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2.
Nutrients ; 13(3)2021 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33652968

RESUMO

This study aims to estimate the free sugars intake, identify the primary food sources of free sugars, and explore the relationship between free sugars intake and dental caries among Chinese adolescents. This cross-sectional study included 1517 middle-school students aged 12-14 years in Changsha city, China. Adolescents completed a 12-item Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and oral health assessment. The students' dental caries experience was available as DMFT score (number of decayed, missing, and filled permanent teeth). Statistical analyses included the Mann-Whitney test, Kruskal-Wallis test, Chi-square test, and binary logistic regression model. The average intake of free sugars was 53.1 g/d in adolescents, and 43.2% of the students consumed more than 50 g of free sugars daily. The primary contributor to free sugars was sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). Age, boarders, and high family income were risk factors for excessive free sugars intake (p < 0.05), and increased free sugars intake was a risk factor for dental caries (odds ratio, OR = 1.446, 95% confidence interval: 1.138-1.839). Both the free sugars intake and dental caries prevalence in Chinese adolescents were high. Targeted interventions are urgently needed to address the excessive consumption of free sugars and improve Chinese adolescents' oral health.


Assuntos
Saúde do Adolescente/estatística & dados numéricos , Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Açúcares da Dieta/análise , Saúde Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/estatística & dados numéricos , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Cárie Dentária/etiologia , Testes de Atividade de Cárie Dentária , Diagnóstico Bucal , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Açúcares da Dieta/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Bebidas Adoçadas com Açúcar/efeitos adversos , Bebidas Adoçadas com Açúcar/estatística & dados numéricos
4.
Nutrients ; 13(2)2021 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33573027

RESUMO

The associations among early childhood caries (ECC), socioeconomic status, and sugar consumption are of the utmost importance, due to their potential policy implications. The purpose of this study was to identify trends in ECC burden in children under 5 years old among European Union (EU) member states over time and to evaluate the relationship with its risk factors. Global Burden of Disease 2019 data were analyzed to estimate the burden of ECC over time, specifically incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability (YLDs) for children under 5 years old. Four ecological variables with a potential effect on YLDs for ECC were used to investigate the association between 2014 and 2017. The YLDs rate was consistently higher among Eastern EU countries over time. Univariate models showed a positive significant association between at-risk-of-poverty rate and YLDs rate, while GDP per capita and urbanization were inversely associated with YLDs rate. In the multivariate analysis, sugar consumption, GDP per capita and urbanization showed significant association with YLDs rate. After stratification by region, association remained significant only in the Eastern EU countries between GDP, urbanization, and YLDs rate, while sugar consumption and at-risk-of-poverty rate had no significant impact on YLDs rates. This study found increasing ECC burden in the EU. The complexity of the problem indicates the need for innovative and personalized policy approaches to tackle the disease.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , União Europeia/estatística & dados numéricos , Carga Global da Doença/tendências , Saúde Global/tendências , Saúde Bucal/tendências , Pré-Escolar , Cárie Dentária/etiologia , Suscetibilidade à Cárie Dentária , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Açúcares da Dieta/efeitos adversos , Açúcares da Dieta/análise , Pessoas com Deficiência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Produto Interno Bruto , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevalência , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Fatores de Risco , Urbanização/tendências
5.
N Engl J Med ; 384(14): 1312-1322, 2021 04 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33626252

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most data regarding the association between the glycemic index and cardiovascular disease come from high-income Western populations, with little information from non-Western countries with low or middle incomes. To fill this gap, data are needed from a large, geographically diverse population. METHODS: This analysis includes 137,851 participants between the ages of 35 and 70 years living on five continents, with a median follow-up of 9.5 years. We used country-specific food-frequency questionnaires to determine dietary intake and estimated the glycemic index and glycemic load on the basis of the consumption of seven categories of carbohydrate foods. We calculated hazard ratios using multivariable Cox frailty models. The primary outcome was a composite of a major cardiovascular event (cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, stroke, and heart failure) or death from any cause. RESULTS: In the study population, 8780 deaths and 8252 major cardiovascular events occurred during the follow-up period. After performing extensive adjustments comparing the lowest and highest glycemic-index quintiles, we found that a diet with a high glycemic index was associated with an increased risk of a major cardiovascular event or death, both among participants with preexisting cardiovascular disease (hazard ratio, 1.51; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.25 to 1.82) and among those without such disease (hazard ratio, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.11 to 1.34). Among the components of the primary outcome, a high glycemic index was also associated with an increased risk of death from cardiovascular causes. The results with respect to glycemic load were similar to the findings regarding the glycemic index among the participants with cardiovascular disease at baseline, but the association was not significant among those without preexisting cardiovascular disease. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, a diet with a high glycemic index was associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and death. (Funded by the Population Health Research Institute and others.).


