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1.
GM Crops Food ; 12(1): 47-56, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32862762

RESUMO

The sugarcane (Saccharum X officinarum) is one of the most important crops used to produce sugar and raw material for biofuel in the world. One of the main causes for sucrose content and yield losses is the attack by insect. In this investigation, cry1Ac gene was introduced into sugarcane variety GT54-9(C9) using the Agrobacterium tumefaciens transformation method for transgenic sugarcane production presenting insect-resistance. The A. tumefaciens strain GV1303 including pARTcry1Ac vector was used for the production of transformed sugarcane. The Bacillus thuringiensis cry gene were successfully used to produce transgenic plants used for the improvement of both agronomic efficiency and product quality by acquiring insect resistance. PCR and Southern hybridization techniques were used to confirm the cry1Ac gene incorporation into sugarcane genome. Transformation percentage was 22.2% using PCR analysis with specific primers for cry1Ac and npt-II (Neomycin phosphotransferase) genes. The expression of cry1Ac gene was determined using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), QuickStix test, and insect bioassays. Bioassays for transformed sugarcane plants showed high level of toxicity to Sesamia cretica giving 100% mortality of the larvae. Sugarcane insect resistance was improved significantly by using cry1Ac gene transformation.


Assuntos
Saccharum/genética , Agrobacterium , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Endotoxinas , Proteínas Hemolisinas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas
2.
GM Crops Food ; 12(1): 71-83, 2021 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32997586

RESUMO

This study assessed the farm-level economic and environmental impacts from the use of genetically modified (GM) corn in Vietnam (resistant to Lepidopteran pests of corn and tolerant to the herbicide glyphosate). It was largely based on a farmer survey conducted in 2018-19. The GM varieties out-performed conventional varieties in terms of yield by +30.4% (+15.2% if the yield comparison is with only the nearest performing equivalent conventional varieties) and reduced the cost of production by between US $26.47 per ha and US $31.30 per ha. For every extra US $1 spent on GM seed relative to conventional seed, farmers gained between an additional US $6.84 and US $12.55 in extra income. The GM maize technology also reduced insecticide and herbicide use. The average amount of herbicide active ingredient applied to the GM crop area was 26% lower (1.66 kg per ha) than the average value for the conventional corn area (2.26 kg/ai per ha) and in terms of the associated environmental impact of the herbicide use, as measured by the Environmental Impact Quotient (EIQ) indicator, it was lower by 36% than the average value applicable to the conventional corn area. Insecticides were used on a significantly lower GM crop area and, when used, in smaller amounts. The average amount of insecticide applied to the GM corn crop was significantly lower by 78% (0.08 kg/ai per ha) than the average value for the conventional corn area (0.36 kg/ai per ha) and in terms of the associated environmental impact of the insecticide use, as measured by the EIQ indicator, it was also lower by 77% than the average value for conventional corn (14.06 per ha).


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Zea mays/genética , Fazendas , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Inquéritos e Questionários , Vietnã
3.
Ann Lab Med ; 41(2): 129-138, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33063674

RESUMO

Since its first report in December 2019, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has rapidly emerged as a pandemic affecting nearly all countries worldwide. As the COVID-19 pandemic progresses, the need to identify genetic risk factors for susceptibility to this serious illness has emerged. Host genetic factors, along with other risk factors may help determine susceptibility to respiratory tract infections. It is hypothesized that the ACE2 gene, encoding angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), is a genetic risk factor for SARS-CoV-2 infection and is required by the virus to enter cells. Together with ACE2, transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2) and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4) also play an important role in disease severity. Evaluating the role of genetic variants in determining the direction of respiratory infections will help identify potential drug target candidates for further study in COVID-19 patients. We have summarized the latest reports demonstrating that ACE2 variants, their expression, and epigenetic factors may influence an individual's susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection and disease outcome.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Variação Genética , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Dipeptidil Peptidase 4/genética , Dipeptidil Peptidase 4/metabolismo , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Pandemias , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/química , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/genética , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Serina Endopeptidases/genética , Serina Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
4.
Ann Lab Med ; 41(2): 225-229, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33063685

