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1.
Phytomedicine ; 110: 154645, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36634382

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic and recurrent inflammatory disorder in gastrointestinal tract. Shen Ling Bai Zhu San (SLBZS), which has a long history of use in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), has been widely used to treat gastrointestinal diseases. The isolated fractions of TCM have also been proved to possess an important potential for treating diseases, which are due to their effective components. PURPOSE: In this study, we examined the possibility that SLBZS and its isolated active fractions may prevent DSS-induced colitis, and investigated the potential mechanisms by regulating genetic profile of colon. METHODS: Colitis mice were induced by 2.5% DSS for 7 days, and then SLBZS and different SLBZS extracts were administrated to protect the mice for 7 days. Body weight, diarrhea, bleeding in stool, colon length, spleen weight, cytokines of serum and colon and pathology of colon were assessed. The level of Ginsenoside Rg1, Re and Rb1 in different SLBZS extracts and qualitative analysis of n-butanol extract of SLBZS (S-Nb) was performed by HPLC and LC-MS, respectively. And the effects of S-Nb on the transcriptome in colitis were investigated. RESULTS: Our results showed that SLBZS and S-Nb significantly regained body weight, reduced DAI, splenomegaly and the length of colon and attenuated histological damage of the colon. Meanwhile, SLBZS and S-Nb markedly reduced the levels of TNF-α, IL-1ß and IL-6 and increased the level of IL-10 in serum and colon. These effects may be associated with the high levels of Ginsenoside Rg1, Re and Rb1 and rich variety of compounds in S-Nb including 6 ginsenosides, glycyrrhizin, L-tryptophan, and so on. Transcriptome analysis revealed that S-Nb selectively regulated 103 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), 36 of which were changed in DSS-induced mice. And the genes of Per2, Per3, Npy and Serpina3m were closely related to colitis and also restored by S-Nb with different extent. Remarkably, these DEGs modulated the biological functions of colitis mice, including extracellular region, response to external stimulus, MAPK signaling pathway and arginine and proline metabolism. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicated that SLBZS and S-Nb blunted DSS-induced colitis by modulating differentially expression gene profile and biological functions based on their ginsenosides and rich compounds.


Assuntos
Colite , Ginsenosídeos , Camundongos , Animais , Ginsenosídeos/farmacologia , 1-Butanol/farmacologia , Butanóis/farmacologia , Cromatografia Líquida , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Colite/induzido quimicamente , Colite/tratamento farmacológico , Colite/patologia , Colo/patologia , Doença Crônica , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Peso Corporal , Sulfato de Dextrana , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Citocinas
2.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 23(1): 21, 2023 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36707799

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cadmium is an environmentally toxic metal that has deleterious effects on both animals and humans due to its accumulation in different body tissues. Physalis peruviana L. fruit and calyx contain many active constituents which are used traditionally for their different biological activities. Based on the traditional uses of P. peruviana L. calyx, we aimed to evaluate the nephroprotective effect of their 80% aqueous methanol extract (AME) and n-butanol fraction (Bu.F.) against cadmium chloride-induced nephrotoxicity in rats and to correlate this activity with phytoconstituents isolated using molecular docking studies. METHODS: The n-butanol fraction of P. peruviana L. calyx was fractionated using various chromatographic techniques and the isolated compounds were identified based on their chemical and spectroscopic data. The nephroprotective activity was assessed using cadmium chloride-induced nephrotoxicity in the rat model, by measuring some important parameters such as body weight, kidney weight, serum urea, and creatinine levels, oxidative stress markers, inflammatory markers, and histopathological examinations of kidney tissue. Molecular docking studies of the isolated compounds were performed. RESULTS: Three withanolides named 4 ß-hydroxywithanolide E (1), Physalin B (2) and 3α, 14ß-dihydroxywithaphysalin N (3) were isolated and identified from the n-butanol fraction of P. peruviana L calyx extract. The extract and its butanol fraction significantly improved the serum kidney function markers and tissue oxidative status including malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH) and catalase (CAT). Additionally, the extracts significantly decreased the levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κß). Moreover, the histological changes were ameliorated by the extracts. The molecular docking study showed that the isolated compounds displayed a remarkable inhibitory activity against IκB kinase. CONCLUSION: The AME and its butanol fraction of P. peruviana L calyx showed potential nephroprotective activity against cadmium chloride-induced nephrotoxicity which is correlated at least in part to its considerable withanolides content.