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Carboidratos da Dieta/efeitos adversos , Índice Glicêmico , Carga Glicêmica , Adulto , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Açúcares da Dieta/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
6.
Nutrients ; 12(12)2020 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33352724

RESUMO

Sugar-sweetened beverage (sugar-SB) consumption is associated with body weight gain. We investigated whether the changes of (Δ) circulating leptin contribute to weight gain and ad libitum food intake in young adults consuming sugar-SB for two weeks. In a parallel, double-blinded, intervention study, participants (n = 131; BMI 18-35 kg/m2; 18-40 years) consumed three beverages/day containing aspartame or 25% energy requirement as glucose, fructose, high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) or sucrose (n = 23-28/group). Body weight, ad libitum food intake and 24-h leptin area under the curve (AUC) were assessed at Week 0 and at the end of Week 2. The Δbody weight was not different among groups (p = 0.092), but the increases in subjects consuming HFCS- (p = 0.0008) and glucose-SB (p = 0.018) were significant compared with Week 0. Subjects consuming sucrose- (+14%, p < 0.0015), fructose- (+9%, p = 0.015) and HFCS-SB (+8%, p = 0.017) increased energy intake during the ad libitum food intake trial compared with subjects consuming aspartame-SB (-4%, p = 0.0037, effect of SB). Fructose-SB decreased (-14 ng/mL × 24 h, p = 0.0006) and sucrose-SB increased (+25 ng/mL × 24 h, p = 0.025 vs. Week 0; p = 0.0008 vs. fructose-SB) 24-h leptin AUC. The Δad libitum food intake and Δbody weight were not influenced by circulating leptin in young adults consuming sugar-SB for 2 weeks. Studies are needed to determine the mechanisms mediating increased energy intake in subjects consuming sugar-SB.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Açúcares da Dieta/efeitos adversos , Leptina/sangue , Bebidas Adoçadas com Açúcar/efeitos adversos , Edulcorantes/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Área Sob a Curva , Aspartame/efeitos adversos , Método Duplo-Cego , Ingestão de Alimentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ingestão de Energia/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Período Pós-Prandial/efeitos dos fármacos , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto Jovem
7.
Nutrients ; 12(11)2020 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33167515

RESUMO

Past public health crises (e.g., tobacco, alcohol, opioids, cholera, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), lead, pollution, venereal disease, even coronavirus (COVID-19) have been met with interventions targeted both at the individual and all of society. While the healthcare community is very aware that the global pandemic of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) has its origins in our Western ultraprocessed food diet, society has been slow to initiate any interventions other than public education, which has been ineffective, in part due to food industry interference. This article provides the rationale for such public health interventions, by compiling the evidence that added sugar, and by proxy the ultraprocessed food category, meets the four criteria set by the public health community as necessary and sufficient for regulation-abuse, toxicity, ubiquity, and externalities (How does your consumption affect me?). To their credit, some countries have recently heeded this science and have instituted sugar taxation policies to help ameliorate NCDs within their borders. This article also supplies scientific counters to food industry talking points, and sample intervention strategies, in order to guide both scientists and policy makers in instituting further appropriate public health measures to quell this pandemic.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo/prevenção & controle , Dieta , Açúcares da Dieta/efeitos adversos , Fast Foods/efeitos adversos , Indústria Alimentícia/legislação & jurisprudência , Doenças não Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Saúde Pública , Comportamento Aditivo/etiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus , Comportamento Alimentar , Manipulação de Alimentos/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Política Pública , Controle Social Formal , Impostos
9.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4653, 2020 09 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32938923

RESUMO

Cancer cells demand excess nutrients to support their proliferation, but how tumours exploit extracellular amino acids during systemic metabolic perturbations remain incompletely understood. Here, we use a Drosophila model of high-sugar diet (HSD)-enhanced tumourigenesis to uncover a systemic host-tumour metabolic circuit that supports tumour growth. We demonstrate coordinate induction of systemic muscle wasting with tumour-autonomous Yorkie-mediated SLC36-family amino acid transporter expression as a proline-scavenging programme to drive tumourigenesis. We identify Indole-3-propionic acid as an optimal amino acid derivative to rationally target the proline-dependency of tumour growth. Insights from this whole-animal Drosophila model provide a powerful approach towards the identification and therapeutic exploitation of the amino acid vulnerabilities of tumourigenesis in the context of a perturbed systemic metabolic network.


