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1.
Talanta ; 222: 121534, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33167242

RESUMO

As COVID-19 has reached pandemic status and the number of cases continues to grow, widespread availability of diagnostic testing is critical in helping identify and control the emergence of this rapidly spreading and serious illness. However, a lacking in making a quick reaction to the threat and starting early development of diagnostic sensing tools has had an important impact globally. In this regard, here we will review critically the current developed diagnostic tools in response to the COVID-19 pandemic and compare the different types through the discussion of their pros and cons such as nucleic acid detection tests (including PCR and CRISPR), antibody and protein-based diagnosis tests. In addition, potential technologies that are under development such as on-site diagnosis platforms, lateral flow, and portable PCR units are discussed. Data collection and epidemiological analysis could also be an interesting factor to incorporate with the emerging technologies especially with the wide access to smartphones. Lastly, a SWOT analysis and perspectives on how the development of novel sensory platforms should be treated by the different decision-makers are analyzed.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/instrumentação , Humanos , Testes Imediatos , Kit de Reagentes para Diagnóstico
2.
Ann Med ; 53(1): 103-116, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33063540

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hyperglycaemia has emerged as an important risk factor for death in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between blood glucose (BG) levels and in-hospital mortality in non-critically patients hospitalized with COVID-19. METHODS: This is a retrospective multi-centre study involving patients hospitalized in Spain. Patients were categorized into three groups according to admission BG levels: <140 mg/dL, 140-180 mg/dL and >180 mg/dL. The primary endpoint was all-cause in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: Of the 11,312 patients, only 2128 (18.9%) had diabetes and 2289 (20.4%) died during hospitalization. The in-hospital mortality rates were 15.7% (<140 mg/dL), 33.7% (140-180 mg) and 41.1% (>180 mg/dL), p<.001. The cumulative probability of mortality was significantly higher in patients with hyperglycaemia compared to patients with normoglycaemia (log rank, p<.001), independently of pre-existing diabetes. Hyperglycaemia (after adjusting for age, diabetes, hypertension and other confounding factors) was an independent risk factor of mortality (BG >180 mg/dL: HR 1.50; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.31-1.73) (BG 140-180 mg/dL; HR 1.48; 95%CI: 1.29-1.70). Hyperglycaemia was also associated with requirement for mechanical ventilation, intensive care unit (ICU) admission and mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Admission hyperglycaemia is a strong predictor of all-cause mortality in non-critically hospitalized COVID-19 patients regardless of prior history of diabetes. KEY MESSAGE Admission hyperglycaemia is a stronger and independent risk factor for mortality in COVID-19. Screening for hyperglycaemia, in patients without diabetes, and early treatment of hyperglycaemia should be mandatory in the management of patients hospitalized with COVID-19. Admission hyperglycaemia should not be overlooked in all patients regardless prior history of diabetes.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Hiperglicemia/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Sistema de Registros , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Glicemia , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Cuidados Críticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperglicemia/mortalidade , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Respiração Artificial/estatística & dados numéricos , Espanha/epidemiologia
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 753: 142289, 2021 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33207437

RESUMO

In the fight against the outbreak of COVID-19 in China, we treated some asymptomatic infected individuals. This study aimed to detect pathogens in biological and environmental samples of these asymptomatic infected individuals and analyse their association. Using a cross-sectional study design, we collected biological and environmental samples from 19 patients treated in the isolation ward of Nanjing No.2 Hospital. Biological samples included saliva, pharyngeal swabs, blood, anal swabs, and exhaled breath condensate. Swab samples from the ward environment included inside masks, outside masks, palm swabs, bedside handrails, bedside tables, cell phone screens, toilet cell phone shelves, toilet pads and toilet lids. We also obtained some samples from public areas. We used RT-PCR to detect pathogens and colloidal gold to detect antibodies. As results, 19 asymptomatic infected individuals participated in the survey, with 8 positives for pathogens and 11 positives only for antibodies. Three positive samples were detected from among 96 environmental samples, respectively, from a cell phone surface, a cell phone shelf and a bedside handrail. No positive samples were detected in the exhaled breath condensate in this work. All patients identified pathogens in the environment had positive anal swabs. There was a statistical association between positive anal swabs and positive environmental samples. The association of positive samples from the surrounding of asymptomatically infected patients with positive anal swabs suggested that patients might secrete the virus for a more extended period.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 751: 142268, 2021 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33181977