Assuntos
Physalis , Vitanolídeos , Humanos , Ratos , Animais , Cloreto de Cádmio , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Physalis/química , Vitanolídeos/farmacologia , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Cloretos , 1-Butanol
3.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 126: 103-112, 2023 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36503740

RESUMO

Organosulfate (OSA) nanoparticles, as secondary organic aerosol (SOA) compositions, are ubiquitous in urban and rural environments. Hence, we systemically investigated the mechanisms and kinetics of aqueous-phase reactions of 1-butanol/1-decanol (BOL/DOL) and their roles in the formation of OSA nanoparticles by using quantum chemical and kinetic calculations. The mechanism results show that the aqueous-phase reactions of BOL/DOL start from initial protonation at alcoholic OH-groups to form carbenium ions (CBs), which engage in the subsequent esterification or oligomerization reactions to form OSAs/organosulfites (OSIs) or dimers. The kinetic results reveal that dehydration to form CBs for BOL and DOL reaction systems is the rate-limiting step. Subsequently, about 18% of CBs occur via oligomerization to dimers, which are difficult to further oligomerize because all reactive sites are occupied. The rate constant of BOL reaction system is one order of magnitude larger than that of DOL reaction system, implying that relative short-chain alcohols are more prone to contribute OSAs/OSIs than long-chain alcohols. Our results reveal that typical long-chain alcohols contribute SOA formation via esterification rather than oligomerization because OSA/OSI produced by esterification engages in nanoparticle growth through enhancing hygroscopicity.


Assuntos
Álcoois , Álcoois Graxos , Aerossóis , Butanóis , Polímeros , 1-Butanol
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 861: 160559, 2023 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36574546

RESUMO

With the determination of the Leloir pathway in a solventogenic wild-type strain WK through the transcriptional analysis, two pivotal genes (galK and galT) were systematically co-expressed to demonstrate a significantly enhanced galactose utilization for butanol production with the elimination of carbon catabolite repression (CCR). The gene-modified strain WK-Gal-4 could effectively co-utilize galactose and glucose by directly using an ultrasonication-assisted butyric acid-pretreated Gelidium amansii hydrolysate (BAU) as the substrate, exhibiting the optimal sugar consumption and butanol production from BAU of 20.31 g/L and 7.8 g/L with an increment by 62.35 % and 61.49 % over that by strain WK, respectively. This work for the first time develops a feasible approach to utilizing red algal biomass for butanol fermentation through exploring the metabolic regulation of carbohydrate catabolism, also offering a novel route to develop the future biorefinery using the cost-effective and sustainable marine feedstocks.


Assuntos
Repressão Catabólica , Alga Marinha , Butanóis/metabolismo , Galactose , Alga Marinha/metabolismo , Clostridium , 1-Butanol/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Fermentação
5.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 47(20): 5550-5555, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36471972

RESUMO

Chemical constituents of ethanol extract of Pulsatillae Radix were investigated. The n-butanol fraction of ethanol extract of Pulsatillae Radix was isolated and purified by macroporous resin and silica gel column chromatography and semi-preparative high performance liquid chromatography. The triterpenoid glycosides were identified by multiple spectral methods. Six compounds were obtained from the n-butanol fraction of ethanol extract of Pulsatillae Radix and identified as 23-aldehyde-cussosaponin C(1), cussosaponin C(2), anemoside B4(3), akebia saponin D(4), pulchinenoside E3(5), and hederacoside C(6). Among them, compound 1 was a new compound.


Assuntos
1-Butanol , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Glicosídeos/química , Etanol/química
6.
Molecules ; 27(24)2022 Dec 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36557952

