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1.
Recurso na Internet em Inglês | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-LISBR1.1-47016

RESUMO

Mapping 2019-nCoV


Assuntos
Coronavirus , Saúde Pública/estatística & dados numéricos
2.
Forensic Sci Rev ; 32(1): 55-81, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32007928

RESUMO

This review focuses on the role of motor vehicles in the prevention of alcohol-related fatalities in the United States. Since alcohol significantly affects brain function, it is natural to make drivers the prime targets for impaired-driving-prevention programs. However, the prevalence, design, ease of operation, and safety features of motor vehicles, as well as state regulations of their operation, have an important influence on crash occurrences, particularly those involving alcohol. This review begins with a discussion of why the automobile became the central technological device in the alcohol-related fatality problem and then moves on to an overview of motor vehicle safety programs that have impacted impaired driving. The article then presents an extended discussion of the effectiveness of vehicle-based, alcohol-detecting ignition interlock devices (interlocks), which provided the principal specific vehicle-based effort in the 20th century to separate alcohol consumption from driving. The review ends with a commentary on the issues that will arise in managing operator impairment in autonomous (self-driving) vehicles-the probable principal 21st-century effort to reduce impaired driving and eliminate alcohol-related crashes by minimizing the role of the driver.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Dirigir sob a Influência , Veículos Automotores , Equipamentos de Proteção , Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Estados Unidos
3.
s.l; s.n; fev. 08, 2020. 12 p. ilus, mapas.
Não convencional em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1050284

RESUMO

Declaratoria de Emergencia en Salud Pública de importancia Internacional por el nuevo coronavirus 2019-nCoV


Assuntos
Humanos , Coronavirus , Notificação de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , México/epidemiologia
4.
Harefuah ; 159(1): 72-73, 2020 02.
Artigo em Hebraico | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32048482
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(7): e19139, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32049836

RESUMO

This study aimed to examine the effect of a diabetes pay-for-performance (P4P) program on all-cause mortality in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus. Using a Taiwanese representative nationwide cohort, we recruited 5478 patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes enrolled in the P4P program within 5 years after a diagnosis of diabetes between January 1, 2002 and December 31, 2010 and individuals not enrolled in the P4P program were recruited as the control group matched 1:1 with the study group. We used multivariate Cox proportional hazard models analysis to investigate the effect of the P4P program and adherence on all-cause mortality. A total of 250 patients died in the P4P group compared to 395 in the control group (mortality rate 104 vs 169 per 10,000 person-years, respectively, P < .0001). The control group also had more comorbidities. Patients enrolled in the P4P program demonstrated significant long-term survival benefits, of which the adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) for all-cause mortality was 0.58 [95% CI (0.48-0.69)]. In the study group, better adherence to the P4P program resulted in a greater reduction in mortality, with aHRs [95% CI] of 0.48 [0.38-0.62] and 0.36 [0.26-0.49] in subjects with a minimum 1-year and 2-year good P4P adherence, respectively. Participating in the P4P program within 5 years after the diagnosis of diabetes resulted in a significant reduction in all-cause mortality, and this effect was particularly pronounced in the patients with better adherence to the P4P program.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/mortalidade , Gerenciamento Clínico , Cooperação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Reembolso de Incentivo , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/economia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Taiwan/epidemiologia
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(7): e19154, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32049842

RESUMO

Recent findings have shown a trend toward recommending against the routine use of drains in spinal surgery because it carries the risk for potential complications. However, most surgeons still use closed suction drainage to prevent hematoma formation. This study is to compare the clinical outcomes between natural pressure drainage and negative pressure drainage after posterior lumbar interbody fusion.Consecutive 132 patients who underwent spinal fusion in the Third Hospital of Hebei Medical University and met the inclusion criteria were reviewed from January 2018 to January 2019 and divided into negative pressure drainage group and natural pressure drainage group according to different pressure drainage. There were 64 patients who had a negative pressure drainage placed and 68 patients who had a natural pressure drainage placed. Demographics, intraoperative blood loss, operative room time, drainage volume at the 1st postoperative day, total volume of postoperative drainage, the total drainage days, postoperative temperature, and postoperative complications (wound infection, symptomatic hematoma) were compared between the 2 groups.The median drainage volume at the 1st postoperative day in negative pressure group was 204.89 ±â€Š95.19 mL, while in natural pressure group, it was 141.00 ±â€Š52.19 mL (P = .000). The median total volume of postoperative drainage in negative pressure group was 378.06 ±â€Š117.98 mL, while in natural pressure group, it was 249.32 ±â€Š70.74 mL (P = .000). The median total drainage days between natural pressure group and negative pressure group were obviously different (2.93 ±â€Š0.55 vs 3.51 ±â€Š0.71 days, P = .000). There was no difference in patient characteristics, operative data, postoperative temperature, and complications.Natural pressure drainage significantly reduced postoperative drainage volume and indwelling time, but did not increase postoperative complications. Therefore, it may offer an alternative to negative pressure drainage and is as safe and effective as negative pressure drainage.


