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1.
Environ Technol ; 41(2): 232-237, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29952721

RESUMO

Chronic arsenic (As) unprotection in drinking water can lead to Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM). The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between chronic As in drinking water and the prevalence of T2DM. A study was conducted in targeted urban areas of Peshawar city of KPK, Pakistan, where drinking water is heavily contaminated with chronic arsenic. Participants protected to arsenic were selected from Kohat city of KPK, Pakistan (where people consumed water that is free from As contamination) and treated as the control group. People with arsenic-related skin lesions were defined as participants unprotected to arsenic. T2DM was diagnosed using a glucometer following the fasting blood glucose ≥6.0 mmol L-1 from the WHO guideline. The common odds ratio for T2DM among participants unprotected to arsenic was <4. The Mantel-Haenszel weighted prevalence ratio with 95% of confidence interval for confounding factors were (age <4 m femininity <4 and body mass index >4). The results revealed that designated association were important. The findings suggested that unprotected chronic arsenic in drinking water may be a risk factor of T2DM.


Assuntos
Arsênico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Água Potável , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Exposição Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Paquistão , Prevalência , Medição de Risco , Abastecimento de Água
2.
Ambio ; 49(1): 156-164, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30771206

RESUMO

The political economy of dam development in South America is changing as a result of a resurgence in water infrastructure investments. The arrival of Chinese-funded projects in the region has altered a context traditionally dominated by multilateral development banks. Tensions are escalating around new dam projects and the environmental impact assessment process is increasingly the site of politicization around water in the region. In this perspective, we examine the most recent surge in dam development in South America, the resulting environmental and social impacts, and the mobilization of civil society and environmental groups that have developed in response to these projects. In the absence of regionally shared standards for environmental assessment and regional mechanisms to mitigate the emerging conflicts-primarily occurring between companies, states, and civil society-we argue there is a risk of a race to the bottom to finance infrastructure projects with laxer environmental and social standards.


Assuntos
Meio Ambiente , Abastecimento de Água , Mudança Social , América do Sul , Água
3.
Chemosphere ; 238: 124623, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31545212

RESUMO

The Indo-Gangetic alluvium is prime region for intensive agricultural. In some areas of this region, groundwater is now becoming progressively polluted by contamination with poisonous substances like arsenic. Intensive irrigation with arsenic contaminated ground water in dry spell results in the formation of As(III) which is more toxic. Thus groundwater quality assessment of Gangetic basin has become essential for its safer use. Therefore we under took study on the spatial variability of arsenic by collecting georeferred groundwater samples on grid basis from various water sources like dug well, bore and hand pumps covering the river bank region of Ganga basin. Water quality was investigated through determination pH, EC, TDS, salinity, Na, K, Ca, Mg, SAR, SSP, CO3, HCO3, RSC, Cl, As, Fe, Zn, Mn and Cu, etc. Results pointed severe As contamination in ground water of three sites of the study area. ARC GIS software is now able to process maps along with tabular data and compare them well, to provide the spatial visualization of information and using this tool, the Geographical Information System (GIS) of arsenic was developed. It was noticed from spatial maps that concentration of arsenic was more near the meandering points of Ganga.


Assuntos
Arsênico/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Água Subterrânea/química , Rios/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Geografia , Humanos , Índia , Íons , Medição de Risco , Salinidade , Poluição da Água/análise , Qualidade da Água , Abastecimento de Água/normas
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 700: 134415, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31629265

RESUMO

Bioclimatic indices combine atmospheric parameters to provide analytical indication of climatic features and their evolution in space and time that can directly relate with natural resource availability, distribution, and related bio-physical processes. The availability of bioclimatic information can provide natural resource managers with analytical means to assess the magnitude and temporal evolution of drought and climate change parameters that could affect the availability, demand and use of natural resources for various sectors. This paper presents a methodology to process bioclimatic data in the space and time domains for assessing the moisture/dryness level and water requirements of a region, and inform water resource planning and management decisions related to drought, climate variability and change. The methodology relies on a modular assembly of statistical tests and methods, and utilizes point scale measurements of meteorological data to perform the analysis of the spatial behavior of derived bioclimatic indicators at the continuous regional scale, and evaluate the significance of the temporal trends. Also, the article presents an application of the proposed methodology to a coastal area of southern Italy (the Apulia Region) that is characterized by recurring water supply limitations, involving the use of the popular De Martonne bioclimatic aridity index. The methodology allowed to obtain qualitative and quantitative information about the aridity level of the Apulia region, the identification of main bioclimatic zones, and the evaluation of spatial pattern and time evolution of aridity. The determination of bioclimatic zones showed that nearly 40% of the regional territory is characterized by dry sub-humid (Mediterranean) climate, about 30% by sub-humid climate, while nearly 10% and 20% are characterized by semi-arid and humid climates, respectively. The temporal analysis revealed that the Salento and the Ionian coastal zone are areas at risk of increasing aridity, with resulting impacts on the water supply and demand for irrigated agriculture.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Mudança Climática , Secas , Ecossistema , Itália , Conceitos Meteorológicos , Estações do Ano , Abastecimento de Água
5.
Chemosphere ; 238: 124988, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31645266

