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1.
Comunidad (Barc., Internet) ; 22(3): 0-0, nov.-feb. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-195072

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN: La pandemia ocasionada por el SARS-CoV-2 ha supuesto una reestructuración sin precedentes de la asistencia sanitaria y también de los centros de salud. OBJETIVO: Conocer las percepciones del personal médico del Centro de Salud Albaycín sobre la respuesta del equipo de Atención Primaria ante la pandemia de la COVID-19 en los meses de marzo y abril de 2020. MÉTODOS: Estudio cualitativo, observacional de orientación fenomenológica mediante entrevistas individuales. El ámbito de estudio es el Centro de Salud Albaycín. La saturación teórica determinó el tamaño de la muestra (la totalidad de la plantilla médica). Se llevó a cabo un análisis narrativo del contenido. RESULTADOS: Los discursos muestran seis categorías de análisis: organización de la toma de decisiones, características de la respuesta dada, mantenimiento de los pilares de la Atención Primaria, cualidades del equipo potenciadas, rol de la docencia y nuevas dinámicas generadas. Los resultados describen una respuesta adecuada, coordinada con la comunidad y anticipada a las directrices institucionales. La toma de decisiones ha sido consensuada y horizontal, potenciándose las cualidades del equipo. A pesar de las limitaciones, se ha mantenido la accesibilidad y la longitudinalidad. Durante la pandemia se ha visto afectada la calidad asistencial y la actividad docente. DISCUSIÓN: Un liderazgo transformacional, que refuerza el vínculo entre profesionales y fomenta la participación activa también de los residentes, permite una respuesta satisfactoria ante una situación emergente. Contar con la participación de la comunidad puede generar confianza en la organización y mejorar los resultados en salud


INTRODUCTION: The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has brought about an unprecedented restructuring of healthcare and health centers. OBJECTIVES: Learn the perceptions of medical staff from Albayzín Health Centre regarding the Primary Care team's response to the COVID-19 pandemic in March and April 2020. METHODS: Qualitative, observational study with a phenomenological approach conducted by means of individual interviews. The scope of the study is Albaycín Health Centre. The theoretical saturation determined sample size (the entire medical staff). Content was analysed in narrative terms. RESULTS: Conversations revealed six categories of analysis: organization of the decision-making process, characteristics of the response provided, maintaining the cornerstones of Primary Care, enhanced team qualities, role of teaching and new dynamics generated. The results report an adequate response, which was coordinated with the community and anticipated institutional guidelines. Decision-making was consensual and horizontal, which enhanced the team's qualities. Despite the limitations, accessibility and longitudinal configuration have been maintained. Both the quality of care and teaching have been affected during the pandemic. DISCUSSION: Transformational leadership, which strengthens the bond between professionals and encourages residents to participate actively, facilitates a satisfactory response to an emerging situation. Having the community participate can build trust in the organization and improve health outcomes


Assuntos
Humanos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/epidemiologia , Vírus da SARS/patogenicidade , Planejamento de Instituições de Saúde/organização & administração , Pessoal de Saúde/organização & administração , Avaliação de Processos e Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão
2.
Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract ; 37(1): 199-208, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33541699

RESUMO

Small ruminant lentiviruses (SLRVs) have been recognized throughout the world for decades. SLRVs are a heterogenous group of viruses that can infect sheep, goats, and wild ruminants. Evidence supports cross-species infection. These viruses cause lifelong infections where they target specific organs, which can result in production losses due to diminished milk production, consequential increases in neonatal death and diminished growth, and premature culling of prime age animals. No vaccine or treatments have proved effective. Control programs rely on an understanding of viral transmission and application of highly sensitive, specific, and frequent testing regimens.


Assuntos
Doenças das Cabras/virologia , Infecções por Lentivirus/veterinária , Lentivirus Ovinos-Caprinos/fisiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/virologia , Animais , Cabras , Infecções por Lentivirus/virologia , Lentivirus Ovinos-Caprinos/patogenicidade , Ruminantes , Ovinos
3.
Int J Med Microbiol ; 311(2): 151478, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33581548

