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1.
Nurse Pract ; 44(10): 38-42, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31568029

RESUMO

The US industrial revolution led to a significant increase in the amount of dietary sugar consumed annually. The impact has become a public health crisis over the past several decades. The consequences are seen in the dramatic rise in rates of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular disease.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Açúcares da Dieta/efeitos adversos , Obesidade/epidemiologia , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
2.
Am J Case Rep ; 20: 1364-1368, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31522189

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Recent discoveries in the field of immunometabolism, and on the role of the serine-threonine kinase mTOR as a sensor of nutrients, integrator of cellular signaling pathways, and regulator of metabolism, have widened our understanding of the connection between nutrition, health, and diseases. Epidemiological studies have shown that higher sugar-sweetened beverage consumption is associated with increased risk of developing chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, gout, and rheumatoid arthritis and to worse symptoms in some patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Anabolic metabolism has been demonstrated to favor the differentiation of proinflammatory T lymphocytes while katabolic metabolism to favor regulatory T lymphocyte differentiation. CASE REPORT In a 66-year old male, the onset of gonarthritis and enthesitis and worsening of these symptoms 3 months later were associated with excessive intake of desserts. Two weeks after starting strict avoidance of sugar containing nutrients and beverages symptoms disappeared. During the next 6 months, on 3 occasions, the exceptional consumption of a dessert was followed by a mild and transient recurrence of the symptoms. CONCLUSIONS The repeatedly observed recurrence of enthesitis/arthritis symptoms following sugar intake and its disappearance following avoidance of sugar, represents an extreme example of a link between metabolism and local inflammation in the reported individual. The rapid absorption of the monosaccharides glucose and fructose from the intestine, where they derive from hydrolysis of the disaccharide sucrose (sugar) might lead to overactivation of mTOR if not counterbalanced by other mTOR interfering mechanisms.


Assuntos
Artrite/induzido quimicamente , Açúcares da Dieta/efeitos adversos , Entesopatia/induzido quimicamente , Articulação do Joelho/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Artrite/fisiopatologia , Autoimunidade/fisiologia , Ativação Enzimática , Humanos , Masculino , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo
3.
Nutrients ; 11(9)2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31480603

RESUMO

There is increasing evidence emerging that suggests high sugar intake may adversely increase the incidence of chronic diseases. However, there are only a few related studies in Korea. Based on the current Dietary Reference Intakes for Koreans, this study examined whether total sugar intake above 20% of the total energy was a risk factor for metabolic syndrome in middle-aged Korean adults. This cross-sectional study involved 7005 adults (3751 men and 3254 women) aged 40-69 years, who participated in the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (KoGES), a large community-based cohort study. Daily total sugar intake was estimated using a validated food frequency questionnaire. About 9% and 16% of the men and women, respectively, derived >20% of energy intake from total sugar. The males in this category had a significantly higher odds of obesity defined as having a BMI ≥ 25 (OR = 1.491, 95% CI = 1.162-1.914), low HDL-cholesterol (OR = 1.313, 95% CI = 1.038-1.660), and metabolic syndrome (OR = 1.332, 95% CI = 1.038-1.709) than those who received a lower proportion of energy intake from total sugar. These results suggest that high (>20%) energy intake from total sugar may be associated with an increased risk of metabolic syndrome in middle-aged Korean men.


Assuntos
Açúcares da Dieta/efeitos adversos , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/etiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Açúcares da Dieta/análise , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
4.
Nutrients ; 11(8)2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374897