RESUMO

Medicinal plants are known as sources of potential antimicrobial compounds belonging to different classes. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the antimicrobial potential of the crude extract, fractions, and some isolated secondary metabolites from the leaves of Macaranga occidentalis, a Cameroonian medicinal plant traditionally used for the treatment of microbial infections. Repeated column chromatography of the ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions led to the isolation of seventeen previously known compounds (1-17), among which three steroids (1-3), one triterpene (4), four flavonoids (5-8), two stilbenoids (9 and 10) four ellagic acid derivatives (11-14), one geraniinic acid derivative (15), one coumarine (16), and one glyceride (17). Their structures were elucidated mainly by means of extensive spectroscopic and spectrometric (1D and 2D NMR and, MS) analysis and comparison with the published data. The crude extract, fractions, and isolated compounds were all screened for their antimicrobial activity. None of the natural compounds was active against Candida strains. However, the crude extract, fractions, and compounds showed varying levels of antibacterial properties against at least one of the tested bacterial strains, with minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ranging from 250 to 1000 µg/mL. The n-butanol (n-BuOH) fraction was the most active against Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, with an MIC value of 250 µg/mL. Among the isolated compounds, schweinfurthin B (10) exhibited the best activity against Staphylococcus aureus NR 46003 with a MIC value of 62.5 µg/mL. In addition, schweinfurthin O (9) and isomacarangin (6) also exhibited moderate activity against the same strain with a MIC value of 125 µg/mL. Therefore, pharmacomodulation was performed on compound 6 and three new semisynthetic derivatives (6a-c) were prepared by allylation and acetylation reactions and screened for their in vitro antimicrobial activity. None of the semisynthetic derivatives showed antimicrobial activity against the same tested strains. The chemophenetic significance of the isolated compounds is also discussed in this paper.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Euphorbiaceae , 1-Butanol , Extratos Vegetais/química , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Antibacterianos/química , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
7.
Molecules ; 27(23)2022 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36500443

RESUMO

The ability to predict the behaviour of high-pressure mixtures of carbon dioxide and alcohol is important for industrial purposes. The equilibrium composition of three binary carbon dioxide-alcohol systems was measured at temperatures of 313.15 K and 333.15 K and at pressures of up to 100 bar for carbon dioxide-2-propanol, up to 160 bar for carbon dioxide-1-butanol and up to 150 bar for carbon dioxide-2-butanol. Different equilibrium compositions of carbon dioxide in alcohols were observed despite their similar molecular weight (M2-propanol = 60.100 g mol-1, M1-butanol = 74.121 g mol-1 and M2-butanol = 74.122 g mol-1) and place in the functional hydroxyl group (first or second carbon molecule). It is assumed that the differences in the phase equilibria are due to different vapor pressures, polarities and solute-solute interactions.


Assuntos
1-Butanol , 2-Propanol , Dióxido de Carbono , Etanol
8.
Molecules ; 27(23)2022 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36500666

RESUMO

Eucommia ulmoides Oliver staminate flower (ESF) tea enjoys a good reputation in folk medicine and displays multiple bioactivities, such as antioxidant and antifatigue properties. However, the underlying biological mechanisms remain largely unknown. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether ESF tea can mitigate cellular oxidative stress. Crude ethyl alcohol extract and its three subfractions prepared by sequential extraction with chloroform, n-butyl alcohol and residual water were prepared from ESF tea. The results of antioxidant activity tests in vitro manifested n-butyl alcohol fraction (n-BUF) showed the strongest antioxidant capacity (DPPH: IC50 = 24.45 ± 0.74 µg/mL, ABTS: IC50 = 17.25 ± 0.04 µg/mL). Moreover, all subfractions of ESF tea, especially the n-BUF, exhibited an obvious capacity to scavenge the reactive oxygen species (ROS) and stimulate the NRF2 antioxidative response in human keratinocytes HaCaT treated by H2O2. Using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography, we identified geniposidic acid (GPA) as the most abundant component in ESF tea extract. Furthermore, it was found that GPA relieved oxidative stress in H2O2-induced HaCaT cells by activating the Akt/Nrf2/OGG1 pathway. Our findings indicated that ESF tea may be a source of natural antioxidants to protect against skin cell oxidative damage and deserves further development and utilization.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Eucommiaceae , Humanos , Eucommiaceae/química , 1-Butanol , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Estresse Oxidativo , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2 , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/análise , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia
9.
Molecules ; 27(22)2022 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36432158

