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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32872130

RESUMO

The slow decrease in child stunting rates in East Africa warrants further research to identify the influence of contributing factors such as water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH). This study investigated the association between child length and WASH conditions using the recently revised WHO and UNICEF (United Nations Children's Fund) Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP) indicators. Data from households with infants and young children aged 6-23 months from the Demographic and Health Surveys in Burundi, Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Rwanda, Tanzania, Uganda, and Zambia were used. Associations for each country between WASH conditions and length-for-age z-scores (LAZ) were analyzed using linear regression. Stunting rates were high (>20%) reaching 45% in Burundi. At the time of the most recent Demographic and Health Survey (DHS), more than half of the households in most countries did not have basic or safely managed WASH indicators. Models predicted significantly higher LAZ for children living in households with safely managed drinking water compared to those living in households drinking from surface water in Kenya (ß = 0.13, p < 0.01) and Tanzania (ß = 0.08, p < 0.05) after adjustment with child, maternal, and household covariates. Children living in households with improved sanitation facilities not shared with other households were also taller than children living in households practicing open defecation in Ethiopia (ß = 0.07, p < 0.01) and Tanzania (ß = 0.08, p < 0.01) in the adjusted models. All countries need improved WASH conditions to reduce pathogen and helminth contamination. Targeting adherence to the highest JMP indicators would support efforts to reduce child stunting in East Africa.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Higiene/normas , Saneamento/normas , Qualidade da Água , Abastecimento de Água/normas , África Oriental/epidemiologia , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Nações Unidas , Organização Mundial da Saúde
2.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239313, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32960921

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Poor access to water, sanitation, and handwashing (WASH) facilities frequently contribute to child growth failure. The role of access to WASH facilities on child growth outcomes in Ethiopia is largely unknown. The aim of this study was to determine individual and combined effects of access to WASH facilities on child growth outcomes. METHODS: Data for this analysis was sourced from the recent Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS) 2016. A multivariable logistic regression model was applied to identify the separate and combined association of access to WASH facilities with child growth outcomes. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated. Statistical significance was declared at p < 0.05. RESULTS: Included in the analyses were data for children 0-59 months of age, which amounted to valid data for 9588 children with a height-for-age z-score (HAZ), 9752 children with a weight-for-age z-score (WAZ) and 9607 children with a weight-for-height z-score (WHZ). Children with access to improved combined sanitation with handwashing facilities had 29% lower odds of linear growth failure (stunting) (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 0.71; 95% CI: 0.51-0.99) compared with those with unimproved. Children with access to combined improved WASH facilities were 33% less likely to have linear growth failure (AOR = 0.67; 95% CI: 0.45-0.98). Access to improved handwashing alone reduced the odds of being underweight by 17% (AOR = 0.83; 95% CI: 0.71-0.98) compared with unimproved. Improved water and sanitation separately as well as combined WASH were not associated with decreased odds of underweight and wasting. CONCLUSIONS: Combined access to improved water, sanitation and handwashing was associated with reduced child linear growth failure. Further research with robust methods is needed to examine whether combined WASH practices have synergistic effect on child growth outcomes.


Assuntos
Desinfecção das Mãos/normas , Saneamento/normas , Magreza/epidemiologia , Abastecimento de Água/normas , Peso Corporal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Higiene , Lactente , Masculino , População Rural , Magreza/prevenção & controle , Água
3.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238832, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970701

RESUMO

Monitoring of cyanobacteria in freshwater ecosystems is a complex task, which is time consuming and expensive due to the chaotic population dynamics and highly heterogeneous distribution of cyanobacteria populations in water bodies. The financial cost constitutes a strong limitation for the implementation of long-term monitoring programs in developing countries, particularly in Africa. The work presented here was performed in the framework of an international project addressing the sustainable monitoring and management of surface water resources used for the production of drinking water in three African countries. We tested the potential of a citizen approach for monitoring cyanobacterial blooms, which are a growing threat to the drinking water supply. This pilot study was designed, implemented and evaluated in close interaction with the Pasteur Institute of the Ivory Coast and with the populations of three villages located on the shoreline of a freshwater lagoon located near Abidjan city. Based on the use of a smartphone application, the citizens of the three villages were invited to report water color changes, as these changes could reflect cyanobacteria proliferations. A two-year experimentation period has shown that it is possible to mobilize the local populations to monitor cyanobacterial blooms. The data collected by citizens were consistent with the data obtained by a classical monitoring of cyanobacteria performed over seven months, but it appeared that new approaches were needed to validate the citizen data. This participatory approach also provided great improvements to the understanding and awareness of local populations regarding water quality and cyanobacterial bloom issues. Finally, we discuss some of the difficulties and limitations of our participatory monitoring approach that should be considered by further implementations. Despite these difficulties, our work suggests that citizen monitoring is a promising approach that may complement the classical approach to sustainable monitoring of cyanobacteria in developing countries.


