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1.
Int J Mol Med ; 47(4): 1, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33537803

RESUMO

Nosocomial infections, also known as hospital-acquired infections, pose a serious challenge to healthcare professionals globally during the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID­19) pandemic. Nosocomial infection of COVID­19 directly impacts the quality of life of patients, as well as results in extra expenditure to hospitals. It has been shown that COVID­19 is more likely to transmit via close, unprotected contact with infected patients. Additionally, current preventative and containment measures tend to overlook asymptomatic individuals and superspreading events. Since the mode of transmission and real origin of COVID­19 in hospitals has not been fully elucidated yet, minimizing nosocomial infection in hospitals remains a difficult but urgent task for healthcare professionals. Healthcare professionals globally should form an alliance against nosocomial COVID­19 infections. The fight against COVID­19 may provide valuable lessons for the future prevention and control of nosocomial infections. The present review will discuss some of the key strategies to prevent and control hospital­based nosocomial COVID­19 infections.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Pessoal de Saúde , Infecções Assintomáticas , China , Infecção Hospitalar/transmissão , Desinfecção , Higiene das Mãos , Hospitais , Humanos , Eliminação de Resíduos de Serviços de Saúde , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Qualidade de Vida
2.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 15(1): 22-31, 2021 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33571142

RESUMO

In late 2019 a novel coronavirus named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in China and spread throughout the world over a short period of time causing a pandemic of a respiratory disease named coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). SARS-CoV-2 is easily transmitted from person to person through respiratory droplets and direct contact. The scarce available data indicate that dental healthcare personnel are at increased risk for acquisition of infection. Following the lockdown lifting, dental schools should be prepared to refunction safely and provide essential educational and healthcare services while protecting their students, patients, and personnel. The generation of aerosols in dental practice, in association with the high-transmissibility of SARS-CoV-2 through aerosol-generation procedures, the simultaneous provision of dental services to patients in the same areas, and the fact that asymptomatic and pre-symptomatic infected persons may transmit the virus, render the implementation of specific infection prevention and control measures imperative for dental schools. Herein we review the few evidence-based data available to guide infection prevention and control measures for COVID-19 in dental schools.


Assuntos
/prevenção & controle , Pessoal de Saúde , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Faculdades de Odontologia , Aerossóis , Infecções Assintomáticas , Portador Sadio/transmissão , Portador Sadio/virologia , Humanos
3.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 15(1): 58-68, 2021 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33571146

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: SARS-CoV2 pandemic marks the need to pay attention to bacterial pathogens that can complicate the hospital stay of patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). ESKAPE bacteria which includes Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter cloacae are considered the most important, because of their close relationship with the development of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). The aim of this work was to identify and characterize ESKAPE bacteria and to detect their possible clonal spread in medical devices, patients, and medical personnel of the ICU for COVID-19 patients of the Hospital Juarez de Mexico. METHODOLOGY: Genetic identification of ESKAPE bacteria was performed by analyzing the 16S rRNA gene. Resistance assays were performed according to the CLSI guidelines. Assembly of AdeABCRS operon and inhibition assays of pumps efflux in Acinetobacter baumannii isolates were performed. Associated gene involved in biofilm formation (icaA) was performed in isolates belonging to the Staphylococcus genus. Finally, typing by ERIC-PCR and characterization of mobile genetic element SCCmec were done. RESULTS: Heterogeneous distribution of ESKAPE and non-ESKAPE bacteria was detected in various medical devices, patients, and medical personnel. Acinetobacter baumannii and Staphylococcus aureus were the predominant ESKAPE members. The analysis of intergenic regions revealed an important clonal distribution of A. baumannii (AdeABCRS+). Genotyping of SCCmec mobile genetic elements and the icaA gene showed that there is no clonal distribution of S. aureus. CONCLUSIONS: Clonal spread of A. baumannii (AdeABCRS+) highlights the importance of adopting good practices for equipment disinfection, surfaces and management of COVID-19 patients.


