Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 1.548.489
Filtrar
1.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-48179

RESUMO

A Organização Pan-Americana da Saúde (OPAS) participou nesta segunda-feira (12) do lançamento da campanha de vacinação contra a gripe no Brasil. O Ministério da Saúde do país vai distribuir 80 milhões de doses da vacina influenza trivalente, produzida pelo Instituto Butantan, para imunizar um público-alvo de 79,7 milhões de pessoas. A campanha vai até o dia 9 de julho.


Assuntos
Programas de Imunização , Vacinação , Brasil , Vacinas contra Influenza/imunologia
2.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-48180

RESUMO

Mais de 17 milhões de pessoas com doenças preexistentes começam a ser vacinadas a partir de maio. Exames, receitas médicas e relatórios podem ser apresentados no momento da vacinação


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Vacinação/tendências , Comorbidade , Betacoronavirus/imunologia
3.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-48164

RESUMO

Um estudo feito no estado do Amazonas pelo grupo VEBRA COVID-19 (Vaccine Effectiveness in Brazil Against COVID-19) mostrou que a vacina CoronaVac tem efetividade de 50% na prevenção de adoecimento por COVID-19 após 14 dias da primeira dose


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas/imunologia , Organização Pan-Americana da Saúde , Avaliação da Pesquisa em Saúde , Efetividade
6.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 16: 2389-2404, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33790556

RESUMO

Recently, there has been an incredible increase in research about the abnormal growth of cells (neoplasm), focusing on the management, treatment and preventing reoccurrence. It has been understood that the natural defense system, composed of a variety of immune defensive cells, does not just limit its function in eliminating neoplastic cells, but also controls the growth and spread of tumor cells of different kinds to other parts of the body. Cancer immunotherapy, is a cancer treatment plan that educates the body's defensive system to forestall, control, and eliminate tumor cells. The effectiveness of immunotherapy is achieved, to its highest efficacy, by the use of nanoparticles (NPs) for precise and timely delivery of immunotherapies to specific targeted neoplasms, with less or no harm to the healthy cells. Immunotherapies have been affirmed in clinical trials as a cancer regimen for various types of cancers, the side effects resulting from imprecise and non-targeted conveyance is well managed with the use of nanoparticles. Nonetheless, we will concentrate on enhancing cancer immunotherapy approaches by the use of nanoparticles for the productivity of antitumor immunity. Nanoparticles will be presented and utilized as an objective immunotherapy delivery system for high exactness and are thus a promising methodology for cancer treatment.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Objetivos , Imunoterapia , Nanopartículas/química , Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias/terapia , Animais , Humanos , Nanopartículas/administração & dosagem
7.
Lancet Oncol ; 22(4): 450-462, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33794205