Assuntos
Açúcares da Dieta/efeitos adversos , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Esquelético/fisiopatologia , Neoplasias Experimentais/fisiopatologia , Prolina/metabolismo , Sistemas de Transporte de Aminoácidos/genética , Sistemas de Transporte de Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Carcinogênese , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/metabolismo , Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/genética , Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Hemolinfa/efeitos dos fármacos , Hemolinfa/metabolismo , Larva , Debilidade Muscular/induzido quimicamente , Debilidade Muscular/patologia , Atrofia Muscular/induzido quimicamente , Atrofia Muscular/patologia , Neoplasias Experimentais/etiologia , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Receptores Proteína Tirosina Quinases/metabolismo , Transativadores/genética , Proteínas ras/genética
10.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 30(10): 1673-1678, 2020 09 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32736955

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The present study analyzes the relation between diet and all-cause mortality in a cohort of Italian men residing in different regions of Italy. METHODS AND RESULTS: The cohort was established using the members of the Associazione Nazionale Alpini, a voluntary organization that enlists individuals who have served in the Alpine troup; a mountain warfare infantry corps of the Italian Army. For the purpose of these analyses a total of 5049 participants were followed for an average of seven years. At baseline information was collected regarding age, education, life style habits, with special emphasis on diet (with the use of a validated dietary questionnaire), smoking and alcohol use. A total of 190 deaths were ascertained. In multivariate analyses the consumption of a Mediterranean type diet was inversely associated with mortality. Additional findings of relevance include: an inverse association between mortality and intake of vegetable fats and proteins, monounsaturated (MUFA) fats of vegetable origins, starch and folic acid. Positive association were evident between mortality and intake of animal fats, MUFA of animal origins and sugar. CONCLUSIONS: This study, focusing on a homogenous cohort characterized by a varied intake and high intake of monounsaturated fats, confirms the inverse association between a Mediterranean type diet and mortality and points out that the nature of the MUFA may be relevant for their effects on health. In addition, the study confirms that fats of animal origins and dietary sugar are associated with an overall deleterious effect on mortality.


Assuntos
Causas de Morte , Dieta Saudável , Dieta Mediterrânea , Comportamento Alimentar , Adulto , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Gorduras na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Açúcares da Dieta/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saúde Militar , Fatores de Proteção , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
11.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 148(7): 906-914, jul. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1139391

RESUMO

Background: Sugar intake is a risk factor for the development of obesity. Aim: To investigate the association between total sugar intake and obesity markers in Chilean adults. Material and Methods: This cross-sectional study included 396 participants of the GENADIO study. Anthropometric measurements (body weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC), waist-to-hip ratio, and % body fat) were measured through standardized protocols. Total sugar intake was determined from a 7-days weighted food daily. Sugar intake expressed in g/day was categorized into quartiles. Results: Higher sugar intake was associated with a higher BMI, WC and HC but not with body fat %. One quartile increment in sugar intake was associated with 1.50 kg [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.49; 2.50] higher body weight, 0.34 kg/m2 [95% CI: 0.01; 0.69] higher BMI, 1.23 cm [95% CI: 0.11; 2.34] higher WC, 1.39 cm [95% CI: 0.28; 2.50] higher HC and 0.02 the waist-to-hip ratio [95% C: 0.01; 0.02]. Conclusions: Total sugar intake was associated with higher adiposity levels in these Chilean adults.


