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2.
JAMA ; 326(1): 56-64, 2021 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34228066

RESUMO

Importance: Cytisine is more effective than placebo and nicotine replacement therapy for smoking cessation. However, cytisine has not been tested against the most effective smoking cessation medication, varenicline, which is associated with adverse events known to lead to discontinuation of therapy. Objective: To examine whether standard cytisine treatment (25 days) was at least as effective as standard varenicline treatment (84 days) for smoking cessation. Design, Setting, and Participants: This noninferiority, open-label randomized clinical trial with allocation concealment and blinded outcome assessment was undertaken in Australia from November 2017 through May 2019; follow-up was completed in January 2020. A total of 1452 Australian adult daily smokers willing to make a quit attempt were included. Data collection was conducted primarily by computer-assisted telephone interview, but there was an in-person visit to validate the primary outcome. Interventions: Treatments were provided in accordance with the manufacturers' recommended dosage: cytisine (n = 725), 1.5-mg capsules taken 6 times daily initially then gradually reduced over the 25-day course; varenicline (n = 727), 0.5-mg tablets titrated to 1 mg twice daily for 84 days (12 weeks). All participants were offered referral to standard telephone behavioral support. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was 6-month continuous abstinence verified using a carbon monoxide breath test at 7-month follow-up. The noninferiority margin was set at 5% and the 1-sided significance threshold was set at .025. Results: Among 1452 participants who were randomized (mean [SD] age, 42.9 [12.7] years; 742 [51.1%] women), 1108 (76.3%) completed the trial. Verified 6-month continuous abstinence rates were 11.7% for the cytisine group and 13.3% for the varenicline group (risk difference, -1.62% [1-sided 97.5% CI, -5.02% to ∞]; P = .03 for noninferiority). Self-reported adverse events occurred less frequently in the cytisine group (997 events among 482 participants) compared with the varenicline group (1206 events among 510 participants) and the incident rate ratio was 0.88 (95% CI, 0.81 to 0.95; P = .002). Conclusions and Relevance: Among daily smokers willing to quit, cytisine treatment for 25 days, compared with varenicline treatment for 84 days, failed to demonstrate noninferiority regarding smoking cessation. Trial Registration: anzctr.org.au Identifier: ACTRN12616001654448.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/uso terapêutico , Agentes de Cessação do Hábito de Fumar/uso terapêutico , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Vareniclina/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Alcaloides/efeitos adversos , Azocinas/efeitos adversos , Azocinas/uso terapêutico , Sonhos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Náusea/induzido quimicamente , Quinolizinas/efeitos adversos , Quinolizinas/uso terapêutico , Agentes de Cessação do Hábito de Fumar/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento , Vareniclina/efeitos adversos
3.
Sultan Qaboos Univ Med J ; 21(2): e275-e281, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34221476

RESUMO

Objectives: The aim of the current study was to compare urinary cotinine levels, nicotine dependence and physical effects related to smoking in smokers before and after laser auricular acupuncture, psychological counselling and a combination of laser treatment with counselling. Methods: This study was carried out from February to July 2019 in India. A total of 60 smokers were randomly allocated to three interventional groups. Urinary cotinine levels, nicotine dependence and physical effects due to smoking were evaluated using NicAlert strips (Nymox Pharmaceutical Corp., Quebec, Canada) the Fagerström questionnaire and a visual analogue scale, respectively, at baseline and one month post-intervention. Pearson's chi-square, Kruskal Wallis analysis of variance and Wilcoxon sign rank tests were used for statistical analyses. Results: There was a significant reduction in urinary cotinine levels and nicotine dependence and significant improvement in behaviour and physical effects related to smoking in all groups post-intervention (P <0.05). Reduction in nicotine dependence was significantly higher in the laser group (4.4 ± 1.66) compared to other groups (P <0.01). Reduction in urinary cotinine levels was highest in the laser with counselling group (0.85 ± 0.3) compared to the other groups. There was a significant reduction in irritability, headache, craving for smoking, tiredness and anxiety as well as a substantial increase in calmness, unpleasant taste of smoking, the ability to concentrate and appetite in the laser auricular acupuncture group compared to the other groups (P <0.01). Conclusion: Laser auricular acupuncture alone and in combination with psychological counselling can reduce nicotine dependence among smokers.