RESUMO

Noble scallop Chlamys nobilis is an important marine bivalve that has been extensively cultured in the south coast of China since the 1980s. Unfortunately, since the late 1990s, the farmed scallops often suffered from regional mass mortality, which results in enormous economic losses to farmers and industries. In 2017, another mass mortality event occurred in Nan'ao Island, Shantou, China. In this study, the cause of C. nobilis mass mortality in 2017 was first investigated in the field, and then validated in a laboratory experiment. In the field, three sampling sites were selected according to the scallop mortality rate: Hunter Bay (90% mortality), Baisha Bay (67% mortality) and Longhai (6% mortality). Meanwhile, environmental parameters (temperature, salinity, DO, pH and chlorophyll a) of each site were also measured in situ. Then, water and scallop samples were collected randomly for the analysis of phytoplankton diversity and algal toxin activity using 18S rDNA and PP2A inhibition assay, respectively. In laboratory, healthy scallops were challenged with Karenia mikimotoi (1 × 103 cells/mL) for 30 h. The field results showed that no significant difference in those environmental parameters existed among the three sites, but the relative abundance of K. mikimotoi in seawater and scallops' intestines in Hunter Bay and Baisha Bay was significantly higher than that in Longhai, and sick scallops contained significantly higher algal toxin activity than healthy ones. Laboratory results revealed that challenged scallops with K. mikimotoi showed significantly higher mortality rate and algal toxin activity than healthy ones, and low density of K. mikimotoi (1 × 103 cells/mL) was sufficient to cause >50% scallops' mortality within 26 h. This study provides the first evidence that low K. mikimotoi cell density can cause massive mortality in C. nobilis, and provides useful information as guide to prevent scallop mass mortality in the future.


Assuntos
Carotenoides , Pectinidae , Animais , Carotenoides/análise , China/epidemiologia , Clorofila A , Ilhas
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 751: 142332, 2021 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33182008

RESUMO

Portugal (Southwestern Europe) experiences a high incidence of dry hazards such as drought, a phenomenon that entails a notable burden of morbidity and mortality worldwide. For the first time in the Lisbon district, a time-series study was conducted to evaluate the impact of drought measured by the Standardised Precipitation Index (SPI) and Standardised Precipitation-Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) on the daily natural, circulatory, and respiratory mortality from 1983 to 2016. An assessment by gender and adult age population groups (45-64, 65-74, ≥75 years old) was included. To estimate the relative risks and attributable risks, generalised linear models with a Poisson link were used. Additionally, the influence of heatwaves and atmospheric pollution for the period from 2007 to 2016 (available period for pollution data) was considered. The main findings indicate statistically significant associations between drought conditions and all analysed causes of mortality. Moreover, SPEI shows an improved capability to reflect the different risks. People in the 45-64 year-old group did not indicate any significant influence in any of the cases, whereas the oldest groups had the highest risk. The drought effects on mortality among the population varied across the different study periods, and in general, the men population was affected more than the women population (except for the SPEI and circulatory mortality during the long study period). The short-term influence of droughts on mortality could be explained primarily by the effect of heatwaves and pollution; however, when both gender and age were considered in the Poisson models, the effect of drought also remained statistically significant when all climatic phenomena were included for specific groups of the total population and men. This type of study facilitates a better understanding of the population at risk and allows the development of more effective measures to mitigate the drought effects on the population.


Assuntos
Secas , Adulto , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Portugal/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
6.
Sci Total Environ ; 750: 142260, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33182217

RESUMO

The ingestion of lead (Pb) ammunition is the most important exposure pathway to this metal in birds and involve negative consequences to their health. We have performed a passive monitoring of Pb poisoning in birds of prey by measuring liver (n = 727) and blood (n = 32) Pb levels in individuals of 16 species found dead or sick in Spain between 2004 and 2020. We also performed an active monitoring by measuring blood Pb levels and biomarkers of haem biosynthesis, phosphorus (P) and calcium (Ca) metabolism, oxidative stress and immune function in individuals (n = 194) of 9 species trapped alive in the field between 2016 and 2017. Passive monitoring results revealed some species with liver Pb levels associated with severe clinical poisoning (>30 µg/g d.w. of Pb): Eurasian griffon vulture (27/257, 10.5%), red kite (1/132, 0.8%), golden eagle (4/38, 10.5%), and Northern goshawk (1/8, 12.5%). The active monitoring results showed that individuals of bearded vulture (1/3, 33.3%), Eurasian griffon vulture (87/118, 73.7%), Spanish imperial eagle (1/6, 16.7%) and red kite (1/18, 5.6%) had abnormal blood Pb levels (>20 µg/dL). Blood Pb levels increased with age, and both monitoring methods showed seasonality in Pb exposure associated with a delayed effect of the hunting season. In Eurasian griffon, blood Pb concentration was associated with lower δ-ALAD activity in blood and P levels in plasma, and with higher blood lipid peroxidation and plasma carotenoid levels in agreement with other experimental and field studies in Pb-exposed birds. The study reveals that Pb poisoning is a significant cause of death and sublethal effects on haem biosynthesis, P metabolism and oxidative stress in birds of prey in Spain.