RESUMO

The consumption of sugar-containing beverages (SCB) has been associated with obesity although the evidence in preschool children is scarce. Cross-sectional analyses were performed to assess the association between obesity and SCB consumption (packaged juices and sugar-sweetened soft drinks) in 1823 children at the age of 4-5 years from the INfancia y Medio Ambiente (INMA) Project. One drink was defined as a glass of 175 mL, and the consumption of SCB was categorized in <1, 1-7 drinks/week and > 1 drink/day. We used multiple logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (OR). The average SCB consumption was 79.1 mL/day, mainly from packaged juices (80.9%). The SCB consumption was lower in non-obese children than in children with obesity, 76.6 vs 118.4 mL/day (p = 0.02). After adjusting for covariates, children who consumed >1 drink/day showed elevated odds of obesity, OR = 3.23 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.48-6.98) compared to children who consumed <1 SCB drink a week. Each additional SCB drink per day was associated with higher odds of obesity, OR = 1.55 (1.14-2.09). Higher consumption of packaged juices, but not sugar-sweetened soft drinks, was significantly associated with higher odds of obesity, OR = 1.55 (1.09-2.15) and OR = 1.59 (0.76-3.39), respectively. A higher SCB consumption is associated with obesity in preschool children, mainly due to the consumption of packaged juices.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Infantil , Açúcares da Dieta/efeitos adversos , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/efeitos adversos , Estado Nutricional , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , /efeitos adversos , Fatores Etários , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Valor Nutritivo , Obesidade Pediátrica/diagnóstico , Obesidade Pediátrica/fisiopatologia , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Espanha/epidemiologia
5.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1150, 2019 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438900

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In 1976, the U.S. Sugar Association (SA), a globally networked trade organization representing the cane and beet sugar industry, won the Public Relations Society of America's (PRSA) Silver Anvil Award for a crisis communication campaign. Their campaign successfully limited the diffusion of sugar restriction policies to control obesity, heart disease, diabetes, and dental caries, and marked the beginning of the modern-day SA. The sugar industry continues to resist measures to reduce sugar consumption, therefore understanding and addressing industry opposition is crucial to achieving global targets to reduce non-communicable disease. METHODS: We critically analyze common crisis management rhetorical strategies used by SA to defend itself from perceived wrongdoing, and sugar from perceptions of harm using a thematic content analysis based on Hearit's Corporate Apologia theory. Data sources were internal SA documents related to the 1976 Silver Anvil Award in 1) PRSA records, 2) Great Western Sugar Company records, and 3) William Jefferson Darby Papers. RESULTS: SA, using prototypical apologia stances (counterattack, differentiation, apology, and corrective action) and rhetorical dissociation strategies (appearance/reality, opinion/knowledge, and act/essence) constructed a persuasive narrative to successfully defend sugar from a product safety crisis, and the sugar industry from a social legitimacy crisis. SA's overarching narrative was that restricting sugar, which it claimed was a valuable food that makes healthy foods more palatable, would cause harm and that claims to the contrary were made by opportunists, pseudoscientists, food-faddists, lay nutritionists or those who had been misled by them. SA's apologia does not meet criteria for truthfulness or sincerity. CONCLUSION: Corporate apologia theory provides an accessible way of understanding sugar industry crisis communication strategies. It enables public health actors to recognize and predict industry corporate apologia in response to ongoing product safety and social legitimacy challenges. Industry counterarguments can be examined for truthfulness and sincerity (or the lack thereof), and explained to policymakers considering sugar restriction policies, and to the public, thereby decreasing the effectiveness of illegitimate industry communication efforts to oppose regulation and legislation.


Assuntos
Distinções e Prêmios , Açúcares da Dieta , Indústria Alimentícia , Relações Públicas , Açúcares da Dieta/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Doenças não Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Doenças não Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Política Nutricional , Comunicação Persuasiva , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
6.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 13(4): 2579-2584, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31405679

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recently, youth intake of added sugar has been growing. The incidence of obesity and type 2 diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) has risen dramatically in parallel with these changes. Excess added sugar is a key risk factor for weight gain and T2DM in many cohort studies. The current study was implemented to examine the nutritional knowledge, attitude and practice pattern among UAE undergraduates. METHOD: Random sampling was used to approach 400 undergraduate students from UAE. The data analysis was performed by using SPSS version 24. A correlation analysis was performed using Pearson and Spearman correlation tests. Statistical analysis was conducted using Chi-square test, T-test, and Kruskal Wallis test. RESULTS: Added sugar consumption is widely prevalent among university students in UAE. Only 19% of the enrolled sample scored high nutritional knowledge level and 56% of the students were considered heavy consumers. White sugar was the preferred added sweeteners among 90% of the sample. CONCLUSION: Our study outcomes recommend that strategies that can successfully reduce added sugar might be a significant stage concerning reversing the devastating escalating trends in diabetes, obesity, and promoting health of all populations in UAE.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Açúcares da Dieta/efeitos adversos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Obesidade/etiologia , Edulcorantes/efeitos adversos , Emirados Árabes Unidos/epidemiologia , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
7.
Nutrients ; 11(9)2019 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31461865