Assuntos
Cianobactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Lagos/microbiologia , Costa do Marfim , Países em Desenvolvimento , Projetos Piloto , Qualidade da Água/normas , Abastecimento de Água/normas
4.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 9(1): 124, 2020 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32867851

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was confirmed in Brazil in February 2020. Since then, the disease has spread throughout the country, reaching the poorest areas. This study analyzes the relationship between COVID-19 and the population's living conditions. We aimed to identify social determinants related to the incidence, mortality, and case fatality rate of COVID-19 in Brazil, in 2020. METHODS: This is an ecological study evaluating the relationship between COVID-19 incidence, mortality, and case fatality rates and 49 social indicators of human development and social vulnerability. For the analysis, bivariate spatial correlation and multivariate and spatial regression models (spatial lag model and spatial error models) were used, considering a 95% confidence interval and a significance level of 5%. RESULTS: A total of 44.8% of municipalities registered confirmed cases of COVID-19 and 14.7% had deaths. We observed that 56.2% of municipalities with confirmed cases had very low human development (COVID-19 incidence rate: 59.00/100 000; mortality rate: 36.75/1 000 000), and 52.8% had very high vulnerability (COVID-19 incidence rate: 41.68/100 000; mortality rate: 27.46/1 000 000). The regression model showed 17 indicators associated with transmission of COVID-19 in Brazil. CONCLUSIONS: Although COVID-19 first arrived in the most developed and least vulnerable municipalities in Brazil, it has already reached locations that are farther from large urban centers, whose populations are exposed to a context of intense social vulnerability. Based on these findings, it is necessary to adopt measures that take local social aspects into account in order to contain the pandemic.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Adolescente , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Intervalos de Confiança , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Educação , Emprego , Humanos , Incidência , Renda , Longevidade , Análise Multivariada , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pobreza , Análise de Regressão , Saneamento , Esgotos , Condições Sociais , Análise Espacial , Abastecimento de Água/normas , Adulto Jovem
5.
Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract ; 36(3): 547-579, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32943304

RESUMO

Water is the most important nutrient for rangeland livestock. However, competition with municipalities, industry, and other water users often results in grazing livestock being forced to use water supplies that are less than perfect. Surface water in western rangleands are often contaminated by mineral extraction, irrigation runoff and other human activities. Mineral contaminants in drinking water are additive with similar contaminants in feedstuffs. The goal of this and the subsequent article is to provide producers and veterinarians with the basic background to make informed decisions about whether a given water supply is "safe" for livestock.


Assuntos
Gado/metabolismo , Abastecimento de Água/normas , Animais , Substâncias Perigosas/envenenamento , Envenenamento/prevenção & controle , Envenenamento/veterinária , Qualidade da Água
6.
Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract ; 36(3): 581-620, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32948413

RESUMO

Water is the most important nutrient for rangeland livestock. However, competition with municipalities, industry, and other water users often results in grazing livestock being forced to use water supplies that are less than perfect. Surface water in western rangleands are often contaminated by mineral extraction, irrigation runoff and other human activities. Mineral contaminants in drinking water are additive with similar contaminants in feedstuffs. The goal of this article is to provide producers and veterinarians with the basic background to make informed decisions about whether a given water supply is "safe" for livestock.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/induzido quimicamente , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Metais/análise , Metais/envenenamento , Qualidade da Água , Água/normas , Animais , Arsênico/análise , Intoxicação por Arsênico/prevenção & controle , Intoxicação por Arsênico/veterinária , Bovinos , Intoxicação por Flúor/prevenção & controle , Intoxicação por Flúor/veterinária , Fluoretos/análise , Humanos , Água/análise , Abastecimento de Água/normas
7.
Braz J Microbiol ; 51(3): 1109-1115, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32809115