Assuntos
Humanos , Adulto , Açúcares da Dieta/efeitos adversos , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Chile/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais
12.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 331, 2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32223751

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association between Free Sugars intake and non-communicable diseases such as obesity and dental caries is well documented and several countries are taking measures to reduce sugars intakes. Public Health England (PHE) instigated a range of approaches to reduce sugars, including a national health marketing campaign (Sugar Smart). The campaign aimed to raise awareness of the amount of sugars in foods and drinks and to encourage parents to reduce their children's intake. The aim of this study was to determine whether the campaign was effective in altering dietary behaviour, by assessing any impact of the campaign on sugars intake among children aged 5-11 years. Parental perceptions of the campaign and barriers to reducing sugars intake were also explored. METHODS: Parents of 873 children aged 5-11 years, identified from an existing PHE database, were invited to take part. Dietary information was collected online using Intake24 before, during, and at 1, 10 and 12 months following the campaign. Change in sugars intake was assessed using mixed effects linear regression models. One-to-one telephone interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of parents to explore perceptions of the campaign and identify barriers and facilitators to reducing children's sugars intake. RESULTS: Completion rates for dietary assessment ranged from 61 to 72% across the follow up time points. Qualitative telephone interviews were conducted with 20 parents. Total sugars intake decreased on average by ~ 6.2 g/day (SD 43.8) at peak campaign and the percentage of energy from total sugars significantly decreased immediately and 1 year post campaign. The percentage of energy from Free Sugars significantly decreased across all time points with the exception of the long term follow up at 12-months post campaign. The percentage of energy intake from total fat increased. Parents expressed a willingness to reduce sugars intakes, however, identified barriers including time constraints, the normalisation of sugary treats, and confusing information. CONCLUSIONS: A health marketing campaign had a positive impact in reducing sugars intake but reductions in sugars were not sustained. Parents want to reduce their child's sugars intake but societal barriers and confusion over which sources of sugars to avoid hamper efforts to change.


Assuntos
Dieta/psicologia , Açúcares da Dieta/análise , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Pais/psicologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cárie Dentária/etiologia , Cárie Dentária/psicologia , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Açúcares da Dieta/efeitos adversos , Ingestão de Energia , Inglaterra , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Marketing , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/psicologia
13.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 4: CD012333, 2020 04 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32270494

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Global prevalence of overweight and obesity are alarming. For tackling this public health problem, preventive public health and policy actions are urgently needed. Some countries implemented food taxes in the past and some were subsequently abolished. Some countries, such as Norway, Hungary, Denmark, Bermuda, Dominica, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, and the Navajo Nation (USA), specifically implemented taxes on unprocessed sugar and sugar-added foods. These taxes on unprocessed sugar and sugar-added foods are fiscal policy interventions, implemented to decrease their consumption and in turn reduce adverse health-related, economic and social effects associated with these food products. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of taxation of unprocessed sugar or sugar-added foods in the general population on the consumption of unprocessed sugar or sugar-added foods, the prevalence and incidence of overweight and obesity, and the prevalence and incidence of other diet-related health outcomes. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, MEDLINE, Embase and 15 other databases and trials registers on 12 September 2019. We handsearched the reference list of all records of included studies, searched websites of international organisations and institutions, and contacted review advisory group members to identify planned, ongoing or unpublished studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included studies with the following populations: children (0 to 17 years) and adults (18 years or older) from any country and setting. Exclusion applied to studies with specific subgroups, such as people with any disease who were overweight or obese as a side-effect of the disease. The review included studies with taxes on or artificial increases of selling prices for unprocessed sugar or food products that contain added sugar (e.g. sweets, ice cream, confectionery, and bakery products), or both, as intervention, regardless of the taxation level or price increase. In line with Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care (EPOC) criteria, we included randomised controlled trials (RCTs), cluster-randomised controlled trials (cRCTs), non-randomised controlled trials (nRCTs), controlled before-after (CBA) studies, and interrupted time series (ITS) studies. We included controlled studies with more than one intervention or control site and ITS studies with a clearly defined intervention time and at least three data points before and three after the intervention. Our primary outcomes were consumption of unprocessed sugar or sugar-added foods, energy intake, overweight, and obesity. Our secondary outcomes were substitution and diet, expenditure, demand, and other health outcomes. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently screened all eligible records for inclusion, assessed the risk of bias, and performed data extraction.Two review authors independently assessed the certainty of the evidence using the GRADE approach. MAIN RESULTS: We retrieved a total of 24,454 records. After deduplicating records, 18,767 records remained for title and abstract screening. Of 11 potentially relevant studies, we included one ITS study with 40,210 household-level observations from the Hungarian Household Budget and Living Conditions Survey. The baseline ranged from January 2008 to August 2011, the intervention was implemented on September 2011, and follow-up was until December 2012 (16 months). The intervention was a tax - the so-called 'Hungarian public health product tax' - on sugar-added foods, including selected foods exceeding a specific sugar threshold value. The intervention includes co-interventions: the taxation of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) and of foods high in salt or caffeine. The study provides evidence on the effect of taxing foods exceeding a specific sugar threshold value on the consumption of sugar-added foods. After implementation of the Hungarian public health product tax, the mean consumption of taxed sugar-added foods (measured in units of kg) decreased by 4.0% (standardised mean difference (SMD) -0.040, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.07 to -0.01; very low-certainty evidence). The study was at low risk of bias in terms of performance bias, detection bias and reporting bias, with the shape of effect pre-specified and the intervention unlikely to have any effect on data collection. The study was at unclear risk of attrition bias and at high risk in terms of other bias and the independence of the intervention. We rated the certainty of the evidence as very low for the primary and secondary outcomes. The Hungarian public health product tax included a tax on sugar-added foods but did not include a tax on unprocessed sugar. We did not find eligible studies reporting on the taxation of unprocessed sugar. No studies reported on the primary outcomes of consumption of unprocessed sugar, energy intake, overweight, and obesity. No studies reported on the secondary outcomes of substitution and diet, demand, and other health outcomes. No studies reported on differential effects across population subgroups. We could not perform meta-analyses or pool study results. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: There was very limited evidence and the certainty of the evidence was very low. Despite the reported reduction in consumption of taxed sugar-added foods, we are uncertain whether taxing unprocessed sugar or sugar-added foods has an effect on reducing their consumption and preventing obesity or other adverse health outcomes. Further robustly conducted studies are required to draw concrete conclusions on the effectiveness of taxing unprocessed sugar or sugar-added foods for reducing their consumption and preventing obesity or other adverse health outcomes.