Assuntos
Vértebras Lombares/cirurgia , Tratamento de Ferimentos com Pressão Negativa/estatística & dados numéricos , Fusão Vertebral , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(7): e19184, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32049853

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ulinastatin is a type of glycoprotein and a nonspecific wide-spectrum protease inhibitor like antifibrinolytic agent aprotinin. Whether Ulinastatin has similar beneficial effects on blood conservation in cardiac surgical patients as aprotinin remains undetermined. Therefore, a systematic review and meta-analysis were performed to evaluate the effects of Ulinastatin on perioperative bleeding and transfusion in patients who underwent cardiac surgery. METHODS: Electronic databases were searched to identify all clinical trials comparing Ulinastatin with placebo/blank on postoperative bleeding and transfusion in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Primary outcomes included perioperative blood loss, blood transfusion, postoperative re-exploration for bleeding. Secondary outcomes include perioperative hemoglobin level, platelet counts and functions, coagulation tests, inflammatory cytokines level, and so on. For continuous variables, treatment effects were calculated as weighted mean difference (WMD) and 95% confidential interval (CI). For dichotomous data, treatment effects were calculated as odds ratio and 95% CI. Statistical significance was defined as P < .05. RESULTS: Our search yielded 21 studies including 1310 patients, and 617 patients were allocated into Ulinastatin group and 693 into Control (placebo/blank) group. There was no significant difference in intraoperative bleeding volume, postoperative re-exploration for bleeding incidence, intraoperative red blood cell transfusion units, postoperative fresh frozen plasma transfusion volumes and platelet concentrates transfusion units between the 2 groups (all P > .05). Ulinastatin reduces postoperative bleeding (WMD = -0.73, 95% CI: -1.17 to -0.28, P = .001) and red blood cell (RBC) transfusion (WMD = -0.70, 95% CI: -1.26 to -0.14, P = .01), inhibits hyperfibrinolysis as manifested by lower level of postoperative D-dimer (WMD = -0.87, 95% CI: -1.34 to -0.39, P = .0003). CONCLUSION: This meta-analysis has found some evidence showing that Ulinastatin reduces postoperative bleeding and RBC transfusion in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. However, these findings should be interpreted rigorously. Further well-conducted trials are required to assess the blood-saving effects and mechanisms of Ulinastatin.


Assuntos
Transfusão de Sangue/estatística & dados numéricos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos , Glicoproteínas/uso terapêutico , Hemorragia Pós-Operatória/prevenção & controle , Inibidores da Tripsina/uso terapêutico , Coagulação Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Plaquetas/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicoproteínas/farmacologia , Humanos , Inibidores da Tripsina/farmacologia
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(7): e19215, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32049859