RESUMO

Avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID) is characterized in part by limited dietary variety, but dietary characteristics of this disorder have not yet been systematically studied. Our objective was to examine dietary intake defined by diet variety, macronutrient intake, and micronutrient intake in children and adolescents with full or subthreshold ARFID in comparison to healthy controls. We collected and analyzed four-day food record data for 52 participants with full or subthreshold ARFID, and 52 healthy controls, aged 9-22 years. We examined frequency of commonly reported foods by logistic regression and intake by food groups, macronutrients, and micronutrients between groups with repeated-measures ANOVA. Participants with full or subthreshold ARFID did not report any fruit or vegetable category in their top five most commonly reported food categories, whereas these food groups occupied three of the top five groups for healthy controls. Vegetable and protein intake were significantly lower in full or subthreshold ARFID compared to healthy controls. Intakes of added sugars and total carbohydrates were significantly higher in full or subthreshold ARFID compared to healthy controls. Individuals with full or subthreshold ARFID had lower intake of vitamins K and B12, consistent with limited vegetable and protein intake compared to healthy controls. Our results support the need for diet diversification as part of therapeutic interventions for ARFID to reduce risk for nutrient insufficiencies and related complications.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Comportamento Infantil , Dieta com Restrição de Proteínas/efeitos adversos , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Açúcares da Dieta/efeitos adversos , Fast Foods/efeitos adversos , Comportamento Alimentar , Valor Nutritivo , Verduras , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Recomendações Nutricionais , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
8.
Nutrients ; 11(8)2019 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426466

RESUMO

Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homeostasis is crucial to appropriate cell functioning, and when disturbed, a safeguard system called unfolded protein response (UPR) is activated. Fructose consumption modifies ER homeostasis and has been related to metabolic syndrome. However, fructose sweetened beverages intake is allowed during gestation. Therefore, we investigate whether maternal fructose intake affects the ER status and induces UPR. Thus, administrating liquid fructose (10% w/v) to pregnant rats partially activated the ER-stress in maternal and fetal liver and placenta. In fact, a fructose-induced increase in the levels of pIRE1 (phosphorylated inositol requiring enzyme-1) and its downstream effector, X-box binding protein-1 spliced form (XBP1s), was observed. XBP1s is a key transcription factor, however, XBP1s nuclear translocation and the expression of its target genes were reduced in the liver of the carbohydrate-fed mothers, and specifically diminished in the fetal liver and placenta in the fructose-fed mothers. These XBP1s target genes belong to the ER-associated protein degradation (ERAD) system, used to buffer ER-stress and to restore ER-homeostasis. It is known that XBP1s needs to form a complex with diverse proteins to migrate into the nucleus. Since methylglyoxal (MGO) content, a precursor of advanced glycation endproducts (AGE), was augmented in the three tissues in the fructose-fed mothers and has been related to interfere with the functioning of many proteins, the role of MGO in XBP1s migration should not be discarded. In conclusion, maternal fructose intake produces ER-stress, but without XBP1s nuclear migration. Therefore, a complete activation of UPR that would resolve ER-stress is lacking. A state of fructose-induced oxidative stress is probably involved.


Assuntos
Dieta , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Frutose/efeitos adversos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Resposta a Proteínas não Dobradas/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína 1 de Ligação a X-Box/metabolismo , Animais , Transporte Biológico , Núcleo Celular , Açúcares da Dieta/efeitos adversos , Endorribonucleases/metabolismo , Feminino , Feto/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Placenta/efeitos dos fármacos , Gravidez , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Aldeído Pirúvico/metabolismo , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
9.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1155: 133-146, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31468392

