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Animais , Quimera , Cor , Epistasia Genética , Plumas/anatomia & histologia , Plumas/metabolismo , Feminino , Masculino , Passeriformes/anatomia & histologia , Passeriformes/classificação , Sibéria , Uzbequistão
12.
Viruses ; 13(2)2021 01 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33530573

RESUMO

Sapovirus is a common cause of acute gastroenteritis in all age groups. Sapovirus infections are seldom investigated in Spain, and its epidemiology in the country is not well known. The use of molecular diagnostic procedures has allowed a more frequent detection of sapoviruses in patients with diarrhea. A total of 2545 stool samples from patients with acute gastroenteritis attended from June 2018 to February 2020 at the Clinic University Hospital in Valencia, Spain, were analyzed by reverse transcription (RT) and real-time multiplex PCR (RT-PCR) to investigate the etiology of enteric infections. Sapovirus was the second enteric virus detected with a positive rate of 8%, behind norovirus (12.2%) and ahead of rotavirus (7.1%), astrovirus (4.9%) and enteric adenoviruses (2.9%). Most sapovirus infections occurred in infants and young children under 3 years of age (74%) with the highest prevalence in autumn and early winter. Coinfections were found in 25% of the patients with sapovirus diarrhea, mainly with other enteric viruses. Genotyping demonstrated the circulation of seven different genotypes during the study period, with a predominance of genotypes GI.1, GI.2, and GII.1. Phylogenetic analysis showed that genogroup GII strains form a cluster separated from genogroup GI and GV, being genotype GV.1 strains related to genotype GI.1 and GI.2 strains.


Assuntos
Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Caliciviridae/virologia , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/virologia , Sapovirus/genética , Fatores Etários , Infecções por Caliciviridae/diagnóstico , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/microbiologia , Coinfecção/virologia , Diarreia/diagnóstico , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/virologia , Feminino , Gastroenterite/diagnóstico , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Epidemiologia Molecular , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex , Filogenia , Prevalência , RNA Viral/genética , Sapovirus/classificação , Sapovirus/isolamento & purificação , Estações do Ano , Espanha/epidemiologia
13.
Viruses ; 13(2)2021 01 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33530620

RESUMO

COVID-19 is a severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) caused by a new coronavirus (CoV), SARS-CoV-2, which is closely related to SARS-CoV that jumped the animal-human species barrier and caused a disease outbreak in 2003. SARS-CoV-2 is a betacoronavirus that was first described in 2019, unrelated to the commonly occurring feline coronavirus (FCoV) that is an alphacoronavirus associated with feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). SARS-CoV-2 is highly contagious and has spread globally within a few months, resulting in the current pandemic. Felids have been shown to be susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Particularly in the Western world, many people live in very close contact with their pet cats, and natural infections of cats in COVID-19-positive households have been described in several countries. In this review, the European Advisory Board on Cat Diseases (ABCD), a scientifically independent board of experts in feline medicine from 11 European Countries, discusses the current status of SARS-CoV infections in cats. The review examines the host range of SARS-CoV-2 and human-to-animal transmissions, including infections in domestic and non-domestic felids, as well as mink-to-human/-cat transmission. It summarises current data on SARS-CoV-2 prevalence in domestic cats and the results of experimental infections of cats and provides expert opinions on the clinical relevance and prevention of SARS-CoV-2 infection in cats.


Assuntos
/transmissão , Gatos/virologia , Animais , /virologia , Coronavirus/classificação , Coronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Coronavirus/patogenicidade , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Humanos , Vison/virologia , Prevalência , /isolamento & purificação , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle , Zoonoses/virologia
14.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 763, 2021 02 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33536429

RESUMO

Human and animal infections with bacteria of the genus Sarcina (family Clostridiaceae) are associated with gastric dilation and emphysematous gastritis. However, the potential roles of sarcinae as commensals or pathogens remain unclear. Here, we investigate a lethal disease of unknown etiology that affects sanctuary chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) in Sierra Leone. The disease, which we have named "epizootic neurologic and gastroenteric syndrome" (ENGS), is characterized by neurologic and gastrointestinal signs and results in death of the animals, even after medical treatment. Using a case-control study design, we show that ENGS is strongly associated with Sarcina infection. The microorganism is distinct from Sarcina ventriculi and other known members of its genus, based on bacterial morphology and growth characteristics. Whole-genome sequencing confirms this distinction and reveals the presence of genetic features that may account for the unusual virulence of the bacterium. Therefore, we propose that this organism be considered the representative of a new species, named "Candidatus Sarcina troglodytae". Our results suggest that a heretofore unrecognized complex of related sarcinae likely exists, some of which may be highly virulent. However, the potential role of "Ca. S. troglodytae" in the etiology of ENGS, alone or in combination with other factors, remains a topic for future research.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Símios Antropoides/diagnóstico , Enfisema/diagnóstico , Gastrite/diagnóstico , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/diagnóstico , Sarcina/genética , Animais , Doenças dos Símios Antropoides/microbiologia , DNA Bacteriano/análise , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Enfisema/microbiologia , Gastrite/microbiologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/microbiologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/veterinária , Humanos , Pan troglodytes , Sarcina/classificação , Sarcina/patogenicidade , Serra Leoa , Virulência/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/métodos
15.
Viruses ; 13(2)2021 02 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33546342