RESUMO

In response to the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, an online laboratory surveillance system was established to monitor severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) real-time reverse transcription-PCR (rRT-PCR) testing capacities and results. SARS-CoV-2 rRT-PCR testing data were collected from 97 clinical laboratories, including 84 medical institutions and 13 independent clinical laboratories in Korea. We assessed the testing capacities to utilize SARS-CoV-2 rRT-PCR based on surveillance data obtained from February 7th to June 4th, 2020 and evaluated positive result characteristics according to the reagents used and sample types. A total of 1,890,319 SARS-CoV-2 rRT-PCR testing were performed, 2.3% of which were positive. Strong correlations were observed between the envelope (E) gene and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp)/nucleocapsid (N) genes threshold cycle (Ct) values for each reagent. No statistically significant differences in gene Ct values were observed between the paired upper and lower respiratory tract samples, except in the N gene for nasopharyngeal swab and sputum samples. Our study showed that clinical laboratories in Korea have rapidly expanded their testing capacities in response to the COVID-19 outbreak, with a peak daily capacity of 34,193 tests. Rapid expansion in testing capacity is a critical component of the national response to the ongoing pandemic.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/genética , Serviços de Laboratório Clínico/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Humanos , Laboratórios Hospitalares , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , RNA Replicase/genética , RNA Viral/genética , RNA Viral/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , República da Coreia , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/genética , Proteínas Virais/genética
5.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1287: 9-30, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33034023

RESUMO

The Notch signal transduction cascade requires cell-to-cell contact and results in the proteolytic processing of the Notch receptor and subsequent assembly of a transcriptional coactivator complex containing the Notch intracellular domain (NICD) and transcription factor RBPJ. In the absence of a Notch signal, RBPJ remains at Notch target genes and dampens transcriptional output. Like in other signaling pathways, RBPJ is able to switch from activation to repression by associating with corepressor complexes containing several chromatin-modifying enzymes. Here, we focus on the recent advances concerning RBPJ-corepressor functions, especially in regard to chromatin regulation. We put this into the context of one of the best-studied model systems for Notch, blood cell development. Alterations in the RBPJ-corepressor functions can contribute to the development of leukemia, especially in the case of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The versatile role of transcription factor RBPJ in regulating pivotal target genes like c-MYC and HES1 may contribute to the better understanding of the development of leukemia.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Proteína de Ligação a Sequências Sinal de Recombinação J de Imunoglobina/metabolismo , Receptores Notch/metabolismo , Cromatina/genética , Cromatina/metabolismo , Humanos , Transdução de Sinais
6.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1287: 155-168, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33034031

RESUMO

Thyroid cancer is the most common malignancy of the endocrine system with a steadily rising incidence. The term "thyroid cancer" encompasses a spectrum of subtypes, namely papillary thyroid cancer, follicular thyroid cancer, anaplastic thyroid cancer, and medullary thyroid cancer. Each subtype differs histopathologically and in degrees of cellular differentiation, which may be in part due to signaling of the Notch pathway. The Notch pathway is an evolutionarily conserved signal transduction mechanism that regulates cell proliferation, differentiation, survival, stem cell maintenance, embryonic and adult development, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and angiogenesis. Its role in cancer biology is controversial, as it has been shown to play both an oncogenic and tumor-suppressive role in many different types of cancers. This discordance holds true for each subtype of thyroid cancer, indicating that Notch signaling is likely cell type and context dependent. Whether oncogenic or not, Notch signaling has proven to be significantly involved in the tumorigenesis of thyroid cancer and has thus earned interest as a therapeutic target. Advancement in the understanding of Notch signaling in thyroid cancer holds great promise for the development of novel treatment strategies to benefit patients.