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura/métodos , Acupuntura Auricular , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Tabagismo/terapia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Terapia a Laser , Lasers , Masculino , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
West J Emerg Med ; 22(3): 648-652, 2021 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34125041

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Smoking cessation has significant health benefits, and the emergency department (ED) can be an important venue for smoking cessation counseling. Nicotine replacement therapy with transdermal patches has been shown to be associated with smoking cessation in a variety of studies. This study evaluated fulfillment rates for prescriptions for nicotine replacement transdermal patches (NRT-P) from the ED. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of all patients receiving a prescription for a NRT-P product from January 2018-October 2019. Charts were reviewed to gather data including age, gender, presence of chronic heart or lung problems, and health insurance. We assessed the fulfillment rate of prescriptions using the Surescripts system, which is a functionality within our electronic health record system that queries participating pharmacies. Statistical analysis was conducted to determine associations between fill rates and the other variables collected from charts. RESULTS: We had follow-up on 500 patients prescribed nicotine patches. Of those patients, 44% filled their prescriptions. Those who filled their prescriptions were more likely to be female and have a history of chronic lung disease. Self-pay patients were least likely to fill their prescriptions. Overall, we had evidence of smoking cessation in 13% of patients. CONCLUSION: This study found that a substantial proportion of patients fail to fill their NRT-P prescriptions. Further work on means of enhancing fulfillment rates is warranted.


Assuntos
Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Dispositivos para o Abandono do Uso de Tabaco , Administração Cutânea , Adulto , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prescrições/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/estatística & dados numéricos
6.
Lancet Public Health ; 6(7): e500-e509, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34175001

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although many smokers use electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) to quit smoking, most continue to smoke while vaping. This dual use might delay cessation and increase toxicant exposure. We aimed to test the efficacy of a self-help intervention designed to help dual users to quit smoking. METHODS: In this three-arm randomised controlled trial we recruited individuals in the USA using Facebook and multimedia advertisements. Included participants were 18 years or older, smoked at least weekly in the preceding year, and vaped at least weekly in the preceding month. We used computer generated randomisation with balanced-permuted blocks (block size 10, with 2-4-4 ratio) to allocate participants to assessment only (ASSESS group), generic smoking cessation self-help booklets (GENERIC group), or booklets targeting dual users (eTARGET group). Individuals in the generic or targeted intervention groups received monthly cessation materials for 18 months, with assessments every 3 months for 24 months. The main outcome was self-reported 7-day point-prevalence smoking abstinence at each assessment point. All randomly allocated participants were included in primary analyses using generalised estimating equations for each of 20 datasets created by multiple imputation. Analysis of the χ2s produced an F test. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02416011, and is now closed. FINDINGS: Between July 12, 2016, and June 30, 2017, we randomly assigned 2896 dual users (575 to assessment, 1154 to generic intervention, and 1167 to targeted self-help). 7-day point-prevalence smoking abstinence increased from 14% at 3 months to 42% at 24 months (F7,541·7=67·1, p<0·0001) in the overall sample. Targeted self-help resulted in higher smoking abstinence than did assessment alone throughout the treatment period (F1,973·8=10·20, p=0·0014 [α=0·017]). The generic intervention group had abstinence rates between those of the assessment and targeted groups, but did not significantly differ from either when adjusted for multiple comparisons (GENERIC vs eTARGET F1,1102·5=1·79, p=0·18 [α=0·05]; GENERIC vs ASSESS F1,676·7=4·29, p=0·039 [α=0·025]). Differences between study groups attenuated after the interventions ended. INTERPRETATION: A targeted self-help intervention with high potential for dissemination could be efficacious in promoting smoking cessation among dual users of combustible cigarettes and e-cigarettes. FUNDING: National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Cancer Institute.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Fumar , Adolescente , Adulto , Análise Custo-Benefício , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Vaping , Adulto Jovem
7.
Epidemiol Health ; 43: e2021043, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34126705

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to identify relapse patterns in smokers who participated in an inpatient treatment program and to investigate factors related to relapse. METHODS: The participants comprised 463 smokers who participated in an inpatient treatment operated by the Daejeon Tobacco Control Center from 2015 to 2018. Participants received high-intensity smoking cessation intervention for 5 consecutive days, including pharmacotherapy and behavioral support, and continued with follow-up for 1 year to determine whether they maintained smoking cessation after discharge from inpatient treatment. Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazard models were used in the analysis. RESULTS: Participants' relapse rate within 1 year was 72.8%, and 59.8% of participants smoked again within 6 months after participation. A higher number of counseling sessions was significantly associated with a lower risk of relapse (hazard ratio [HR], 0.23; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.17 to 0.32 for ≥9 vs. ≤5 counseling sessions). Conversely, higher relapse rates were significantly associated with the use of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) (HR, 1.91; 95% CI, 1.43 to 2.55 for use vs. no use), and higher levels of baseline expired carbon monoxide (CO) (HR, 1.58; 95% CI, 1.21 to 2.06 for expired CO concentrations of 10-19 ppm vs. expired CO concentrations <10 ppm). CONCLUSIONS: High-intensity smoking cessation interventions in hospital settings can be effective for smoking cessation in smokers with high nicotine dependence. In addition, the results suggest that for quitters to maintain long-term abstinence, they should receive regular follow-up counseling for 1 year after completing a high-intensity smoking cessation intervention.


