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1.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 42(7): 3272-3280, 2021 Jul 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34212653

RESUMO

To clarify the impact of water quality and social activity in the Baiyangdian wetland on the biological community, the change characteristics of bacterial, fungal, and archaeal communities in different areas of the Dian District were studied. Samples were collected at the entrance of Fuhe District (NBB), tourist areas with frequent human social activities (NBD), residential breeding areas (NBX), and village sparse areas (NBN). The physical and chemical characteristics and biological communities of the samples were evaluated. The results of the study show that the COD concentration of organic pollutants in the NBB was 12.35 mg·L-1, and the total nitrogen concentration was 10.12 mg·L-1, that the concentration was highest. Moreover, the water quality in NBD and NBX was better than that of NBB. The NBN area exhibited the best water quality, with COD and total nitrogen concentration values of 6.9 mg·L-1 and 1.82 mg·L-1, respectively. Many types of NBB bacteria were recorded, with a diversity index of 5.86, and NBN diversity index exceeding 4.78. The dominant bacterial flora in all samples was the Proteobacteria, which accounts for 68.8% of the total bacterial communities in NBN samples. The diversity index of fungi in NBB was only 2.14. There were many types of fungi in NBN, with a diversity index of 3.23. Chytridiomycota was found in the NBD and NBN, accounting for 5.4% and 9.8% of the total number of fungi, respectively. The Chytridiomycota was main decomposer of hard to degrade organic carbon. The diversity of archaea of NBN was the lowest among all the samples. Crenarchaeota was the dominant phylum, which accounts for 39.0%, 51.9%, 47.3%, and 30.1% of NBB, NBD, NBX, and NBN samples, respectively. The number of Halobacterota was lower than Crenarchaeota. The main factor of eutrophication and microbial community changes in Baiyangdian wetland was the results of the combined action of external and internal pollution. Both external and internal pollution increased the organic matter, nitrogen and phosphorus content in the water, and the microbial community structure has changed significantly. The contents of organic matter, nitrogen, and phosphorus in water were increased and the microbial community structures were changed significantly by the increase of both external and internal pollution.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Áreas Alagadas , Humanos , Nitrogênio/análise , Qualidade da Água , Abastecimento de Água
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208310

RESUMO

The connection between indigenous peoples and Country (a multidimensional concept including land and water) enabled communities to thrive and survive over millennia. This has been eroded by colonisation, dispossession and increasing food and water insecurity due to climate change and supply constraints. Globally, indigenous peoples experience a disproportionate burden of chronic disease and poor nutrition is a major risk factor. Indigenous leaders have been advocating for community-led solutions. The primary aim of this systematic review is to determine what community-led programs have been undertaken to address food and/or water security globally. A comprehensive search of peer-reviewed literature will be performed in EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, PubMed, Scopus, LILACs, Informit and Business Source Premier. The grey literature search will include grey literature databases, customised Google search engines, targeted websites, and consultation with experts. The search strategy will consist of four concepts, combined as follows: (1) indigenous peoples AND (2) community program AND (3) food security OR (4) water security. Covidence will be used for study screening and data extraction by two authors. A deductive thematic analysis using indigenous-informed methodologies will be used to synthesise data. This review seeks to provide insight on models and mechanisms to encourage action and metrics for quantifying success of indigenous community-led programs to improve food and water security.


Assuntos
Grupos Populacionais , Água , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Humanos , Povos Indígenas , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto , Abastecimento de Água
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34198670

RESUMO

Safe drinking water is celebrated as a public health achievement and is a top priority for the Environmental Protection Agency. Yet today, lead (Pb) contaminated drinking water has the potential to be a public health crisis in the United States. Despite efforts to provide safe drinking water, update water infrastructure, and ensure strict drinking water regulations, there are incidents of unsafe lead levels and reports of associated adverse health effects. While there has been increased attention paid to the quality of drinking water within individuals' homes, little research has examined the presence and concentration of lead in water from drinking fountain sources located in public parks. In this study, we sampled drinking water from every accessible public park in the Bryan/College Station (BCS), TX metropolitan area (N = 56). With a lower detection level of 2.0 µg/L, we discovered a mean lead concentration of 1.3 µg/L across all sites and a maximum of 8.0 µg/L. Furthermore, neighborhoods below the median income for BCS were twice as likely to have detectable lead levels in their water and had 1.5 times the mean concentration. This study underscores the need for action and supports previous studies that have identified a disparate burden to lead exposure among low socioeconomic populations within the United States. By examining the water quality in drinking fountains in publicly accessible parks, the results of our study provide public health professionals with important information about where infrastructure should be improved and the potential harms of lead in drinking fountain water.