Assuntos
Receptores Notch/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/metabolismo , Humanos , Oncogenes , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/genética , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/patologia
7.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1287: 169-181, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33034032

RESUMO

The Notch signaling pathway controls normal embryonic development and tissue homeostasis of many cell types. It regulates cell proliferation, fate, differentiation, and cell death by short-range signaling between nearby cells that come in contact. The Notch pathway has also been critically involved in the pathobiology of a variety of malignancies, regulating cancer initiation and development, as well as early stages of cancer progression, by adjusting conserved cellular programs. Fibroblasts, an essential for tumor growth component of stroma, have also been affected by Notch regulation. Sequencing Notch gene mutations have been identified in a number of human tumors, revealing information on the progression of specific cancer types, such as ovarian cancer and melanoma, immune-associated tumors such as myeloid neoplasms, but especially in lymphocytic leukemia. Activation of the Notch can be either oncogenic or it may contain growth-suppressive functions, acting as a tumor suppressor in other hematopoietic cells, hepatocytes, skin, and pancreatic epithelium.


Assuntos
Progressão da Doença , Neoplasias/patologia , Receptores Notch , Transdução de Sinais , Genes Supressores de Tumor , Humanos , Neoplasias/genética , Oncogenes , Receptores Notch/metabolismo
8.
GM Crops Food ; 12(1): 86-105, 2021 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33028148

RESUMO

Potato is the most important non-grain food crop in the world. Viruses, particularly potato virus Y (PVY) and potato virus A (PVA), are among the major agricultural pathogens causing severe reduction in potato yield and quality worldwide. Virus infection induces host factors to interfere with its infection cycle. Evaluation of these factors facilitates the development of intrinsic resistance to plant viruses. In this study, a small G-protein as one of the critical signaling factors was evaluated in plant response to PVY and PVA to enhance resistance. For this purpose, the gene expression dataset of G-proteins in potato plant under five biotic (viruses, bacteria, fungi, nematodes, and insects) and four abiotic (cold, heat, salinity, and drought) stress conditions were collected from gene expression databases. We reduced the number of the selected G-proteins to a single protein, StSAR1A, which is possibly involved in virus inhibition. StSAR1A overexpressed transgenic plants were created via the Agrobacterium-mediated method. Real-time PCR and Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay tests of transgenic plants mechanically inoculated with PVY and PVA indicated that the overexpression of StSAR1A gene enhanced resistance to both viruses. The virus-infected transgenic plants exhibited a greater stem length, a larger leaf size, a higher fresh/dry weight, and a greater node number than those of the wild-type plants. The maximal photochemical efficiency of photosystem II, stomatal conductivity, and net photosynthetic rate in the virus-infected transgenic plants were also obviously higher than those of the control. The present study may help to understand aspects of resistance against viruses.


Assuntos
Potyvirus , Solanum tuberosum , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/virologia , Potyvirus/genética , Solanum tuberosum/genética , Solanum tuberosum/virologia
9.
GM Crops Food ; 12(1): 106-114, 2021 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33079624

RESUMO

Agricultural biotechnology is enhancing agricultural productivity, food security, and livelihoods globally. Some developing countries have established functional biosafety regulatory systems and have commercialized genetically modified (GM) crops. Release of GM crops requires enhanced capacity for regulatory compliance and product stewardship to help ensure sustainable use of biotechnology products. We conducted a survey of 66 stakeholders, mostly from Africa and Asia, in two-week international agricultural biotechnology short courses. Respondents showed knowledge of biotechnology benefits and expressed potential barriers to commercialization. They identified 16 crops in the "pipeline for commercialization." Stakeholders also shared ideas about how to build capacity for product stewardship. Product stewardship is a concept which requires each person in the product life cycle - innovators, scientists, and technology users, to share responsibility. This paper focuses on adoption of product stewardship for post-release management of GM crops which encompasses trait performance, resistance management, integrated pest management (IPM), good agricultural practices, high-quality seeds and planting material, intellectual property management, labeling, identity preservation, consumer acceptance, and effective marketing.


Assuntos
Biotecnologia , Produtos Agrícolas , Agricultura , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas
10.
GM Crops Food ; 12(1): 125-144, 2021 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33079628

RESUMO

Plants are susceptible to phytopathogens, including bacteria, fungi, and viruses, which cause colossal financial shortfalls (pre- and post-harvest) and threaten global food safety. To combat with these phytopathogens, plant possesses two-layer of defense in the form of PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI), or Effectors-triggered immunity (ETI). The understanding of plant-molecular interactions and revolution of high-throughput molecular techniques have opened the door for innovations in developing pathogen-resistant plants. In this context, Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)-CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) has transformed genome editing (GE) technology and being harnessed for altering the traits. Here we have summarized the complexities of plant immune system and the use of CRISPR-Cas9 to edit the various components of plant immune system to acquire long-lasting resistance in plants against phytopathogens. This review also sheds the light on the limitations of CRISPR-Cas9 system, regulation of CRISPR-Cas9 edited crops and future prospective of this technology.