Assuntos
Açúcares da Dieta/economia , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Impostos , Açúcares da Dieta/efeitos adversos , Açúcares da Dieta/provisão & distribução , Alimentos/economia , Manipulação de Alimentos , Humanos , Hungria , Análise de Séries Temporais Interrompida , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/prevenção & controle , Prevalência
14.
Arch Endocrinol Metab ; 64(1): 71-81, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32187264

RESUMO

Objective Provide a comprehensive view of the events surrounding the sugar consumption, under conditions of energy equivalence; through the analysis of behavioral aspects of intake, and of biochemical, metabolic and physiological parameters, as well as the effect of this nutrient on the plasticity of adipose tissue. Materials and methods Newly weaned male Wistar rats were classified in two groups and subjected to the following normocaloric diets: standard chow diet or to high-sugar diet (HSD) ad libitum for 18 weeks. Results The animals submitted to the HSD were associated with a lower caloric intake during the 18 weeks of experimentation. However, the HSD induced a significant increase in body weight, white adipose tissue weight, adiposity index, Lee index, and the levels of triglycerides and very low-density lipoprotein in the serum. In addition, it induced glucose intolerance, insulin resistance and compensatory increase of insulin secretion by pancreatic ß-cells. Also increased heart rate and induced hyperplasia, and hypertrophy of retroperitoneal visceral adipose tissue. In the liver, the HSD was associated with increased hepatic lipid content (i.e., triglycerides and cholesterol) and hepatomegaly. Conclusion The post-weaning consumption of HSD induces an adaptive response in metabolism; however, such an event is not enough to reverse the homeostatic imbalance triggered by the chronic consumption of this macronutrient, leading to the development of metabolic syndrome, irrespective of caloric intake. These findings corroborate recent evidence indicating that sugar is a direct contributor to metabolic diseases independent of a positive energy balance. Arch Endocrinol Metab. 2020;64(1):71-81.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Açúcares da Dieta/metabolismo , Ingestão de Energia , Metabolismo Energético , Doenças Metabólicas/metabolismo , Obesidade/metabolismo , Animais , Açúcares da Dieta/efeitos adversos , Açúcares da Dieta/sangue , Masculino , Doenças Metabólicas/sangue , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/etiologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
15.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 125: 109968, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32066041