Assuntos
Água Potável , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Água Potável/análise , Humanos , Chumbo/análise , Texas , Estados Unidos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Poluição da Água , Abastecimento de Água
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34200851

RESUMO

This study assessed the impact of sanitation practices, hygienic and storage conditions on the quality of drinking water treated at point-of-use in Makwane Village. Subsequent to implementation of low-cost Household Water Treatment Devices which are the biosand filter with zeolite-silver (BSZ-SICG) and silver-impregnated porous pot (SIPP) filters in Makwane village, a structured questionnaire was designed to collect the following information: age of caretakers, number of children under the age of five, water storage conditions, sanitation amenities, and hygiene practices. Water quality from the sources to household level was assessed using culture-based and molecular techniques. The results revealed a significant association between the presence of Escherichia coli in treated drinking water with the age group of caregivers and the number of children ofless than the age of five [OR (95% CI) = 8.4737 (0.147-3.3497), p = 0.0141923 and OR (95% CI) = 9.1667 (0.1848-3.0159); p = 0.0165830, respectively]. Moreover, significant association was noted between hygiene practices (washing of hands with/without soap) and water quality in storage containers [OR (95% CI) = 16.000 (0.6763-3.9495), p = 0.0000125]. These findings further prove that there is still a dire need for reconsidering hygiene education in rural areas as the health benefits of water treated at point of use (POU) coupled with safe-storage condition interventions might not be guaranteed without proper hygiene. The results further highlighted the importance of washing hands in improving microbial quality of drinking water, which is the key factor for fighting against infectious diseases.


Assuntos
Água Potável , Saneamento , Criança , Humanos , Higiene , África do Sul , Qualidade da Água , Abastecimento de Água
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34204658

RESUMO

The difference in glacier surface elevation is a sensitive indicator of climate change and is also important for disaster warning and water supply. In this paper, 25 glaciers on Bogda Mountain, in the eastern Tianshan Mountains, are selected as the study object as they are typical of glaciers in arid or semi-arid areas with importance for water supply. The Repeat Orbit Interferometry (ROI) method is used to survey the surface elevation of these glaciers using Sentinel-1A Radar data from 2017. Using data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and a Digital Elevation Model (DEM), the difference in the glacier surface elevation between 2000 and 2017 is obtained. A scheme to evaluate the accuracy of estimated variations in glacier surface elevation is proposed in this article. By considering the surfaces of lakes in the study region as ideal horizontal planes, the average standard deviation (SD) value of the lake elevation is taken as the error caused by the radar sensor and observing conditions. The SD of the lake elevation is used as an index to evaluate the error in the estimated variation of the glacier surface elevation, and the obtained SD values indicate that the result obtained using the ROI method is reliable. Additionally, the glacier surface elevation variation pattern and a Logarithmic Fitting Model (LFM) are used to reduce the error in high-altitude glacial accumulation areas to improve the estimation of the difference in the glacier surface elevation obtained using ROI. The average SD of the elevation of the 12 lakes is ±2.87 m, which shows that the obtained glacier surface elevations are reliable. This article concludes that, between 2000 and 2017, the surface elevation of glaciers on Bogda Mountain decreased by an average of 11.6 ± 1.3 m, corresponding to an average decrease rate of 0.68 m/a, and glaciers volume decreased by an average of 0.504 km3. Meanwhile, the surface elevations of the lakes increased by an average of 8.16 m. The decrease of glacier surface elevation leads to the expansion of glacial lakes. From the north slope clockwise to the south slope, the glacier elevation variation showed a decreasing trend, and the elevation variation gradually increased from the south slope to the north slope. With the increase of glacier altitude, the variation of glacier surface elevation gradually changed from negative to positive. The findings of this article suggest that the rate of glacier retreat on Bogda Mountain increased from 2000 to 2017.