RESUMO

Metabolic syndrome is a lifestyle-related disease caused by high nutrient condition and lack of exercise. The insulin resistance due to obesity has attracted attention as an underlying mechanism of metabolic syndrome. Insulin resistance refers to reduced insulin sensitivity in insulin target tissues. In this case, in order to maintain normal blood glucose levels, a compensatory large amount of insulin is released, leading to the occurrence of hyperinsulinemia. Taurine is widely distributed in animal tissues. Although it is not involved in protein synthesis, taurine plays an important role in maintaining the body's physiological function. In this experiment, insulin resistance model was induced by high fat and high sugar diet. Two percent taurine was added in drinking water to explore the mechanism of taurine in insulin resistance and to provide theoretical basis for using taurine to improve insulin resistance. The result showed that high-fat and high-sugar diet could decrease insulin sensitivity, and taurine could improve it by oral glucose tolerance test. Moreover, serum TG, TC were higher, while HDL-C in rats fed with high sugar and high fat diet was lower than normal rats, the changes of which can be significantly relieved by 2% taurine administration. mRNA and protein expressions of IRS1, and GLUT4 which were significantly changed by high sugar and high fat diet can also be regulated by 2% taurine. The results indicated that taurine can improve insulin sensitivity through remediating lipid metabolism disorder and regulating the expressions of IRS and GLUT4.


Assuntos
Resistência à Insulina , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Taurina/farmacologia , Animais , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Açúcares da Dieta/efeitos adversos , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Ratos
10.
Nutrients ; 11(9)2019 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31443567

RESUMO

Abstract: Consumption of fructose, the sweetest of all naturally occurring carbohydrates, has increased dramatically in the last 40 years and is today commonly used commercially in soft drinks, juice, and baked goods. These products comprise a large proportion of the modern diet, in particular in children, adolescents, and young adults. A large body of evidence associate consumption of fructose and other sugar-sweetened beverages with insulin resistance, intrahepatic lipid accumulation, and hypertriglyceridemia. In the long term, these risk factors may contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Fructose is absorbed in the small intestine and metabolized in the liver where it stimulates fructolysis, glycolysis, lipogenesis, and glucose production. This may result in hypertriglyceridemia and fatty liver. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms underlying intestinal and hepatic fructose metabolism is important. Here we review recent evidence linking excessive fructose consumption to health risk markers and development of components of the Metabolic Syndrome.


Assuntos
Açúcares da Dieta/efeitos adversos , Frutose/efeitos adversos , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Animais , Açúcares da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Açúcares da Dieta/metabolismo , Metabolismo Energético , Comportamento Alimentar , Frutose/administração & dosagem , Frutose/metabolismo , Humanos , Absorção Intestinal , Intestino Delgado/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Síndrome Metabólica/diagnóstico , Síndrome Metabólica/metabolismo , Valor Nutritivo , Recomendações Nutricionais , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
11.
Nutrients ; 11(6)2019 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31195706

RESUMO

Dietary advice constitutes one of the first choices of treatment for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). We have recognized an increased prevalence of sucrase-isomaltase (SI) gene variants in IBS patients, possibly rendering starch- and sucrose-intolerance. The aims were to examine participants' dietary habits at baseline, to correlate habits with gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms and blood levels of minerals and vitamins, and to examine the effect of a starch- and sucrose-reduced diet (SSRD) on GI symptoms. In the study 105 IBS patients (82 women, 46.06 ± 13.11 years), irritable bowel syndrome-symptom severity scale (IBS-SSS)>175, were randomized to SSRD for 2 weeks or continued ordinary eating habits. Blood samples, visual analog scale for irritable bowel syndrome (VAS-IBS), IBS-SSS, and 4-day food diaries were collected at baseline and after 2 weeks. Patients with irregular dietary habits exhibited higher IBS-SSS than patients with regular habits (p = 0.029). Women already on a diet had lower ferritin levels than others (p = 0.029). The intervention led to 66.3% of patients being responders, with differences in the change of IBS-SSS (p < 0.001), abdominal pain (p = 0.001), diarrhea (p = 0.002), bloating and flatulence (p = 0.005), psychological well-being (p = 0.048), and intestinal symptoms' influence on daily life (p < 0.001), compared to controls. Decreased intake of cereals and sweets/soft drinks correlated with decreased scores.