RESUMO

Over the past three decades, the occurrence of high concentrations of arsenic (As) in drinking-water and its subsequent poisoning in rice has been recognized as a major public-health concern globally, especially in Ganga Delta Plain with more than 80 million peoples in serious As exposure far beyond than its allowable limit. An extensive field study was conducted for consecutive four years viz. 2013 to 2016, introducing a process of intermittent irrigation pattern comparing to the conventional practice of rice cultivation in India. The practice provides a combination of aerobic and anaerobic irrigation resulting better rice productivity with lesser arsenic mobility and accumulation in rice grains. This present research finding clearly points out to the marked reduction of arsenic load from average 1.6 mg/kg to 0.5 mg/kg in rice grain, much closer to FAO/WHO prescribed safe limit and in the continuous practice of proposed agricultural strategy resulting in a gradual decrease of 15% bioavailable arsenic in each year. Total productivity (in kg/hectare) also increased by 540 kg/year in boro and 340 kg/year in amon subsequently achieving the prescribed safe limit of As in grain.


Assuntos
Arsênico/análise , Água Potável/química , Grão Comestível/química , Oryza/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Irrigação Agrícola/métodos , Índia , Abastecimento de Água
6.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 87: 331-340, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31791506

RESUMO

This study profiled the bacterial community variations of water from four water treatment systems, including coagulation, sedimentation, sand filtration, ozonation-biological activated carbon filtration (O3-BAC), disinfection, and the tap water after the distribution process in eastern China. The results showed that different water treatment processes affected the bacterial community structure in different ways. The traditional treatment processes, including coagulation, sedimentation and sand filtration, reduced the total bacterial count, while they had little effect on the bacterial community structure in the treated water (before disinfection). Compared to the traditional treatment process, O3-BAC reduced the relative abundance of Sphingomonas in the finished water. In addition, ozonation may play a role in reducing the relative abundance of Mycobacterium. NaClO and ClO2 had different effects on the bacterial community in the finished water. The relative abundance of some bacteria (e.g. Flavobacterium, Phreatobacter and Porphyrobacter) increased in the finished water after ClO2 disinfection. The relative abundance of Mycobacterium and Legionella, which have been widely reported as waterborne opportunistic pathogens, increased after NaClO disinfection. In addition, some microorganisms proliferated and grew in the distribution system, which could lead to turbidity increases in the tap water. Compared to those in the finished water, the relative abundance of Sphingomonas, Hyphomicrobium, Phreatobacter, Rheinheimera, Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter increased in the tap water disinfected with NaClO, while the relative abundance of Mycobacterium increased in the tap water disinfected with ClO2. Overall, this study provided the detailed variation in the bacterial community in the drinking water system.


Assuntos
Água Potável/microbiologia , Abastecimento de Água/estatística & dados numéricos , China , Desinfecção , Monitoramento Ambiental , Purificação da Água/métodos
7.
J Water Health ; 17(6): 896-909, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31850897