Assuntos
Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Repetições Palindrômicas Curtas Agrupadas e Regularmente Espaçadas , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Edição de Genes , Doenças das Plantas/genética
11.
GM Crops Food ; 12(1): 115-124, 2021 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33084486

RESUMO

Transgenic crops that produce Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins are effective tools for controlling lepidopteran pests. However, the degree of susceptibility to Bt toxins differs among various pest species due to relatively narrow spectrum and high selectivity of such toxins. Bt corn hybrids for Chinese market were designed to target Asian corn borer Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée), while their efficacy against other lepidopteran pests are not well defined, such as Conogethes punctiferalis (Guenée), Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner), Agrotis ypsilon (Rottemberg), and Mythimna separata (Walker), which are also important lepidopteran pests on corn in the Huang-Huai-Hai Summer Corn Region of China. To determine what type of Bt corn is suitable for this region, the efficacy of five Bt toxins, i.e., Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, Cry1F, Cry2Ab, and Vip3A, to these five lepidopteran species was evaluated in laboratory. Both O. furnacalis and C. punctiferalis showed similar high susceptibility to all five Bt toxins. A. ypsilon and M. separate were less sensitive to Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac than the other species. H. armigera, A. ypsilon and M. separate were less sensitive to Cry1F than O. furnacalis and C. punctiferalis. H. armigera was more sensitive to Cry2Ab than other tested species. All five species were equally sensitive to Vip3A, though their LC50s were all relatively higher. These findings suggest that the first generation Bt corn expressing single Cry1 toxin should not be the first choice because of the potential risk of control failure or less efficacy against H. armigera, A. ypsilon or M. separate. The second-generation Bt corn expressing Cry1 and Cry2 toxins, or the third generation Bt corn expressing Cry1, Cry2 and Vip3A toxins might produce better protection of corn in the Huang-Huai-Hai Summer Corn Region of China.


Assuntos
Bacillus thuringiensis , Animais , Bacillus thuringiensis/genética , China , Produtos Agrícolas , Fatores de Transcrição , Zea mays/genética
12.
GM Crops Food ; 12(1): 25-35, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32687427

RESUMO

The importance of food security and nourishment is recognized in Southern African region and in many communities, globally. However, the attainment of food security in Southern African countries is affected by many factors, including adverse environmental conditions, pests and diseases. Scientists have been insistently looking for innovative strategies to optimize crop production and combat challenges militating against attainment of food security. In agriculture, strategies of increasing crop production include but not limited to improved crop varieties, farming practices, extension services, irrigation services, mechanization, information technology, use of fertilizers and agrochemicals. Equally important is genetic modification (GM) technology, which brings new prospects in addressing food security problems. Nonetheless, since the introduction of genetically modified crops (GMOs) three decades ago, it has been a topic of public discourse across the globe, conspicuously so in Southern African region. This is regardless of the evidence that planting GMOs positively influenced farmer's incomes, economic access to food and increased tolerance of crops to various biotic and abiotic stresses. This paper looks at the issues surrounding GMOs adoption in Southern Africa and lack thereof, the discourse, and its potential in contributing to the attainment of food security for the present as well as future generations.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Alimentos Geneticamente Modificados , África Austral , Agricultura , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas
13.
GM Crops Food ; 12(1): 1-17, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32762312