Assuntos
Pacientes Internados/psicologia , Fumantes/psicologia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Pacientes Internados/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Recidiva , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Fumantes/estatística & dados numéricos
8.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 96(7): 1801-1811, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34112520

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the incidence, severity, and clinical course of frequently reported adverse events (AEs) after treatment with smoking cessation pharmacotherapies. METHODS: This was a multinational, multicenter, post hoc analysis of frequently reported treatment-emergent AEs from a large, phase 4, double-blind, randomized, triple-dummy, placebo-controlled trial (EAGLES), conducted between November 30, 2011, and January 13, 2015, that included smokers with and without psychiatric disorders (N=8144). Treatments were varenicline 1 mg twice daily, bupropion sustained-release 150 mg twice daily, and nicotine patch 21 mg once daily with tapering (12-week treatment, 12-week nontreatment follow-up), with incidence, time to onset, and duration of frequently reported AEs (≥5% of participants in any treatment group) measured. Risk differences for AEs for varenicline and bupropion vs nicotine patch were compared. RESULTS: Across frequently reported AEs, nausea, insomnia, abnormal dreams, anxiety, irritability, dry mouth, fatigue, and application site pruritus differed significantly in active treatment vs placebo groups. Risk differences were as follows: for nausea with varenicline vs nicotine patch, 15.50% (95% CI, 13.20% to 17.80%); for insomnia with bupropion vs nicotine patch, 2.58% (CI, 0.65% to 4.51%); and for abnormal dreams with varenicline and bupropion vs nicotine patch, -2.49% (CI, -4.35% to -0.64%) and -5.60% (CI, -7.27% to -3.93%), respectively. Frequently reported AEs of severe intensity and treatment discontinuation were experienced by less than 1.5% and less than 3% of participants across all groups, respectively. CONCLUSION: Active treatments were well tolerated with comparable AE profiles. Most AEs are not clinically important, and prescribers can reassure patients that those experienced will be manageable. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01456936.


Assuntos
Bupropiona , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos , Agentes de Cessação do Hábito de Fumar , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Fumar/tratamento farmacológico , Dispositivos para o Abandono do Uso de Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Vareniclina , Adulto , Bupropiona/administração & dosagem , Bupropiona/efeitos adversos , Redução da Medicação/métodos , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/classificação , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/diagnóstico , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Processos e Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Agentes de Cessação do Hábito de Fumar/administração & dosagem , Agentes de Cessação do Hábito de Fumar/efeitos adversos , Vareniclina/administração & dosagem , Vareniclina/efeitos adversos
11.
Acta Neurol Scand ; 144(2): 179-191, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33899218

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: By the association of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the brain, nicotine in the therapeutic window lowers neuronal damage and raises protective factors. These data, however, are contradicted by other findings. Here, we assessed the effects of transdermal nicotine administration on cognitive functions in healthy non-smoker adults by systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical trials. METHODS: We included reports of clinical trials comparing the effects of nicotine patches with placebo in healthy non-smoking adults. The main outcome was the impact of nicotine patches on overall cognitive function with a focus on attention and memory. Standard meta-analytic and statistical methods measured the effect of transdermal nicotine compared with placebo patches. RESULTS: We included 31 publications involving 978 subjects. Nicotine patches boosted cognitive function in healthy adults (0.233 SMD, 95%CI, 0.111-0.355, p < .001). Overall heterogeneity of the studies was found to be modest (Ï°2  = 68.24, T2  = 0.07, I2  = 50.17%, p < .001). Also, nicotine patches improved attention (0.231 SMD, 95%CI, 0.106-0.356, p < .001). We found the inter-study heterogeneity to be low (Ï°2  = 40.95, T2  = 0.03, I2  = 34.07%, p = .042). Further, the enhancement of memory by transdermal nicotine did not reach statistical significance in normal subjects (0.270 SMD, 95% CI, -0.293-0.833, p = .347). Also, high inter-study heterogeneity was found among studies (Ï°2  = 27.25, T2  = 0.43, I2  = 77.98%, p < .001). CONCLUSION: The meta-analysis showed that transdermal nicotine had statistically significant positive effects on attention, and non-significant effects on memory, in healthy non-smoking adults. The results encourage further studies of the therapeutic potential of nicotine patches in disorders of cognition.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , Nicotina/administração & dosagem , Administração Cutânea , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Adulto Jovem
12.
J Prev Med Public Health ; 54(2): 137-144, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33845534