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chemoradiotherapy is the standard of care for unresected locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. We aimed to assess if addition of avelumab (anti-PD-L1) to chemoradiotherapy could improve treatment outcomes for this patient population. METHODS: In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 study, patients were recruited from 196 hospitals and cancer treatment centres in 22 countries. Patients aged 18 years or older, with histologically confirmed, previously untreated, locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx, hypopharynx, larynx, or oral cavity (unselected for PD-L1 status), an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status score of 0 or 1, and who could receive chemoradiotherapy were eligible. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) centrally by means of stratified block randomisation with block size four (stratified by human papillomavirus status, tumour stage, and nodal stage, and done by an interactive response technology system) to receive 10 mg/kg avelumab intravenously every 2 weeks plus chemoradiotherapy (100 mg/m2 cisplatin every 3 weeks plus intensity-modulated radiotherapy with standard fractionation of 70 Gy [35 fractions during 7 weeks]; avelumab group) or placebo plus chemoradiotherapy (placebo group). This was preceded by a single 10 mg/kg avelumab or placebo lead-in dose given 7 days previously and followed by 10 mg/kg avelumab or placebo every 2 weeks maintenance therapy for up to 12 months. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival by investigator assessment per modified Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors, version 1.1, in all randomly assigned patients. Adverse events were assessed in patients who received at least one dose of avelumab or placebo. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02952586. Enrolment is no longer ongoing, and the trial has been discontinued. FINDINGS: Between Dec 12, 2016, and Jan 29, 2019, from 907 patients screened, 697 patients were randomly assigned to the avelumab group (n=350) or the placebo group (n=347). Median follow-up for progression-free survival was 14·6 months (IQR 8·5-19·6) in the avelumab group and 14·8 months (11·6-18·8) in the placebo group. Median progression-free survival was not reached (95% CI 16·9 months-not estimable) in the avelumab group and not reached (23·0 months-not estimable) in the placebo group (stratified hazard ratio 1·21 [95% CI 0·93-1·57] favouring the placebo group; one-sided p=0·92). The most common grade 3 or worse treatment-related adverse events were neutropenia (57 [16%] of 348 patients in the avelumab group vs 52 [15%] of 344 patients in the placebo group), mucosal inflammation (50 [14%] vs 45 [13%]), dysphagia (49 [14%] vs 47 [14%]), and anaemia (41 [12%] vs 44 [13%]). Serious treatment-related adverse events occurred in 124 (36%) patients in the avelumab group and in 109 (32%) patients in the placebo group. Treatment-related deaths occurred in two (1%) patients in the avelumab group (due to general disorders and site conditions, and vascular rupture) and one (<1%) in the placebo group (due to acute respiratory failure). INTERPRETATION: The primary objective of prolonging progression-free survival with avelumab plus chemoradiotherapy followed by avelumab maintenance in patients with locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck was not met. These findings may help inform the design of future trials investigating the combination of immune checkpoint inhibitors plus CRT. FUNDING: Pfizer and Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Anticorpos Monoclonais/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Antígeno B7-H1/antagonistas & inibidores , Antígeno B7-H1/genética , Quimiorradioterapia , Cisplatino/administração & dosagem , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/genética , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/imunologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Placebos/administração & dosagem , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/imunologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Padrão de Cuidado
8.
Science ; 372(6537)2021 04 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33795428

RESUMO

T cell exhaustion limits immune responses against cancer and is a major cause of resistance to chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T cell therapeutics. Using murine xenograft models and an in vitro model wherein tonic CAR signaling induces hallmark features of exhaustion, we tested the effect of transient cessation of receptor signaling, or rest, on the development and maintenance of exhaustion. Induction of rest through enforced down-regulation of the CAR protein using a drug-regulatable system or treatment with the multikinase inhibitor dasatinib resulted in the acquisition of a memory-like phenotype, global transcriptional and epigenetic reprogramming, and restored antitumor functionality in exhausted CAR-T cells. This work demonstrates that rest can enhance CAR-T cell efficacy by preventing or reversing exhaustion, and it challenges the notion that exhaustion is an epigenetically fixed state.


Assuntos
Dasatinibe/farmacologia , Epigênese Genética , Imunoterapia Adotiva , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Citotoxicidade Imunológica , Regulação para Baixo , Proteína Potenciadora do Homólogo 2 de Zeste/metabolismo , Epigenoma , Feminino , Fator 1-alfa Nuclear de Hepatócito/metabolismo , Proteínas de Grupo de Alta Mobilidade/metabolismo , Humanos , Memória Imunológica , Ativação Linfocitária , Fator 1 de Ligação ao Facilitador Linfoide/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Neoplasias Experimentais/terapia , Domínios Proteicos , Estabilidade Proteica , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos/química , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Transcrição Genética , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(6)2021 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33805739

RESUMO

As most recently demonstrated by the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, congenital and perinatal infections are of significant concern to the pregnant population as compared to the general population. These outcomes can range from no apparent impact all the way to spontaneous abortion or fetal infection with long term developmental consequences. While some pathogens have developed mechanisms to cross the placenta and directly infect the fetus, other pathogens lead to an upregulation in maternal or placental inflammation that can indirectly cause harm. The placenta is a temporary, yet critical organ that serves multiple important functions during gestation including facilitation of fetal nutrition, oxygenation, and prevention of fetal infection in utero. Here, we review trophoblast cell immunology and the molecular mechanisms utilized to protect the fetus from infection. Lastly, we discuss consequences in the placenta when these protections fail and the histopathologic result following infection.