Assuntos
Dieta/efeitos adversos , Açúcares da Dieta/efeitos adversos , Grão Comestível/efeitos adversos , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Registros de Dieta , Feminino , Trato Gastrointestinal/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto Jovem
12.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2012, 2019 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31043597

RESUMO

Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) has been implicated in symptoms associated with functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs), though mechanisms remain poorly defined and treatment involves non-specific antibiotics. Here we show that SIBO based on duodenal aspirate culture reflects an overgrowth of anaerobes, does not correspond with patient symptoms, and may be a result of dietary preferences. Small intestinal microbial composition, on the other hand, is significantly altered in symptomatic patients and does not correspond with aspirate culture results. In a pilot interventional study we found that switching from a high fiber diet to a low fiber, high simple sugar diet triggered FGID-related symptoms and decreased small intestinal microbial diversity while increasing small intestinal permeability. Our findings demonstrate that characterizing small intestinal microbiomes in patients with gastrointestinal symptoms may allow a more targeted antibacterial or a diet-based approach to treatment.


Assuntos
Disbiose/microbiologia , Gastroenteropatias/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Intestino Delgado/microbiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antibacterianos , DNA Bacteriano/isolamento & purificação , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Açúcares da Dieta/efeitos adversos , Disbiose/dietoterapia , Disbiose/tratamento farmacológico , Disbiose/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Gastroenteropatias/dietoterapia , Gastroenteropatias/tratamento farmacológico , Gastroenteropatias/fisiopatologia , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Mucosa Intestinal/fisiopatologia , Intestino Delgado/metabolismo , Intestino Delgado/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Permeabilidade , Projetos Piloto , Adulto Jovem
13.
Nutrients ; 11(6)2019 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31141963

RESUMO

In Mexico, 3 of 10 children are overweight. Fructose intake and relative abundance (RA) of Lactobacillus reuteri (L. reuteri) in the intestinal microbiota are associated with obesity and diabetes in adults, but studies in children are limited. This study evaluates the association between fructose intake and L. reuteri RA with adiposity and cardiometabolic risk markers in Mexican children dietary information, microbiota profiles, adiposity indicators (Body Mass Index, BMI and Waste Circumference, WC), and cardiometabolic markers were analyzed in 1087 children aged 6-12 years. Linear regression and path analysis models were used. High-tertile fructose intake and L. reuteri RA were positively associated with BMI (ßTertil 3 vs. Tertil 1 = 0.24 (95% CI, 0.04; 0.44) and ßT3 vs. T1 = 0.52 (95% CI, 0.32; 0.72)) and WC (ßT3 vs. T1 = 2.40 (95% CI, 0.93; 3.83) and ßT3 vs. T1 = 3.40 (95% CI, 1.95; 4.90)), respectively. Also, these factors mediated by adiposity were positively correlated with high triglycerides and insulin concentrations and HOMA-IR (p ≤ 0.03) and negatively associated with HDL-C concentration (p < 0.01). High-tertile fructose intake and L. reuteri RA were directly associated with adiposity and indirectly associated though adiposity with metabolic disorders in children. In conclusion, fructose intake and L. reuteri RA were directly associated with adiposity and indirectly associated with metabolic disorders in children, mediated by adiposity.


Assuntos
Adiposidade , Açúcares da Dieta/efeitos adversos , Frutose/efeitos adversos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Lactobacillus reuteri/isolamento & purificação , Doenças Metabólicas/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Fatores Etários , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Doenças Metabólicas/microbiologia , Doenças Metabólicas/fisiopatologia , México/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/microbiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/fisiopatologia , Prevalência , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Circunferência da Cintura
14.
Medicina (B Aires) ; 79(2): 115-122, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31048277