RESUMO

COVID-19 has killed more than 500,000 people worldwide and more than 60,000 in Brazil. Since there are no specific drugs or vaccines, the available tools against COVID-19 are preventive, such as the use of personal protective equipment, social distancing, lockdowns, and mass testing. Such measures are hindered in Brazil due to a restrict budget, low educational level of the population, and misleading attitudes from the federal authorities. Predictions for COVID-19 are of pivotal importance to subsidize and mobilize health authorities' efforts in applying the necessary preventive strategies. The Weibull distribution was used to model the forecast prediction of COVID-19, in four scenarios, based on the curve of daily new deaths as a function of time. The date in which the number of daily new deaths will fall below the rate of 3 deaths per million - the average level in which some countries start to relax the stay-at-home measures - was estimated. If the daily new deaths curve was bending today (i.e., about 1250 deaths per day), the predicted date would be on July 5. Forecast predictions allowed the estimation of overall death toll at the end of the outbreak. Our results suggest that each additional day that lasts to bend the daily new deaths curve may correspond to additional 1685 deaths at the end of COVID-19 outbreak in Brazil (R2 = 0.9890). Predictions of the outbreak can be used to guide Brazilian health authorities in the decision-making to properly fight COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Previsões/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Algoritmos , Brasil/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Detergentes/provisão & distribução , Educação/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Dinâmica não Linear , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Política , Densidade Demográfica , Pobreza , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estatística como Assunto , Fatores de Tempo , Abastecimento de Água/normas
8.
Am J Public Health ; 110(10): 1567-1572, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32816545

RESUMO

Objectives. To estimate the population lacking at least basic water and sanitation access in the urban United States.Methods. We compared national estimates of water and sanitation access from the World Health Organization/United Nations Children's Fund Joint Monitoring Program with estimates from the US Department of Housing and Urban Development on homelessness and the American Community Survey on household water and sanitation facilities.Results. We estimated that at least 930 000 persons in US cities lacked sustained access to at least basic sanitation and 610 000 to at least basic water access, as defined by the United Nations.Conclusions. After accounting for those experiencing homelessness and substandard housing, our estimate of people lacking at least basic water equaled current estimates (n = 610 000)-without considering water quality-and greatly exceeded estimates of sanitation access (n = 28 000).Public Health Implications. Methods to estimate water and sanitation access in the United States should include people experiencing homelessness and other low-income groups, and specific policies are needed to reduce disparities in urban sanitation. We recommend similar estimation efforts for other high-income countries currently reported as having near universal sanitation access.


Assuntos
Saúde Pública , Saneamento/estatística & dados numéricos , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Abastecimento de Água/estatística & dados numéricos , Água Potável , Humanos , Pobreza , Saneamento/normas , Estados Unidos , Abastecimento de Água/normas
9.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1128, 2020 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32680495

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Water is the most abundant resource on earth, however water scarcity affects more than 40% of people worldwide. Access to safe drinking water is a basic human right and is a United Nations Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 6. Globally, waterborne diseases such as cholera are responsible for over two million deaths annually. Cholera is a major cause of ill-health in Africa and Uganda. This study aimed to determine the physicochemical characteristics of the surface and spring water in cholera endemic communities of Uganda in order to promote access to safe drinking water. METHODS: A longitudinal study was carried out between February 2015 and January 2016 in cholera prone communities of Uganda. Surface and spring water used for domestic purposes including drinking from 27 sites (lakes, rivers, irrigation canal, springs and ponds) were tested monthly to determine the vital physicochemical parameters, namely pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen, conductivity and turbidity. RESULTS: Overall, 318 water samples were tested. Twenty-six percent (36/135) of the tested samples had mean test results that were outside the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended drinking water range. All sites (100%, 27/27) had mean water turbidity values greater than the WHO drinking water recommended standards and the temperature of above 17 °C. In addition, 27% (3/11) of the lake sites and 2/5 of the ponds had pH and dissolved oxygen respectively outside the WHO recommended range of 6.5-8.5 for pH and less than 5 mg/L for dissolved oxygen. These physicochemical conditions were ideal for survival of Vibrio. cholerae. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that surface water and springs in the study area were unsafe for drinking and had favourable physicochemical parameters for propagation of waterborne diseases including cholera. Therefore, for Uganda to attain the SDG 6 targets and to eliminate cholera by 2030, more efforts are needed to promote access to safe drinking water. Also, since this study only established the vital water physicochemical parameters, further studies are recommended to determine the other water physicochemical parameters such as the nitrates and copper. Studies are also needed to establish the causal-effect relationship between V. cholerae and the physicochemical parameters.