Assuntos
Imunidade , Placenta/imunologia , Placenta/virologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/imunologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/virologia , Viroses/imunologia , Vírus/imunologia , Feminino , Feto/imunologia , Feto/virologia , Humanos , Placenta/patologia , Gravidez , Trofoblastos/imunologia , Trofoblastos/virologia
10.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 16: 2477-2486, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33824586

RESUMO

Purpose: Sensitive and selective point-of-care biosensor is an urgent pursuit of serological antibody detection to control parasite pathogen. For specific, quantitative and on-site screening of Trichinella spiralis infection in livestock, a quantum dot nanobead-monoclonal antibody (QB-mAb) probe-based immunochromatographic assay (ICA) was developed by introducing a competitive sandwich strategy (QB-CICA). Methods: In the QB-CICA, QB-mAb probes competed with serum antibody for a particular epitope, followed by immunocomplexes binding to capture antibody on the test line. With the accumulation of target antibody, captured probes served as signal elements for fluorescent readout in a "turn off" mode, along with the fluorescence gradually weakened. The sensitivity and standard calibration curve of the QB-CICA were quantified using swine sera as negative control (n = 200) and artificial infected swine sera (n = 80) compared with a commercial ELISA kit. Besides, Trichinella spiralis-antibody targeting test ability of the QB-CICA, instead of other parasites or viruses antibodies (n = 10), was evaluated. Results: The QB-CICA exhibited a good linear range, a low detection limit of 189.92 ng mL-1 and 100% selectivity that was higher than commercial ELISA kit (90%), as well as the same serological positive rate (100%) with commercial ELISA kit in different infection dose models. Conclusion: Taking advantage of its simplicity, short response time (25 min), sensitivity and specificity, the proposed QB-CICA has potential applications for parasite-related antibody monitoring in food safety and clinical diagnosis fields.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Anti-Helmínticos/análise , Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Cromatografia de Afinidade/métodos , Nanopartículas/química , Pontos Quânticos/química , Trichinella spiralis/imunologia , Triquinelose/diagnóstico , Triquinelose/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Anti-Helmínticos/sangue , Anticorpos Anti-Helmínticos/imunologia , Nanopartículas/ultraestrutura , Pontos Quânticos/ultraestrutura , Suínos , Triquinelose/parasitologia
11.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(14): e24904, 2021 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33832070

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The role of the HLA-DRB1 and HLA-DQB1 genes in the antibody response to hepatitis B (HB) vaccine has been well established; however, the involvement of the HLA-DPB1 allele in the HB vaccine immune response remained to be clarified by a systematic review. METHODS: A meta-analysis was performed in which databases were searched for relevant studies published in English or Chinese up until June 1, 2020. Six studies were identified and a total of 10 alleles were processed into statistical processing in this meta-analysis. RESULTS: Three thousand one hundred forty four subjects (including 2477 responders and 667 non-responders) were included in this research. Alleles HLA-DPB1∗02:02, DPB1∗03:01, DPB1∗04:01, DPB1∗04:02, and DPB1∗14:01 were found to be associated with a significant increase in the antibody response to HB vaccine, and their pooled odds ratios (ORs) were 4.53, 1.57, 3.33, 4.20, and 1.79, respectively; whereas DPB1∗05:01 (OR = 0.73) showed the opposite correlation. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggested that specific HLA-DPB1 alleles are associated with the antibody response to HB vaccine.