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with quitting smoking in Indonesia. METHODS: Data on 11 115 individuals from the fifth wave of the Indonesia Family Life Survey were analyzed. Quitting smoking was the main outcome, defined as smoking status based on the answer to the question "do you still habitually (smoke cigarettes/smoke a pipe/use chewing tobacco) or have you totally quit?" Logistic regression was performed to identify factors associated with successful attempts to quit smoking. RESULTS: The prevalence of quitting smoking was 12.3%. The odds of successfully quitting smoking were higher among smokers who were female (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.69; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.08 to 3.33), were divorced (aOR, 2.45; 95% CI, 1.82 to 3.29), did not chew tobacco (aOR, 3.01; 95% CI, 1.79 to 5.08), found it difficult to sacrifice smoking at other times than in the morning (aOR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.14 to 1.46), and not smoke when sick (aOR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.14 to 1.54). About 59% of variance in successful attempts to quit smoking could be explained using a model consisting of those variables. CONCLUSIONS: Female sex, being divorced, not chewing tobacco, and nicotine dependence increased the odds of quitting smoking and were associated with quitting smoking successfully. Regular and integrated attempts to quit smoking based on individuals' internal characteristics, tobacco use activity, and smoking behavior are needed to quit smoking.


Assuntos
Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Fumar/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fumar/epidemiologia
13.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 4: CD010216, 2021 04 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33913154

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Electronic cigarettes (ECs) are handheld electronic vaping devices which produce an aerosol formed by heating an e-liquid. Some people who smoke use ECs to stop or reduce smoking, but some organizations, advocacy groups and policymakers have discouraged this, citing lack of evidence of efficacy and safety. People who smoke, healthcare providers and regulators want to know if ECs can help people quit and if they are safe to use for this purpose. This is an update of a review first published in 2014. OBJECTIVES: To examine the effectiveness, tolerability, and safety of using electronic cigarettes (ECs) to help people who smoke achieve long-term smoking abstinence. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group's Specialized Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, Embase, and PsycINFO to 1 February 2021, together with reference-checking and contact with study authors. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and randomized cross-over trials in which people who smoke were randomized to an EC or control condition. We also included uncontrolled intervention studies in which all participants received an EC intervention. To be included, studies had to report abstinence from cigarettes at six months or longer and/or data on adverse events (AEs) or other markers of safety at one week or longer. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We followed standard Cochrane methods for screening and data extraction. Our primary outcome measures were abstinence from smoking after at least six months follow-up, adverse events (AEs), and serious adverse events (SAEs). Secondary outcomes included changes in carbon monoxide, blood pressure, heart rate, blood oxygen saturation, lung function, and levels of known carcinogens/toxicants. We used a fixed-effect Mantel-Haenszel model to calculate the risk ratio (RR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI) for dichotomous outcomes. For continuous outcomes, we calculated mean differences. Where appropriate, we pooled data from these studies in meta-analyses. MAIN RESULTS: We included 56 completed studies, representing 12,804 participants, of which 29 were RCTs. Six of the 56 included studies were new to this review update. Of the included studies, we rated five (all contributing to our main comparisons) at low risk of bias overall, 41 at high risk overall (including the 25 non-randomized studies), and the remainder at unclear risk. There was moderate-certainty evidence, limited by imprecision, that quit rates were higher in people randomized to nicotine EC than in those randomized to nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) (risk ratio (RR) 1.69, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.25 to 2.27; I2 = 0%; 3 studies, 1498 participants). In absolute terms, this might translate to an additional four successful quitters per 100 (95% CI 2 to 8). There was low-certainty evidence (limited by very serious imprecision) that the rate of occurrence of AEs was similar) (RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.80 to 1.19; I2 = 0%; 2 studies, 485 participants). SAEs occurred rarely, with no evidence that their frequency differed between nicotine EC and NRT, but very serious imprecision led to low certainty in this finding (RR 1.37, 95% CI 0.77 to 2.41: I2 = n/a; 2 studies, 727 participants). There was moderate-certainty evidence, again limited by imprecision, that quit rates were higher in people randomized to nicotine EC than to non-nicotine EC (RR 1.70, 95% CI 1.03 to 2.81; I2 = 0%; 4 studies, 1057 participants). In absolute terms, this might again lead to an additional four successful quitters per 100 (95% CI 0 to 11). These trials mainly used older EC with relatively low nicotine delivery. There was moderate-certainty evidence of no difference in the rate of AEs between these groups (RR 1.01, 95% CI 0.91 to 1.11; I2 = 0%; 3 studies, 601 participants). There was insufficient evidence to determine whether rates of SAEs differed between groups, due to very serious imprecision (RR 0.60, 95% CI 0.15 to 2.44; I2 = n/a; 4 studies, 494 participants). Compared to behavioral support only/no support, quit rates were higher for participants randomized to nicotine EC (RR 2.70, 95% CI 1.39 to 5.26; I2 = 0%; 5 studies, 2561 participants). In absolute terms this represents an increase of seven per 100 (95% CI 2 to 17). However, this finding was of very low certainty, due to issues with imprecision and risk of bias. There was no evidence that the rate of SAEs differed, but some evidence that non-serious AEs were more common in people randomized to nicotine EC (AEs: RR 1.22, 95% CI 1.12 to 1.32; I2 = 41%, low certainty; 4 studies, 765 participants; SAEs: RR 1.17, 95% CI 0.33 to 4.09; I2 = 5%; 6 studies, 1011 participants, very low certainty). Data from non-randomized studies were consistent with RCT data. The most commonly reported AEs were throat/mouth irritation, headache, cough, and nausea, which tended to dissipate with continued use. Very few studies reported data on other outcomes or comparisons and hence evidence for these is limited, with confidence intervals often encompassing clinically significant harm and benefit. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: There is moderate-certainty evidence that ECs with nicotine increase quit rates compared to ECs without nicotine and compared to NRT. Evidence comparing nicotine EC with usual care/no treatment also suggests benefit, but is less certain. More studies are needed to confirm the size of effect, particularly when using modern EC products. Confidence intervals were for the most part wide for data on AEs, SAEs and other safety markers, though evidence indicated no difference in AEs between nicotine and non-nicotine ECs. Overall incidence of SAEs was low across all study arms. We did not detect any clear evidence of harm from nicotine EC, but longest follow-up was two years and the overall number of studies was small. The evidence is limited mainly by imprecision due to the small number of RCTs, often with low event rates. Further RCTs are underway. To ensure the review continues to provide up-to-date information, this review is now a living systematic review. We run searches monthly, with the review updated when relevant new evidence becomes available. Please refer to the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews for the review's current status.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Nicotina , Agonistas Nicotínicos , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar , Viés , Monóxido de Carbono/análise , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nicotina/administração & dosagem , Agonistas Nicotínicos/administração & dosagem , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Viés de Publicação , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fumar/epidemiologia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/estatística & dados numéricos , Dispositivos para o Abandono do Uso de Tabaco , Vaping
14.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(4): e213927, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33792730