RESUMO

Mammalian orthoreoviruses (MRVs) are emerging infectious agents that may affect wild animals. MRVs are usually associated with asymptomatic or mild respiratory and enteric infections. However, severe clinical manifestations have been occasionally reported in human and animal hosts. An insight into their circulation is essential to minimize the risk of diffusion to farmed animals and possibly to humans. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of likely zoonotic MRVs in wild ungulates. Liver samples were collected from wild boar, red deer, roe deer, and chamois. Samples originated from two areas (Sondrio and Parma provinces) in Northern Italy with different environmental characteristics. MRV detection was carried out by PCR; confirmation by sequencing and typing for MRV type 3, which has been frequently associated with disease in pigs, were carried out for positive samples. MRV prevalence was as high as 45.3% in wild boars and 40.6% in red deer in the Sondrio area, with lower prevalence in the Parma area (15.4% in wild boars). Our findings shed light on MRV occurrence and distribution in some wild species and posed the issue of their possible role as reservoir.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/virologia , Artiodáctilos/virologia , Orthoreovirus de Mamíferos/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Animais Selvagens/classificação , Artiodáctilos/classificação , Reservatórios de Doenças/veterinária , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Itália/epidemiologia , Fígado/virologia , Orthoreovirus de Mamíferos/genética , Prevalência , RNA Viral/genética , Sorogrupo
16.
Viruses ; 13(2)2021 02 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33546431

RESUMO

Nuclear domains 10 (ND10), a.k.a. promyelocytic leukemia nuclear bodies (PML-NBs), are membraneless subnuclear domains that are highly dynamic in their protein composition in response to cellular cues. They are known to be involved in many key cellular processes including DNA damage response, transcription regulation, apoptosis, oncogenesis, and antiviral defenses. The diversity and dynamics of ND10 residents enable them to play seemingly opposite roles under different physiological conditions. Although the molecular mechanisms are not completely clear, the pro- and anti-cancer effects of ND10 have been well established in tumorigenesis. However, in herpesvirus research, until the recently emerged evidence of pro-viral contributions, ND10 nuclear bodies have been generally recognized as part of the intrinsic antiviral defenses that converge to the incoming viral DNA to inhibit the viral gene expression. In this review, we evaluate the newly discovered pro-infection influences of ND10 in various human herpesviruses and analyze their molecular foundation along with the traditional antiviral functions of ND10. We hope to shed light on the explicit role of ND10 in both the lytic and latent cycles of herpesvirus infection, which is imperative to the delineation of herpes pathogenesis and the development of prophylactic/therapeutic treatments for herpetic diseases.


Assuntos
Herpes Simples/metabolismo , Herpesviridae/fisiologia , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Carcinogênese , Herpes Simples/virologia , Herpesviridae/classificação , Herpesviridae/metabolismo , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Latência Viral , Replicação Viral
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33557075

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has introduced a number of added obstacles to safe employment for already-challenged essential workers. Essential workers not employed in the health sector generally include racially diverse, low-wage workers whose jobs require close interaction with the public and/or close proximity to their coworkers, placing them at increased risk of infection. A narrative review facilitated the analyses of health outcome data in these workers and contributing factors to illness related to limited workplace protections and a lack of organizational support. Findings suggest that this already marginalized population may also be at increased risk of "moral injury" due to specific work-related factors, such as limited personal protective equipment (PPE) and the failure of the employer, as the safety and health "duty holder," to protect workers. Evidence suggests that ethical and, in some cases, legally required safety protections benefit not only the individual worker, but an employer's enterprise and the larger community which can retain access to resilient, essential services.