Assuntos
Infecções por Acinetobacter/transmissão , Acinetobacter baumannii/isolamento & purificação , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Acinetobacter baumannii/patogenicidade , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Equipamentos e Provisões/microbiologia , Genótipo , Humanos , Sequências Repetitivas Dispersas , México , Pneumonia Associada à Ventilação Mecânica/microbiologia
4.
Vet Res ; 52(1): 22, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33588935

RESUMO

COVID-19 is a zoonotic disease caused by SARS-CoV-2. Infections of animals with SARS-CoV-2 have recently been reported, and an increase of severe lung pathologies in domestic dogs has also been detected by veterinarians in Spain. Therefore, further descriptions of the pathological processes in those animals that show symptoms similar to those described in humans affected by COVID-19 would be highly valuable. The potential for companion animals to contribute to the continued transmission and community spread of this known human-to-human disease is an urgent issue to be considered. Forty animals with pulmonary pathologies were studied by chest X-ray, ultrasound analysis, and computed tomography. Nasopharyngeal and rectal swabs were analyzed to detect canine pathogens, including SARS-CoV-2. An additional twenty healthy dogs living in SARS-CoV-2-positive households were included. Immunoglobulin detection by several immunoassays was performed. Our findings show that sick dogs presented severe alveolar or interstitial patterns with pulmonary opacity, parenchymal abnormalities, and bilateral lesions. The forty sick dogs were negative for SARS-CoV-2 but Mycoplasma spp. was detected in 26 of 33 dogs. Five healthy and one pathological dog presented IgG against SARS-CoV-2. Here we report that despite detecting dogs with α-SARS-CoV-2 IgG, we never obtained a positive RT-qPCR for SARS-SoV-2, not even in dogs with severe pulmonary disease; suggesting that even in the case of canine infection, transmission would be unlikely. Moreover, dogs living in COVID-19-positive households could have been more highly exposed to infection with SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/transmissão , Imunoglobulinas/sangue , Zoonoses/transmissão , Animais , /virologia , Doenças do Cão/virologia , Cães , Feminino , Imunidade Humoral , Masculino , Espanha , Zoonoses/virologia
5.
mSphere ; 6(1)2021 02 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33597174

RESUMO

Many viruses, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), have a structure consisting of spikes protruding from an underlying spherical surface. Research in biological and colloidal sciences has revealed secrets of why spikes exist on virus surfaces. Specifically, the spikes favor virus attachment on surfaces via receptor-specific interactions (RSIs), mediate the membrane fusion, and determine or change viral tropism. The spikes also facilitate viruses to approach surfaces before attachment and subsequently escape back to the environment if RSIs do not occur (i.e., easy come and easy go). Therefore, virus spikes create the paradox of having a large capacity for binding with cells (high infectivity) and meanwhile great mobility in the environment. Such structure-function relationships have important implications for the fabrication of virus-like particles and analogous colloids (e.g., hedgehog- and raspberry-like particles) for applications such as the development of antiviral vaccines and drug delivery.


Assuntos
/transmissão , /patogenicidade , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Animais , HIV/metabolismo , HIV/patogenicidade , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Humanos , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Tropismo Viral/fisiologia , Internalização do Vírus
7.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 726, 2021 02 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33563980

RESUMO

Human mobility is a primary driver of infectious disease spread. However, existing data is limited in availability, coverage, granularity, and timeliness. Data-driven forecasts of disease dynamics are crucial for decision-making by health officials and private citizens alike. In this work, we focus on a machine-learned anonymized mobility map (hereon referred to as AMM) aggregated over hundreds of millions of smartphones and evaluate its utility in forecasting epidemics. We factor AMM into a metapopulation model to retrospectively forecast influenza in the USA and Australia. We show that the AMM model performs on-par with those based on commuter surveys, which are sparsely available and expensive. We also compare it with gravity and radiation based models of mobility, and find that the radiation model's performance is quite similar to AMM and commuter flows. Additionally, we demonstrate our model's ability to predict disease spread even across state boundaries. Our work contributes towards developing timely infectious disease forecasting at a global scale using human mobility datasets expanding their applications in the area of infectious disease epidemiology.