RESUMO

Metabolic syndrome is a complex of metabolic disorders characterized by oxidative stress which compromises cell functions and entails multiple organs pathologies. We investigated the therapeutic and protective potential of Adansonia digitata fruit -a potent antioxidant- in high sugar/high fat diet-simulated metabolic syndrome in Wistar rats. 42 male rats (140-200 g) were randomly divided into 7 groups. G1 was kept on standard laboratory diet (SLD) for all 9 weeks (negative control). 5 groups were fed high Sugar/high fat diet for 6 weeks then switched to SLD for another 3 weeks + oral treatment as follows: G2+ no treatment (positive control), G3-G5 + 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg/day aqueous A. digitata fruit respectively, G6 + 10 mg/kg/day Simvastatin. G7 + HS/HFD + 400 mg/kg/day A. digitata fruit simultaneously and was terminated at W6. Our results showed that G2-G6 develops dyslipidemia, hyperglycaemia, weight gain, elevated hepatic biomarkers, elevated creatinine and urea plus pathological derangements in the heart, liver and kidney tissues compared to negative control at W6. 200 mg/kg/day A. digitata fruit significantly ameliorated the induced dyslipidemia (P ≤ 0.001), hyperglycaemia (P ≤ 0.001) with a significant reduction in the Atherogenic Index of Plasma (P ≤ 0.000) after 3 weeks treatment. The fruit normalized the elevated hepatic biomarkers as well as creatinine and urea. A dose dependent partial reduction in lesion intensity was observed in the hepatic tissue while the heart and kidney showed mostly reversed to normal histology. The inflammatory infiltration was eliminated. Relevant results were observed for the two higher doses. The simultaneous treatment showed significant lower levels in all biomarkers investigated compared to positive control which could be interpreted as protective activity. A reduction of 4-11% in whole body weight was achieved. CONCLUSION: MetS was successfully simulated with a HS/HFD formula in male Wistar rats. Treatment with aqueous A. digitata fruit showed anti-Metabolic Syndrome potential reflected by weight loss, anti-inflammatory, hypolipidemic, hypoglycaemic, renal, hepatic and cardio-protective activities.


Assuntos
Adansonia/química , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Açúcares da Dieta/efeitos adversos , Frutas , Síndrome Metabólica/induzido quimicamente , Síndrome Metabólica/prevenção & controle , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Biomarcadores , Glicemia , Açúcares da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
16.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 64(1): 71-81, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088771

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Objective Provide a comprehensive view of the events surrounding the sugar consumption, under conditions of energy equivalence; through the analysis of behavioral aspects of intake, and of biochemical, metabolic and physiological parameters, as well as the effect of this nutrient on the plasticity of adipose tissue. Materials and methods Newly weaned male Wistar rats were classified in two groups and subjected to the following normocaloric diets: standard chow diet or to high-sugar diet (HSD) ad libitum for 18 weeks. Results The animals submitted to the HSD were associated with a lower caloric intake during the 18 weeks of experimentation. However, the HSD induced a significant increase in body weight, white adipose tissue weight, adiposity index, Lee index, and the levels of triglycerides and very low-density lipoprotein in the serum. In addition, it induced glucose intolerance, insulin resistance and compensatory increase of insulin secretion by pancreatic β-cells. Also increased heart rate and induced hyperplasia, and hypertrophy of retroperitoneal visceral adipose tissue. In the liver, the HSD was associated with increased hepatic lipid content (i.e., triglycerides and cholesterol) and hepatomegaly. Conclusion The post-weaning consumption of HSD induces an adaptive response in metabolism; however, such an event is not enough to reverse the homeostatic imbalance triggered by the chronic consumption of this macronutrient, leading to the development of metabolic syndrome, irrespective of caloric intake. These findings corroborate recent evidence indicating that sugar is a direct contributor to metabolic diseases independent of a positive energy balance. Arch Endocrinol Metab. 2020;64(1):71-81


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Ratos , Ingestão de Energia , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Metabolismo Energético , Açúcares da Dieta/metabolismo , Doenças Metabólicas/metabolismo , Obesidade/metabolismo , Ratos Wistar , Açúcares da Dieta/efeitos adversos , Açúcares da Dieta/sangue , Doenças Metabólicas/sangue
17.
Nutrients ; 12(2)2020 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31991601

RESUMO

Color nutrition information (CNI) based on a traffic light system conveys information about food quality with a glance. The color red typically indicates detrimental food characteristics (e.g., very high sugar content) and aims at inhibiting food shopping and consumption. Red may, however, also elicit cross-modal associations with sweet taste, which is a preferable food characteristic. We conducted two experiments. An eye-tracking study investigated whether CNI has an effect on cue reactivity (dwell time, saccadic latency, wanting/liking) for sweet foods. The participants were presented with images depicting sweets (e.g., cake). Each image was preceded by a colored circle that informed about the sugar content of the food (red = high, green = low, gray = unknown). It was tested whether the red circle would help the participants to direct their gaze away from the 'high sugar' item. A second experiment investigated whether colored prime circles (red, green, gray) without nutrition information would influence the assumed sweetness of a food. In Experiment 1, CNI had the opposite of the intended effect. Dwell time and saccadic latency were higher for food items preceded by a red compared to a green circle. This unintended response was positively associated with participants' liking of sweet foods. CNI did not change the wanting/liking of the displayed foods. In Experiment 2, we found no evidence for color priming on the assumed sweetness of food. Our results question whether CNI is helpful to influence initial cue reactivity toward sweet foods.