RESUMO

This study compared the surgical outcomes of two surgical methods for treating multilevel cervical spondylotic myelopathy (MCSM) combined with cervical kyphotic deformity (CKD): (1) the ELTA method consisted of expansive open-door laminoplasty (EOLP) followed by three-segment anterior cervical discectomy fusion (ACDF), and (2) the LAPI method consisted of long-segment ACDF followed by long-level posterior instrumented fusion (PIF). Surgical treatment of CKD combined with MCSM remains challenging. Surgical considerations should include adequate spinal cord decompression and restoration of satisfactory cervical sagittal alignment (CSA). In certain situations, a solid PIF structure is vital to prevent failure.We included 105 patients who underwent the aforementioned surgical methods for MCSM combined with CKD from January 2013 to December 2017. The minimum follow-up period was 1 year. Comparative analysis was performed to compare the two surgical strategies' preoperative and postoperative functional outcomes, including a visual analog scale for neck pain, neck disability index, the Japanese Orthopedic Association cervical myelopathy score, and the Nurick score, as well as the CSA radiographic outcomes, including C2-7 Cobb angle, C2-7 sagittal vertical axis, and C7 slope. The risk factors related to reduced improvement in functional status were analyzed.A total of 63 patients underwent ELTA and 42 patients underwent LAPI. Improvements in functional outcomes were considerable in both groups. The mean C2-7 Cobb angle was restored from 7.4°â€Š±â€Š2.1° kyphosis to 8.8°â€Š±â€Š4.7° lordosis in the ELTA group and from 15.3°â€Š±â€Š4.2° kyphosis to 15.8°â€Š±â€Š8.1° lordosis in the LAPI group. The maximal correction angle was 22.6° in the ELTA group and 42.6° in the LAPI group.Although changes in CSA seemed to be significantly correlated with improvements of functional status, the ELTA and LAPI methods were both effective for treating MCSM combined with CKD, when appropriately selected. The ELTA method was indicated for MCSM patients who had a low degree of CKD, whereas the LAPI method was indicated for MCSM patients who had poor function scores and a high degree of CKD.


Assuntos
Vértebras Cervicais/cirurgia , Cifose/cirurgia , Procedimentos Ortopédicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças da Medula Espinal/cirurgia , Espondilose/cirurgia , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Cifose/complicações , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Procedimentos Ortopédicos/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Doenças da Medula Espinal/etiologia , Espondilose/complicações
9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(7): e19220, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32049860

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Injection laryngoplasty is a common procedure for patients with vocal fold dysfunction, but the literature on its benefits has been mainly focused on those related to structural lesions or laryngeal nerve involvement. Stroke patients may be at increased risk of aspiration due to insufficient vocal fold motion. However, how injection laryngoplasty can be of benefit in stroke patients has not been reported yet. PATIENT CONCERNS: Six chronic stroke patients with long-standing swallowing difficulties and who showed severe aspiration despite long-term swallowing rehabilitation. DIAGNOSIS: Laryngoscope evaluation revealed insufficient glottic closure as the cause of aspiration. INTERVENTIONS: Injection laryngoplasty was done per-orally under local anaesthesia with calcium hydroxylapatite (Radiesse Voice, 1-1.5 mL) in an office setting. Respiratory pressures and peak cough flows were assessed at baseline and at 2 weeks follow-up. OUTCOMES: At 2 weeks, the mean peak cough flow (Δ = +95.09 L/min) increased significantly after the procedure. The maximal expiratory (Δ = +18.40 cm H2O) and inspiratory (Δ = +20.20 cm H2O) pressures also improved, indicating that injection laryngoplasty was effective in augmenting respiratory and cough parameters. All cases showed improvement in the Functional Oral Intake Scale (Δ = +4). Feeding tubes were successfully removed. CONCLUSION: Injection laryngoplasty proved to be both successful and safe in improving glottic closure with immediate results in those who had failed to show a positive response after long-term swallowing rehabilitation. The positive and dramatic clinical outcomes were observed through changes in the coughing force. Our case series support the use of injection larygnoplasty as a powerful adjunctive treatment method to prevent aspiration pneumonia in post-stroke patients with vocal fold insufficiency. Pre- and post-injection peak cough flow changes may reflect improvement in glottic closure and indicate the safety of swallowing with reduced risk of aspiration.


Assuntos
Laringoplastia/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Aspirativa/prevenção & controle , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Laringoplastia/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Aspirativa/etiologia
10.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(6): 166-170, 2020 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32053579