RESUMO

In this work, we study the effect of bentonite addition to the grape must before alcoholic fermentation on the chemical composition and sensorial profile of the obtained wines. Fermentations were carried out with two Saccharomyces cerevisiae commercial active dry yeasts treated or not with bentonite and were compared with a control wine obtained by spontaneous fermentation (using the grape must microbiota). Several significant effects on the chemical and sensorial attributes were established by statistical treatments. The selection by multiple variable analysis of seven volatile molecules (ethyl acetate; methanol; 1-propanol; isobutanol; 2-methyl-1-butanol; 3-metyl-1-butanol and 2-phenylethanol) provided several footprints that provide an easy visualization of bentonite effects on wine volatile compounds. A Principal Component Analysis carried out with all the compounds quantified by Gas-Chromatography revealed that the first two Principal Components explain 60.15 and 25.91%, respectively, of the total variance and established five groups that match with the five wines analyzed. Lastly, predictive models at p ≤ 0.05 level for the attributes sight, smell and taste were obtained by Partial Least Squared regression analysis of selected chemical variables.


Assuntos
Vitis , Vinho , Vinho/análise , Vitis/química , Fermentação , Bentonita , 1-Butanol , Saccharomyces cerevisiae
10.
Arch Microbiol ; 204(11): 672, 2022 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36251102

RESUMO

The growing population increases the need to develop advanced biological methods for utilizing renewable and sustainable resources to produce environmentally friendly biofuels. Currently, energy resources are limited for global demand and are constantly depleting and creating environmental problems. Some higher chain alcohols, like butanol and ethanol, processing similar properties to gasoline, can be alternate sources of biofuel. However, the industrial production of these alcohols remains challenging because they cannot be efficiently produced by microbes naturally. Therefore, butanol is the most interesting biofuel candidate with a higher octane number produced naturally by microbes through Acetone-Butanol-Ethanol fermentation. Feedstock selection as the substrate is the most crucial step in biobutanol production. Lignocellulosic biomass has been widely used to produce cellulosic biobutanol using agricultural wastes and residue. Specific necessary pretreatments, fermentation strategies, bioreactor designing and kinetics, and modeling can also enhance the efficient production of biobutanol. The recent genetic engineering approaches of gene knock in, knock out, and overexpression to manipulate pathways can increase the production of biobutanol in a user friendly host organism. So far various genetic manipulation techniques like antisense RNA, TargeTron Technology and CRISPR have been used to target Clostridium acetobutylicum for biobutanol production. This review summarizes the recent research and development for the efficient production of biobutanol in various aspects.


Assuntos
Clostridium acetobutylicum , 1-Butanol/metabolismo , Acetona/metabolismo , Anaerobiose , Biocombustíveis , Biomassa , Butanóis/metabolismo , Clostridium acetobutylicum/genética , Clostridium acetobutylicum/metabolismo , Etanol/metabolismo , Fermentação , Gasolina , Octanos/metabolismo , RNA Antissenso/metabolismo
11.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 106(22): 7563-7575, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36287220

RESUMO

Serine/threonine protein kinases (STKs) are important for signal transduction and involved in multiple physiological processes, including cell growth, central metabolism, and sporulation in bacteria. However, the role of STKs in solventogenic clostridia remains unclear. Here, we identified and comprehensively investigated six STK candidates in Clostridium beijerinckii. These STKs were classified into four groups with distinct characteristics via analysis of genetic organizations, prediction of protein domains, and multiple sequence alignment. Cbei0566 is a member of the PrkA family with 41% identity to PrkA from Bacillus subtilis, and both Cbei0666 and Cbei0813 are two-component-like STKs. Cbei1151 and Cbei1929 belong to the Hanks family STKs and consist of a cytoplasmic catalytic domain, a transmembrane region, and extracellular sensor domains. In-frame deletion mutants of cbei0566, cbei0666, cbei1929, and cbei2661 displayed similar cell growth with wild type. Both Δcbei0666 and Δcbei2661 improved acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) production by 14.3% (19.2 g/L vs. 16.8 g/L), and the sporulation frequencies of Δcbei0566, Δcbei1929, and Δcbei2661 significantly decreased to 35.5%, 55.1% and 44.8%, respectively. The restored phenotypes after genetic complementation demonstrated their direct link to STKs deletion. Remarkably, overexpressing cbei0566 contributed to 41.5% more spore formation and cbei1929 overexpression enhanced ABE production from 19.3 to 24.2 g/L, along with 25% less acids. These results revealed that Cbei0566 and Cbei1929 had prominent regulatory functions. This study expands the current knowledge of the existence and functions of STKs in prokaryotes and highlights the importance of STK-mediated signaling networks in developing superior strains. KEY POINTS: • First reported serine/threonine protein kinases in solventogenic clostridia • Six STKs with distinct properties possessed diverse functions in C. beijerinckii • Cbei1929 and Cbei0566 remarkably regulated solventogenesis and sporulation.