RESUMO

Both total caloric intake and consumption of free sugars is higher than recommended. This situation contributes, among many other factors, to the increase of overweight and obesity in the population. To maintain the sweet taste of foods and beverages while reducing the caloric content and the amount of free sugars in said products, many people choose to replace sugary products in their diet for options containing noncaloric sweeteners. This change in their dietary choice is accompanied by an increasing number of consultations with health professionals about the effects that non-caloric sweeteners could have on their body weight. Results reported in different scientific publications seem contradictory in relation to this topic: some of them, showing a positive association between the consumption of non-caloric sweeteners and energy intake and body weight, while others reporting that the consumption of these additives -in replacement of sugar- may lead to a reduction in caloric intake and body weight. The main objective of this article is to review the available evidence on the consumption of non-caloric sweeteners in relation to body weight, thus providing another tool for health professionals to make nutritional recommendations based on the best available evidence.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Adoçantes não Calóricos/farmacologia , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Índice de Massa Corporal , Açúcares da Dieta/efeitos adversos , Ingestão de Energia/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Perda de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
15.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 29(5): 474-480, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30954417

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The results of studies on the effect of trans-fatty acids (TFAs) and added sugars on obesity are not consistent. This study aimed to investigate whether the association of changes in general and central obesity with added sugar and TFA intakes is modified by common fat mass and obesity-associated gene (FTO) polymorphisms, in isolation or in a combined-form genetic risk score (GRS). METHODS AND RESULTS: Subjects of this cohort study were selected from among adult participants of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (n = 4292, 43.2% male). Dietary data were collected using a valid and reliable food frequency questionnaire. The genotypes of selected polymorphisms (rs1421085, rs1121980, and rs8050136) were determined. Genetic risk score (GRS) was calculated using the dominant weighted method. The mean age of participants was 42.6 ± 14 and 40.4 ± 13 years in men and women, respectively. FTO rs8050136 polymorphisms and TFAs have a significant interaction in changing body mass index (BMI) (P interaction = 0.01). There were no changes in waist circumference (WC) and BMI among FTO risk allele carriers, across quartiles of added sugar intake. GRS and TFA intakes significantly interacted in altering the BMI and WC; thus, a higher intake of TFAs was associated with higher changes of BMI and WC in subjects with high GRS (P trend<0.05) compared to individuals with low GRS. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that TFA intake can increase the genetic susceptibility of FTO SNPs to BMI or WC change.


Assuntos
Dioxigenase FTO Dependente de alfa-Cetoglutarato/genética , Açúcares da Dieta/efeitos adversos , Obesidade Abdominal/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Ácidos Graxos Trans/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Feminino , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade Abdominal/diagnóstico , Obesidade Abdominal/epidemiologia , Fenótipo , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
16.
Gut Microbes ; 10(6): 712-719, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30991877

RESUMO

Background: A western high fat, high carbohydrate diet has been shown to be associated with decreased gut bacterial diversity and reductions in beneficial bacteria. This gut bacteria dysbiosis could develop in early life and contribute to chronic disease risk such as obesity, type 2 diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.Objective: To determine how dietary macronutrients are associated with the relative abundance of gut bacteria in healthy adolescents.Methods: Fifty-two obese participants (12-19 years) from two studies, many who were primarily of Hispanic background, provided fecal samples for 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Dietary macronutrients were assessed using 24-hour diet recalls and body composition was assessed using DEXA. General regression models assuming a negative binomial distribution were used to examine the associations between gut bacteria and dietary fiber, saturated fat, unsaturated fats, protein, added sugar, total sugar and free fructose after adjusting for age, gender, race/ethnicity, body fat percentage, study and caloric intake.Results: The genera Eubacterium (Benjamini-Hochberg (BH) corrected p-value = 0.10) and Streptococcus (BH corrected p-value = 0.04) were inversely associated with dietary fructose intake. There were no other significant associations between abundances of gut microbes and other dietary macronutrients, including fiber, fat, protein, total sugar or added sugar.Conclusions: High dietary fructose was associated with lower abundance of the beneficial microbes Eubacterium and Streptococcus, which are involved with carbohydrate metabolism.