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rothia sp. are Gram-positive bacteria in the class of Actinobacteria that are part of the physiological oral flora. In rare cases, Rothia aeria and Rothia dentocariosa can cause infective endocarditis (IE). The biofilm potential of Rothia in endocarditis is unknown. METHODS: Specimen from two cases of Rothia endocarditis were obtained during cardiac surgery. One of the patients suffered mitral valve IE from Rothia aeria. In the other case, IE of a prosthetic pulmonary valve was caused by Rothia dentocariosa. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was used for visualization of microorganisms within heart valve tissues in combination with PCR and sequencing (FISHseq). RESULTS: The two heart valve specimens featured mature biofilms of bacteria that were identified by FISHseq as Rothia aeria and Rothia dentocariosa, respectively. FISH showed in situ biofilms of both microorganisms that feature distinct phenotypes for the first time ex vivo. Both of our reported cases were treated successfully by heart valve surgery and antibiotic therapy using beta-lactam antibiotics. CONCLUSION: The biofilm potential of Rothia sp. must be taken into account. The awareness of Rothia aeria and Rothia dentocariosa as rare but relevant pathogens for infective endocarditis must be raised. Use of biofilm-effective antibiotics in Rothia IE should be discussed.


Assuntos
Biofilmes , Endocardite Bacteriana/microbiologia , Micrococcaceae/patogenicidade , Humanos , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente
4.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 765, 2021 02 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33536414

RESUMO

Chickens are the most common birds on Earth and colibacillosis is among the most common diseases affecting them. This major threat to animal welfare and safe sustainable food production is difficult to combat because the etiological agent, avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC), emerges from ubiquitous commensal gut bacteria, with no single virulence gene present in all disease-causing isolates. Here, we address the underlying evolutionary mechanisms of extraintestinal spread and systemic infection in poultry. Combining population scale comparative genomics and pangenome-wide association studies, we compare E. coli from commensal carriage and systemic infections. We identify phylogroup-specific and species-wide genetic elements that are enriched in APEC, including pathogenicity-associated variation in 143 genes that have diverse functions, including genes involved in metabolism, lipopolysaccharide synthesis, heat shock response, antimicrobial resistance and toxicity. We find that horizontal gene transfer spreads pathogenicity elements, allowing divergent clones to cause infection. Finally, a Random Forest model prediction of disease status (carriage vs. disease) identifies pathogenic strains in the emergent ST-117 poultry-associated lineage with 73% accuracy, demonstrating the potential for early identification of emergent APEC in healthy flocks.


Assuntos
Infecções por Escherichia coli/prevenção & controle , Escherichia coli/genética , Evolução Molecular , Genoma Bacteriano/genética , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Animais , Galinhas , Escherichia coli/classificação , Escherichia coli/patogenicidade , Infecções por Escherichia coli/diagnóstico , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Genes Bacterianos , Variação Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Genótipo , Humanos , Filogenia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/diagnóstico , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Virulência/genética
5.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 763, 2021 02 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33536429

RESUMO

Human and animal infections with bacteria of the genus Sarcina (family Clostridiaceae) are associated with gastric dilation and emphysematous gastritis. However, the potential roles of sarcinae as commensals or pathogens remain unclear. Here, we investigate a lethal disease of unknown etiology that affects sanctuary chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) in Sierra Leone. The disease, which we have named "epizootic neurologic and gastroenteric syndrome" (ENGS), is characterized by neurologic and gastrointestinal signs and results in death of the animals, even after medical treatment. Using a case-control study design, we show that ENGS is strongly associated with Sarcina infection. The microorganism is distinct from Sarcina ventriculi and other known members of its genus, based on bacterial morphology and growth characteristics. Whole-genome sequencing confirms this distinction and reveals the presence of genetic features that may account for the unusual virulence of the bacterium. Therefore, we propose that this organism be considered the representative of a new species, named "Candidatus Sarcina troglodytae". Our results suggest that a heretofore unrecognized complex of related sarcinae likely exists, some of which may be highly virulent. However, the potential role of "Ca. S. troglodytae" in the etiology of ENGS, alone or in combination with other factors, remains a topic for future research.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Símios Antropoides/diagnóstico , Enfisema/diagnóstico , Gastrite/diagnóstico , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/diagnóstico , Sarcina/genética , Animais , Doenças dos Símios Antropoides/microbiologia , DNA Bacteriano/análise , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Enfisema/microbiologia , Gastrite/microbiologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/microbiologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/veterinária , Humanos , Pan troglodytes , Sarcina/classificação , Sarcina/patogenicidade , Serra Leoa , Virulência/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/métodos
6.
Mikrobiyol Bul ; 55(1): 99-112, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Turco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33590985