RESUMO

In December 2019, a cluster of cases of pneumonia emerged in Wuhan City in central China's Hubei Province. Genetic sequencing of isolates obtained from patients with pneumonia identified a novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) as the etiology (1). As of February 4, 2020, approximately 20,000 confirmed cases had been identified in China and an additional 159 confirmed cases in 23 other countries, including 11 in the United States (2,3). On January 17, CDC and the U.S. Department of Homeland Security's Customs and Border Protection began health screenings at U.S. airports to identify ill travelers returning from Wuhan City (4). CDC activated its Emergency Operations Center on January 21 and formalized a process for inquiries regarding persons suspected of having 2019-nCoV infection (2). As of January 31, 2020, CDC had responded to clinical inquiries from public health officials and health care providers to assist in evaluating approximately 650 persons thought to be at risk for 2019-nCoV infection. Guided by CDC criteria for the evaluation of persons under investigation (PUIs) (5), 210 symptomatic persons were tested for 2019-nCoV; among these persons, 148 (70%) had travel-related risk only, 42 (20%) had close contact with an ill laboratory-confirmed 2019-nCoV patient or PUI, and 18 (9%) had both travel- and contact-related risks. Eleven of these persons had laboratory-confirmed 2019-nCoV infection. Recognizing persons at risk for 2019-nCoV is critical to identifying cases and preventing further transmission. Health care providers should remain vigilant and adhere to recommended infection prevention and control practices when evaluating patients for possible 2019-nCoV infection (6). Providers should consult with their local and state health departments when assessing not only ill travelers from 2019-nCoV-affected countries but also ill persons who have been in close contact with patients with laboratory-confirmed 2019-nCoV infection in the United States.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Busca de Comunicante , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição de Risco , Doença Relacionada a Viagens , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(7): 183-188, 2020 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32078592

RESUMO

In 2015, an estimated 17.7 million U.S. persons were informal caregivers who provided substantial services through in-home, unpaid assistance to their family members and friends (1). Caregiving can have many benefits, such as enhancing the bond between caregiver and recipient, but it can also place an emotional and physical strain on caregivers, leading to higher rates of depression, lower quality of life, and poorer overall health (2). As the U.S. population continues to age (3), the need for informal caregivers will likely increase. However, little nationally representative information on prevalence of caregivers is available. This study examined demographic characteristics and health status of informal caregivers from 44 states,* the District of Columbia (DC), and Puerto Rico, based on data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) collected during 2015-2017. Overall, approximately one in five adults reported that they had provided care to a family member or friend in the preceding 30 days. Fifty-eight percent of caregivers were women, and a majority were non-Hispanic white, with at least some college education, and married or living with a partner. Across all states, 19.2% of caregivers reported being in fair or poor health, although significant state-to-state variation occurred. Caregivers provide important support to family members, friends, and the health care system and might compromise their own health to provide this support (1,2). Better understanding of caregivers and the challenges they face could inform implementation of improvements in support systems that could enhance not only the health of the caregiver, but that of the care recipient as well. For example, additional data regarding demographics at the state level might aid in more effective planning and support of caregivers with evidence-based programs and assistance (https://www.cdc.gov/aging/publications/features/caring-for-yourself.html).


Assuntos
Cuidadores/estatística & dados numéricos , Nível de Saúde , Adulto , Idoso , Sistema de Vigilância de Fator de Risco Comportamental , District of Columbia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Porto Rico , Estados Unidos
12.
Adv Neurobiol ; 24: 481-504, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32006369

RESUMO

Autism has been increasing dramatically since its description by Leo Kanner in 1943. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in 2018 has identified 1 in 59 children (1 in 37 boys and 1 in 151 girls) has autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Autistic spectrum disorders and ADHD are complex conditions in which nutritional and environmental factors play major roles. It is important to understand how food can have an impact on their current and future health. Appealing food colors stimulate the consumption of different food products. Since 2011, it is evident that dyes are linked to harmful effects in children. Artificial dyes have neurotoxic chemicals that aggravate mental health problems. Many families with autistic children avoid food dyes in their diet in order to avoid behavioral issues. A study reported that there is a correlation between yellow dye and sleep disturbance. Food colors Blue 1 and 2, Green 3, Red 3, Yellow 5 and 6, Citrus Red 2, and Red 40 can trigger many behaviors in most kids. Artificial food color usually contains petroleum and is manufactured in a chemical process that includes formaldehyde, aniline, hydroxides, and sulfuric acids. Most impurities in the food color are in the form of salts or acids. Sometimes lead, arsenic, and mercury may be present as impurities. The U.S. FDA is yet to study the effects of synthetic dyes on behavior in children. A study conducted at Southampton University in England found a link between food dyes and hyperactive behavior in children. The research does not prove that food coloring actually causes autism spectrum disorder, but there seems to be a link. This chapter attempts to provide a broad review of the available literature on food color and the epidemiology, etiology, prevention, and treatment of autistic spectrum disorder.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/induzido quimicamente , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/epidemiologia , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Corantes de Alimentos/efeitos adversos , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/induzido quimicamente , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/dietoterapia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/dietoterapia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Criança , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
13.
Adv Neurobiol ; 24: 505-523, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32006370