Assuntos
Cadeias HLA-DRB1/imunologia , Vacinas contra Hepatite B/imunologia , Cadeias HLA-DRB1/genética , Anticorpos Anti-Hepatite B/imunologia , Humanos , Cobertura Vacinal/estatística & dados numéricos
12.
RMD Open ; 7(1)2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33790049

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The CHIC study (COVID-19 High-intensity Immunosuppression in Cytokine storm syndrome) is a quasi-experimental treatment study exploring immunosuppressive treatment versus supportive treatment only in patients with COVID-19 with life-threatening hyperinflammation. Causal inference provides a means of investigating causality in non-randomised experiments. Here we report 14-day improvement as well as 30-day and 90-day mortality. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The first 86 patients (period 1) received optimal supportive care only; the second 86 patients (period 2) received methylprednisolone and (if necessary) tocilizumab, in addition to optimal supportive care. The main outcomes were 14-day clinical improvement and 30-day and 90-day survival. An 80% decline in C reactive protein (CRP) was recorded on or before day 13 (CRP >100 mg/L was an inclusion criterion). Non-linear mediation analysis was performed to decompose CRP-mediated effects of immunosuppression (defined as natural indirect effects) and non-CRP-mediated effects attributable to natural prognostic differences between periods (defined as natural direct effects). RESULTS: The natural direct (non-CRP-mediated) effects for period 2 versus period 1 showed an OR of 1.38 (38% better) for 14-day improvement and an OR of 1.16 (16% better) for 30-day and 90-day survival. The natural indirect (CRP-mediated) effects for period 2 showed an OR of 2.27 (127% better) for 14-day improvement, an OR of 1.60 (60% better) for 30-day survival and an OR of 1.49 (49% better) for 90-day survival. The number needed to treat was 5 for 14-day improvement, 9 for survival on day 30, and 10 for survival on day 90. CONCLUSION: Causal inference with non-linear mediation analysis further substantiates the claim that a brief but intensive treatment with immunosuppressants in patients with COVID-19 and systemic hyperinflammation adds to rapid recovery and saves lives. Causal inference is an alternative to conventional trial analysis, when randomised controlled trials are considered unethical, unfeasible or impracticable.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Proteína C-Reativa/imunologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/tratamento farmacológico , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Metilprednisolona/uso terapêutico , /imunologia , Causalidade , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/imunologia , Estudo Historicamente Controlado , Humanos , Inflamação/imunologia , Mortalidade , Taxa de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Front Immunol ; 12: 614436, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33790892

RESUMO

The novel coronavirus named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) caused a global pandemic of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which elicits a wide variety of symptoms, ranging from mild to severe, with the potential to lead to death. Although used as the standard method to screen patients for SARS-CoV-2 infection, real-time PCR has challenges in dealing with asymptomatic patients and those with an undetectable viral load. Serological tests are therefore considered potent diagnostic tools to complement real-time PCR-based diagnosis and are used for surveillance of seroprevalence in populations. However, the dynamics of the antibody response against SARS-CoV-2 currently remain to be investigated. Here, through analysis of plasma samples from 84 patients with COVID-19, we observed that the response of virus-specific antibodies against three important antigens, RBD, N and S, dynamically changed over time and reached a peak 5-8 weeks after the onset of symptoms. The antibody responses were irrespective of sex. Severe cases were found to have higher levels of antibody response, larger numbers of inflammatory cells and C-reactive protein levels. Within the mild/moderate cases, pairwise comparison indicated moderate association between anti-RBD vs. anti-N, anti-RBD vs. anti-S1S2, and anti-N vs. anti-S1S2. Furthermore, the majority of cases could achieve IgM and IgG seroconversion at 2 weeks since the disease onset. Analysis of neutralizing antibodies indicated that these responses were able to last for more than 112 days but decline significantly after the peak. In summary, our findings demonstrate the longitudinally dynamic changes in antibody responses against SARS-CoV-2, which can contribute to the knowledge of humoral immune response after SARS-CoV-2 infection and are informative for future development of vaccine and antibody-based therapies.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , /imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Adulto , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Pequim , China , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fosfoproteínas/imunologia , Domínios Proteicos/imunologia , Soroconversão , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Centros de Atenção Terciária
14.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 590874, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33791231