Assuntos
Águias , Intoxicação por Chumbo , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Chumbo/toxicidade , Intoxicação por Chumbo/veterinária , Estresse Oxidativo , Espanha/epidemiologia
7.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 99: 346-353, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33183713

RESUMO

The strict control measures and social lockdowns initiated to combat COVID-19 epidemic have had a notable impact on air pollutant concentrations. According to observation data obtained from the China National Environmental Monitoring Center, compared to levels in 2019, the average concentration of NO2 in early 2020 during COVID-19 epidemic has decreased by 53%, 50%, and 30% in Wuhan city, Hubei Province (Wuhan excluded), and China (Hubei excluded), respectively. Simultaneously, PM2.5 concentration has decreased by 35%, 29%, and 19% in Wuhan, Hubei (Wuhan excluded), and China (Hubei excluded), respectively. Less significant declines have also been found for SO2 and CO concentrations. We also analyzed the temporal variation and spatial distribution of air pollutant concentrations in China during COVID-19 epidemic. The decreases in PM2.5 and NO2 concentrations showed relatively consistent temporal variation and spatial distribution. These results support control of NOx to further reduce PM2.5 pollution in China. The concurrent decrease in NOx and PM2.5 concentrations resulted in an increase of O3 concentrations across China during COVID-19 epidemic, indicating that coordinated control of other pollutants is needed.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiologia , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Material Particulado/análise
8.
Clin Sports Med ; 40(1): 213-220, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33187611

RESUMO

As the COVID-19 (Coronavirus disease 2019) pandemic continues, the paradigm of treatment continues to rapidly evolve, especially for sports medicine surgeons, because treatment before the pandemic was considered predominantly elective. This article provides subjective and objective data on the changes implicated by the COVID-19 pandemic with regard to the interactions and practices of sports medicine surgeons. This perspective also considers the potential impact on the patients and athletes treated by sports medicine surgeons. This article discusses the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on sports medicine and provides thoughts on how the landscape of the field may continue to change.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Procedimentos Ortopédicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Medicina Esportiva/métodos , Cirurgiões/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos
9.
J Infect Chemother ; 27(1): 70-75, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32950393

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The symptoms of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vary among patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical manifestation and disease duration in young versus elderly patients. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 187 patients (87 elderly and 100 young patients) with confirmed COVID-19. The clinical characteristics and chest computed tomography (CT) extent as defined by a score were compared between the two groups. RESULTS: The numbers of asymptomatic cases and severe cases were significantly higher in the elderly group (elderly group vs. young group; asymptomatic cases, 31 [35.6%] vs. 10 [10%], p < 0.0001; severe cases, 25 [28.7%] vs. 8 [8.0%], p = 0.0002). The proportion of asymptomatic patients and severe patients increased across the 10-year age groups. There was no significant difference in the total CT score and number of abnormal cases. A significant positive correlation between the disease duration and patient age was observed in asymptomatic patients (ρ = 0.4570, 95% CI 0.1198-0.6491, p = 0.0034). CONCLUSIONS: Although the extent of lung involvement did not have a significant difference between the young and elderly patients, elderly patients were more likely to have severe clinical manifestations. Elderly patients were also more likely to be asymptomatic and a source of COVID-19 viral shedding.


Assuntos
Infecções Assintomáticas/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Eliminação de Partículas Virais , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico por imagem , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
10.
J Infect Chemother ; 27(1): 94-98, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32988730

RESUMO

The effect of systemic corticosteroids on clinical outcomes in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains controversial. While the use of corticosteroids raises concerns regarding delayed viral clearance, secondary infections, and long-term complications that can lead to increased mortality, corticosteroids have the potential to reduce mortality if used appropriately. Herein, we report good outcomes in two patients with COVID-19 who received systemic corticosteroids as adjunctive therapy. An 83-year-old man with hypertension and smoking history and a 62-year-old man with a drinking habit were transferred to our hospital with a diagnosis of COVID-19. The patients developed general malaise and loss of appetite with persistent high fever. Despite the prescription of antiviral drugs, their hypoxemia progressed rapidly. However, after the introduction of systemic corticosteroids, their symptoms improved as the fever decreased, and their hypoxemia gradually improved. These results suggest that some patients with COVID-19 may benefit from the appropriate use of systemic corticosteroids as adjunctive therapy.