Assuntos
Cor , Sinais (Psicologia) , Açúcares da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Rotulagem de Alimentos , Preferências Alimentares , Sugestão , Paladar , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Comportamento de Escolha , Comportamento do Consumidor , Açúcares da Dieta/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Valor Nutritivo , Estimulação Luminosa , Tempo de Reação , Recomendações Nutricionais , Movimentos Sacádicos , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
18.
Sleep Health ; 6(2): 214-219, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31932239

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Associations of dietary patterns with sleep quality have not been sufficiently studied, particularly among young adults. Studying factors associated with sleep quality among young adults are especially important given the significant life changes they are experiencing, which can influence not only sleep quality but also dietary behaviors. METHODS: We examined the cross-sectional association of sleep quality among 462 women at age 23 years. We used the Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) to define sleep quality. Intake over the previous 7 days of fruits and vegetables, soda, sports drinks, other sweetened drinks, and coffee drinks was assessed by a self-report questionnaire. Linear regression analysis examined the association between PSQI scores and dietary intake. RESULTS: About 47% of participants were White, 25% Black, 10% Hispanic, and 18% Other. Almost ½ (45%) reported poor sleep quality. Compared with participants reporting consuming no energy drinks, participants who reported consuming any energy drinks had PSQI scores that were 0.84 points higher (7.08 ± 0.51 vs 6.24 ± 0.39; p=0.04) (indicating poorer sleep quality). Participants who reported drinking one or more high-calorie coffee drinks had PSQI scores that were 1.00 points higher compared with those reporting drinking no high-calorie coffee drinks (7.14 ± 0.51 vs 6.14 ± 0.42; p=0.02). Fruit or vegetable intake was not associated with PSQI score. CONCLUSIONS: Poor sleep quality is prevalent among young women. Young women with poor sleep quality should consider their sugary caffeine use to determine if it may be associated with their sleep.


Assuntos
Cafeína/efeitos adversos , Açúcares da Dieta/efeitos adversos , Comportamento Alimentar , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/epidemiologia , Cafeína/administração & dosagem , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Açúcares da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Adulto Jovem
19.
Cell Mol Life Sci ; 77(11): 2079-2090, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31760464

RESUMO

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a chronic, frequently progressive condition that develops in response to excessive hepatocyte fat accumulation (i.e., steatosis) in the absence of significant alcohol consumption. Liver steatosis develops as a result of imbalanced lipid metabolism, driven largely by increased rates of de novo lipogenesis and hepatic fatty acid uptake and reduced fatty acid oxidation and/or disposal to the circulation. Fructose is a naturally occurring simple sugar, which is most commonly consumed in modern diets in the form of sucrose, a disaccharide comprised of one molecule of fructose covalently bonded with one molecule of glucose. A number of observational and experimental studies have demonstrated detrimental effects of dietary fructose consumption not only on diverse metabolic outcomes such as insulin resistance and obesity, but also on hepatic steatosis and NAFLD-related fibrosis. Despite the compelling evidence that excessive fructose consumption is associated with the presence of NAFLD and may even promote the development and progression of NAFLD to more clinically severe phenotypes, the molecular mechanisms by which fructose elicits effects on dysregulated liver metabolism remain unclear. Emerging data suggest that dietary fructose may directly alter the expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism, including those that increase hepatic fat accumulation or reduce hepatic fat removal. The aim of this review is to summarize the current research supporting a role for dietary fructose intake in the modulation of transcriptomic and epigenetic mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of NAFLD.


Assuntos
Açúcares da Dieta/metabolismo , Epigênese Genética , Frutose/metabolismo , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/genética , Animais , Metilação de DNA , Açúcares da Dieta/efeitos adversos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Frutose/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/etiologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia , Transcriptoma
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