RESUMO

Gut microbiome alterations may play a paramount role in determining the clinical outcome of clinical COVID-19 with underlying comorbid conditions like T2D, cardiovascular disorders, obesity, etc. Research is warranted to manipulate the profile of gut microbiota in COVID-19 by employing combinatorial approaches such as the use of prebiotics, probiotics and symbiotics. Prediction of gut microbiome alterations in SARS-CoV-2 infection may likely permit the development of effective therapeutic strategies. Novel and targeted interventions by manipulating gut microbiota indeed represent a promising therapeutic approach against COVID-19 immunopathogenesis and associated co-morbidities. The impact of SARS-CoV-2 on host innate immune responses associated with gut microbiome profiling is likely to contribute to the development of key strategies for application and has seldom been attempted, especially in the context of symptomatic as well as asymptomatic COVID-19 disease.


Assuntos
/patologia , Disbiose/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Imunidade Inata/imunologia , /biossíntese , /metabolismo , Bactérias/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/patologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/patologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica/genética , Humanos , Complexo Antígeno L1 Leucocitário/biossíntese , Obesidade/patologia , Probióticos/farmacologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
15.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 598875, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33791232

RESUMO

In the last year, the advent of the COVID-19 pandemic brought a new consideration for the multidisciplinary sciences. The unknown mechanisms of infection used by SARS-CoV-2 and the absence of effective antiviral pharmacological therapy, diagnosis methods, and vaccines evoked scientific efforts on the COVID-19 outcome. In general, COVID-19 clinical features are a result of local and systemic inflammatory processes that are enhanced by some preexistent comorbidities, such as diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular, and pulmonary diseases, and biological factors, like gender and age. However, the discrepancies in COVID-19 clinical signs observed among those patients lead to investigations about the critical factors that deeply influence disease severity and death. Herein, we present the viral infection mechanisms and its consequences after blocking the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) axis in different tissues and the progression of inflammatory and immunological reactions, especially the influence of genetic features on those differential clinical responses. Furthermore, we discuss the role of genotype as an essential indicator of COVID-19 susceptibility, considering the expression profiles, polymorphisms, gene identification, and epigenetic modifications of viral entry factors and their recognition, as well as the infection effects on cell signaling molecule expression, which amplifies disease severity.


Assuntos
/metabolismo , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina/fisiologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , /genética , Antivirais/farmacologia , Citocinas/sangue , Citocinas/imunologia , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética
16.
J Pharm Pharmacol ; 73(3): 281-299, 2021 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33793885

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Viral outbreaks are a frequent concern for humans. A great variety of drugs has been used to treat viral diseases, which are not always safe and effective and may induce adverse effects, indicating the need for new antiviral drugs extracted from natural sources. Propolis is a bee-made product exhibiting many biological properties. An overview of viruses, antiviral immunity, propolis safety and its immunomodulatory and antiviral action is reported, as well as perspectives for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) treatment. PubMed platform was used for data collection, searching for the keywords "propolis", "virus", "antiviral", "antimicrobial" and "coronavirus". KEY FINDINGS: Propolis is safe and exerts antiviral and immunomodulatory activity; however, clinical trials should investigate its effects on individuals with viral diseases, in combination or not with antiviral drugs or vaccines. SUMMARY: Regarding COVID-19, the effects of propolis should be investigated directly on the virus in vitro or on infected individuals alone or in combination with antiviral drugs, due to its immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory action. Propolis administration simultaneously with vaccines should be analyzed, due to its adjuvant properties, to enhance the individuals' immune response. The search for therapeutic targets may be useful to find out how propolis can help to control COVID-19.