RESUMO

Importance: Parental smoking adversely affects parents' and children's health. There are effective interventions delivered in pediatric settings to help parents quit smoking. The cost-effectiveness of this type of intervention is not known. Objective: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of a parental smoking cessation intervention, the Clinical Effort Against Secondhand Smoke Exposure (CEASE) program, delivered in pediatric primary care, compared with usual care from a health care organization's perspective. Design, Setting, and Participants: This economic evaluation used data on intervention costs and parental smoking cessation collected prospectively as part of the CEASE randomized clinical trial. Data were collected at pediatric offices in 5 US states from April 2015 to October 2017. Participants included parents of children attending 10 pediatric primary care practices (5 control, 5 intervention). Data analysis was performed from October 2019 to August 2020. Exposures: The trial compared CEASE (practice training and support to address family tobacco use) vs usual care. Main Outcomes and Measures: The overall cost and incremental cost per quit of the CEASE intervention were calculated using microcosting methods. CEASE effectiveness was estimated using 2 trial outcomes measures assessed in repeated cross-sections: (1) change in smoking prevalence assessed by parental report for intervention vs usual care practices at 2 weeks after program initiation (baseline) and at 2-year follow-up and (2) changes in the proportion of smokers who achieved cotinine-confirmed smoking cessation in the previous 2 years at baseline vs follow-up. Monte Carlo analyses were used to provide 95% CIs. Results: The study included a total of 3054 participants (1523 at baseline and 1531 at follow-up); 2163 (70.8%) were aged 25 to 44 years old, and 2481 (81.2%) were women. Over 2 years, the total cost of implementing and sustaining CEASE across 5 intervention practices was $115 778. The incremental cost per quit for CEASE compared with usual care was $1132 (95% CI, $653-$3603), according to the change in parent-reported smoking prevalence, and $762 (95% CI, $418-$2883), according to cotinine-confirmed cessation. CEASE was cost-effective at a willingness-to-pay threshold of $2000 per quit in 88.0% of simulations based on the parent-reported smoking prevalence and 94.6% of simulations based on cotinine-confirmed smoking cessation measures. Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that the CEASE intervention was associated with an incremental cost per quit that compared favorably with those of other clinical smoking cessation interventions. CEASE is inexpensive to initiate and maintain in the clinical pediatric setting, suggesting that it has the potential for a high impact on population health.


Assuntos
Terapia Comportamental/economia , Relações Pais-Filho , Atenção Primária à Saúde/economia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/economia , Adulto , Terapia Comportamental/métodos , Criança , Análise Custo-Benefício , Feminino , Seguimentos , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Pais , Pediatria/economia , Atenção Primária à Saúde/métodos , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/métodos
15.
Lancet Respir Med ; 9(8): 840-850, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33857436