Assuntos
Camada de Gelo , Lagos , Altitude , Mudança Climática , Abastecimento de Água
6.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2021-07-19.
em Espanhol | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-54519

RESUMO

WASH PRESS se centra en la provisión de soluciones técnicas dirigidas a cubrir las necesidades de agua, saneamiento e higiene de los establecimientos de salud durante las actividades de preparación para situaciones de emergencias de salud y desastres o en contextos con recursos limitados. El documento es el resultado de una revisión sistemática de numerosas guías, prácticas y herramientas técnicas de la Organización Mundial de la Salud y de otras instituciones y universidades de relevancia en el sector. En una sola herramienta, combina las normas mínimas y los indicadores que se deben cumplir con soluciones técnicas para lograrlos, haciendo hincapié en el qué se debe hacer (algoritmos), en el cómo hacerlo (fichas técnicas) y en el cuánto se necesita (herramientas de cálculo). Mediante la publicación de este documento, la Organización Panamericana de la Salud aspira a facilitar la toma de decisiones de los responsables de los establecimientos de salud y de la planificación y ejecución de medidas de agua, saneamiento e higiene; así como la acción inmediata y oportuna del personal de salud y auxiliar y, en general, de los profesionales del sector. Esta publicación complementa las orientaciones proporcionadas en el Instrumento de mejora del agua, el saneamiento y la higiene en los establecimientos de salud “WASH FIT”, elaborado por la Organización Mundial de la Salud y el Fondo de las Naciones Unidas para la Infancia en el 2018.


Assuntos
Água , Qualidade da Água , Abastecimento de Água , Higiene , Saneamento , Hospitais
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34207608

RESUMO

The transition to a circular economy with an emphasis on eco-innovation is just beginning both in Europe and in Romania, as a member country of the European Union. The whole economic system in which people operate must be circular, which means that it must eliminate conflicting aspects related to regulation, collaboration, governance, supply chain dynamics, and data transparency. However, the barriers to the transition to a circular economy are substantial, and it is up to states to work together to find innovative solutions to society's problems. This article focuses on aspects related to eco-innovation in the field of drinking water quality in all administrative regions of Romania. In this regard, a study was undertaken, and the main objective pursued in was to identify and highlight the degree of eco-innovation of drinking water suppliers in seven underdeveloped regions of Romania. Starting from an analysis of the water management framework through the OECD Principles on Water Governance, it was possible to develop a study on drinking water supply companies in Romania. This study was performed based on specific indicators grouped by categories, and it aimed in two directions: on the one hand, the identification of drinking water distributors with a high degree of eco-innovation, which leads to quality certification of the drinking water supplied and which has the impact of encouraging household consumers to mainly use this type of supplied water to the detriment of PET bottled water (which has well-known major disadvantages in relation to environmental pollution and user health); on the other hand, the identification of drinking water supply companies with a low degree of eco-innovation, which is proof of the need for mandatory measures to improve drinking water quality, measures that can be taken at the supplier level but especially with support from the administrative and political environment.


Assuntos
Água Potável , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Romênia , Qualidade da Água , Abastecimento de Água
8.
J Environ Manage ; 294: 113108, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34218074

RESUMO

Management and treatment of multi-polluted stormwater in bioretention system have gained significant attraction recently. Besides nutrients, recent source appointment studies found elevated levels of Potentially toxic metal(loid)s (PTMs) and contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) in stormwater that highlighted many limitations in conventional media adsorption-based pollutant removal bioretention strategies. The substantial new studies include biological treatment approaches to strengthen pollutants degradation and adsorption capacity of bioretention. The knowledge on characteristics of plants and their corresponding mechanisms in various functions, e.g., rainwater interception, retention, infiltration, media clogging prevention, evapotranspiration and phytoremediation, is scattered. The microorganisms' role in facilitating vegetation and media, plant-microorganism interactions and relative performance over different functions in bioretention is still unreviewed. To uncover the underneath, it was summarised plant and microbial studies and their functionality in hydrogeochemical cycles in the bioretention system in this review, contributing to finding their interconnections and developing a more efficient bioretention system. Additionally, source characteristics of stormwater and fate of associated pollutants in the environment, the potential of genetical engineered plants, algae and fungi in bioretention system as well as performance assessment of plants and microorganisms in non-bioretention studies to propose the possible solution of un-addressed problems in bioretention system have been put forward in this review. The present review can be used as an imperative reference to enlighten the advantages of adopting multidisciplinary approaches for the environment sustainability and pollution control.