RESUMO

Sanitation planners make complex decisions in the delivery of sanitation services to achieve health outcomes. We present findings from a stakeholder engagement workshop held in Kampala, Uganda, to educate, interact with, and solicit feedback from participants on how the relevant scientific literature on pathogens can be made more accessible to practitioners to support decision-making. We targeted Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) practitioners involved in different levels of service delivery. Practitioners revealed that different sanitation planning tools are used to inform decision-making; however, most of these tools are not user-friendly or adapted to meet their needs. Most stakeholders (68%) expressed familiarity with pathogens, yet less than half (46%) understood that fecal coliforms were bacteria and used as indicators for fecal pollution. A number of stakeholders were unaware that fecal indicator bacteria do not behave and persist the same as helminths, protozoa, or viruses, making fecal indicator bacteria inadequate for assessing pathogen reductions for all pathogen groups. This suggests a need for awareness and capacity development around pathogens found in excreta. The findings underscore the importance to engage stakeholders in the development of support tools for sanitation planning and highlighted broader opportunities to bridge science with practice in the WASH sector.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões , Higiene , Saneamento/normas , Microbiologia da Água , Qualidade da Água/normas , Abastecimento de Água/normas , Animais , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Uganda , Água
8.
J Water Health ; 17(6): 944-956, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31850901

RESUMO

The incidence of infectious waterborne disease in Canada continues to be a public health issue and can be associated with the source of drinking water. Millions of Canadians relying on unregulated private well water are at increased risk of disease. This study examined relationships between well and owner characteristics and the frequency of microbial testing of private wells in two southern-Ontario counties. Using multi-level logistic regression models, testing frequency (i.e., at least once per year vs. less) was modeled, as both self-reported and laboratory-validated, for associations with owner and well characteristics. For the self-reported outcome, a previous adverse test result significantly increased the odds of being classified as a frequent tester, and owners with a well-head more than 16 inches (40.6 cm) above the ground were at significantly higher odds of being classified as frequent testers compared to those with well-heads less than 16 inches above the ground and those below ground level. For the model based on the laboratory-validated outcome, the odds of an owner being a frequent tester significantly varied with the length of occupancy and the occurrence of a previous adverse result. The absence of associations between other well characteristics and testing frequency suggests that well safety education could benefit these communities.


Assuntos
Água Potável/microbiologia , Microbiologia da Água/normas , Poços de Água , Água Potável/normas , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Ontário , Saúde Pública , Política Pública , Abastecimento de Água/normas
9.
J Water Health ; 17(6): 989-1001, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31850905

RESUMO

Unsafe drinking water is a recognized health threat in Ethiopia, and climate change, rapid population growth, urbanization and agricultural practices put intense pressure on availability and quality of water. Climate change-related health problems due to floods and waterborne diseases are increasing. With increasing insight into impacts of climate change and urbanization on water availability and quality and of required adaptations, a shift towards climate-resilient water safety planning was introduced into an Ethiopian strategy and guidance document to guarantee safe drinking water. Climate-resilient water safety planning was implemented in the urban water supplies of Addis Ababa and Adama, providing drinking water to 5 million and 500,000 people, respectively. Based on the risks identified with climate-resilient water safety planning, water quality monitoring can be optimized by prioritizing parameters and events which pose a higher risk for contaminating the drinking water. Water quality monitoring was improved at both drinking water utilities and at the Public Health Institute to provide relevant data used as input for climate-resilient water safety planning. By continuously linking water quality monitoring and climate-resilient water safety planning, utilization of information was optimized, and both approaches benefit from linking these activities.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Água Potável , Qualidade da Água , Abastecimento de Água/normas , Etiópia , Humanos , Medição de Risco , Gestão de Riscos
10.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 40(12): 5302-5308, 2019 Dec 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31854601

RESUMO

The occurrence of 18 types of disinfection by-products (DBPs) in two waterworks and the corresponding water supply networks of H City in Zhejiang Province was determined by gas chromatography coupled with electron capture detector (GC-ECD). The correlation between DBPs and organic precursors, and health risks caused by DBPs, were discussed. Results showed that the disinfection by-products detected in drinking water in H City mainly include trihalomethanes (THMs), haloacetic acid (HAAs), haloacetonitrile (HANs) and trichloronitromethane (HNMs), with highest concentrations of THMs followed by HAAs. In the finish water of CX Waterworks and tap water supplied by CX Water works, concentrations of THMs ranged from 7.70 to 32.73µg·L-1and 9.00 to 51.42µg·L-1, respectively, and those of HAAs 3.05 to 21.30µg·L-1 and 6.00 to 26.79µg·L-1, respectively. The THMs in finished water and tap water of TH Waterworks were in the range 8.65-38.76µg·L-1 and 12.09-42.04µg·L-1, respectively, and those of HAAs were 2.42-14.79µg·L-1 and 2.80-33.40µg·L-1, respectively. The DBPs in the finished and tap water of the two waterworks were at lower levels than the limitations regulated by the Sanitary Standard for Drinking Water (GB 5749-2006). The index of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and UV254 were adopted to describe the organic compounds, and it was found that trichloromethane (TCM) was significantly negatively correlated with DOC and UV254in tap water. Based on the EPA recommended health risk assessment model, the carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks of chlorine disinfection by-products in the oral intake route were calculated. It was found that the carcinogenic risks caused by the disinfection by-products in the finished water and tap water of H City were 5.94×10-6-4.76×10-5 and 5.94×10-6-5.56×10-5, respectively, while the non-carcinogenic risks were 0.91×10-2-4.20×10-2 and 1.26×10-2-4.72×10-2, respectively. The carcinogenic risk is mainly from THMs:bromodichloromethane (BDCM) contributes the highest cancer risk, and the non-carcinogenic risk is mainly from TCM.