Assuntos
Previsões/métodos , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Aprendizado de Máquina , Austrália/epidemiologia , Humanos , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Influenza Humana/transmissão , Modelos Teóricos , Cidade de Nova Iorque/epidemiologia , Dinâmica Populacional , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Smartphone
8.
N Z Med J ; 134(1529): 10-25, 2021 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33582704

RESUMO

AIMS: We developed a model, updated daily, to estimate undetected COVID-19 infections exiting quarantine following selectively opening New Zealand's borders to travellers from low-risk countries. METHODS: The prevalence of infectious COVID-19 cases by country was multiplied by expected monthly passenger volumes to predict the rate of arrivals. The rate of undetected infections entering the border following screening and quarantine was estimated. Level 1, Level 2 and Level 3 countries were defined as those with an active COVID-19 prevalence of up to 1/105, 10/105 and 100/105, respectively. RESULTS: With 65,272 travellers per month, the number of undetected COVID-19 infections exiting quarantine is 1 every 45, 15 and 31 months for Level 1, Level 2 and Level 3 countries, respectively. The overall rate of undetected active COVID-19 infections exiting quarantine is expected to increase from the current 0.40 to 0.50 per month, or an increase of one extra infection every 10 months. CONCLUSIONS: Loosening border restrictions results in a small increase in the rate of undetected COVID-19 infections exiting quarantine, which increases from the current baseline by one infection every 10 months. This information may be useful in guiding decision-making on selectively opening of borders in the COVID-19 era.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa , Regulamento Sanitário Internacional , Quarentena , /epidemiologia , /transmissão , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/organização & administração , Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas/prevenção & controle , Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas/transmissão , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/estatística & dados numéricos , Previsões , Saúde Global , Humanos , Regulamento Sanitário Internacional/organização & administração , Regulamento Sanitário Internacional/tendências , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Política Pública , Quarentena/organização & administração , Quarentena/estatística & dados numéricos , Viagem/legislação & jurisprudência , Viagem/estatística & dados numéricos
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33533811

RESUMO

Chagas disease (CD) is caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi and it is mainly acquired through the vector route, however, blood transfusion and congenital transmission are implicated in the spread of the illness worldwide. The congenital route can occur at any stage of pregnancy and its frequency varies. In the Federal District, in Brazil, the frequency of T. cruzi infection in pregnant women and their offspring has not been updated. Thus, the aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of T. cruzi infection in pregnant women and the rate of congenital transmission in the Federal District. A cross-sectional study was conducted to estimate the seroprevalence of T. cruzi from 2014 to 2016 in the population of pregnant women attended by the public health service throughout the Federal District and a descriptive cohort for the evaluation of congenital transmission. During the study, prenatal data of 98,895 women were consulted and pregnant women registered in 2016, presenting with positive T. cruzi serology, were part of the descriptive cohort. The estimated prevalence of T. cruzi infection in the three years was 0.19% and the congenital transmission rate was 1/40 (2.5%). Our results have shown that, although the main routes of transmission of CD have been interrupted, there is still a risk of congenital transmission in the Federal District. This present study highlights the need for the continuous implementation of a screening program for pregnant women and timely treatment of infected newborns and children.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas/epidemiologia , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/estatística & dados numéricos , Complicações Parasitárias na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Trypanosoma cruzi/isolamento & purificação , Brasil/epidemiologia , Doença de Chagas/diagnóstico , Doença de Chagas/transmissão , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Gestantes , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Prevalência , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
10.
Euro Surveill ; 26(5)2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33541485