RESUMO

A biophysical survey was conducted in 15 cotton-growing districts of Pakistan. Four hundred cotton growers were approached and inquired about the production technology of Bt cotton. Further, 25 strip tests using combo strips (Cry1Ac, Cry2Ab, Vip3Aa and Cp4, EPSPS gene) were performed at each farmer's field. Out of 10,000 total-tested samples, farmers claimed 9682 samples as Bt and 318 samples as non-Bt. After performing a strip test, 1009 and 87 samples were found false negative and false positive, respectively. Only 53 samples were found positive for Cry2Ab, 214 for EPSPS and none for Vip3Aa gene. Quantification of Cry endotoxin and bioassay studies were performed by taking leaves from upper, middle, and lower canopies, and fruiting parts at approximately 80 days after sowing from 89 varieties. Expression was highly variable among different canopies and fruiting parts. Moreover, Cry endotoxin expression and insect mortality varied significantly among varieties from 0.26 µg g-1 to 3.54 µg g-1 with mortality ranging from 28 to 97%, respectively. Highest Cry1Ac expression (3.54 µg g-1) and insect mortality (97%) were observed for variety FH-142 from DG Khan. Cry endotoxin expression varied significantly across various plant parts, i.e., IUB-13 variety from upper canopy documented 0.34 µg g-1 expression with 37% insect mortality in Layyah to 3.42 µg g-1 expression and 96% insect mortality from DG Khan. Lethal dose, LD95 (2.20 µg g-1) of Cry1Ac endotoxin was optimized for effective control of H. armigera. Our results provided evidence of practical resistance in H. armigera and way forward.


Assuntos
Proteínas Hemolisinas/genética , Mariposas , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Endotoxinas , Gossypium , Resistência a Inseticidas , Larva , Paquistão , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas
14.
GM Crops Food ; 12(1): 18-24, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32787504

RESUMO

Since 1996 till 2018, the global area cultivated with GM crops has increased 113-fold, making biotech crops one of the fastest adopted crop technology in the past decades. In the European Union, only two countries still cultivate one available transgenic crop event on minor hectarage. Moreover, the number of notifications for confined field trials has dramatically dropped in the last decade. All these are happening while the EU legislation on GM crops has come under severe criticism. The percentage of EU citizens concerned about the presence of GMOs in the environment has decreased from 30% (in 2002) to 19% (in 2011), while the level of concern about the use of GM ingredients in food or drinks has decreased from 63% (in 2005) to 27% (in 2019). The steadily increasing acceptance of the EU citizens of GMOs in the environment and food, as it was recorded by Eurobarometers, should additionally ease the way and support a positive change of the legal framework that regulates the GM crops' testing and commercial cultivation in the EU.


Assuntos
Biotecnologia , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , União Europeia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas
15.
GM Crops Food ; 12(1): 57-70, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877304

RESUMO

Hybrid seeds of several important crops with supreme qualities including yield, biotic and abiotic stress tolerance have been cultivated for decades. Thus far, a major challenge with hybrid seeds is that they do not have the ability to produce plants with the same qualities over subsequent generations. Apomixis, an asexual mode of reproduction by avoiding meiosis, exists naturally in flowering plants, and ultimately leads to seed production. Apomixis has the potential to preserve hybrid vigor for multiple generations in economically important plant genotypes. The evolution and genetics of asexual seed production are unclear, and much more effort will be required to determine the genetic architecture of this phenomenon. To fix hybrid vigor, synthetic apomixis has been suggested. The development of MiMe (mitosis instead of meiosis) genotypes has been utilized for clonal gamete production. However, the identification and parental origin of genes responsible for synthetic apomixis are little known and need further clarification. Genome modifications utilizing genome editing technologies (GETs), such as clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein (cas), a reverse genetics tool, have paved the way toward the utilization of emerging technologies in plant molecular biology. Over the last decade, several genes in important crops have been successfully edited. The vast availability of GETs has made functional genomics studies easy to conduct in crops important for food security. Disruption in the expression of genes specific to egg cell MATRILINEAL (MTL) through the CRISPR/Cas genome editing system promotes the induction of haploid seed, whereas triple knockout of the Baby Boom (BBM) genes BBM1, BBM2, and BBM3 cause embryo arrest and abortion, which can be fully rescued by male-transmitted BBM1. The establishment of synthetic apomixis by engineering the MiMe genotype by genome editing of BBM1 expression or disruption of MTL leads to clonal seed production and heritability for multiple generations. In the present review, we discuss current developments related to the use of CRISPR/Cas technology in plants and the possibility of promoting apomixis in crops to preserve hybrid vigor. In addition, genetics, evolution, epigenetic modifications, and strategies for MiMe genotype development are discussed in detail.