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDSs) are used by some smokers to reduce cigarette consumption, but their effectiveness is uncertain. We aimed to examine the extent to which ENDSs or a non-nicotine cigarette substitute influence tobacco-related toxicant exposure and cigarette consumption in smokers interested in smoking reduction. METHODS: We did a four-arm, parallel-group, randomised controlled trial at two sites in the USA (Penn State University, Hershey, PA, and Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA). We enrolled adults aged 21-65 years who smoked more than nine cigarettes per day (for at least the past year), with exhaled CO of more than 9 parts per million at screening, who were not currently using an ENDS, and who were interested in reducing smoking but not quitting. Participants were randomised (site-specific with allocation concealment; 1:1:1:1) to receive either a cartomiser-based, pen-style ENDS (eGo-style) paired with 0, 8, or 36 mg/mL liquid nicotine (participants and researchers masked to concentration) or a non-ENDS cigarette-shaped plastic tube that delivered no nicotine or aerosol (cigarette substitute; unmasked) for 24 weeks. Conditions were chosen to reflect a range of nicotine delivery including none (cigarette substitute and 0 mg/mL ENDS), low (8 mg/mL), and cigarette-like (36 mg/mL), and all conditions were paired with smoking reduction instructions. The primary outcome was concentration of the tobacco-specific carcinogen metabolite 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL; urinary total) collected at randomisation and at 4, 12, and 24 weeks. Multiple imputation with and without covariate adjustment was used in addition to sensitivity analyses. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02342795. FINDINGS: Between July 22, 2015, and Nov 16, 2017, 684 individuals were screened and 520 (76%) were enrolled and randomised. 188 (36%) of 520 participants were lost to follow-up by week 24; attrition did not differ by study group (39 [30%] of 130 in the cigarette substitute group, 56 [43%] of 130 in the ENDS with 0 mg/mL nicotine group, 49 [38%] of 130 in the ENDS 8 mg/mL group, and 44 [34%] of 130 in the ENDS 36 mg/mL group). Urinary total NNAL at 24 weeks in the ENDS with 36 mg/mL nicotine group was 210·80 pg/mg creatinine (95% CI 163·03-274·42) compared with 346·09 pg/mg creatinine (265·00-455·32) in the cigarette substitute group (p=0·0061). No other significant differences between groups were observed for any time point for urinary total NNAL. Serious adverse event frequency was similar across groups (12 events in 12 participants [9%] in the ENDS with 36 mg/mL nicotine group, seven events in six participants [5%] in the 8 mg/mL group, 11 events in ten participants [8%] in the 0 mg/mL group, and 13 events in 13 participants [10%] in the cigarette substitute group), and all of these were deemed unrelated or unlikely to be related to study product use. There was one death between randomisation and 24 weeks (suicide; in the ENDS with 0 mg/mL nicotine group). INTERPRETATION: Use of an ENDS with cigarette-like nicotine delivery can reduce exposure to a major pulmonary carcinogen, NNAL, even with concurrent smoking. Future ENDS trials should involve products with well characterised nicotine delivery, including those with nicotine delivery approaching that of a cigarette. FUNDING: National Institutes of Health, US Food and Drug Administration.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Nicotina/administração & dosagem , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Adulto , Carcinógenos/análise , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nitrosaminas/urina
16.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 9(4): e23989, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33792551

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Smoking rates are significantly higher among young people experiencing homelessness than in the general population. Despite a willingness to quit, homeless youth have little success in doing so on their own, and existing cessation resources tailored to this population are lacking. Homeless youth generally enjoy the camaraderie and peer support that group-based programs offer, but continuous in-person support during a quit attempt can be prohibitively expensive. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the feasibility and acceptability of an automated text messaging intervention (TMI) as an adjunct to group-based cessation counseling and provision of nicotine patches to help homeless youth quit smoking. This paper outlines the lessons learned from the implementation of the TMI intervention. METHODS: Homeless youth smokers aged 18 to 25 years who were interested in quitting (n=77) were recruited from drop-in centers serving homeless youth in the Los Angeles area. In this pilot randomized controlled trial, all participants received a group-based cessation counseling session and nicotine patches, with 52% (40/77) randomly assigned to receive 6 weeks of text messages to provide additional support for their quit attempt. Participants received text messages on their own phone rather than receiving a study-issued phone for the TMI. We analyzed baseline and follow-up survey data as well as back-end data from the messaging platform to gauge the acceptability and feasibility of the TMI among the 40 participants who received it. RESULTS: Participants had widespread (smart)phone ownership-16.4% (36/219) were ineligible for study participation because they did not have a phone that could receive text messages. Participants experienced interruptions in their phone use (eg, 44% [16/36] changed phone numbers during the follow-up period) but reported being able to receive the majority of messages. These survey results were corroborated by back-end data (from the program used to administer the TMI) showing a message delivery rate of about 95%. Participant feedback points to the importance of carefully crafting text messages, which led to high (typically above 70%) approval of most text messaging components of the intervention. Qualitative feedback indicated that participants enjoyed the group counseling session that preceded the TMI and suggested including more such group elements into the intervention. CONCLUSIONS: The TMI was well accepted and feasible to support smoking cessation among homeless youth. Given high rates of smartphone ownership, the next generation of phone-based smoking cessation interventions for this population should consider using approaches beyond text messages and focus on finding ways to develop effective approaches to include group interaction using remote implementation. Given overall resource constraints and in particular the exigencies of the currently ongoing COVID-19 epidemic, phone-based interventions are a promising approach to support homeless youth, a population urgently in need of effective smoking cessation interventions. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03874585; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03874585. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): RR2-10.1186/s13722-020-00187-6.