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by core deficits in social interactions, verbal/nonverbal communication, and restricted, repetitive, and stereotyped behaviors. Children with ASD are known to have several feeding problems that are believed to affect their nutritional and health status. AIM: The present study was designed to assess the food preferences in Omani children diagnosed with ASD compared with controls. METHODS: A case-control study was conducted in which 375 children (males and females) aged between 4 and 13 years were recruited. The sample consisted of 163 children with ASD and a control group of 212 typically developing (TD) children. For each participant, demographic, anthropometric, and medical information and information regarding dietary intakes were gathered using the food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to assess their food preferences. RESULTS: The sociodemographic characteristics of caregivers were similar in the two groups, while their perceptions based on several nutritional parameters were different. Children's age and body mass index (BMI) were similar in both groups, while the number of male children was higher in ASD group (P < 0.001). Problematic behaviors including food refusal and selectivity were significantly higher in ASD children than in TD children. Despite that, the children with ASD were found to consume mostly traditional Omani dishes. CONCLUSION: This is the first study that provides information on the eating habits and nutritional intake of Omani children diagnosed with ASD. The overall findings are promising and may contribute to further understanding of food preferences in children with ASD in Oman. Such information is highly valuable for the prevention and management of nutritional deficiencies among Omani children with autism by improving their diet quality.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/epidemiologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Preferências Alimentares , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Adolescente , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Omã/epidemiologia
14.
Bone Joint J ; 102-B(2): 239-245, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32009437

RESUMO

AIMS: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) surgery in children and the adolescent population has increased steadily over recent years. We used a national database to look at trends in ACL reconstruction and rates of serious complications, growth disturbance, and revision surgery, over 20 years. METHODS: All hospital episodes for patients undergoing ACL reconstruction, under the age of 20 years, between 1 April 1997 and 31 March 2017, were extracted by procedure code from the national Hospital Episode Statistics (HES). Population standardized rates of intervention were determined by age group and year of treatment. Subsequent rates of serious complications including reoperation for infection, growth disturbance (osteotomy, epiphysiodesis), revision reconstruction, and/or contralateral ACL reconstruction rates were determined. RESULTS: Over the 20 year period, 16,125 ACL reconstructions were included. The mean age of patients was 16.9 years (SD 2.0; 27.1% female, n = 4,374/16,125). The majority of procedures were observed in the 15 to 19 years age group. The rate of ACL reconstruction increased 29-fold from 1997 to 1998, to 2016 to 2017. Within 90 days of ACL reconstruction, the rate of reoperation for infection was 0.31% (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.23 to 0.41, n = 50/16,125) and the rate of pulmonary embolism was 0.037% (95%.CI 0.014 to 0.081, n = 6/16,125). Of those with minimum five-year follow-up following ACL reconstruction (n = 7,585), 1.00% of patients subsequently underwent an osteotomy (95% CI 0.79 to 1.25, n = 76/7,585), 0.09% an epiphysiodesis (95% CI 0.04 to 0.19, n = 7/7,585), 7.46% revision ACL reconstruction (95% CI 6.88 to 8.08, n = 566/7,585), and 6.37% contralateral ACL reconstruction (95% CI 5.83 to 6.94, n = 483/7,585). CONCLUSION: Rates of paediatric and adolescent ACL reconstruction have increased 29-fold over the last 20 years. Despite the increasing rate in the younger population, the risk of serious complications, including further surgery for growth disturbance is very low. The results of our study provide a point of reference for shared decision making in the management of ACL injury in the paediatric and adolescent population. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2020;102-B(2):239-245.