Assuntos
Apomixia , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Edição de Genes , Vigor Híbrido , Sementes
16.
An. pediatr. (2003. Ed. impr.) ; 92(4): 241.e1-241.e11, abr. 2020. mapas, graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-186847

RESUMO

El 31 de diciembre de 2019, la Comisión Municipal de Salud y Sanidad de Wuhan (provincia de Hubei, China) informó sobre la existencia de 27 casos de neumonía de etiología desconocida con inicio de síntomas el 8 de diciembre, incluyendo 7 casos graves, con exposición común a un mercado de marisco, pescado y animales vivos en la ciudad de Wuhan. El 7 de enero de 2020, las autoridades chinas identificaron como agente causante del brote un nuevo tipo de virus de la familia Coronaviridae, denominado temporalmente «nuevo coronavirus», 2019-nCoV. El 30 de enero de 2020 la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) declara el brote una Emergencia Internacional. El día 11 de febrero la OMS le asigna el nombre de SARS-CoV2 e infección COVID-19 (Coronavirus Infectious Disease). El Ministerio de Sanidad convoca a las Sociedades de Especialidades para la elaboración de un protocolo clínico de manejo de la infección. La Asociación Española de Pediatría nombra un grupo de trabajo de las Sociedades de Infectología Pediátrica y Cuidados Intensivos Pediátricos que se encargan de elaborar las presentes recomendaciones con la evidencia disponible en el momento de su realización


On 31 December 2019, the Wuhan Municipal Committee of Health and Healthcare (Hubei Province, China) reported that there were 27 cases of pneumonia of unknown origin with symptoms starting on the 8 December. There were 7 serious cases with common exposure in market with shellfish, fish, and live animals, in the city of Wuhan. On 7 January 2020, the Chinese authorities identified that the agent causing the outbreak was a new type of virus of the Coronaviridae family, temporarily called «new coronavirus», 2019-nCoV. On January 30th, 2020, the World Health Organisation (WHO) declared the outbreak an International Emergency. On 11 February 2020 the WHO assigned it the name of SARS-CoV2 and COVID-19 (SARS-CoV2 and COVID-19). The Ministry of Health summoned the Specialties Societies to prepare a clinical protocol for the management of COVID-19. The Spanish Paediatric Association appointed a Working Group of the Societies of Paediatric Infectious Diseases and Paediatric Intensive Care to prepare the present recommendations with the evidence available at the time of preparing them


Assuntos
Humanos , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adolescente , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Coronavirus/classificação , Coronavirus/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Sociedades Médicas , Espanha
17.
Curr Opin Ophthalmol ; 31(6): 532-537, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33009086

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article summarizes the systemic and ocular manifestations of Blau syndrome, its genetic basis, and reviews recently published literature. RECENT FINDINGS: A large multicenter prospective case series is underway, with 3-year preliminary results indicating the prevalence of uveitis, clinical characteristics and early data on its visual prognosis. Case reports have demonstrated the successful use of newer biologic agents. SUMMARY: Blau syndrome is an exceedingly rare autoinflammatory disorder with skin, joint and eye manifestations. It is caused by autosomal dominant mutations of the NOD2 protein. Eye involvement is typically a chronic bilateral granulomatous iridocyclitis, often with multifocal choroiditis in the posterior segment. Treatment starts with topical and systemic steroids and often requires antimetabolites or biologic agents.


Assuntos
Artrite , Sinovite , Uveíte , Artrite/genética , Humanos , Coroidite Multifocal , Mutação , Proteína Adaptadora de Sinalização NOD2/genética , Sinovite/genética , Uveíte/genética
18.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(11): 681, 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33025312