Assuntos
Pessoas em Situação de Rua/psicologia , Fumantes/psicologia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Envio de Mensagens de Texto , Adolescente , Adulto , COVID-19 , Feminino , Pessoas em Situação de Rua/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Los Angeles/epidemiologia , Masculino , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , SARS-CoV-2 , Fumar/epidemiologia , Apoio Social , Adulto Jovem
17.
Hu Li Za Zhi ; 68(2): 53-64, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33792019

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) who quit smoking exhibit lower rates of heart attack recurrence and mortality than their peers who continue smoking. However, most male patients with CHD resume smoking after hospital discharge. PURPOSE: To explore the effectiveness of motivational interventions and mobile social network support on smoking cessation and other predictors of smoking cessation in male patients with CHD. METHODS: An experimental design was used, and a convenience sample was recruited from a cardiology ward of a hospital in northern Taiwan. The participants were randomly assigned to the experimental group (n = 57) and control group (n = 64). During hospitalization, each participant completed a questionnaire after undergoing cardiac catheterization. The questionnaire included a demographic datasheet, the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence, and the contemplation ladder. Afterward, the experimental group received motivational interventions, filled out a self-efficacy scale and the contemplation ladder, and joined an online mobile social group (LINE) for three months. The control group received regular care and a smoking cessation booklet, and then filled out the self-efficacy scale and contemplation ladder. An intention-to-treat analysis was adopted to evaluate smoke cessation status. Information on post-discharge smoking status was collected from the participants via the Line communications app or phone calls at three-months after hospital discharge and was further confirmed using urinary cotinine levels. RESULTS: The results revealed that both groups registered improvements in motivation to quit smoking. This motivation was relatively higher in the experimental group after the intervention than in the control group. The smoking cessation rate in the experimental group (35.09%) was higher than that in the control group (17.19%). However, the intergroup difference in the cessation rate only approached statistical significance (OR: 2.34; p = .055) after controlling for the baseline difference between the two groups. Controlling for the effects of the intervention, age of smoking initiation, first diagnosis of CHD, and self-efficacy were identified as predictors of smoking cessation. CONCLUSIONS / IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Healthcare providers are encouraged to provide motivational interviews to enhance the motivation of their patients to quit smoking as well as to incorporate self-efficacy into related interventions to increase the smoking cessation rate.


Assuntos
Doença das Coronárias , Entrevista Motivacional , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Rede Social , Telemedicina , Doença das Coronárias/epidemiologia , Doença das Coronárias/terapia , Humanos , Masculino , Alta do Paciente , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/psicologia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/estatística & dados numéricos , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
AIDS Educ Prev ; 33(2): 158-168, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33821680

RESUMO

Cigarette smoking remains disproportionately prevalent and is increasingly a cause of death and disability among people with HIV (PWH). Many PWH are interested in quitting, but interest in and uptake of first-line smoking cessation pharmacotherapies are varied in this population. To provide current data regarding experiences with and perceptions of smoking cessation and cessation aids among PWH living in Durham, North Carolina, the authors conducted five focus group interviews (total n = 24; 96% African American) using semistructured interviews. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, coded, and thematically analyzed. Major themes included ambivalence and/or lack of interest in cessation; presence of cessation barriers; perceived perceptions of ineffectiveness of cessation aids; perceived medication side effects; and conflation of the harms resulting from use of tobacco products and nicotine replacement therapy. Innovative and effective interventions must account for the aforementioned multiple barriers to cessation as well as prior experiences with and misperceptions regarding cessation aids.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/complicações , Fumantes/psicologia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/psicologia , Dispositivos para o Abandono do Uso de Tabaco/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Afro-Americanos , Idoso , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , North Carolina , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/métodos
20.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 3: CD013522, 2021 03 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33687070