Assuntos
Água Potável/análise , Qualidade da Água , Abastecimento de Água/estatística & dados numéricos , Cólera/epidemiologia , Água Potável/microbiologia , Água Potável/normas , Humanos , Lagos/química , Lagos/microbiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Nascentes Naturais/química , Nascentes Naturais/microbiologia , Tanques/química , Tanques/microbiologia , Rios/química , Rios/microbiologia , Temperatura , Uganda/epidemiologia , Vibrio cholerae , Microbiologia da Água , Abastecimento de Água/normas
10.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0233679, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32667923

RESUMO

Continuous, safely managed water is critical to health and development, but rural service delivery faces complex challenges in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). We report the first application of continuous quality improvement (CQI) methods to improve the microbial quality of household water for consumption (HWC) and the functionality of water sources in four rural districts of northern Ghana. We further report on the impacts of interventions developed through these methods. A local CQI team was formed and trained in CQI methods. Baseline data were collected and analyzed to identify determinants of service delivery problems and microbial safety. The CQI team randomized communities, developed an improvement package, iteratively piloted it in intervention communities, and used uptake survey data to refine the package. The final improvement package comprised safe water storage containers, refresher training for community WaSH committees and replacement of missing maintenance tools. This package significantly reduced contamination of HWC (p<0.01), and significant reduction in contamination persisted two years after implementation. Repair times in both intervention and control arms decreased relative to baseline (p<0.05), but differences between intervention and control arms were not significant at endline. Further work is needed to build on the gains in household water quality observed in this work, sustain and scale these improvements, and explore applications of CQI to other aspects of water supply and sanitation.


Assuntos
Gestão da Qualidade Total/métodos , Microbiologia da Água , Abastecimento de Água/normas , Gana , Embalagem de Produtos , Melhoria de Qualidade , Distribuição Aleatória , Engenharia Sanitária/educação , Engenharia Sanitária/instrumentação
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32567990

RESUMO

Surface and groundwater resources in the Seridó Region (Brazilian semiarid) were investigated to evaluate their current quality conditions and suitability for domestic use. The water was characterized in terms of physical, chemical, and radiological parameters; including those required by the Brazilian Drinking Water Quality Standard (DWQS). Information about major and trace elements and radiological aspects of the water are reported for the first time. Salinization was confirmed as a key problem in the region, driven natural and anthropogenic. Overall, water has poor organoleptic characteristics. The concentration of most trace elements was below the recommended level, except for uranium and selenium in groundwater. Gross alpha and beta activities higher than the recommended levels were also recorded in several water samples, mostly from the investigated aquifers. In these samples, a detailed radionuclide analysis is required to estimate the effective dose received by the local population. Overall, the results show that water from the investigated region is not suitable for human consumption unless proper treatment is applied. Water requires proper treatment to decrease the content of dissolved salts, toxic elements, and radionuclides responsible for the high gross alpha and beta activities.


Assuntos
Água Potável , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Radioativos da Água/análise , Qualidade da Água , Abastecimento de Água/métodos , Brasil , Água Potável/química , Água Potável/normas , Água Doce/química , Água Subterrânea/química , Humanos , Radioisótopos/análise , Selênio/análise , Oligoelementos/análise , Urânio/análise , Abastecimento de Água/normas
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32525728