Assuntos
Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Metilprednisolona/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus , Terapia Combinada , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Fumar/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/epidemiologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
J Infect Chemother ; 27(1): 76-82, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33051144

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The severity of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in Japanese patients is unreported. We retrospectively examined significant factors associated with disease severity in symptomatic COVID-19 patients (COVID-Pts) admitted to our institution between February 20 and April 30, 2020. METHODS: All patients were diagnosed based on the genetic detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. Information on the initial symptoms, laboratory data, and computed tomography (CT) images at hospitalization were collected from the patients' records. COVID-Pts were categorized as those with critical or severe illness (Pts-CSI) or those with moderate or mild illness (Pt-MMI). All statistical analyses were performed using R software. RESULTS: Data from 61 patients (16 Pt-CSI, 45 Pt-MMI), including 58 Japanese and three East Asians, were analyzed. Pt-CSI were significantly older and had hypertension or diabetes than Pt-MMI (P < 0.001, 0.014 and < 0.001, respectively). Serum albumin levels were significantly lower in Pt-CSI than in Pt-MMI (P < 0.001), whereas the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio and C-reactive protein level were significantly higher in Pt-CSI than in Pt-MMI (P < 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively). In the CT images of 60 patients, bilateral lung lesions were more frequently observed in Pt-CSI than in Pt-MMI (P = 0.013). Among the 16 Pt-CSI, 15 received antiviral therapy, 12 received tocilizumab, five underwent methylprednisolone treatment, six received mechanical ventilation, and one died. CONCLUSIONS: The illness severity of Japanese COVID-Pts was associated with older age, hypertension and/or diabetes, low serum albumin, high neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, and C-reactive protein.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pulmão/patologia , Masculino , Metilprednisolona/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neutrófilos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Respiração Artificial , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Albumina Sérica/análise , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Adulto Jovem
12.
Med Educ Online ; 26(1): 1842661, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33108248

RESUMO

Methods of anatomical education have, as with many facets of normal life, been forced to evolve rapidly due to the Covid-19 pandemic. Whilst some authors claim that cadaver dissection is now under threat, we believe the centuries-old practice can and must be upheld.


Assuntos
Anatomia/educação , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Dissecação/educação , Educação de Graduação em Medicina , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Cadáver , Humanos , Pandemias , Estudantes de Medicina
13.
Ann Med ; 53(1): 151-159, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33138653

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To utilize publicly reported, state-level data to identify factors associated with the frequency of cases, tests, and mortality in the USA. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective study using publicly reported data collected included the number of COVID-19 cases, tests and mortality from March 14th through April 30th. Publicly available state-level data was collected which included: demographics comorbidities, state characteristics and environmental factors. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed to identify the significantly associated factors with percent mortality, case and testing frequency. All analyses were state-level analyses and not patient-level analyses. RESULTS: A total of 1,090,500 COVID-19 cases were reported during the study period. The calculated case and testing frequency were 3332 and 19,193 per 1,000,000 patients. There were 63,642 deaths during this period which resulted in a mortality of 5.8%. Factors including to but not limited to population density (beta coefficient 7.5, p < .01), transportation volume (beta coefficient 0.1, p < .01), tourism index (beta coefficient -0.1, p = .02) and older age (beta coefficient 0.2, p = .01) are associated with case frequency and percent mortality. CONCLUSIONS: There were wide variations in testing and case frequencies of COVID-19 among different states in the US. States with higher population density had a higher case and testing rate. States with larger population of elderly and higher tourism had a higher mortality. Key messages There were wide variations in testing and case frequencies of COVID-19 among different states in the USA. States with higher population density had a higher case and testing rate. States with larger population of elderly and higher tourism had a higher mortality.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Feminino , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
14.
Sci Total Environ ; 750: 141521, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32829258