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a common perception that smoking generally helps people to manage stress, and may be a form of 'self-medication' in people with mental health conditions. However, there are biologically plausible reasons why smoking may worsen mental health through neuroadaptations arising from chronic smoking, leading to frequent nicotine withdrawal symptoms (e.g. anxiety, depression, irritability), in which case smoking cessation may help to improve rather than worsen mental health. OBJECTIVES: To examine the association between tobacco smoking cessation and change in mental health. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group's Specialised Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, and the trial registries clinicaltrials.gov and the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, from 14 April 2012 to 07 January 2020. These were updated searches of a previously-conducted non-Cochrane review where searches were conducted from database inception to 13 April 2012.  SELECTION CRITERIA: We included controlled before-after studies, including randomised controlled trials (RCTs) analysed by smoking status at follow-up, and longitudinal cohort studies. In order to be eligible for inclusion studies had to recruit adults who smoked tobacco, and assess whether they quit or continued smoking during the study. They also had to measure a mental health outcome at baseline and at least six weeks later. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We followed standard Cochrane methods for screening and data extraction. Our primary outcomes were change in depression symptoms, anxiety symptoms or mixed anxiety and depression symptoms between baseline and follow-up. Secondary outcomes  included change in symptoms of stress, psychological quality of life, positive affect, and social impact or social quality of life, as well as new incidence of depression, anxiety, or mixed anxiety and depression disorders. We assessed the risk of bias for the primary outcomes using a modified ROBINS-I tool.  For change in mental health outcomes, we calculated the pooled standardised mean difference (SMD) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) for the difference in change in mental health from baseline to follow-up between those who had quit smoking and those who had continued to smoke. For the incidence of psychological disorders, we calculated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs. For all meta-analyses we used a generic inverse variance random-effects model and quantified statistical heterogeneity using I2. We conducted subgroup analyses to investigate any differences in associations between sub-populations, i.e. unselected people with mental illness, people with physical chronic diseases. We assessed the certainty of evidence for our primary outcomes (depression, anxiety, and mixed depression and anxiety) and our secondary social impact outcome using the eight GRADE considerations relevant to non-randomised studies (risk of bias, inconsistency, imprecision, indirectness, publication bias, magnitude of the effect, the influence of all plausible residual confounding, the presence of a dose-response gradient). MAIN RESULTS: We included 102 studies representing over 169,500 participants. Sixty-two of these were identified in the updated search for this review and 40 were included in the original version of the review.  Sixty-three studies provided data on change in mental health, 10 were included in meta-analyses of incidence of mental health disorders, and 31 were synthesised narratively.  For all primary outcomes, smoking cessation was associated with an improvement in mental health symptoms compared with continuing to smoke: anxiety symptoms (SMD -0.28, 95% CI -0.43 to -0.13; 15 studies, 3141 participants; I2 = 69%; low-certainty evidence); depression symptoms: (SMD -0.30, 95% CI -0.39 to -0.21; 34 studies, 7156 participants; I2 = 69%' very low-certainty evidence);  mixed anxiety and depression symptoms (SMD -0.31, 95% CI -0.40 to -0.22; 8 studies, 2829 participants; I2 = 0%; moderate certainty evidence).  These findings were robust to preplanned sensitivity analyses, and subgroup analysis generally did not produce evidence of differences in the effect size among subpopulations or based on methodological characteristics. All studies were deemed to be at serious risk of bias due to possible time-varying confounding, and three studies measuring depression symptoms were judged to be at critical risk of bias overall. There was also some evidence of funnel plot asymmetry. For these reasons, we rated our certainty in the estimates for anxiety as low, for depression as very low, and for mixed anxiety and depression as moderate. For the secondary outcomes, smoking cessation was associated with an improvement in symptoms of stress (SMD -0.19, 95% CI -0.34 to -0.04; 4 studies, 1792 participants; I2 = 50%), positive affect (SMD 0.22, 95% CI 0.11 to 0.33; 13 studies, 4880 participants; I2 = 75%), and psychological quality of life (SMD 0.11, 95% CI 0.06 to 0.16; 19 studies, 18,034 participants; I2 = 42%). There was also evidence that smoking cessation was not associated with a reduction in social quality of life, with the confidence interval incorporating the possibility of a small improvement (SMD 0.03, 95% CI 0.00 to 0.06; 9 studies, 14,673 participants; I2 = 0%). The incidence of new mixed anxiety and depression was lower in people who stopped smoking compared with those who continued (OR 0.76, 95% CI 0.66 to 0.86; 3 studies, 8685 participants; I2 = 57%), as was the incidence of anxiety disorder (OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.34 to 1.12; 2 studies, 2293 participants; I2 = 46%). We deemed it inappropriate to present a pooled estimate for the incidence of new cases of clinical depression, as there was high statistical heterogeneity (I2 = 87%). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, these data provide evidence that mental health does not worsen as a result of quitting smoking, and very low- to moderate-certainty evidence that smoking cessation is associated with small to moderate improvements in mental health.  These improvements are seen in both unselected samples and in subpopulations, including people diagnosed with mental health conditions. Additional studies that use more advanced methods to overcome time-varying confounding would strengthen the evidence in this area.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/terapia , Depressão/terapia , Saúde Mental , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Afeto , Intervalos de Confiança , Estudos Controlados Antes e Depois , Humanos , Incidência , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Qualidade de Vida , Fumar/psicologia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/psicologia , Interação Social , Estresse Psicológico/terapia , Abandono do Uso de Tabaco/métodos , Abandono do Uso de Tabaco/psicologia
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