RESUMO

Genotypic diversity among multi-drug-resistant (MDR) aquatic E. coli isolated from different sites of Yamuna River was analyzed using repetitive element PCR (rep-PCR) methods viz. ERIC-PCR and (GTG)5-PCR and compared with the MDR animal fecal isolates. The 97 E. coli isolates belonging to different serotypes, phylogroups, and multi-drug resistance patterns were analyzed. High genetic diversity was observed by both the methods; however, (GTG)5 typing showed higher discriminating potential. Combination of ERIC types (E1-E32) and (GTG)5 types (G1-G46) generated 77 genotypes. The frequency of genotypes ranged from 0.013 to 0.065. The genotype composition of E. coli isolates was highly diverse at all the sampling sites across Yamuna River except at its entry site in Delhi. The sampling sites under the influence of high anthropogenic activities showed an increase in number of unique genotype isolates. These sites also exhibited high multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) indexes (above 0.25) suggesting high risk of contamination. Principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) showed limited clustering of genotypes based on the sampling sites. The most frequent genotypes were grouped in the positive zone of both the principal coordinates (PC1 and PC2). The genotypes of most of the animal fecal isolates were unique and occupied a common space in the negative PC1 area forming a separate cluster. High genotypic diversity among the aquatic E. coli and the drain isolates, discharging the untreated municipal waste in the river, was observed, suggesting that the sewage effluents contribute substantially to contamination of this river system than animal feces. The presence of such a high diversity among the MDR E. coli isolates in the natural river systems is of great public health significance and highlights the need of an efficient surveillance system for better management of Indian natural water bodies.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli , Rios , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Escherichia coli/genética , Fezes , Genótipo , Índia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase
19.
J Contemp Dent Pract ; 21(6): 651-656, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33025934

RESUMO

AIM: This study relates the average number of nucleolar organizing regions (NORs) obtained in a series of cases of oral leukoplakia, with three methods of histopathological classification of such lesion. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a histopathological-histochemical laboratory cross-sectional study. The 18 cases of leukoplakia analyzed were filed at Pathology Service of the Biological Sciences Institute of the University of Passo Fundo, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil (SDH/ICB/UPF) (2017 and 2018), from which epidemiological data were extracted. New histological sections were performed for impregnation by the argyrophilic nucleolar organizer regions (AgNOR) technique. The histopathological slides were analyzed by photon microscopy (1,000×), and the nuclei of 100 epithelial cells were photographed to count the number of NORs. Three methods were used for the lesions' histopathological classification [World Health Organization (WHO), Brothwell, and binary system]. The means of NORs were compared with the three histopathological classifications by means of the t or analysis of variance (ANOVA) statistical tests, at a significance level of 5%. RESULTS: According to the WHO classification method, most cases (11-61.1%) had a moderate classification. Evaluations by the Brothwell method showed moderate and mild classification in 50 and 38.9% of cases, respectively. According to the binary system, most cases (10-55.6%) had low risk. The average NORs found in 100 nuclei of each of the 18 lesions ranged from 2 to 4. When crossing the average NORs with the histopathological classification methods of the lesions by means of the t test or ANOVA, no significant relationship was noted. CONCLUSION: The average of NORs is not associated with the histological classifications of leukoplakias. Thus, the AgNOR method should be used with caution when differentiating different histological grades of leukoplakias. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: The AgNOR method should be used with caution to determine the clinical treatment of oral leukoplakias, since no agreement was observed between this method and the histopathological classifications available for such lesion.


Assuntos
Leucoplasia Oral , Região Organizadora do Nucléolo , Análise de Variância , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Leucoplasia Oral/genética
20.
Drugs Today (Barc) ; 56(9): 561-571, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33025950

RESUMO

Avapritinib is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) that has recently received Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval for the treatment of metastatic or unresectable gastrointestinal stromal tumors harboring a platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRA) exon 18 mutation. Mutations in the activation loop of PDGFRA or KIT confer resistance to conventional TKIs due to structural changes in the receptor. Avapritinib was developed to selectively target these mutations, thereby offering a new treatment option for patients in whom imatinib, sunitinib, and regorafenib have failed. This review covers the basic science and preclinical studies that guided avapritinib's development, in addition to the data currently available from early clinical studies as well as those later-stage trials that led to its approval.


Assuntos
Tumores do Estroma Gastrointestinal/tratamento farmacológico , Pirazóis/uso terapêutico , Pirróis/uso terapêutico , Triazinas/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Tumores do Estroma Gastrointestinal/genética , Humanos , Mutação , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-kit/genética , Receptor alfa de Fator de Crescimento Derivado de Plaquetas/genética , Estados Unidos
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