RESUMO

Groundwater is a major source of drinking water for millions of people around the world. Over 400 million people in Africa depend solely on it as their main source of water supply. Fluoride is a common contaminant in groundwater. In low concentration (0.5-1.0 mg/L), fluoride is needed by humans for healthy development of bones and teeth, however, a concentration >1.5 mg/L has been linked with several fluorosis and non-fluorosis diseases. Dental and skeletal fluorosis are the major fluorosis diseases commonly reported with the consumption of fluoride-rich water. Although fluoride intake through other pathways such as the drinking of tea and eating of vegetables have been reported, the drinking of fluoride-rich water remains the major pathway of fluoride into humans. Cases of high fluoride levels in groundwater have been reported in almost all the sub-Saharan Africa region but it is more prevalent in East African countries, Sudan and South Africa. Although fluoride is present in surface water mostly in the East African Rift Valley across different countries in East Africa, its significant or high levels are usually associated with groundwater. Geogenic sources such as fluorite, apatite, biotite, amphibole, micas, topaz, cryolite, muscovite and fluorspar have been identified as the major sources of fluoride in groundwater. High fluoride levels have been reported across sub Saharan Africa, with generally higher levels in East Africa resulting from the volcanic activities in the rift system. Dental fluorosis has been reported in many sub-Saharan African countries including South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda, Ethiopia, Kenya, Sudan, Niger, Nigeria, Benin, Ghana and Malawi. Geothermal temperature has been regarded as one of the driving forces for high fluoride levels recorded in groundwater from deep aquifers and geothermal springs. The most affected people with the consumption of fluoride-rich water are the poor with low socioeconomic status who live in rural areas. Some of the proposed alternative sources include rainwater and fog water harvesting and blending of water from various sources. Low-cost and sustainable deflouridation technique remains one of the best ways to treat fluoride contaminated water either at communal level or at the point-of-use.


Assuntos
Fluoretos/toxicidade , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Água Subterrânea/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Abastecimento de Água/métodos , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Fluoretos/análise , Fluorose Dentária/epidemiologia , Fluorose Dentária/etiologia , Água Subterrânea/normas , Humanos , Prevalência , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Abastecimento de Água/normas
13.
J Environ Public Health ; 2020: 5460168, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32256616

RESUMO

Background: Poor hygienic practices, inadequate water supply, and poor sanitary conditions play a major role in the spread of infectious diseases. Lack of knowledge, attitude, and practices (KAP) on WASH is one of the most imperative causes for transmission of infectious diseases. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess knowledge, attitude, and practice of rural residents on water, sanitation, and hygiene in Tigray, Ethiopia. Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted from June to July 2018. Multistage cluster sampling technique was used to collect data from 759 households in Tigray region, Northern Ethiopia. A standardized questionnaire was used to collect data on knowledge, attitude, and practice on water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH). Descriptive data analysis was done to present the study findings. Results: The response rate was 99.6%, and 574 (75.9%) of the respondents were females. Good knowledge, favorable attitude, and good practice on WASH were observed in 42.2% (95% CI: 38.7%, 45.7%), 48.5% (95% CI: 44.9%, 52.0%), and 49.2% (95% CI: 45.6%, 52.7%) of the respondents, respectively. Conclusions: Poor knowledge, unfavorable attitude, and poor practice on WASH were common amongst the residents in rural Tigray, Northern Ethiopia. Therefore, the health extension programs at primary health care should be revitalized in a way that can enhance the interventional measures to improve knowledge, attitude, and practice on WASH.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Higiene/normas , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Saneamento/normas , Abastecimento de Água/normas , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(5): 308, 2020 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32328812

RESUMO

The continuous deterioration of drinking water quality supplies by several anthropogenic activities is a serious global challenge in recent times. In this current study, the drinking water quality of Ikem rural agricultural area (southeastern Nigeria) was assessed using chemometrics and multiple indexical methods. Twenty-five groundwater samples were collected from hand-dug wells and analyzed for physicochemical parameters such as pH, major ions, and heavy metals. The pH of the samples (which ranged between 5.2 and 6.7) indicated that waters were slightly acidic. Cations and anions (except for phosphate) were within their respective standard limits. Except for Mn, heavy metals were also found to be below their maximum allowable limits. Factor analysis identified both geogenic processes and anthropogenic inputs as possible origins of the analyzed physicochemical parameters. Modified heavy metal index, geoaccumulation index, and overall index of pollution revealed that all the hand-dug wells were in excellent condition, and hence safe for drinking purposes. However, pollution load index, water quality index (WQI), and entropy-weighted water quality index (EWQI) revealed that some wells (about 8-12%) were slightly contaminated, and hence are placed in good water category. A hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) was performed based on the integration of the WQI and EWQI results. The HCA revealed two major quality categories of the samples. While the first cluster comprises of samples classified as excellent drinking water by both WQI and EWQI models, the second cluster comprises of about 12% samples which were identified as good water by either the WQI or EWQI.