Assuntos
Antivirais/imunologia , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , /imunologia , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Própole/imunologia , Própole/uso terapêutico , Animais , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos/imunologia , /imunologia
17.
Science ; 372(6537)2021 04 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33795432

RESUMO

Multivalent display of receptor-engaging antibodies or ligands can enhance their activity. Instead of achieving multivalency by attachment to preexisting scaffolds, here we unite form and function by the computational design of nanocages in which one structural component is an antibody or Fc-ligand fusion and the second is a designed antibody-binding homo-oligomer that drives nanocage assembly. Structures of eight nanocages determined by electron microscopy spanning dihedral, tetrahedral, octahedral, and icosahedral architectures with 2, 6, 12, and 30 antibodies per nanocage, respectively, closely match the corresponding computational models. Antibody nanocages targeting cell surface receptors enhance signaling compared with free antibodies or Fc-fusions in death receptor 5 (DR5)-mediated apoptosis, angiopoietin-1 receptor (Tie2)-mediated angiogenesis, CD40 activation, and T cell proliferation. Nanocage assembly also increases severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pseudovirus neutralization by α-SARS-CoV-2 monoclonal antibodies and Fc-angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) fusion proteins.


Assuntos
Anticorpos/química , Anticorpos/imunologia , Nanoestruturas , Engenharia de Proteínas , Transdução de Sinais , Angiopoietinas/química , Angiopoietinas/imunologia , Angiopoietinas/metabolismo , Anticorpos Monoclonais/química , Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/química , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/química , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Antígenos CD40/química , Antígenos CD40/imunologia , Antígenos CD40/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Simulação por Computador , Genes Sintéticos , Humanos , Fragmentos Fc das Imunoglobulinas/química , Ativação Linfocitária , Modelos Moleculares , Ligação Proteica , Receptor TIE-2/metabolismo , Receptores do Ligante Indutor de Apoptose Relacionado a TNF/imunologia , Receptores do Ligante Indutor de Apoptose Relacionado a TNF/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T/fisiologia
18.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(3)2021 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33799854

RESUMO

Renal biopsy is useful to better understand the histological pattern of a lesion (glomerular, tubulointerstitial, and vascular) and the pathogenesis that leads to kidney failure. The potential impact of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) on the kidneys is still undetermined, and a variety of lesions are seen in the kidney tissue of coronavirus disease patients. This review is based on the morphological findings of patients described in case reports and a series of published cases. A search was conducted on MEDLINE and PubMed of case reports and case series of lesions in the presence of non-critical infection by SARS-CoV-2 published until 15/09/2020. We highlight the potential of the virus directly influencing the damage or the innate and adaptive immune response activating cytokine and procoagulant cascades, in addition to the genetic component triggering glomerular diseases, mainly collapsing focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, tubulointerstitial, and even vascular diseases. Kidney lesions caused by SARS-CoV-2 are frequent and have an impact on morbidity and mortality; thus, studies are needed to assess the morphological kidney changes and their mechanisms and may help define their spectrum and immediate or long-term impact.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/patologia , Glomerulonefrite/patologia , Rim/patologia , Microangiopatias Trombóticas/patologia , Lesão Renal Aguda/sangue , Lesão Renal Aguda/imunologia , Imunidade Adaptativa/imunologia , Arteriosclerose/imunologia , Arteriosclerose/patologia , /imunologia , Citocinas/imunologia , Glomerulonefrite/imunologia , Glomerulonefrite por IGA/imunologia , Glomerulonefrite por IGA/patologia , Glomerulosclerose Segmentar e Focal/imunologia , Glomerulosclerose Segmentar e Focal/patologia , Humanos , Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Infarto/imunologia , Infarto/patologia , Rim/irrigação sanguínea , Rim/imunologia , Necrose do Córtex Renal/imunologia , Necrose do Córtex Renal/patologia , Nefrite Intersticial/imunologia , Nefrite Intersticial/patologia , Nefrose Lipoide/imunologia , Nefrose Lipoide/patologia , Rabdomiólise , Trombofilia/sangue , Microangiopatias Trombóticas/imunologia
19.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(3)2021 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33804646