Assuntos
Desinfetantes , Água Potável , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Desinfecção , Trialometanos , Abastecimento de Água
11.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 40(8): 3489-3500, 2019 Aug 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31854754

RESUMO

Trace polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in drinking water sources have significant harmful effects on human health. Water and sediment samples from water source regions of three water treatment plants in Guangzhou were collected and the distributions of 16 kinds of PAHs were analyzed. The human risk of PAHs in the water samples was also evaluated using the Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund (RAGS) of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). The results showed that PAHs in the samples from the three water source regions did not exceed the corresponding standard limit for water quality, and the content of ΣPAHs in suspended solids and sediments was below the medium level. The non-carcinogenic risks (HQ and HI) of PAHs in the water samples were less than 1, and the non-carcinogenic risk was negligible. In addition, Riskingest, Riskdermal, and RiskT for the waters were all in range of 5.53×10-7 to 5.34×10-6, indicating that a carcinogen risk was possible but acceptable. The results of the isomer ratio method indicated that the PAHs in the water sources of the three water plants had a mixed input of pollution, including petroleum discharge, petroleum combustion, and incomplete combustion of wood, coal, and biomass. The total organic carbon (TOC) content of the water and sediment samples was positively correlated with the accumulation and enrichment of low-ring PAHs, and there was a significant positive correlation between PAHs and similar molecules in the sediments. The ΣPAHs in the water and sediment samples were also strongly correlated.


Assuntos
Saúde Ambiental , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Medição de Risco , Poluentes Químicos da Água , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos , Humanos , Abastecimento de Água
12.
J Water Health ; 17(6): 870-883, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31850895

RESUMO

The World Health Organization (WHO) promotes water safety plans (WSPs) - a risk-based management approach - for premise plumbing systems in buildings to prevent deterioration of drinking-water quality. Experience with the implementation of WSPs in buildings were gathered within a pilot project in Germany. The project included an evaluation of the feasibility and advantages of WSPs by all stakeholders who share responsibility in drinking-water safety. While the feasibility of the concept was demonstrated for all buildings, benefits reported by building operators varied. The more technical standards were complied with before implementing WSP, the less pronounced were the resulting improvements. In most cases, WSPs yielded an increased system knowledge and awareness for drinking-water quality issues. WSPs also led to improved operation of the premise plumbing system and provided benefits for surveillance authorities. A survey among the European Network of Drinking-Water Regulators on the existing legal framework regarding drinking-water safety in buildings exhibited that countries are aware of the need to manage risks in buildings' installations, but experience with WSP is rare. Based on the successful implementation and the positive effects of WSPs on drinking-water quality, we recommend the establishment of legal frameworks that require WSPs for priority buildings whilst accounting for differing conditions in buildings and countries.


Assuntos
Água Potável/normas , Qualidade da Água , Abastecimento de Água/normas , Alemanha , Humanos , Projetos Piloto , Medição de Risco , Gestão de Riscos
13.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 40(6): 2722-2729, 2019 Jun 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31854664