RESUMO

In June-November 2020, SARS-CoV-2-infected mink were detected in 290 of 1,147 Danish mink farms. In North Denmark Region, 30% (324/1,092) of people found connected to mink farms tested SARS-CoV-2-PCR-positive and approximately 27% (95% confidence interval (CI): 25-30) of SARS-CoV-2-strains from humans in the community were mink-associated. Measures proved insufficient to mitigate spread. On 4 November, the government ordered culling of all Danish mink. Farmed mink constitute a potential virus reservoir challenging pandemic control.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/virologia , /veterinária , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Reservatórios de Doenças/veterinária , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/veterinária , Vison/virologia , Pandemias/veterinária , /isolamento & purificação , /transmissão , Animais , /virologia , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Fazendas , Genes Virais , Humanos , Incidência , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Saúde Pública , RNA Viral/análise , RNA Viral/genética , /virologia , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma , Zoonoses/transmissão , Zoonoses/virologia
11.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 30(1): e023020, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33605388

RESUMO

Neospora caninum is considered to be one of the main causes of abortion among cattle. The present survey was conducted in the municipality of Rolim de Moura, Rondônia State, Brazil. A questionnaire that investigates the epidemiological aspects of neosporosis was used in the analysis of risk factors associated with the animal-level and herd-level prevalence in dairy cattle. A total of 416 bovine blood samples were collected from 30 farms, and N. caninum antibody levels were measured by Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Test (IFAT). Analysis of dairy cattle serum samples revealed the presence of anti-N. caninum antibodies to be 47.36% (n = 197). Risk factors associated with N. caninum infection were the management system and access locations of dogs. The results of the present survey indicated that infection of dairy cattle with N. caninum is widespread in the studied region of Western Amazon, which has implications for prevention and control of neosporosis in this region. Therefore, integrated control strategies and measures are recommended to prevent and control N. caninum infection in dairy cattle. In addition, direct contact between dairy cattle, dogs and wild animals, which can influence the epidemiology of neosporosis, should be investigated further.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Coccidiose , Neospora , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Brasil/epidemiologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Doenças dos Bovinos/transmissão , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/prevenção & controle , Coccidiose/transmissão , Coccidiose/veterinária , Indústria de Laticínios , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Neospora/imunologia , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
12.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 30(1): e025020, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33605389

RESUMO

Gurltia paralysans is the causal agent of gurltiosis in domestic cats in South America. Although the life cycle of G. paralysans is unknown, it is thought that gastropods could act as intermediate hosts (IHs), as is the case for several nematodes in the Angiostrongylidae family. The aim of this study was to search for G. paralysans larvae in terrestrial gastropods and determine their role in the life cycle of this nematode species. Terrestrial gastropod samples (n=835) were collected in Punucapa, Valdivia, southern Chile, where cases of gurltiosis had been reported before. The samples included species from the families Arionidae, Limacidae, Helicidae and Milacidae. All gastropods were subjected to enzymatic digestion to isolate G. paralysans larvae. Ten percent of the gastropod samples were analyzed using seminested PCR targeting the 28S rRNA gene, while 2.6% were analyzed by histopathological examination. The results indicated the absence of G. paralysans when using any of the three methods. In conclusion, further studies are needed to evaluate specific species of aquatic or native gastropods acting as possible IHs (in this geographic location).


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato , Gastrópodes , Metastrongyloidea , Infecções por Strongylida , Animais , Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Doenças do Gato/transmissão , Gatos , Chile , Gastrópodes/parasitologia , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Metastrongyloidea/fisiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Infecções por Strongylida/transmissão , Infecções por Strongylida/veterinária
14.
Onderstepoort J Vet Res ; 88(1): e1-e8, 2021 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33567843

RESUMO

Human coronaviruses are known respiratory pathogens associated with a range of respiratory illnesses, and there are considerable morbidity and hospitalisation amongst immune-compromised individuals of all age groups. The emergence of a highly pathogenic human coronavirus in China in 2019 has confirmed the long-held opinion that these viruses are important emerging and re-emerging pathogens. In this review article, we trace the discovery and emergence of coronaviruses (CoVs) over time since they were first reported. The review article will enrich our understanding on the host range, diversity and evolution, transmission of human CoVs and the threat posed by these viruses circulating in animal populations but overtime have spilled over to humans because of the increased proximity between humans and animals.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Coronavirus/classificação , Animais , Coronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Surtos de Doenças , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Humanos
15.
Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am ; 48(1): 53-74, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33573790