RESUMO

Candida auris has been isolated from clinical samples in different regions and countries since it was first described in 2009. Due to the difficulties in identification; decreased susceptibility or resistance to antifungal agents; exceptional capacity to colonize and persist on surfaces; ability to survive despite standard disinfection procedures; and significant increase in the number of regions and countries with reported cases, C.auris has become a global health concern and placed among the World's ten most concerned fungi list in 2018. It is stated that 60-90% of C.auris strains are resistant to fluconazole, 10-30% exhibit high minimum inhibitory concentration values for amphotericin B, and up to 5% can be considered as resistant to echinocandins. Existing data obtained from ongoing research on molecular mechanisms of antifungal resistance in C.auris revealed some common features with other Candida species. However, diverging aspects are also reported. In this review article, current information on molecular mechanisms and biofilm-related factors responsible for decreased susceptibility or resistance to antifungal agents and unexpectedly high survival potential of C.auris have been discussed.


Assuntos
Candida , Farmacorresistência Fúngica , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Candida/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida/patogenicidade , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
7.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 879, 2021 02 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33563986

RESUMO

Salmonella Typhimurium establishes systemic infection by replicating in host macrophages. Here we show that macrophages infected with S. Typhimurium exhibit upregulated glycolysis and decreased serine synthesis, leading to accumulation of glycolytic intermediates. The effects on serine synthesis are mediated by bacterial protein SopE2, a type III secretion system (T3SS) effector encoded in pathogenicity island SPI-1. The changes in host metabolism promote intracellular replication of S. Typhimurium via two mechanisms: decreased glucose levels lead to upregulated bacterial uptake of 2- and 3-phosphoglycerate and phosphoenolpyruvate (carbon sources), while increased pyruvate and lactate levels induce upregulation of another pathogenicity island, SPI-2, known to encode virulence factors. Pharmacological or genetic inhibition of host glycolysis, activation of host serine synthesis, or deletion of either the bacterial transport or signal sensor systems for those host glycolytic intermediates impairs S. Typhimurium replication or virulence.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Fatores de Troca do Nucleotídeo Guanina/metabolismo , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Salmonella typhimurium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Salmonella typhimurium/patogenicidade , Sistemas de Secreção Tipo III/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Ilhas Genômicas , Glucose/metabolismo , Ácidos Glicéricos/metabolismo , Glicólise , Fatores de Troca do Nucleotídeo Guanina/genética , Macrófagos/microbiologia , Camundongos , Células RAW 264.7 , Salmonella typhimurium/metabolismo , Serina/biossíntese , Transdução de Sinais , Sistemas de Secreção Tipo III/genética , Virulência
8.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 15(1): 58-68, 2021 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33571146

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: SARS-CoV2 pandemic marks the need to pay attention to bacterial pathogens that can complicate the hospital stay of patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). ESKAPE bacteria which includes Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter cloacae are considered the most important, because of their close relationship with the development of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). The aim of this work was to identify and characterize ESKAPE bacteria and to detect their possible clonal spread in medical devices, patients, and medical personnel of the ICU for COVID-19 patients of the Hospital Juarez de Mexico. METHODOLOGY: Genetic identification of ESKAPE bacteria was performed by analyzing the 16S rRNA gene. Resistance assays were performed according to the CLSI guidelines. Assembly of AdeABCRS operon and inhibition assays of pumps efflux in Acinetobacter baumannii isolates were performed. Associated gene involved in biofilm formation (icaA) was performed in isolates belonging to the Staphylococcus genus. Finally, typing by ERIC-PCR and characterization of mobile genetic element SCCmec were done. RESULTS: Heterogeneous distribution of ESKAPE and non-ESKAPE bacteria was detected in various medical devices, patients, and medical personnel. Acinetobacter baumannii and Staphylococcus aureus were the predominant ESKAPE members. The analysis of intergenic regions revealed an important clonal distribution of A. baumannii (AdeABCRS+). Genotyping of SCCmec mobile genetic elements and the icaA gene showed that there is no clonal distribution of S. aureus. CONCLUSIONS: Clonal spread of A. baumannii (AdeABCRS+) highlights the importance of adopting good practices for equipment disinfection, surfaces and management of COVID-19 patients.