RESUMO

In view of the problem of excessive manganese concentrations in the Xi'an Jinpen Reservoir during the flood season in 2017, the vertical distribution of manganese in density currents and its occurrence pattern were monitored at multiple monitoring sections along the upstream reaches to the main basin. The influences of density currents plunging into the reservoir on the migration and transformation of Mn were studied, and sedimentation, output, and deposition of manganese in the reservoir water were also specifically estimated during a single, typical storm runoff process. Devices for avoiding high turbidity and high load inflows in rainfall events were proposed. The results showed that significant increases of total manganese were induced by high-turbidity inflows, which largely degraded water quality during rainfall events. From 12 to 14 October, 9.11 tons of total manganese were transported into the reservoir during a single rainfall event, and the pollution conditions were largely remitted by flood discharges with an output of 6.22 tons; thus, the net deposition (manganese) was 1.47 tons. The manganese content and morphological changes along the upper reaches of the reservoir indicated that soil erosion occurred during the continuous rainfall process, and this caused a large amount of particulate pollutants to flow into the water body with the runoff. More than 70% of the total manganese in the water was in the iron-manganese oxide bound state. Correlation analysis was conducted with particles of different particle size ranges, and granular manganese particle sizes were about 2-20 µm. The findings indicate that when flood discharges with turbidity currents occur, this can effectively reduce the load of pollutants and the safety risks of water.


Assuntos
Água Potável/análise , Manganês/análise , Chuva , Movimentos da Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Qualidade da Água , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Abastecimento de Água
14.
Environ Manage ; 64(6): 701-720, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31705203

RESUMO

This study demonstrates the importance of considering potential land use and management changes in climate impact research. By taking into account possible trends of economic development and environmental awareness, we assess effects of global warming on water availability and quality in the catchments of four European lagoons: Ria de Aveiro (Portugal), Mar Menor (Spain), Vistula Lagoon (Poland and Russia), and Tyligulskyi Liman (Ukraine). Different setups of the process-based soil and water integrated model (SWIM), representing one reference and four socio-economic scenarios for each study area: the "business as usual", "crisis", "managed horizons", and "set-aside" scenarios are driven by sets of 15 climate scenarios for a reference (1971-2000) and near future (2011-2040) scenario period. Modeling results suggest a large spatial variability of potential impacts across the study areas, due to differences in the projected precipitation trends and the current environmental and socio-economic conditions. While climate change may reduce water and nutrients input to the Ria de Aveiro and Tyligulsyi Liman and increase water inflow to the Vistula Lagoon the socio-economic scenarios and their implications may balance out or reverse these trends. In the intensely managed Mar Menor catchment, climate change has no notable direct impact on water resources, but changes in land use and water management may certainly aggravate the current environmental problems. The great heterogeneity among results does not allow formulating adaptation or mitigation measures at pan-European level, as initially intended by this study. It rather implies the need of a regional approach in coastal zone management.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Recursos Hídricos , Polônia , Portugal , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Espanha , Abastecimento de Água
15.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 244, 2019.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31692810

RESUMO

Introduction: Access to drinking water and sanitation has been a long-standing issue between many States. However, it represents a daily struggle for hundreds of thousands of city dwellers who live mainly in the developing countries. The government of Cameroon with the assistance of providers of funds have implemented strategies to make sanitation and access to safe drinking water a reality. We have therefore decided to assess sanitation and access to drinking water in Douala V sub division. Method: We conducted a cross-sectional descriptive study from May to June 2018. We used a two-stage random sampling. Data were collected using a questionnaire. The analysis was conducted using Epi Info Version 7.1.3.3. Results: Our study shows that 22.47% of subjects discharged waters into the natural environment after use. Then, 65,55% (493/752) of households consumed borehole water; 53.69% of households rode between 1 to 5 km, 49.25% walked more than 15 minutes to collect water and 85,50% of households did not use a water treatment method. Only 14.49% of subjects used a water treatment method. No household used solar water disinfection (SODIS); 2/752 households (0.26%) had no latrine. Most of the households (54.52%; 410/752) discharged domestic wastes onto the street. Conclusion: The creation of decentralized units: the drillings, waste disposal systems and water treatment education to meet basic needs are essential.