Assuntos
Clostridium beijerinckii , Clostridium beijerinckii/genética , Clostridium beijerinckii/metabolismo , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases , Fermentação , Etanol/metabolismo , Butanóis/metabolismo , 1-Butanol/metabolismo , Clostridium/metabolismo , Treonina/metabolismo , Serina/metabolismo
12.
Forensic Sci Int ; 341: 111503, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36283278

RESUMO

The determination of various volatiles in postmortem blood samples has been reported in many previous studies. The presence of some of them in postmortem specimens reflects microbial activity in the sample while others are detected mainly after consumption of alcoholic beverages or due to antemortem metabolic processes. This contribution aims to determine in 1954 postmortem blood samples, from respective number of unnatural deaths autopsy cases, the frequency of detection of some common volatile compounds, including acetaldehyde, acetone, 2-propanol, ethyl acetate, methanol, as well as, the higher alcohols 1-propanol, 1-butanol, isobutanol and 2-methyl-1-butanol and 3-methyl-1-butanol; moreover, their patterns in respect to the ethanol and 1-propanol concentrations and the putrefaction state of the corpse at autopsy. Acetone was the most frequently detected volatile (82 %), followed by acetaldehyde (44 %) and 2-propanol (34 %). Methanol was detected in 12 % of the samples and only in the presence of ethanol. The most frequently detected higher alcohol was 1-propanol (51 %), followed by isobutanol (8.5 %), 1-butanol (3.6 %) and methyl-butanols (2.0%); the latter three higher alcohols were detected in the presence of 1-propanol indicating possibly a common origin. Samples from cases with putrefaction had higher 1-propanol concentrations, than those without putrefaction, and, moreover, they were significantly correlated with 1-butanol concentrations.


Assuntos
1-Propanol , Etanol , Humanos , 1-Butanol/metabolismo , Acetona , Metanol , Autopsia , Peso Molecular , 2-Propanol , Acetaldeído , Mudanças Depois da Morte
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(19)2022 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36233184

RESUMO

Holm oak (Quercus ilex subsp. ballota (Desf.) Samp.) bark is a commonly used remedy to treat gastrointestinal disorders, throat and skin infections, hemorrhages, and dysentery. It has also been previously reported that its methanol extracts possess antibacterial activity, which can be related to the richness of Quercus spp. extracts in phenolic compounds, such as flavonoids and tannins. However, there is no information on the antifungal (including oomycete) properties of the bark from Q. ilex or its subspecies (ilex and ballota). In this work, we report the characterization of the aqueous ammonia extract of its bark by FTIR and GC-MS and the results of in vitro and ex situ inhibition tests against three phytopathogens. The main phytochemical components identified were inositols (19.5%), trans-squalene (13%), 4-butoxy-1-butanol (11.4%), gulopyranose (9.6%), lyxose (6.5%), 2,4-dimethyl-benzo[H]quinoline (5.1%), catechol (4.5%), and methoxyphenols (4.2%). The efficacy of the extract in controlling forest phytopathogens was tested in vitro against Fusarium circinatum (responsible for pitch canker of Pinus spp.), Cryphonectria parasitica (which causes chestnut blight), and Phytophthora cinnamomi (which causes 'root and crown rot' in a variety of hosts, including Castanea, conifers, Eucalyptus, Fagus, Juglans, Quercus, etc.), obtaining EC90 values of 322, 295, and 75 µg·mL-1, respectively, much lower than those attained for a commercial strobilurin fungicide (azoxystrobin). The extract was further tested ex situ against P. cinnamomi on artificially inoculated, excised stems of 'Garnem' almond rootstock, attaining complete protection at a dose of 782 µg·mL-1. The results suggest that holm oak bark extract may be a promising source of bioactive compounds against invasive forest pathogens, including the oomycete that is causing its decline, the so-called 'seca' in Spain.