Assuntos
Infecções por Acinetobacter/transmissão , Acinetobacter baumannii/isolamento & purificação , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Acinetobacter baumannii/patogenicidade , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Equipamentos e Provisões/microbiologia , Genótipo , Humanos , Sequências Repetitivas Dispersas , México , Pneumonia Associada à Ventilação Mecânica/microbiologia
9.
mSphere ; 6(1)2021 02 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33597174

RESUMO

Many viruses, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), have a structure consisting of spikes protruding from an underlying spherical surface. Research in biological and colloidal sciences has revealed secrets of why spikes exist on virus surfaces. Specifically, the spikes favor virus attachment on surfaces via receptor-specific interactions (RSIs), mediate the membrane fusion, and determine or change viral tropism. The spikes also facilitate viruses to approach surfaces before attachment and subsequently escape back to the environment if RSIs do not occur (i.e., easy come and easy go). Therefore, virus spikes create the paradox of having a large capacity for binding with cells (high infectivity) and meanwhile great mobility in the environment. Such structure-function relationships have important implications for the fabrication of virus-like particles and analogous colloids (e.g., hedgehog- and raspberry-like particles) for applications such as the development of antiviral vaccines and drug delivery.


Assuntos
/transmissão , /patogenicidade , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Animais , HIV/metabolismo , HIV/patogenicidade , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Humanos , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Tropismo Viral/fisiologia , Internalização do Vírus
10.
Viruses ; 13(2)2021 01 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33525437

RESUMO

The establishment of selective colonies of potential vertebrate hosts for viruses would provide experimental models for the understanding of pathogen-host interactions. This paper briefly surveys the reasons to conduct such studies and how the results might provide information that could be applied to disease prevention activities.


Assuntos
Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Animais , /transmissão , Quirópteros/virologia , Coronavirus/classificação , Coronavirus/genética , Coronavirus/patogenicidade , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Humanos , /genética , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle , Zoonoses/virologia
11.
Viruses ; 13(2)2021 01 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33530620

RESUMO

COVID-19 is a severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) caused by a new coronavirus (CoV), SARS-CoV-2, which is closely related to SARS-CoV that jumped the animal-human species barrier and caused a disease outbreak in 2003. SARS-CoV-2 is a betacoronavirus that was first described in 2019, unrelated to the commonly occurring feline coronavirus (FCoV) that is an alphacoronavirus associated with feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). SARS-CoV-2 is highly contagious and has spread globally within a few months, resulting in the current pandemic. Felids have been shown to be susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Particularly in the Western world, many people live in very close contact with their pet cats, and natural infections of cats in COVID-19-positive households have been described in several countries. In this review, the European Advisory Board on Cat Diseases (ABCD), a scientifically independent board of experts in feline medicine from 11 European Countries, discusses the current status of SARS-CoV infections in cats. The review examines the host range of SARS-CoV-2 and human-to-animal transmissions, including infections in domestic and non-domestic felids, as well as mink-to-human/-cat transmission. It summarises current data on SARS-CoV-2 prevalence in domestic cats and the results of experimental infections of cats and provides expert opinions on the clinical relevance and prevention of SARS-CoV-2 infection in cats.


Assuntos
/transmissão , Gatos/virologia , Animais , /virologia , Coronavirus/classificação , Coronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Coronavirus/patogenicidade , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Humanos , Vison/virologia , Prevalência , /isolamento & purificação , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle , Zoonoses/virologia
12.
Cells ; 10(2)2021 02 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33540583

RESUMO

Many viruses disrupt host gene expression by degrading host mRNAs and/or manipulating translation activities to create a cellular environment favorable for viral replication. Often, virus-induced suppression of host gene expression, including those involved in antiviral responses, contributes to viral pathogenicity. Accordingly, clarifying the mechanisms of virus-induced disruption of host gene expression is important for understanding virus-host cell interactions and virus pathogenesis. Three highly pathogenic human coronaviruses (CoVs), including severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV, Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2, have emerged in the past two decades. All of them encode nonstructural protein 1 (nsp1) in their genomes. Nsp1 of SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV exhibit common biological functions for inducing endonucleolytic cleavage of host mRNAs and inhibition of host translation, while viral mRNAs evade the nsp1-induced mRNA cleavage. SARS-CoV nsp1 is a major pathogenic determinant for this virus, supporting the notion that a viral protein that suppresses host gene expression can be a virulence factor, and further suggesting the possibility that SARS-CoV-2 nsp1, which has high amino acid identity with SARS-CoV nsp1, may serve as a major virulence factor. This review summarizes the gene expression suppression functions of nsp1 of CoVs, with a primary focus on SARS-CoV nsp1 and MERS-CoV nsp1.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/fisiologia , Animais , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos , Humanos , Camundongos , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Replicação Viral
13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(3): e23961, 2021 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33545977