RESUMO

Viral infections are common complications of pregnancy. Although some infections have maternal sequelae, many viral infections can be perinatally transmitted to cause congenital or chronic infection in fetuses or infants. Treatments of such infections are geared toward reducing maternal symptoms and complications and toward preventing maternal-to-child transmission of viruses. The authors review updates in the treatment of herpes simplex virus, cytomegalovirus, hepatitis B and C viruses, human immunodeficiency virus, and COVID-19 during pregnancy.


Assuntos
Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/terapia , Viroses/terapia , Viroses/transmissão , Adulto , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , /transmissão , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/terapia , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/transmissão , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/terapia , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Hepatite B/terapia , Hepatite B/transmissão , Hepatite C/terapia , Hepatite C/transmissão , Herpes Simples/terapia , Herpes Simples/transmissão , Humanos , Lactente , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/virologia
16.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 116: e200513, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33566952

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Different strategies for improvement of malaria control and elimination are based on the blockage of malaria parasite transmission to the mosquito vector. These strategies include the drugs that target the plasmodial sexual stages in humans and the early developmental stages inside mosquitoes. OBJECTIVES: Here we tested Malaria Box compounds in order to evaluate their activity against male and female gametocytes in Plasmodium berghei, mosquito infection in P. vivax and ookinete formation in both species. METHODS/FINDINGS: The membrane feeding assay and the development of ookinetes by a 24 h ex vivo culture and the ookinete yield per 1000 erythrocytes were used to test transmission-blocking potential of the Malaria Box compounds in P. vivax. For P. berghei we used flow cytometry to evaluate male and female gametocyte time course and fluorescence microscopy to check the ookinete development. The two species used in this study showed similar results concerning the compounds' activity against gametocytes and ookinetes, which were different from those in P. falciparum. In addition, from the eight Malaria Box compounds tested in both species, compounds MMV665830, MMV665878 and MMV665941 were selected as a hit compounds due the high inhibition observed. CONCLUSION: Our results showed that P. berghei is suitable as an initial screening system to test compounds against P. vivax.


Assuntos
Malária Vivax/prevenção & controle , Mosquitos Vetores/parasitologia , Plasmodium berghei/efeitos dos fármacos , Plasmodium vivax/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Malária Vivax/tratamento farmacológico , Malária Vivax/transmissão
17.
Recurso na Internet em Inglês, Espanhol, Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-48036

RESUMO

Três novas variantes do vírus SARS-CoV-2, causador da COVID-19, foram detectadas em 14 países das Américas, o que gera preocupações sobre a possível maior propagação e gravidade dos casos de COVID -19 na região.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , América/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão
18.
Goiânia; SES-GO; 18 jan. 2021. 1-5 p. mapas.
Não convencional em Português | LILACS, Coleciona SUS, CONASS, SES-GO | ID: biblio-1146977

RESUMO

A pandemia desencadeada pela disseminação do novo coronavírus tornou-se uma grande e constante preocupação para a população, governos e serviços de saúde do mundo inteiro. Devido aos inúmeros impactos que atingiram diferentes setores da sociedade, todos os temas referentes ao SARS-CoV-2 atraem muita atenção e, recentemente, o assunto que trata das novas variantes deste agente etiológico tornou-se bastante frequente em diferentes veículos de comunicação. Os vírus são organismos que constantemente sofrem mudanças por meio de mutações e, portanto, o surgimento de novas variantes é um evento esperado


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Mutação/imunologia
19.
Parasit Vectors ; 14(1): 35, 2021 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33422133