Assuntos
Água Potável/normas , Saneamento/normas , Abastecimento de Água/normas , Camarões , Estudos Transversais , Países em Desenvolvimento , Desinfecção/métodos , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Toaletes/estatística & dados numéricos
16.
Stomatologiia (Mosk) ; 98(5): 56-59, 2019.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31701930

RESUMO

AIM: Caries experience assessment in adult patients with dental fluorosis living in endemic area and in the region with normal fluoride concentration in drinking water; assessment of correlation between DMFT index and elementary composition of mixed saliva in adult patients with dental fluorosis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Two groups of patients took part in the clinical study. Group 1 involved 33 persons with dental fluorosis living in endemic area. In group 2 there were 31 persons with dental fluorosis living in region with normal fluoride concentration in drinking water. DMFT index was calculated. Enamel resistance to acids and remineralizing activity of saliva were tested. Electron probe X-ray microanalysis (EPXMA) was used to detect elementary composition of mixed saliva. RESULTS: The mean DMFT value was 3.97±0.31 in group 1 and 4.65±0.41 in group 2, which was 15% higher. In both groups high enamel resistance to acids was observed, but remineralizing activity of saliva was significantly better in group 1. The mean fluoride concentration in mixed saliva was 42% higher in group 1 comparing to group 2 (0.108±0.003 mass%, and 0.063±0.0002 mass%, respectively). CONCLUSION: Adult patients with dental fluorosis living in endemic area are more caries resistant comparing to those living in region with normal fluoride concentration in drinking water. It's associated with elevated fluoride concentration in mixed saliva due to permanent fluoride consumption with drinking water.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Fluorose Dentária , Fluoretos , Humanos , Prevalência , Saliva , Abastecimento de Água
17.
J Emerg Manag ; 17(4): 321-333, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31603522

RESUMO

The West Virginia water contamination crisis began on the morning of January 9, 2014, and left approximately 300,000 customers of the West Virginia American Water Company unable to use the water in their homes for any purpose other than flushing their toilets. Given the lack of appropriate response from the established organizations involved, many emergent organizations formed to help fill unmet informational and physical needs of the affected population. Crisis researchers have observed these ephemeral organizations for decades, but the recent proliferation of information communication technologies have made their activities more widespread and observable. In West Virginia, their activities were indispensable to the affected population and helped restore a sense of normalcy. This article analyzes four emergent organizations that formed in response to the West Virginia water contamination and the functions they performed in different phases of this crisis.


Assuntos
Vazamento de Resíduos Químicos , Mídias Sociais , Planejamento em Desastres , Organizações , Água , Abastecimento de Água/estatística & dados numéricos , West Virginia
18.
J Environ Manage ; 252: 109673, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31605912

RESUMO

This article analyzes the feasibility of a widely-deployed residential rainwater harvesting (RWH) system for reducing demands and supplementing existing, centralized water supply systems in a heavily populated region in Southeast Florida. The analysis employs a unique integration of models and approaches, which are portable and applicable in diverse contexts and include: a nonparametric bootstrapping model for synthetically generating multiple realizations of regional rainfall, water supply and demand, and storage size and reliability outcomes; and an approach for determining expected water and energy savings and costs associated with the RWH system. Findings suggest that a RWH system designed to meet the outdoor irrigation demands of detached homes in Florida's Broward and Palm Beach Counties could meet 54% of the total additional water demand created by the growing population in this region. This is significantly greater than the percentages of demand that could be met by several proposed centralized approaches to water supply using groundwater recharge by reclaimed water, comparable to the percentage of demand that could be met by desalinating brackish water from the Floridian Aquifer, but less than the percentage of demand that could be met by a proposed new reservoir and canal system for groundwater recharge. The findings also suggest that the expected cost of water provided by the decentralized RWH system, which includes substantial savings in energy requirements and costs, would be significantly less than the expected costs of water provided by all centralized water supply system alternatives considered, with the exception of the reservoir and canal system.


Assuntos
Chuva , Água , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Florida , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Abastecimento de Água
19.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 91(3): e20180578, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596389

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to determine how often rural farmers in a watershed use no-tillage systems combined with crop rotation, contour farming and agricultural terraces. The study area was Paraná Watershed III (PB3) in the western region of Paraná State, and data from the 2006 Agricultural Census of the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics were used. A frequency distribution analysis of farms as a function of the no-tillage (NT) area was conducted in combination with a cluster analysis of soil and water conservation practices (adoption of crop rotation, contour farming and agricultural terrace practices). The results showed that the farms in PB3 adopt adequate soil and water conservation practices, with 73% adopting NT combined with at least 2 other conservation practices; however, agricultural terracing was found to be the most neglected practice in the region. In addition, based on the soil and water conservation practices in the watershed, 5 groups of farms were identified, the worst of which, those located in the municipalities that mainly neglect conservation practices, live in areas with highly erodible soils.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Produtos Agrícolas , Solo/química , Brasil , Água/análise , Abastecimento de Água
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