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This protocol is for a meta analysis that aims to systematically review the diagnostic value of anti-hepatitis B virus in serum tested by the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay in patients with hepatitis B. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The following electronic databases will be searched from inception to Mar 2021: PubMed, Web of Science, ScienceDirect, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Springer, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, VIP Chinese Science and Technology Periodical Database, and Wanfang Database. All study about enzyme linked immunosorbent assay reagents have been published at home and abroad to diagnose hepatitis B virus will be included. MetaDisc 1.4 soft will used to calculate pooled effect size in sensitivity, specifi city, likelihood ratio, diagnostic odds ratio and summary receiver operating characteristic curve, and area under the curve as well. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Formal ethical approval is not required, as the data are not individualized. The findings of this systematic review will be disseminated in a peer-reviewed publication and/or presented at relevant conferences. REGISTRATION NUMBER: INPLASY2020100051.


Assuntos
Protocolos Clínicos , Vírus da Hepatite B/imunologia , Hepatite B/enzimologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Vírus da Hepatite B/patogenicidade , Humanos , Metanálise como Assunto , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
14.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(3): e24282, 2021 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33546052

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori (Hp) is the only bacterium in the stomach. It is characterized by its ability to adhere to gastric mucosa and cause a series of pathological changes in the gastric mucosa. Modern research shows that Hp is an important pathogenic factor for chronic gastritis, gastroduodenal ulcer, and gastric cancer. Triple, quadruple, and triple combinations of antibacterial drugs, proton pump inhibitors, and bismuth aluminate preparations have been developed in modern medical research. Sequential therapy is used to treat Hp, but antibiotic resistance and repeated infections still exist. A large number of clinical trials have proved that traditional Chinese medicine has a good therapeutic effect on Hp. In this systematic review, we aim to evaluate the efficacy and safety of traditional Chinese medicine in the treatment of Hp. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will search for publications from Web of Science, PubMed, Science Direct, Wan Fang Data Knowledge Service Platform, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM), Chinese Scientific Journal Database (VIP database), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) and EMBASE, which should be published from inception to December 2020. Two researchers will independently perform the selection of the studies, data extraction, and synthesis. The Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool will be used to evaluate the risk of bias in the randomized controlled trials. Statistical analysis will be performed by using the Cochrane Review Manager (RevMan 5.3) software. The I2 test will be used to identify the extent of heterogeneity. We will use the Egger funnel chart to evaluate possible publication biases, in addition, when possible we will perform a subgroup/meta-regression analysis. The strength of the evidence will be assessed according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE). RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: This study will systematically evaluate the efficacy of traditional Chinese medicine in the treatment of Hp infection, and provide evidence for the clinical application of this treatment. The results of the research will be published in a peer-reviewed journal. ETHICS: This systematic review will evaluate the efficacy of traditional Chinese medicine for Hp infection. Because all data used in this systematic review and meta-analysis have been published, this review does not require ethical approval. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: INPLASY2020120057.


Assuntos
Infecções por Helicobacter/tratamento farmacológico , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa/normas , Helicobacter pylori/efeitos dos fármacos , Helicobacter pylori/patogenicidade , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa/métodos , Metanálise como Assunto , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Lancet HIV ; 8(2): e106-e113, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33539757