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Peri-urban and urban settings have recently gained more prominence in studies on vector-borne transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi due to sustained rural-to-urban migrations and reports of urban infestations with triatomines. Prompted by the finding of Triatoma infestans across the rural-to-urban gradient in Avia Terai, an endemic municipality of the Argentine Chaco, we assessed selected components of domestic transmission risk in order to determine its variation across the gradient. METHODS: A baseline vector survey was conducted between October 2015 and March 2016, following which we used multistage random sampling to select a representative sample of T. infestans at the municipal level. We assessed T. cruzi infection and blood-feeding sources of 561 insects collected from 109 houses using kinetoplast DNA-PCR assays and direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, respectively. We stratified triatomines according to their collection site (domestic or peridomestic), and we further categorized peridomestic sites in ecotopes of low- or high-risk for T. cruzi infection. RESULTS: The overall adjusted prevalence of T. cruzi-infected T. infestans was 1.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.3-2.3) and did not differ between peri-urban (1.7%) and rural (2.2%) environments. No infection was detected in bugs captured in the urban setting; rather, infected triatomines were mainly collected in rural and peri-urban domiciles, occurring in 8% of T. infestans-infested houses. The main blood-feeding sources of domestic and peridomestic triatomines across the gradient were humans and chickens, respectively. The proportion of triatomines that had fed on humans did not differ between peri-urban (62.5%) and rural (65.7%) domiciles, peaking in the few domestic triatomines collected in urban houses and decreasing significantly with an increasing proportion of chicken- and dog- or cat-fed bugs. The relative odds ratio (OR) of having a T. cruzi infection was nearly threefold higher in bugs having a blood meal on humans (OR 3.15), dogs (OR 2.80) or cats (OR: 4.02) in a Firth-penalized multiple logistic model. CONCLUSIONS: Trypanosoma cruzi transmission was likely occurring both in peri-urban and rural houses of Avia Terai. Widespread infestation in a third of urban blocks combined with high levels of human-triatomine contact in the few infested domiciles implies a threat to urban inhabitants. Vector control strategies and surveillance originally conceived for rural areas should be tailored to peri-urban and urban settings in order to achieve sustainable interruption of domestic transmission in the Chaco region.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas/epidemiologia , Doença de Chagas/transmissão , Insetos Vetores/parasitologia , Triatoma , Trypanosoma cruzi , Adulto , Animais , Argentina/epidemiologia , Gatos , Galinhas , Cães , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Cabras , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Fatores de Risco , População Rural
20.
Viruses ; 13(1)2021 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33466915

RESUMO

Mosquito-borne arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) such as the dengue virus (DENV), Zika virus (ZIKV), and chikungunya virus (CHIKV) are important human pathogens that are responsible for significant global morbidity and mortality. The recent emergence and re-emergence of mosquito-borne viral diseases (MBVDs) highlight the urgent need for safe and effective vaccines, therapeutics, and vector-control approaches to prevent MBVD outbreaks. In nature, arboviruses circulate between vertebrate hosts and arthropod vectors; therefore, disrupting the virus lifecycle in mosquitoes is a major approach for combating MBVDs. Several strategies were proposed to render mosquitoes that are refractory to arboviral infection, for example, those involving the generation of genetically modified mosquitoes or infection with the symbiotic bacterium Wolbachia. Due to the recent development of high-throughput screening methods, an increasing number of drugs with inhibitory effects on mosquito-borne arboviruses in mammalian cells were identified. These antivirals are useful resources that can impede the circulation of arboviruses between arthropods and humans by either rendering viruses more vulnerable in humans or suppressing viral infection by reducing the expression of host factors in mosquitoes. In this review, we summarize recent advances in small-molecule antiarboviral drugs in mammalian and mosquito cells, and discuss how to use these antivirals to block the transmission of MBVDs.


Assuntos
Aedes/virologia , Antivirais/farmacologia , Infecções por Arbovirus/transmissão , Infecções por Arbovirus/virologia , Arbovirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Mosquitos Vetores/virologia , Aedes/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antivirais/química , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Arbovirus/tratamento farmacológico , Arbovirus/classificação , Células Cultivadas , Descoberta de Drogas/métodos , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Humanos , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Doenças Transmitidas por Vetores/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Transmitidas por Vetores/transmissão , Doenças Transmitidas por Vetores/virologia , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
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