Assuntos
Ballota , Fungicidas Industriais , Phytophthora , Quercus , Quinolinas , 1-Butanol , Amônia , Antibacterianos , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Catecóis , Flavonoides , Florestas , Metanol , Phytophthora/fisiologia , Casca de Planta , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Quercus/fisiologia , Esqualeno , Estrobilurinas , Taninos
14.
Molecules ; 27(19)2022 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36234776

RESUMO

Plutella xylostella L. is one of the world's major pests of cruciferous crops. The indiscriminate use of synthetic insecticides has led to insecticide resistance and resurgence, and has been harmful to non-target organisms and the environment. Botanical insecticides are the best alternatives to synthetic pesticides for the management of pests in organic agriculture and integrated management. T. sebifera is an invasive species and has good potential as an insecticide due to the availability of plant material in some parts of India. The antifeedant activities of T. sebifera have not been reported against P. xylostella and other lepidopteron insects to date. Therefore, the current study targeted the characterization of leaf and bark extracts, feeding deterrence, synergistic and detoxification enzyme activities of leaf/bark ethanolic extracts/fractions, seed oil, and isolated compounds. UHPLC-QTOF-IMS analysis showed that shikimic acid, xanthoxylin, quercetin, kaempferol, methyl gallate, and stigmasterol are common metabolites identified in leaf and bark extracts. The combination of seed oil with bark extract showed higher deterrence (DC50 = 317.10 mg/L) as compared to leaf/bark extracts alone. Gallic acid showed higher deterrence (67.48%) than kaempferol and quercetin. The n-butanol fraction of bark was more repellent (RC50 = 414.61 mg/L). Based on DC50, the seed oil with leaf extract (1:1 ratio) alone with choice and seed oil with leaf and bark extract without choice showed synergistic interaction, but seed oil with bark extract with choice showed additive interaction. The ethanol extract of leaf, bark, and seed oil inhibited GST and AChE in P. xylostella. The leaf extract and seed oil or their combinations may be recommended as antifeedants to reduce damage by P. xylostella based on persistence, antifeedant, phytotoxicity, safety to predators/parasitoids, etc., under field conditions.


Assuntos
Euphorbiaceae , Inseticidas , Mariposas , 1-Butanol/farmacologia , Animais , Etanol/farmacologia , Ácido Gálico/farmacologia , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Quempferóis/farmacologia , Larva , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Quercetina/farmacologia , Ácido Chiquímico , Estigmasterol/farmacologia
15.
Molecules ; 27(19)2022 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36234986

RESUMO

Current therapies for ischemic stroke are insufficient due to the lack of specific drugs. This study aimed to investigate the protective activity of polyphenol extracts from Terminalia chebula against cerebral ischemia-reperfusion induced damage. Polyphenols of ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions were extracted from T. chebula. BV2 microglial cells exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation and mice subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion were treated by TPE and TPB. Cell viability, cell morphology, apoptosis, mitochondrial membrane potential, enzyme activity and signaling pathway related to oxidative stress were observed. We found that TPE and TPB showed strong antioxidant activity in vitro. The protective effects of TPE and TPB on cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury were demonstrated by enhanced antioxidant enzyme activities, elevated level of the nucleus transportation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 and expressions of antioxidant proteins, with a simultaneous reduction in cell apoptosis and reactive oxygen species level. In conclusion, TPE and TPB exert neuroprotective effects by stimulating the Nrf2 signaling pathway, thereby inhibiting apoptosis.


Assuntos
Fármacos Neuroprotetores , Traumatismo por Reperfusão , Terminalia , 1-Butanol/farmacologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Glucose/farmacologia , Camundongos , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/uso terapêutico , Estresse Oxidativo , Oxigênio/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Polifenóis/uso terapêutico , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/tratamento farmacológico , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/metabolismo , Terminalia/metabolismo
16.
Molecules ; 27(19)2022 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36235221