Assuntos
Açúcares da Dieta/efeitos adversos , Eubacterium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutose/efeitos adversos , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/microbiologia , Streptococcus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Adolescente , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Composição Corporal , Criança , Dieta , Açúcares da Dieta/análise , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade/patologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Adulto Jovem
17.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 854: 247-255, 2019 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31002778

RESUMO

Ginsenoside Rg1 is the active ingredient of Chinese herbal medicine ginseng and sanqi, which has remarkable effects on anti-inflammation and anti-diabetes. In this study, we explored the molecular mechanism of ginsenoside Rg1 against diabetes in rat subjected to insulin resistance induced by high-fat and high-sugar (HFHS). Biochemical analysis revealed that ginsenoside Rg1 significantly decreased the serum levels of alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein and increased the serum levels of high-density lipoprotein, which indicated ginsenoside Rg1 improved the extent of hepatic steatosis. Furthermore, ginsenoside Rg1 suppressed the expression of IL-1ß, IL-6,TNF-α,NF-κB and G6Pase, however, p-Akt was up-regulated. These results suggested that ginsenosideRg1 improved insulin resistance through suppressing inflammatory response and glucose output, which may be a potential therapeutic strategy in protecting hepatic steatosis.


Assuntos
Gorduras na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Açúcares da Dieta/efeitos adversos , Ginsenosídeos/farmacologia , Resistência à Insulina , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Transporte Ativo do Núcleo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Núcleo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Ginsenosídeos/uso terapêutico , Glucose-6-Fosfatase/genética , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas Substratos do Receptor de Insulina/genética , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
18.
BMJ ; 365: l1417, 2019 04 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30996021

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the impact of the UK government's sugar reduction programme on child and adult obesity, adult disease burden, and healthcare costs. DESIGN: Modelling study. SETTING: Simulated scenario based on National Diet and Nutrition Survey waves 5 and 6, England. PARTICIPANTS: 1508 survey respondents were used to model weight change among the population of England aged 4-80 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Calorie change, weight change, and body mass index change were estimated for children and adults. Impact on non-communicable disease incidence, quality adjusted life years, and healthcare costs were estimated for adults. Changes to disease burden were modelled with the PRIMEtime-CE Model, based on the 2014 population in England aged 18-80. RESULTS: If the sugar reduction programme was achieved in its entirety and resulted in the planned sugar reduction, then the calorie reduction was estimated to be 25 kcal/day (1 kcal=4.18 kJ=0.00418 MJ) for 4-10 year olds (95% confidence interval 23 to 26), 25 kcal/day (24 to 28) for 11-18 year olds, and 19 kcal/day (17 to 20) for adults. The reduction in obesity could represent 5.5% of the baseline obese population of 4-10 year olds, 2.2% of obese 11-18 year olds, and 5.5% of obese 19-80 year olds. A modelled 51 729 quality adjusted life years (95% uncertainty interval 45 768 to 57 242) were saved over 10 years, including 154 550 (132 623 to 174 604) cases of diabetes and relating to a net healthcare saving of £285.8m (€332.5m, $373.5m; £249.7m to £319.8m). CONCLUSIONS: The UK government's sugar reduction programme could reduce the burden of obesity and obesity related disease, provided that reductions in sugar levels and portion sizes do not prompt unanticipated changes in eating patterns or product formulation.


Assuntos
Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Açúcares da Dieta/efeitos adversos , Programas Governamentais/métodos , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Programas de Redução de Peso/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Bebidas/efeitos adversos , Bebidas/economia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Análise Custo-Benefício , Açúcares da Dieta/economia , Programas Governamentais/economia , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Biológicos , Modelos Econômicos , Inquéritos Nutricionais/estatística & dados numéricos , Obesidade/economia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/etiologia , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Impostos , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Programas de Redução de Peso/economia , Adulto Jovem
19.
Nutrients ; 11(3)2019 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30889844