Assuntos
Chuva , Purificação da Água , Interações Microbianas , Plantas , Abastecimento de Água
9.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(8): 496, 2021 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34282498

RESUMO

The objectives of this research are to evaluate Giardia and Cryptosporidium contamination in surface water supply in Rio Grande do Sul (RS) State in South Brazil in the years 2016 to 2020, assess seasonality, and to infer the population that may have been exposed to these protozoa through drinking water based on drinking water treatment efficiency. Data were obtained through the drinking water surveillance national information system. From 204 DWT plants in the state, 66 have been analyzed for protozoa. A total of 2304 analyses of protozoa in raw water were evaluated, of which 223 had both Giardia spp. cysts and/or Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts in concentrations that varied from 0.1 to 21.5/L. A total of 2,712,125 people from 48 cities were at risk of having the presence of pathogenic protozoa in their drinking water. The probability of finding these protozoa was higher in winter. Giardia cysts were more likely to be found in a period without rain, suggesting that sewage was the main source of contamination. It is concluded that the springs of Rio Grande do Sul are impacted and the circulation of pathogenic protozoa through the territory is endemic with a probable source of contamination to sewage and livestock activity.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium , Animais , Brasil , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental , Giardia , Humanos , Oocistos , Abastecimento de Água
10.
Radiat Prot Dosimetry ; 194(2-3): 113-120, 2021 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34137452

RESUMO

Measurement of dissolved radon concentrations in the water samples collected from selected borewells (depth ~300 ft), wells (depth ~25 ft) and overhead tanks (height ~30 ft) of Mandya city, Karnataka, India, has been carried out by using Emanometry method. The radon concentrations in the waters of borewell, well and overhead tank ranges from 1.5 ± 0.1 to 102.8 ± 5.1, 1.3 ± 0.1 to 3.8 ± 0.4 and 2.5 ± 0.2 to 9.7 ± 1.1 Bq l-1 with the mean values of 16.8, 2.5 and 6.2 Bq l-1, respectively. Majority of borewell water samples showed higher concentrations of dissolved 222Rn compared to waters of well and overhead tank. The overall mean value of dissolved radon concentration of 12.2 Bq l-1 is found to be close to the maximum contaminant level of 11 Bq l-1 suggested by US Environment Protection Agency. The physicochemical parameters like pH, TDS and conductivity were also measured, and dependence of dissolved 222Rn on these parameters has been studied. Using the mean value of dissolved radon concentration, a new attempt has been made to compute the doses imparted to different organs and tissues of the human body. Dosimetric calculations showed that stomach and small intestine receive greater doses due to dissolved radon compared to other organs.


Assuntos
Monitoramento de Radiação , Radônio , Poluentes Radioativos da Água , Humanos , Índia , Doses de Radiação , Radônio/análise , Água , Poluentes Radioativos da Água/análise , Abastecimento de Água
11.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(13): 8955-8964, 2021 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34133882

RESUMO

Health benefits from point-of-use (POU) water treatment devices come only with consistent use. Embedded sensors can measure the consistency of POU-device use and can provide insights about improving it. We demonstrate both potentials with data from SmartSpouts: accelerometer-based sensors embedded in spigot handles that record the duration and timing of use. In the laboratory, most sensor readings correlated well (>0.98) with manually timed water withdrawals. In the field, SmartSpouts measured >60,000 water withdrawals across 232 households in Limpopo, South Africa. Sensors proved critical to understanding consistent use; surveys overestimated it by 53 percentage points. Sensor data showed when households use POU devices (evening peaks and delayed weekend routines) and user preferences (safe storage over filters). We demonstrate analytically and with data that (i) consistent use (e.g., 7 continuous days) is extremely sensitive to single-day use prevalence and (ii) use prevalence affects the performance of contact-time-based POU devices, exemplified with silver tablets. Deployed SmartSpouts had limitations, including memory overflows and confounding device relocation with water withdrawal. Nevertheless, SmartSpouts provided useful and objective data on the prevalence of single-day and consistent use. Considerably less expensive than alternatives, SmartSpouts enable an order of magnitude increase in how many POU-device sensors can be deployed.