Assuntos
Exposição Ocupacional/ética , Ocupações/classificação , Pandemias , Humanos , Exposição Ocupacional/prevenção & controle
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33557142

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic disrupted food systems and the economy in the U.S. and abroad. This cross-sectional study examined the direct and indirect impacts of COVID-19 on food access among low-income and Black, Indigenous, and people of color (BIPOC) in New York State. New York residents were recruited to complete a web-based survey through Qualtrics. The survey took place in May and June 2020 and asked participants about COVID-19 health impacts, risk factors, and food access. Chi-square analysis examined issues with food access experienced by demographic characteristics, work disruptions, health impacts, and household risk for contracting the virus and experiencing severe illness, and significant results were analyzed in a series of logistic regression models. After accounting for covariates, Hispanic respondents, those with likely Major Depressive Disorder, and essential workers were more likely to experience worse food access during COVID-19. Improved policies and services to address impacts on vulnerable populations such as BIPOC, those suffering from mental health disorders, and workers in lower-paying essential jobs can reduce the risk of food access issues at this time. Future research can identify how food access issues during the pandemic influenced diet quality, chronic disease risk and infection, and persistence of food access issues.


Assuntos
Emprego , Pandemias , Estudos Transversais , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/epidemiologia , Grupos Étnicos , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , New York/epidemiologia , Ocupações/classificação , Pobreza , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
J Hand Surg Asian Pac Vol ; 26(1): 24-30, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33559574

RESUMO

Background: Congenital hand differences (CHD) exhibit enormous diversity and heterogeneity. Surgeons and parents often have different concepts of severity, making things difficult during parental consultation. This study aims to align surgeon/parental views on the severity of the child's CHD using a novel severity classification. Methods: Parents of affected children were asked to score the severity of their child's abnormality pre- and post-consultation using a subjective scale (1-4) without any explanation. Furthermore, parents were asked to rate their concerns about the future function and appearance of their child's hand condition using a similar scale of 1-4. They were then asked to rate the severity of the CHD post-consultation and three months post-operatively following explanation of the 4-point scale, as follows: 1 = treatment possible to normal; 2 = treatment possible to near normal; 3 = treatment possible but always some hand differences; 4 = treatment not possible. The surgeon also independently scored all children using his perception of the scale. Results: Forty-three children with a range of CHD were recruited into the sample. Linear weighted kappa analyses comparing inter-rater agreement showed no agreement between surgeon and parents during the initial scoring without any explanations. However, with explanations added, agreement rose significantly (kappa = 0.437 post-consultation and kappa = 0.706 three months post-op). No correlation was found between severity with both appearance and function (r = 0.277 and r = -0.184, respectively). Conclusions: This study demonstrated that the use of a simple scoring system was able to improve parental understanding of the severity and prognosis of CHD. The system demonstrated a good correlation between surgeon and parents. Such a scoring system can be easily utilised in the outpatient department to manage expectations and reduce anxiety.


Assuntos
Deformidades Congênitas da Mão/classificação , Pais , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Comunicação , Feminino , Deformidades Congênitas da Mão/cirurgia , Humanos , Lactente , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pais/psicologia , Relações Profissional-Família , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Encaminhamento e Consulta
20.
Viruses ; 13(2)2021 02 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33562073

RESUMO

The contemporary surge in metagenomic sequencing has transformed knowledge of viral diversity in wildlife. However, evaluating which newly discovered viruses pose sufficient risk of infecting humans to merit detailed laboratory characterization and surveillance remains largely speculative. Machine learning algorithms have been developed to address this imbalance by ranking the relative likelihood of human infection based on viral genome sequences, but are not yet routinely applied to viruses at the time of their discovery. Here, we characterized viral genomes detected through metagenomic sequencing of feces and saliva from common vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus) and used these data as a case study in evaluating zoonotic potential using molecular sequencing data. Of 58 detected viral families, including 17 which infect mammals, the only known zoonosis detected was rabies virus; however, additional genomes were detected from the families Hepeviridae, Coronaviridae, Reoviridae, Astroviridae and Picornaviridae, all of which contain human-infecting species. In phylogenetic analyses, novel vampire bat viruses most frequently grouped with other bat viruses that are not currently known to infect humans. In agreement, machine learning models built from only phylogenetic information ranked all novel viruses similarly, yielding little insight into zoonotic potential. In contrast, genome composition-based machine learning models estimated different levels of zoonotic potential, even for closely related viruses, categorizing one out of four detected hepeviruses and two out of three picornaviruses as having high priority for further research. We highlight the value of evaluating zoonotic potential beyond ad hoc consideration of phylogeny and provide surveillance recommendations for novel viruses in a wildlife host which has frequent contact with humans and domestic animals.


Assuntos
Quirópteros/virologia , Vírus/isolamento & purificação , Zoonoses/virologia , Animais , Reservatórios de Doenças/veterinária , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Fezes/virologia , Genoma Viral/genética , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Metagenômica , Filogenia , Vírus da Raiva/classificação , Vírus da Raiva/genética , Vírus da Raiva/isolamento & purificação , Saliva/virologia , Vírus/classificação , Vírus/genética
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