RESUMO

Being overweight has been identified as the main risk factor for the development of metabolic disorders in adults and children. However, recent studies suggest that normal weight individuals are also frequently affected by metabolic abnormalities with underlying mechanisms not yet fully understood. The aim of the present study was to determine if dietary pattern and markers of intestinal permeability, as well as inflammation, differ between normal weight healthy children and normal weight children suffering from metabolic abnormalities. In total, 45 normal weight children aged 5⁻9 years were included in the study, of whom nine suffered from metabolic abnormalities. Anthropometric data, dietary intake and markers of inflammation, as well as intestinal permeability, were assessed in fasting blood samples. Neither BMI nor BMI-SDS differed between groups; however, children with metabolic abnormalities had a significantly larger waist circumference (+~5 cm) and a higher leptin to adiponectin ratio. While plasma leptin levels are significantly higher in normal weight children with metabolic abnormalities, neither TNF α nor sCD14, adiponectin, PAI-1 or IL-6 plasma levels differed between groups. Despite similar total calorie and macronutrient intake between groups, mean total fructose and total glucose intake (resulting mainly from sugar sweetened beverages, fruits and sweets) were higher in children with metabolic abnormalities than in healthy children. Time spent physically active was significantly higher in healthy normal weight children whereas time spent physically inactive was similar between groups. Furthermore, bacterial endotoxin levels were significantly higher in the peripheral plasma of normal weight children with metabolic abnormalities than in healthy normal weight children. Our results suggest that metabolic disorders in normal weight children are associated with a high monosaccharide intake and elevated bacterial endotoxin as well as leptin plasma levels, the latter also discussed as being indicative of visceral adiposity.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Endotoxinas/sangue , Glucose/efeitos adversos , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/metabolismo , Doenças Metabólicas/etiologia , Monossacarídeos/efeitos adversos , Circunferência da Cintura , Adiponectina/sangue , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dieta , Açúcares da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Açúcares da Dieta/efeitos adversos , Ingestão de Energia , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Frutose/administração & dosagem , Frutose/efeitos adversos , Glucose/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Interleucina-6/sangue , Intestinos , Leptina/sangue , Masculino , Doenças Metabólicas/sangue , Monossacarídeos/administração & dosagem , Inibidor 1 de Ativador de Plasminogênio/sangue , Valores de Referência , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue
20.
Food Funct ; 10(4): 1985-1998, 2019 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30900711

RESUMO

Brain plasticity is a multifaceted process that is dependent on both neurons and extracellular matrix (ECM) structures, including perineuronal nets (PNNs). In the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) PNNs primarily surround fast-spiking parvalbumin (PV)-containing GABAergic interneurons and are central to regulation of neuroplasticity. In addition to the development of obesity, high-fat and high-sugar (HFHS) diets are also associated with alterations in brain plasticity and emotional behaviours in humans. To examine the underlying involvement of PNNs and cortical plasticity in the mPFC in diet-evoked social behaviour deficits (in this case social recognition), we exposed adolescent (postnatal days P28-P56) rats to a HFHS-supplemented diet. At P56 HFHS-fed animals and age-matched controls fed standard chow were euthanized and co-localization of PNNs with PV neurons in the prelimbic (PrL) and infralimbic (IL) and anterior cingulate (ACC) sub regions of the PFC were examined by dual fluorescence immunohistochemistry. ΔFosB expression was also assessed as a measure of chronic activity and behavioural addiction marker. Consumption of the HFHS diet reduced the number of PV+ neurons and PNNs in the infralimbic (IL) region of the mPFC by -21.9% and -16.5%, respectively. While PV+ neurons and PNNs were not significantly decreased in the ACC or PrL, the percentage of PV+ and PNN co-expressing neurons was increased in all assessed regions of the mPFC in HFHS-fed rats (+33.7% to +41.3%). This shows that the population of PV neurons remaining are those surrounded by PNNs, which may afford some protection against HFHS diet-induced mPFC-dysregulation. ΔFosB expression showed a 5-10-fold increase (p < 0.001) in each mPFC region, supporting the hypothesis that a HFHS diet induces mPFC dysfunction and subsequent behavioural deficits. The data presented shows a potential neurophysiological mechanism and response to specific diet-evoked social recognition deficits as a result of hypercaloric intake in adolescence.


Assuntos
Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Açúcares da Dieta/efeitos adversos , Interneurônios/citologia , Parvalbuminas/metabolismo , Obesidade Pediátrica/psicologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/citologia , Animais , Açúcares da Dieta/metabolismo , Neurônios GABAérgicos/citologia , Neurônios GABAérgicos/metabolismo , Humanos , Interneurônios/metabolismo , Memória , Plasticidade Neuronal , Obesidade Pediátrica/etiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/metabolismo , Obesidade Pediátrica/fisiopatologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Comportamento Social
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