Assuntos
Purificação da Água , Características da Família , Prata , África do Sul , Abastecimento de Água
12.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 601, 2021 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34172045

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted important needs in water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) services and standard practices for infection prevention and control in sub-Saharan Africa. We assessed the availability of WASH and standard precautions for infection prevention in health facilities across 18 countries in sub-Saharan Africa, as well as inequalities by location (rural/urban) and managing authority (public/private). Data from health facility surveys conducted between 2013 and 2018 in 18 sub-Saharan African countries were used to estimate the access to an improved water source within 500 m, an improved toilet, soap and running water or alcohol-based hand rub, and standard precautions for infection prevention at health facilities. Rural-urban differences and public-private differences in access to services were calculated. We also compared population level access to health facility access to services. RESULT: Overall, 16,456 health facilities from 18 countries were included. Across countries, an estimated 88 % had an improved water source, 94 % had an improved toilet, 74 % had soap and running water or alcohol-based hand rub, and 17 % had standard precautions for infection prevention available. There was wide variability in access to water, sanitation and hygiene services between rural and urban health facilities and between public and private facilities, with consistently lower access in both rural and public facilities. In both rural and urban areas, access to water, sanitation and hygiene services was ubiquitously better at health facilities than households. CONCLUSIONS: Availability of WASH services in health facilities in sub-Saharan Africa has improved but remains below the global target of 80 % in many countries. Ensuring adequate access to WASH services and enforcing adherence to safety and hygiene practices in health facilities will be essential to minimize the risk of COVID-19 transmission.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Saneamento , África ao Sul do Saara , Instalações de Saúde , Humanos , Higiene , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Água , Abastecimento de Água
13.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(12): 8371-8381, 2021 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34086449

RESUMO

One billion people worldwide experience intermittent water supply (IWS), in which piped water is delivered for limited durations. Households with IWS must invest in water storage infrastructure and often rely on multiple sources of water; therefore, these household-level purchasing and infrastructure decisions is a critical component of water access. Informed by interviews with IWS households, we use radial basis function networks, a type of artificial neural network, to determine optimal household water management decisions that maximize reliability of water supply while minimizing costs for a representative household in Mexico City that uses municipal piped water, trucked water, and rainwater. We find that securing reliable water supply for IWS households is greatly assisted by installation of household storage tanks of at least 2500 L. In the case of IWS households with limited storage options, the overall cost for water supply is reduced by scheduling water deliveries on nonconsecutive days. Rainwater harvesting systems were shown to be economically viable for households with limited water supply. This study demonstrates the importance of considering the management of multiple sources and household storage infrastructure when evaluating water investments in cities with IWS.


Assuntos
Água Potável , Água , Cidades , Humanos , México , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Abastecimento de Água
14.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 28(2): 255-259, 2021 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34184507

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: Legionnaires' disease, which is a waterborne disease leading to pneumonia that can result in death, is one of the major health issues today. The study aims to carry out a three-year retrospective review of routine Legionella follow-up analyses in various samples taken mostly from hospitals in the province of Erzurum and nearby provinces, and to discover a the frequency of isolation of the agent and serogroups from each kind of media. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included a total of 2,025 water samples taken from hospitals, hotels, Turkish baths and shopping malls in Erzurum,and 13 nearby cities between 2016 and 2018. Samples were filtered by 0.45 µm-diameter membrane filter paper in the Public Health Laboratory of Erzurum and examined for L. pneumophila using culture method, according to the criteria set out in ISO 11731-2. RESULTS: The presence of L. pneumophila was found in 65 of the 2,025 water samples taken in hospitals, and in none of 40 samples taken in hotels, Turkish baths and shopping malls. L. pneumophila serogroup 2-14 was detected in 46 (70.8%) of 65 samples found positive, whereas L. pneumophila serogroup 1 was detected in 18 (27.7%). Furthermore, both the L. pneumophila serogroup 2-14 and L. pneumophila serogroup 1 were detected simultaneously in one example (1.5%). The first three samples indicate that the highest positivity rates were in hot water taps (11.6%), hot water tanks (6.1%) and shower heads (4.8%). CONCLUSIONS: The Prevalence rat of L. pneumophila was found to be quite low compared to other studies conducted in the western regions of Turkey. Legionella positivity was found to be higher in the hot water systems of hospitals and related points, compared to the other sample points.