Assuntos
Lesões do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/cirurgia , Reconstrução do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/métodos , Adolescente , Lesões do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/epidemiologia , Reconstrução do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/efeitos adversos , Reconstrução do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Bases de Dados Factuais/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Reoperação/estatística & dados numéricos , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
Lancet ; 395(10221): 339-349, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32007169

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute atrial fibrillation is the most common arrythmia treated in the emergency department. Our primary aim was to compare conversion to sinus rhythm between pharmacological cardioversion followed by electrical cardioversion (drug-shock), and electrical cardioversion alone (shock-only). Our secondary aim was to compare the effectiveness of two pad positions for electrical cardioversion. METHODS: We did a partial factorial trial of two protocols for patients with acute atrial fibrillation at 11 academic hospital emergency departments in Canada. We enrolled adult patients with acute atrial fibrillation. Protocol 1 was a randomised, blinded, placebo-controlled comparison of attempted pharmacological cardioversion with intravenous procainamide (15 mg/kg over 30 min) followed by electrical cardioversion if necessary (up to three shocks, each of ≥200 J), and placebo infusion followed by electrical cardioversion. For patients having electrical cardioversion, we used Protocol 2, a randomised, open-label, nested comparison of anteroposterior versus anterolateral pad positions. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1, stratified by study site) for Protocol 1 by on-site research personnel using an online electronic data capture system. Randomisation for Protocol 2 occurred 30 min after drug infusion for patients who had not converted and was stratified by site and Protocol 1 allocation. Patients and all research and emergency department staff were masked to treatment allocation for Protocol 1. The primary outcome was conversion to normal sinus rhythm for at least 30 min at any time after randomisation and up to a point immediately after three shocks. Protocol 1 was analysed by intention to treat and Protocol 2 excluded patients who did not receive electrical cardioversion. This study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01891058. FINDINGS: Between July 18, 2013, and Oct 17, 2018, we enrolled 396 patients, and none were lost to follow-up. In the drug-shock group (n=204), conversion to sinus rhythm occurred in 196 (96%) patients and in the shock-only group (n=192), conversion occurred in 176 (92%) patients (absolute difference 4%; 95% CI 0-9; p=0·07). The proportion of patients discharged home was 97% (n=198) versus 95% (n=183; p=0·60). 106 (52%) patients in the drug-shock group converted after drug infusion only. No patients had serious adverse events in follow-up. The different pad positions in Protocol 2 (n=244), had similar conversions to sinus rhythm (119 [94%] of 127 in anterolateral group vs 108 [92%] of 117 in anteroposterior group; p=0·68). INTERPRETATION: Both the drug-shock and shock-only strategies were highly effective, rapid, and safe in restoring sinus rhythm for patients in the emergency department with acute atrial fibrillation, avoiding the need for return to hospital. The drug infusion worked for about half of patients and avoided the resource intensive procedural sedation required for electrical cardioversion. We also found no significant difference between the anterolateral and anteroposterior pad positions for electrical cardioversion. Immediate rhythm control for patients in the emergency department with acute atrial fibrillation leads to excellent outcomes. FUNDING: Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada and the Canadian Institutes of Health Research.


Assuntos
Antiarrítmicos/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/terapia , Cardioversão Elétrica , Doença Aguda , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Protocolos Clínicos , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
20.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(5): e18532, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32000362

RESUMO

Fever is one of the most common symptoms seen in patients. The work-up and follow-up of fever in an outpatient-only setting is a reasonable option for stable patients referred for unexplained fever; however, the safety and efficacy of outpatient follow-up for those patients remain unclear. We conducted this study to evaluate the safety and efficacy of outpatient follow-up for referred patients with unexplained fever.This study was a retrospective cohort study. We included patients referred to the outpatient department of the diagnostic medicine of our university hospital for unexplained fever between October 2016 and September 2017. Exclusion criteria were recurrent fever or admission for fever evaluation prior to referral. Main outcomes of interest were the rate of admission without diagnosis, rate of remission of fever, and the total duration of fever in undiagnosed patients.Among 84 patients included in this study, 17 (20%) were diagnosed during outpatient follow-up, 6 (7%) were admitted due to worsened condition, 5 (6%) were lost to follow-up, and 56 (67%) were followed up as outpatients without a diagnosis. Among the 56 undiagnosed patients, fever resolved in 53 during outpatient follow-up with or without treatment (95%). The total duration of resolved fever in undiagnosed patients was within 8 weeks.Follow-up of patients referred for unexplained fever in an outpatient setting is safe and effective.


Assuntos
Assistência ao Convalescente/estatística & dados numéricos , Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Febre de Causa Desconhecida , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
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