RESUMO

Ending the AIDS epidemic by 2030 will require addressing stigma more systematically and at a larger scale than current efforts. Existing global evidence shows that stigma is a barrier to achieving each of the 90-90-90 targets; it undermines HIV testing, linkage to care, treatment adherence, and viral load suppression. However, findings from both research studies and programmatic experience have helped to inform the growing body of knowledge regarding how to reduce stigma, leading to key principles for HIV stigma reduction. These principles include immediately addressing actionable drivers of stigma, centring groups affected by stigma at the core of the response, and engaging opinion leaders and building partnerships between affected groups and opinion leaders. Although there is still room to strengthen research on stigma measurement and reduction, in particular for intersectional stigma, the proliferation of evidence over the past several decades on how to measure and address stigma provides a solid foundation for immediate and comprehensive action.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/prevenção & controle , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/psicologia , Epidemias/prevenção & controle , Medo/psicologia , Estigma Social , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/virologia , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Feminino , HIV/efeitos dos fármacos , HIV/crescimento & desenvolvimento , HIV/patogenicidade , Humanos , Masculino , Cooperação do Paciente/psicologia , Cooperação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Cooperação e Adesão ao Tratamento/psicologia , Cooperação e Adesão ao Tratamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Carga Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
16.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(3): e23926, 2021 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33545964

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection may induce a systemic hypercoagulable abnormality, like organ embolism and infarction. Indexes of blood coagulation and C-reactive protein (CRP) have been reported different between healthy people and mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia (MPP) patients, but this difference in MPP patients with different chest imaging findings has rarely been reported.We performed a retrospective study of 101 children with MPP and 119 controls, combined with radiological examination and blood tests, to compare the blood coagulation and CRP level among MPP children with different chest imaging findings.For the MPP children with different chest imaging findings, there were significant differences in CRP, fibrinogen (FIB) and D-dimer (D-D) levels among subgroups (P = .004, P = .008 and P < .001 respectively). The CRP level in group of interstitial pneumonia was significantly higher than that in groups of bronchopneumonia and hilar shadow thickening (P = .003 and P = .001 respectively). And the FIB and D-D values in group of lung consolidation were significantly higher than that in the other 3 groups (all P < .05). When compared with controls, the white blood cell, CRP, FIB, and D-D levels in MPP children were significantly higher, and the activated partial thromboplastin time and thrombin time levels were significantly lower (all P < .05).Our results showed that CRP level changed most significantly in group of interstitial pneumonia, whereas FIB, D-D levels changed most significantly in the lung consolidation group.


Assuntos
Fatores de Coagulação Sanguínea/análise , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Pneumonia por Mycoplasma/diagnóstico por imagem , Tórax/diagnóstico por imagem , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Produtos de Degradação da Fibrina e do Fibrinogênio/análise , Fibrinogênio/análise , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Mycoplasma pneumoniae/patogenicidade , Pneumonia por Mycoplasma/sangue
17.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 117, 2021 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33402692

RESUMO

Nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC), endemic in Southeast Asia, lacks effective diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. Even in high-income countries the 5-year survival rate for stage IV NPC is less than 40%. Here we report high somatostatin receptor 2 (SSTR2) expression in multiple clinical cohorts comprising 402 primary, locally recurrent and metastatic NPCs. We show that SSTR2 expression is induced by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) via the NF-κB pathway. Using cell-based and preclinical rodent models, we demonstrate the therapeutic potential of SSTR2 targeting using a cytotoxic drug conjugate, PEN-221, which is found to be superior to FDA-approved SSTR2-binding cytostatic agents. Furthermore, we reveal significant correlation of SSTR expression with increased rates of survival and report in vivo uptake of the SSTR2-binding 68Ga-DOTA-peptide radioconjugate in PET-CT scanning in a clinical trial of NPC patients (NCT03670342). These findings reveal a key role in EBV-associated NPC for SSTR2 in infection, imaging, targeted therapy and survival.


Assuntos
Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/genética , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/genética , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/genética , Receptores de Somatostatina/genética , Proteínas da Matriz Viral/genética , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/mortalidade , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/virologia , Feminino , Herpesvirus Humano 4/efeitos dos fármacos , Herpesvirus Humano 4/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Herpesvirus Humano 4/patogenicidade , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Humanos , Metástase Linfática , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , NF-kappa B/genética , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/mortalidade , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/virologia , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/virologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/tratamento farmacológico , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/mortalidade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/virologia , Octreotida/farmacologia , Tomografia Computadorizada com Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Receptores de Somatostatina/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores de Somatostatina/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Análise de Sobrevida , Proteínas da Matriz Viral/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas da Matriz Viral/metabolismo , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
18.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 90, 2021 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33397943