Assuntos
Água Doce/microbiologia , Legionella pneumophila/isolamento & purificação , Doença dos Legionários/microbiologia , Humanos , Legionella pneumophila/classificação , Legionella pneumophila/genética , Doença dos Legionários/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Turquia , Poluição da Água/estatística & dados numéricos , Abastecimento de Água/estatística & dados numéricos
15.
J Environ Manage ; 294: 112920, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34130132

RESUMO

Rice is a crucial part of the world's food supply but is also susceptible to uptake of contaminants including arsenic (As) and cadmium (Cd) depending on the soil redox potential. Careful control of soil redox state by implementing alternate wetting and drying (AWD) water management can decrease mobility of soil As and Cd, but can be difficult to manage. Indicators of reduction in soil (IRIS) tubes and films have been studied by pedologists for wetland delineation; here, we explore the use of the IRIS film technology as passive samplers of soil redox potential in rice paddies. The goal of this study was to test the response time of IRIS films under different water management (i.e., variable soil redox potentials). After paddy soils were exposed to severe or safe AWD, where rice paddies were allowed to dry to >30 cm below the soil surface and 15 cm below the soil surface, respectively, IRIS films, coated with Fe oxide or Mn oxide paint, were installed. Immediately following IRIS film installation, soils were reflooded, and percent removal of Fe or Mn oxides were monitored on films that were removed every 12 h for Fe films, and every 6 h for Mn films. Porewater was collected at installation and every 12 h during the studies to observe correlations between IRIS film paint removal and porewater chemistry. We observed quicker paint removal for Mn films than Fe films, and paint removal varied due to growing season and water management. Moreover, correlations between porewater chemistry and Mn paint removal were observed. While further work is still needed to understand kinetics of IRIS paint removal as it relates to porewater parameters, this work illustrates that IRIS films are a low-cost tool that rice farmers can use to better manage water and we highlight considerations for possible implementation strategies for the future.


Assuntos
Arsênio , Oryza , Poluentes do Solo , Arsênio/análise , Cádmio/análise , Fazendeiros , Humanos , Oxirredução , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Água , Abastecimento de Água
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34070423

RESUMO

The availability of water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) services is a key prerequisite for quality care and infection prevention and control in health care facilities (HCFs). In 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic highlighted the importance and urgency of enhancing WASH coverage to reduce the risk of COVID-19 transmission and other healthcare-associated infections. As a part of COVID-19 preparedness and response interventions, the Government of Zimbabwe, the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), and civil society organizations conducted WASH assessments in 50 HCFs designated as COVID-19 isolation facilities. Assessments were based on the Water and Sanitation for Health Facility Improvement Tool (WASH FIT), a multi-step framework to inform the continuous monitoring and improvement of WASH services. The WASH FIT assessments revealed that one in four HCFs did not have adequate services across the domains of water, sanitation, health care waste, hand hygiene, facility environment, cleanliness and disinfection, and management. The sanitation domain had the largest proportion of health care facilities with poor service coverage (42%). Some of the recommendations from this assessment include the provision of sufficient water for all users, Menstrual Hygiene Management (MHM)- and disability-friendly sanitation facilities, handwashing facilities, waste collection services, energy for incineration or waste treatment facilities, cleaning supplies, and financial resources for HCFs. WASH FIT may be a useful tool to inform WASH interventions during the COVID-19 pandemic and beyond.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Saneamento , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Desinfecção das Mãos , Instalações de Saúde , Humanos , Higiene , Menstruação , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Água , Abastecimento de Água , Zimbábue
17.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3248, 2021 05 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34059677

RESUMO

Water scarcity is rapidly spreading across the planet, threatening the population across the five continents and calling for global sustainable solutions. Water reclamation is the most ecological approach for supplying clean drinking water. However, current water purification technologies are seldom sustainable, due to high-energy consumption and negative environmental footprint. Here, we review the cutting-edge technologies based on protein nanofibrils as water purification agents and we highlight the benefits of this green, efficient and affordable solution to alleviate the global water crisis. We discuss the different protein nanofibrils agents available and analyze them in terms of performance, range of applicability and sustainability. We underline the unique opportunity of designing protein nanofibrils for efficient water purification starting from food waste, as well as cattle, agricultural or dairy industry byproducts, allowing simultaneous environmental, economic and social benefits and we present a case analysis, including a detailed life cycle assessment, to establish their sustainable footprint against other common natural-based adsorbents, anticipating a bright future for this water purification approach.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Hídricos , Nanofibras/química , Proteínas/química , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Purificação da Água/métodos , Adsorção , Indústria de Laticínios , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Eliminação de Resíduos/métodos , Poluentes da Água/química , Abastecimento de Água
18.
Sci Total Environ ; 784: 147107, 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34088069