RESUMO

Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) negative results in the upper respiratory tract represent a major concern for the clinical management of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. Herein, we report the case of a 43-years-old man with a strong clinical suspicion of COVID-19, who resulted in being negative to multiple severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RT-PCR tests performed on different oropharyngeal and nasopharyngeal swabs, despite serology having confirmed the presence of SARS-CoV-2 IgM. The patient underwent a chest computed tomography (CT) that showed typical imaging findings of COVID-19 pneumonia. The presence of viral SARS-CoV-2 was confirmed only by performing a SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR test on stool. Performing of SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR test on fecal samples can be a rapid and useful approach to confirm COVID-19 diagnosis in cases where there is an apparent discrepancy between COVID-19 clinical symptoms coupled with chest CT and SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR tests' results on samples from the upper respiratory tract.


Assuntos
/diagnóstico , Fezes/química , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Nasofaringe/química , Orofaringe/química , RNA Viral/isolamento & purificação , Adulto , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Reações Falso-Negativas , Fezes/virologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulina M/imunologia , Masculino , Nasofaringe/virologia , Orofaringe/virologia , Manejo de Espécimes , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
20.
Trials ; 22(1): 246, 2021 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33810808

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study is conducted to investigate efficacy of pomegranate juice on inflammatory biomarkers, C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin 6(IL-6), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and complete blood count (CBC) in hospitalized patients with mild to moderate coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID- 19). TRIAL DESIGN: This is a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel 2-arm (1:1 ratio) clinical trial. PARTICIPANTS: Patients with COVID-19 admitted to hospitals in Yasuj City, Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad Province, Iran. INCLUSION CRITERIA: Informed consent Patients 18 years of age or older Diagnosis of COVID-19 based on real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test EXCLUSION CRITERIA: Pregnancy or lactation Immunoglobulin A (IgA) level <61 mg/dl Disseminated intravascular coagulation or any other types of coagulopathy Severe congestive heart failure Participation in any clinical trial within 30 days prior to enrollment in this RCT Other contraindications determined by the specialist. INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: Intervention: 500 ml pomegranate juice and standard of care hospital treatment for COVID-19 Comparator: matching placebo containing 500 ml of red water and standard of care hospital treatment for COVID-19 Both intervention and comparator to be taken twice a day, after lunch and dinner, for 14 days. CRITERIA FOR DISCONTINUING: Transfer of patients to intensive care unit (ICU) Death Unwillingness to continue participating in the study MAIN OUTCOMES: The main outcomes of this study are levels of inflammatory biomarkers, CRP, IL-6, ESR, and CBC after 14 days of treatment. RANDOMIZATION: Eligible patients will be randomly assigned into the intervention or control group in a 1:1 ratio. Randomization will be performed based on 8 permuted blocks with block sizes of 6 and they will be stratified according to sex and age categories. Randomization sequences will be prepared by the trial's pharmacist using computer-generated random numbers. BLINDING (MASKING): This study is a double-blind clinical trial (participant, researcher). The pomegranate juice and placebo juice are packaged in identical bottles, and the researcher and all the patients will be unaware of the study assignment until the end of the study. To ensure blinding, the randomization sequences will be kept in identical, opaque, sealed, and sequentially numbered envelopes. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMIZED (SAMPLE SIZE): The calculated total sample size is 48 patients, with 24 patients assigned into each group. TRIAL STATUS: The protocol is Version 1.0, on March 3, 2021. Recruitment started on February 28, 2021, and is anticipated to be completed by May 21, 2021. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The Name of registering trial Effects of Pomegranate Juice (Punica Granatum) on Inflammatory Biomarkers and CBC in Patients with COVID-19: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial. Iranian registry of clinical trials (IRCT) Registration Number: IRCT20150711023153N2 Date of Trial Registration February 28, 2021, retrospectively registered FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials҆ website (Additional file 1). In the interest of expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol.


Assuntos
/terapia , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais , Romã (Fruta) , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Contagem de Células Sanguíneas , Sedimentação Sanguínea , Proteína C-Reativa/imunologia , /imunologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Hospitalização , Humanos , Interleucina-6/imunologia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...