RESUMO

Verbena officinalis L. is a traditionally important medicinal herb that has a rich source of bioactive phytoconstituents with biological benefits. The objective of this study was to assess the metabolic profile and in vitro biological potential of V. officinalis. The bioactive phytoconstituents were evaluated by preliminary phytochemical studies, estimation of polyphenolic contents, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of all fractions (crude methanolic, n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol) of V. officinalis. The biological investigation was performed by different assays including antioxidant assays (DPPH, ABTS, CUPRAC, and FRAP), enzyme inhibition assays (urease and α-glucosidase), and hemolytic activity. The ethyl acetate extract had the maximum concentration of total phenolic and total flavonoid contents (394.30 ± 1.09 mg GAE·g-1 DE and 137.35 ± 0.94 mg QE·g-1 DE, respectively). Significant antioxidant potential was observed in all fractions by all four antioxidant methods. Maximum urease inhibitory activity in terms of IC50 value was shown by ethyl acetate fraction (10 ± 1.60 µg mL-1) in comparison to standard hydroxy urea (9.8 ± 1.20 µg·mL-1). The n-hexane extract showed good α-glucosidase inhibitory efficacy (420 ± 20 µg·mL-1) as compared to other extract/fractions. Minimum hemolytic activity was found in crude methanolic fraction (6.5 ± 0.94%) in comparison to positive standard Triton X-100 (93.5 ± 0.48%). The GC-MS analysis of all extract/fractions of V. officinalis including crude methanolic, n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol fractions, resulted in the identification of 24, 56, 25, and 9 bioactive compounds, respectively, with 80% quality index. Furthermore, the bioactive compounds identified by GC-MS were analyzed using in silico molecular docking studies to determine the binding affinity between ligands and enzymes (urease and α-glucosidase). In conclusion, V. officinalis possesses multiple therapeutical potentials, and further research is needed to explore its use in the treatment of chronic diseases.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Verbena , 1-Butanol , Acetatos , Antioxidantes/química , Flavonoides/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Hexanos , Ligantes , Metanol/química , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Octoxinol/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Ureia/análise , Urease , alfa-Glucosidases
17.
Molecules ; 27(19)2022 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36235272

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the antiglycation effects of adlay on protein glycation using in vitro glycation assays. Adlay seed was divided into the following four parts: the hull (AH), testa (AT), bran (AB), and polished adlay (PA). A solvent extraction technique and column chromatography were utilized to investigate the active fractions and components of adlay. Based on a BSA-glucose assay, the ethanolic extracts of AT (ATE) and AB (ABE) revealed a greater capacity to inhibit protein glycation. ATE was further consecutively partitioned into four solvent fractions with n-hexane, ethyl acetate (ATE-Ea), 1-butanol (ATE-BuOH), and water. ATE-BuOH and -Ea show marked inhibition of glucose-mediated glycation. Medium-high polarity subfractions eluted from ATE-BuOH below 50% methanol with Diaion HP-20, ATE-BuOH-c to -f, exhibited superior antiglycation activity, with a maximum inhibitory percentage of 88%. Two phenolic compounds, chlorogenic acid and ferulic acid, identified in ATE-BuOH with HPLC, exhibited potent inhibition of the individual stage of protein glycation and its subsequent crosslinking, as evaluated by the BSA-glucose assay, BS-methylglyoxal (MGO) assay, and G.K. peptide-ribose assay. In conclusion, this study demonstrated the antiglycation properties of ATE in vitro that suggest a beneficial effect in targeting hyperglycemia-mediated protein modification.


Assuntos
Coix , Polifenóis , 1-Butanol , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Ácido Clorogênico/análise , Coix/química , Glucose/análise , Óxido de Magnésio , Metanol/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Polifenóis/análise , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Aldeído Pirúvico/análise , Ribose , Sementes/química , Solventes/análise , Água/análise
18.
Molecules ; 27(20)2022 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36296481