RESUMO

In order to control the spread of COVID-19, social distancing measures were implemented in many countries. This study investigated changes in air pollution during the social distancing after the COVID-19 outbreak in Korea. Ambient PM2.5, PM10, NO2, and CO that are particularly related to industrial activities and traffic were reduced during the social distancing in response to the COVID-19 outbreak. In March 2020, immediately after social distancing, mean levels of PM2.5, PM10, NO2, and CO decreased nationwide from last year's mean levels by 16.98 µg/m3, 21.61 µg/m3, 4.16 ppb, and 0.09 ppm, respectively (p-value for the year-to-year difference <0.001, =0.001, =0.008, <0.001), a decrease by 45.45%, 35.56%, 20.41%, and 17.33%, respectively. Changes in ambient O3 or SO2 were not observed to be attributable to social distancing. Our findings, that such effort for a short period of time resulted in a significant reduction in air pollution, may point toward reducing air pollution as a public health problem in a more sustainable post-COVID-19 world.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Betacoronavirus , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos , Material Particulado/análise , República da Coreia/epidemiologia
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 750: 141484, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32829260

RESUMO

The SARS-CoV-2 is a novel coronavirus identified as the cause of COVID-19 and, as the pandemic evolves, many have made parallels to previous epidemics such as SARS-CoV (the cause of an outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome [SARS]) in 2003. Many have speculated that, like SARS, the activity of SARS-CoV-2 will subside when the climate becomes warmer. We sought to determine the relationship between ambient temperature and COVID-19 incidence in Canada. We analyzed over 77,700 COVID-19 cases from four Canadian provinces (Alberta, British Columbia, Ontario, and Quebec) from January to May 2020. After adjusting for precipitation, wind gust speed, and province in multiple linear regression models, we found a positive, but not statistically significant, association between cumulative incidence and ambient temperature (14.2 per 100,000 people; 95%CI: -0.60-29.0). We also did not find a statistically significant association between total cases or effective reproductive number of COVID-19 and ambient temperature. Our findings do not support the hypothesis that higher temperatures will reduce transmission of COVID-19 and warns the public not to lose vigilance and to continue practicing safety measures such as hand washing, social distancing, and use of facial masks despite the warming climates.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Alberta , Betacoronavirus , Colúmbia Britânica/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Ontário , Quebeque , Temperatura
16.
Sci Total Environ ; 750: 141711, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32835962

RESUMO

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is responsible for the coronavirus disease COVID-19, a public health emergency worldwide, and Italy is among the most severely affected countries. The first autochthonous Italian case of COVID-19 was documented on February 21, 2020. We investigated the possibility that SARS-CoV-2 emerged in Italy earlier than that date, by analysing 40 composite influent wastewater samples collected - in the framework of other wastewater-based epidemiology projects - between October 2019 and February 2020 from five wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in three cities and regions in northern Italy (Milan/Lombardy, Turin/Piedmont and Bologna/Emilia Romagna). Twenty-four additional samples collected in the same WWTPs between September 2018 and June 2019 (i.e. long before the onset of the epidemic) were included as 'blank' samples. Viral concentration was performed according to the standard World Health Organization procedure for poliovirus sewage surveillance, with modifications. Molecular analysis was undertaken with both nested RT-PCR and real-rime RT-PCR assays. A total of 15 positive samples were confirmed by both methods. The earliest dates back to 18 December 2019 in Milan and Turin and 29 January 2020 in Bologna. Virus concentration in the samples ranged from below the limit of detection (LOD) to 5.6 × 104 genome copies (g.c.)/L, and most of the samples (23 out of 26) were below the limit of quantification of PCR. Our results demonstrate that SARS-CoV-2 was already circulating in northern Italy at the end of 2019. Moreover, it was circulating in different geographic regions simultaneously, which changes our previous understanding of the geographical circulation of the virus in Italy. Our study highlights the importance of environmental surveillance as an early warning system, to monitor the levels of virus circulating in the population and identify outbreaks even before cases are notified to the healthcare system.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Monitoramento Ambiental , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Betacoronavirus , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 750: 141424, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853931

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has caused an unprecedented global health crisis, with several countries imposing lockdowns to control the coronavirus spread. Important research efforts are focused on evaluating the association of environmental factors with the survival and spread of the virus and different works have been published, with contradictory results in some cases. Data with spatial and temporal information is a key factor to get reliable results and, although there are some data repositories for monitoring the disease both globally and locally, an application that integrates and aggregates data from meteorological and air quality variables with COVID-19 information has not been described so far to the best of our knowledge. Here, we present DatAC (Data Against COVID-19), a data fusion project with an interactive web frontend that integrates COVID-19 and environmental data in Spain. DatAC is provided with powerful data analysis and statistical capabilities that allow users to explore and analyze individual trends and associations among the provided data. Using the application, we have evaluated the impact of the Spanish lockdown on the air quality, observing that NO2, CO, PM2.5, PM10 and SO2 levels decreased drastically in the entire territory, while O3 levels increased. We observed similar trends in urban and rural areas, although the impact has been more important in the former. Moreover, the application allowed us to analyze correlations among climate factors, such as ambient temperature, and the incidence of COVID-19 in Spain. Our results indicate that temperature is not the driving factor and without effective control actions, outbreaks will appear and warm weather will not substantially limit the growth of the pandemic. DatAC is available at https://covid19.genyo.es.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Infecções por Coronavirus , Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Betacoronavirus , Humanos , Material Particulado/análise , Espanha/epidemiologia
18.
Sci Total Environ ; 750: 141686, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32861075