RESUMO

Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) induces changes to the intestinal cell cytoskeleton and formation of attaching and effacing lesions, characterized by the effacement of microvilli and then formation of actin pedestals to which the bacteria are tightly attached. Here, we use a Caenorhabditis elegans model of EHEC infection to show that microvillar effacement is mediated by a signalling pathway including mitotic cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1) and diaphanous-related formin 1 (CYK1). Similar observations are also made using EHEC-infected human intestinal cells in vitro. Our results support the use of C. elegans as a host model for studying attaching and effacing lesions in vivo, and reveal that the CDK1-formin signal axis is necessary for EHEC-induced microvillar effacement.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Escherichia coli Êntero-Hemorrágica/fisiologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Microvilosidades/microbiologia , Microvilosidades/patologia , Actinas/metabolismo , Animais , Células CACO-2 , Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Caenorhabditis elegans/microbiologia , Caenorhabditis elegans/ultraestrutura , Carboidratos Epimerases/metabolismo , Escherichia coli Êntero-Hemorrágica/patogenicidade , Forminas , Humanos , Intestinos/microbiologia , Microvilosidades/metabolismo , Fosforilação , Fosfotreonina/metabolismo , Virulência
19.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0244937, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33406122

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The impact of SARS-CoV-2 in regions endemic for both Dengue and Chikungunya is still not fully understood. Considering that symptoms/clinical features displayed during Dengue, Chikungunya and SARS-CoV-2 acute infections are similar, undiagnosed cases of SARS-CoV-2 in co-endemic areas may be more prevalent than expected. This study was conducted to assess the prevalence of covert cases of SARS-CoV-2 among samples from patients with clinical symptoms compatible with either Dengue or Chikungunya viral infection in the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. METHODS: Presence of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody specific to SARS-CoV-2 nucleoprotein was detected using a chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay in samples from 7,370 patients, without previous history of COVID-19 diagnosis, suspected of having either Dengue (n = 1,700) or Chikungunya (n = 7,349) from December 1st, 2019 to June 30th, 2020. FINDINGS: Covert cases of SARS-CoV-2 were detected in 210 (2.85%) out of the 7,370 serum samples tested. The earliest undiagnosed missed case of COVID-19 dated back to a sample collected on December 18, 2019, also positive for Dengue Virus. Cross-reactivity with either Dengue virus or other common coronaviruses were not observed. INTERPRETATION: Our findings demonstrate that concomitant Dengue or Chikungunya outbreaks may difficult the diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infections. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate, with a robust sample size (n = 7,370) and using highly specific and sensitive chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay method, that covert SARS-CoV-2 infections are more frequent than previously expected in Dengue and Chikungunya hyperendemic regions. Moreover, our results suggest that SAR-CoV-2 cases were occurring prior to February, 2020, and that these undiagnosed missed cases may have contributed to the fast expansion of SARS-CoV-2 outbreak in Brazil. Data presented here demonstrate that in arboviral endemic regions, SARS-CoV-2 infection must be always considered, regardless of the existence of a previous positive diagnosis for Dengue or Chikungunya.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Febre de Chikungunya/epidemiologia , Dengue/epidemiologia , Adulto , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Brasil/epidemiologia , Vírus Chikungunya/patogenicidade , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Vírus da Dengue/patogenicidade , Erros de Diagnóstico/tendências , Surtos de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , /patogenicidade
20.
Int J Med Sci ; 18(3): 846-851, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33437221

RESUMO

In the last 50 years we have experienced two big pandemics, the HIV pandemic and the pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2. Both pandemics are caused by RNA viruses and have reached us from animals. These two viruses are different in the transmission mode and in the symptoms they generate. However, they have important similarities: the fear in the population, increase in proinflammatory cytokines that generate intestinal microbiota modifications or NETosis production by polymorphonuclear neutrophils, among others. They have been implicated in the clinical, prognostic and therapeutic attitudes.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , HIV-1/patogenicidade , Pandemias/história , /patogenicidade , /imunologia , /transmissão , Citocinas/sangue , Citocinas/imunologia , Armadilhas Extracelulares/imunologia , Armadilhas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Medo , Carga Global da Doença/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , HIV-1/imunologia , HIV-1/isolamento & purificação , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/sangue , Mediadores da Inflamação/imunologia , Mortalidade , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Prognóstico , /isolamento & purificação
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