Assuntos
Água Potável , Monitoramento Ambiental , Qualidade da Água , Água Potável/química , Água Potável/normas , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Água Subterrânea/química , Nigéria , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Qualidade da Água/normas , Abastecimento de Água/normas
15.
Brasília; Organização Pan-Americana da Saúde; abr. 1, 2020.
Não convencional em Espanhol, Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1096208

RESUMO

Boas práticas com água, saneamento e higiene, em particular lavagem de mãos com sabão e água limpa, devem ser estritamente aplicadas e mantidas, pois são importantes barreiras adicionais para a transmissão do o vírus causador da doença COVID-19 e outras doenças infecciosas em geral (OMS, 2002).


Las mejores prácticas de agua, saneamiento e higiene, en particular el lavado de manos con jabón y agua limpia, deben aplicarse y mantenerse estrictamente, ya que constituyen una barrera adicional importante para la transmisión de COVID-19 y para la transmisión de enfermedades infecciosas en general (OMS, 2002).


Assuntos
Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Abastecimento de Água/normas , Saneamento/instrumentação , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Betacoronavirus
16.
Brasília; Organização Pan-Americana da Saúde; abr. 1, 2020.
Não convencional em Espanhol, Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1096207

RESUMO

As recomendações existentes sobre água, saneamento e higiene nos estabelecimentos de saúde são importantes para garantir o atendimento adequado ao paciente e proteger tanto pacientes quanto funcionários. Estas incluem: fornecimento suficiente de água potável segura para funcionários, cuidadores e pacientes, higiene pessoal, lavanderia e limpeza; banheiros adequados e acessíveis; gerenciamento seguro de dejetos, incluindo a manutenção das fezes e urina separados do contato humano, seu tratamento e descarte seguros no ambiente; higiene frequente das mãos usando a técnica adequada; limpeza e desinfecção periódica; e gerenciamento seguro de resíduos de saúde.


Las medidas recomendadas existentes de agua, saneamiento e higiene en entornos de atención médica son importantes para proporcionar una atención adecuada a los pacientes y proteger a los pacientes y al personal considerando: la provisión suficiente de agua potable segura para el personal, los cuidadores y los pacientes; la higiene personal; la lavandería y la limpieza.


Assuntos
Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Abastecimento de Água/normas , Saneamento/instrumentação , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Betacoronavirus
17.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0227611, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32196493

RESUMO

This paper presents country-level estimates of water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH)-related mortality and the economic losses associated with poor access to water and sanitation infrastructure in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) from 1990 to 2050. We examine the extent to which the changes that accompany economic growth will "solve" water and sanitation problems in SSA and, if so, how long it will take. Our simulations suggest that WASH-related mortality will continue to differ markedly across countries in sub-Saharan Africa. In many countries, expected economic growth alone will not be sufficient to eliminate WASH-related mortality or eliminate the economic losses associated with poor access to water and sanitation infrastructure by 2050. In other countries, WASH-related mortality will sharply decline, although the economic losses associated with the time spent collecting water are forecast to persist. Overall, our findings suggest that in a subset of countries in sub-Saharan Africa (e.g., Angola, Niger, Sierra Leone, Chad and several others), WASH-related investments will remain a priority for decades and require a long-term, sustained effort from both the international community and national governments.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Econômico/tendências , Higiene/normas , Mortalidade/tendências , Saneamento/normas , Qualidade da Água/normas , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Previsões , Humanos , Higiene/economia , Saneamento/economia , Desenvolvimento Sustentável/economia , Desenvolvimento Sustentável/tendências , Abastecimento de Água/economia , Abastecimento de Água/normas
18.
Biofouling ; 36(2): 115-125, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32090601

RESUMO

The presence of biofilms in enclosed pipelines can lead to numerous deleterious issues. To date, it has been difficult to use optical imaging techniques to monitor the macroscale spatial distributions of biofilms. To address this concern, a combination of industrial computed tomography (ICT) and a contrast agent was explored to noninvasively visualize biofilms in three types of drip irrigation emitters. The results showed that ICT successfully observed and quantified the macroscale spatial distributions of biofilms. The complex hydrodynamic characteristics in the emitter channels affected the local distributions of biofilms. Biofilms were mainly attached to the lateral and medial faces and biomass decreased along the flow directions. Based on the distributions of biofilms, some emitter structural design defects were further diagnosed. Applying ICT in combination with the contrast agent could potentially provide a visual and effective way to reveal the formation mechanisms of biofilms and to optimize flow channel structures to avoid biofilm accumulations.