RESUMO

The prediction of the occurrence of infectious diseases is of crucial importance for public health, as clearly seen in the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Here, we analyze the relationship between the occurrence of a winter low-pressure weather regime - Cyprus Lows - and the seasonal Influenza in the Eastern Mediterranean. We find that the weekly occurrence of Cyprus Lows is significantly correlated with clinical seasonal Influenza in Israel in recent years (R = 0.91; p < .05). This result remains robust when considering a complementary analysis based on Google Trends data for Israel, the Palestinian Authority and Jordan. The weekly occurrence of Cyprus Lows precedes the onset and maximum of Influenza occurrence by about one to two weeks (R = 0.88; p < .05 for the maximum occurrence), and closely follows their timing in eight out of ten years (2008-2017). Since weather regimes such as Cyprus Lows are more robustly predicted in weather and climate models than individual climate variables, we conclude that the weather regime approach can be used to develop tools for estimating the compatibility of the transmission environment for Influenza occurrence in a warming world. Furthermore, this approach may be applied to other regions and climate sensitive diseases. This study is a new cross-border inter-disciplinary regional collaboration for appropriate adaptation to climate change in the Eastern Mediterranean.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Influenza Humana , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Betacoronavirus , Chipre/epidemiologia , Humanos , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Israel/epidemiologia , Jordânia , Estações do Ano , Tempo (Meteorologia)
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 752: 141946, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32889290

RESUMO

Deaths from the COVID-19 pandemic have disproportionately affected older adults and residents in nursing homes. Although emerging research has identified place-based risk factors for the general population, little research has been conducted for nursing home populations. This GIS-based spatial modeling study aimed to determine the association between nursing home-level metrics and county-level, place-based variables with COVID-19 confirmed cases in nursing homes across the United States. A cross-sectional research design linked data from Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, American Community Survey, the 2010 Census, and COVID-19 cases among the general population and nursing homes. Spatial cluster analysis identified specific regions with statistically higher COVID-19 cases and deaths among residents. Multivariate analysis identified risk factors at the nursing home level including, total count of fines, total staffing levels, and LPN staffing levels. County-level or place-based factors like per-capita income, average household size, population density, and minority composition were significant predictors of COVID-19 cases in the nursing home. These results provide a framework for examining further COVID-19 cases in nursing homes and highlight the need to include other community-level variables when considering risk of COVID-19 transmission and outbreaks in nursing homes.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Medicare , Casas de Saúde , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Idoso , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Renda , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Densidade Demográfica , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos , Recursos Humanos
20.
J Infect Chemother ; 27(1): 62-64, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32896479

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As countermeasures against the COVID-19 outbreak, sports and entertainment events were canceled (VEC) in Japan for two weeks from 26 February through 13 March. Moreover, most schools were closed (SC). OBJECTIVE: For this study, we estimated the basic reproduction number (R0) and SC and VEC effects. METHOD: After constructing a susceptible-infected-recovered model with three age classes, we used data of symptomatic patients in Japan for 14 January through 24 March. The SC and VEC effects were incorporated into the model through changes in contact patterns and contact frequencies among age classes. RESULTS: Results suggest R0 as 2.56, with 95% CI of [2.51, 2.96] before SC and VEC. The respective effects of SC and VEC were estimated as 0.4 (95% CI [0.3, 0.5]) and 0.5 (95% CI [0.3, 0.7]). CONCLUSION: The estimated R0 is similar to those found from other studies of China and Japan. Significant reduction of contact frequency has been achieved by SC and VEC. Nevertheless, its magnitude was insufficient to contain the outbreak.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Instituições Acadêmicas/organização & administração , Adulto , Idoso , Número Básico de Reprodução , Betacoronavirus , Criança , Surtos de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Modelos Estatísticos
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