RESUMO

Plants of the genus Strobilanthes have notable use in folklore medicines as well as being used for pharmacological purposes. The present work explored the biological predispositions of Strobilanthes glutinosus and attempted to accomplish a comprehensive chemical profile through GC-MS of different fractions concerning polarity (chloroform and n-butanol) and LC-ESI-MS of methanolic extract by both positive and negative ionization modes. The biological characteristics such as antioxidant potential were assessed by applying six different methods. The potential for clinically relevant enzyme (α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and tyrosinase) inhibition was examined. The DPPH, ABTS, CUPRAC, and FRAP results revealed that the methanol fraction presented efficient results. The phosphomolybdenum assay revealed that the n-hexane fraction showed the most efficient results, while maximum metal chelation potential was observed for the chloroform fraction. The GC-MS profiling of n-butanol and chloroform fractions revealed the existence of several (110) important compounds presenting different classes (fatty acids, phenols, alkanes, monoterpenes, diterpenes, sesquiterpenoids, and sterols), while LC-ESI-MS tentatively identified the presence of 44 clinically important secondary metabolites. The n-hexane fraction exhibited the highest potential against α-amylase (497.98 mm ACAE/g extract) and α-glucosidase (605.85 mm ACAE/g extract). Significant inhibitory activity against tyrosinase enzyme was displayed by fraction. Six of the prevailing compounds from the GC-MS study (lupeol, beta-amyrin, stigmasterol, gamma sitosterol, 9,12-octadecadienoic acid, and n-hexadecanoic acid) were modelled against α-glucosidase and α-amylase enzymes along with a comparison of binding affinity to standard acarbose, while three compounds identified through LC-ESI-MS were docked to the mushroom tyrosinase enzyme and presented with significant biding affinities. Thus, it is assumed that S. glutinosus demonstrated effective antioxidant and enzyme inhibition prospects with effective bioactive molecules, potentially opening the door to a new application in the field of medicine.


Assuntos
Plantas Medicinais , Plantas Medicinais/química , Antioxidantes/química , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase , Sitosteroides , Metanol/química , alfa-Glucosidases , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Clorofórmio , Acarbose , 1-Butanol , Estigmasterol , Ácido Palmítico , Ácido Linoleico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Fenóis/análise , alfa-Amilases , Monoterpenos , Alcanos
19.
Molecules ; 27(20)2022 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36296566

RESUMO

The study aimed to develop a method for the separation of dispersed dyes extracted from polyester fibers. Nine commercially available disperse dyes, which were used to dye three polyester fabrics, were tested. Extraction of dyes from 1 cm long threads was carried out in chlorobenzene at 100 °C for 6 h. The separation was performed using microemulsion electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MEEKC) with photodiode array detection. Microemulsion based on a borate buffer with an organic phase of n-octane and butanol and a mixture of surfactants, sodium dodecyl sulphate and sodium cholate, were used. The addition of isopropanol and cyclodextrins to microemulsion resulted in a notable improvement in resolution and selectivity. The content of additives was optimized by using the Doehlert experimental design. Values of the coefficient of variance obtained in the validation process, illustrating the repeatability and intermediate precision of the migration times fit in the range of 0.11-1.24% and 0.58-3.21%, respectively. The developed method was also successfully applied to the differentiation of 28 real samples-polyester threads collected from clothing. The obtained results confirmed that proposed method may be used in the discriminant analysis of polyesters dying by disperse dyes and is promisingly employable in forensic practice.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Capilar Eletrocinética Micelar , Ciclodextrinas , Dodecilsulfato de Sódio/química , Cromatografia Capilar Eletrocinética Micelar/métodos , Emulsões/química , Poliésteres , Corantes , Projetos de Pesquisa , Boratos , Colato de Sódio , 2-Propanol , Tensoativos/química , 1-Butanol , Clorobenzenos
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36231448

RESUMO

During the last decade in Korea, urinary cotinine concentrations in non-current smokers have decreased, making it difficult to distinguish secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure from nonsmokers because of overlapping values between non-current smokers with and without SHS exposure. Additionally, the importance of smoking status verification to avoid misclassification is increasing with the increased use of e-cigarettes. We developed a novel index combining urinary cotinine and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) and evaluated its diagnostic performance for the classification of smoking status using the KNHANES VII dataset. A total of 10,116 and 5575 Korean participants aged >19 years with measured urinary cotinine concentrations were enrolled in a training set and validation set, respectively. When using 4.0 as the cutoff value for distinguishing current smokers from non-current smokers, urinary cotinine∙NNAL showed a better diagnostic performance than urinary cotinine or urinary NNAL. Among e-cigarette users, urinary cotinine∙NNAL showed more accurate classification rates than urinary NNAL. Furthermore, urinary cotinine∙NNAL had measurable values in non-current smokers, whereas urinary cotinine had unmeasurable values in one-fourth of all participants. This study shows that urinary cotinine∙NNAL might be a useful biomarker for smoking status verification and trend monitoring of tobacco smoking exposure with increased use of e-cigarettes.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Nitrosaminas , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco , 1-Butanol , Biomarcadores , Cotinina , Humanos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/análise , Fumar Tabaco
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