RESUMO

A Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment (QMRA) framework was applied to assess 312 drinking water supply systems across regional New South Wales (NSW). The framework was needed to support the implementation of a recommendation in the Australian Drinking Water Guidelines (ADWG) for appropriate treatment barriers to be operating in systems 'at risk' for Cryptosporidium. The objective was to prioritise systems so that those with the highest risk could be identified and addressed first. The framework was developed in a pilot study of 30 systems, selected to represent the range of water supplies across regional NSW. From these, source water categories were defined to represent local conditions with reference to the literature and Cryptosporidium risk factors. Values for Cryptosporidium oocyst concentration were assigned to the categories to allow quantification of the health risk from those water sources. The framework was then used to assess the risks in all 312 regional drinking water supply systems. Combining the disciplined approach of QMRA with simple catchment and treatment information and categorical risk outputs provided a useful and transparent method for prioritising systems for further investigation and potential risk management intervention. The risk rankings for drinking water supplies from this QMRA process have been used to set priorities for a large State Government funding program.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium , Água Potável , Purificação da Água , Austrália , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Humanos , New South Wales , Projetos Piloto , Medição de Risco , Microbiologia da Água , Abastecimento de Água
19.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(7): 391, 2021 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34100139

RESUMO

Groundwater quality assessment in urban areas is one of significant endeavours to ensure safety of urban residents who use groundwater especially in areas with erratic tap water supply. The study assessed groundwater quality and vulnerability of residents to water contamination-related diseases in Mkoba 19 suburb in Gweru, Zimbabwe. The research employed a mixed methods research design using both quantitative and qualitative research methods. Laboratory tests, questionnaires, interviews, focus group discussions and observations were used to solicit data. Statistical package for social scientist (SPSS) version 20.0 and Microsoft excel package were adopted for data analysis in this study. The study revealed that Mkoba 19 suburb has more wells than boreholes. Boreholes were evenly distributed over the residential area than wells which were clustered to the southern and northern edges of the suburb. All boreholes in Mkoba 19 were drilled to the depth of 40 m, but wells were dug to varying depths. The study confirmed that borehole water in Mkoba 19 was acidic and thus unsafe for human consumption. Water from wells in Mkoba 19 was confirmed positive of Escherichia coli which shows contamination from sewage and waste dump leachates. The findings of this research indicated that both borehole and well water sources in Mkoba suburb had permissible levels of dissolved oxygen and turbidity. Chi-square tests conducted confirmed that there was an association between water source depth and level of E. coli contamination in water whereas there is no association between water source depth and water pH level. The research confirmed that residents of Mkoba 19 were highly vulnerable to water borne illnesses as they were using contaminated water for domestic purposes without treating it. Basing on similar studies conducted in the past 3 years, it was shown that groundwater quality in Mkoba 19 mimics that of other countries of the developing world, especially in sub-Saharan Africa, which shows that vulnerability to ground water contamination in urban areas is an issue that requires critical attention and almost similar solution. The research recommends that Gweru City Council should upgrade its water supply system especially the pumping system to improve water supply in Mkoba suburb. To minimize water-borne disease outbreaks in the future, urban residents who rely on secondary or tertiary sources of water for domestic purposes should treat water using chlorine, water guards and other water cleansing measures on a regular basis.


Assuntos
Água Subterrânea , Poluentes Químicos da Água , África ao Sul do Saara , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental , Escherichia coli , Humanos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Qualidade da Água , Abastecimento de Água , Zimbábue
20.
J Water Health ; 19(3): 370-392, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34152293

RESUMO

The Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP) 2017 Update and Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) Baselines report classified 71% of the global population as having access to 'safely managed' drinking water. Current global monitoring efforts to track access to safely managed drinking water rely on collecting information on the 'primary' source of drinking water. However, there is evidence that households often rely on multiple sources to meet their water needs in many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). This systematic review was designed to compile the literature related to the practice of multiple water source use (MWSU) for drinking water in LMICs. A total of 5,318 studies were collected, and after abstract and full-text review, 74 articles were identified for inclusion. Studies reviewed reported from 4 to 100% of the study populations practicing MWSU. Additionally, the practice of supplemental unimproved source use was reported globally, representing households with improved primary source water also accessing unimproved water sources throughout the year. These findings expose gaps in current global water monitoring efforts, revealing potential inflation of reports of 'safe drinking water access' and unaccounted exposure to drinking water from unimproved sources.


Assuntos
Água Potável , Abastecimento de Água , Países em Desenvolvimento , Água Potável/análise , Pobreza , Qualidade da Água
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