Assuntos
Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Materiais de Construção/microbiologia , Materiais de Construção/normas , Modelos Teóricos , Tomografia/métodos , Abastecimento de Água/normas , Biomassa , Hidrodinâmica , Análise Espacial
19.
Environ Pollut ; 259: 113903, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32023789

RESUMO

Biofilms containing pathogenic organisms from the water supply are a potential source of protozoan parasite outbreaks and a significant public health concern. The aim of the present study was to demonstrate the simultaneous and multi-spatial occurrence of waterborne protozoan pathogens (WBPP) in substrate-associated biofilms (SAB) and compare it to surface water (SW) and sediments with bottom water (BW) counterparts using manual filtration and elution from low-volume samples. For scenario purposes, simulated environmental biofilm contamination was created from in-situ grown one-month-old SAB (OM-SAB) that were spiked with Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts. Samples were collected from the largest freshwater reservoirs in Luzon, Philippines and a University Lake in Thailand. A total of 69 samples (23 SAB, 23 SW, and 23 BW) were evaluated using traditional staining techniques for Cryptosporidium, and Immunofluorescence staining for the simultaneous detection of Cryptosporidium and Giardia. WBPP were found in 43% SAB, 39% SW, and 39% BW of the samples tested in the present study with SAB results reflecting SW and BW results. Further highlights were demonstrated in the potential of using low-volume samples for the detection of parasites in source water. Scanning electron microscopy of OM-SAB samples revealed a naturally-associated testate amoeba shell, while Cryptosporidium oocysts spiked samples provided a visual profile of what can be expected from naturally contaminated biofilms. This study provides the first evidence for the simultaneous and multi-spatial occurrence of waterborne protozoan pathogens in low-volume aquatic matrices and further warrants SAB testing along with SW and BW matrices for improved water quality assessment strategies (iWQAS).


Assuntos
Biofilmes , Cryptosporidium , Água Doce , Qualidade da Água , Animais , Criptosporidiose/prevenção & controle , Cryptosporidium/fisiologia , Monitoramento Ambiental , Água Doce/parasitologia , Oocistos/fisiologia , Filipinas , Tailândia , Qualidade da Água/normas , Abastecimento de Água/normas
20.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 191: 110233, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32004944

RESUMO

Poor water quality exacerbates multidimensional poverty in developing nations. Often centralized treatment facilities generate acceptable water quality, but the water is contaminated during distribution. Methods to assess sources of contamination in water distribution systems are lacking. A case study of two methods, human risk assessment linked to water distribution system sampling was conducted in Hyderabad, Pakistan to determine areas requiring infrastructure rehabilitation. Water samples from source water (i.e., the Indus River), treatment plant effluent and from taps in the water distribution system were analyzed by atomic adsorption spectroscopy for metals and metalloids (As, Cd, Cr, Hg, and Pb) and water quality parameters (dissolved and suspended solids, pH, conductivity, and total organic carbon). Source water exceeded acceptable drinking water levels for As, Cd, total Cr, and Pb, while the treatment plant effluent concentrations were acceptable. Concentrations of all metals and metalloids, except Hg, increased in the water distribution system post-treatment, exceeding safe drinking limits in at least one location, suggesting contamination of the water during distribution. A deterministic and a probabilistic risk assessment were conducted to evaluate two scenarios: (1) unrestricted use of piped water for all household purposes, including as drinking water and (2) restricted use of the water for purposes other than drinking in the household, including only dermal and inhalation exposure pathways. The water was deemed unsafe for unrestricted use as the sole source of drinking water by both risk assessment methods. Yet when an alternative source of drinking water was assumed and the piped water was used only for bathing and dish washing, the probabilistic risk assessment revealed acceptable health risks to the population, while the overly conservative deterministic risk assessment suggested unacceptable risks. The combined methods of water sampling, risk assessment and correlation analysis suggested areas for rehabilitation of the water distribution system in Hyderabad, Pakistan and these methods can be adopted in other developing nations to target limited funds for infrastructure rehabilitation.


Assuntos
Água Potável/análise , Metaloides/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Purificação da Água/normas , Abastecimento de Água/normas , Água Potável/normas , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Humanos , Paquistão , Medição de Risco , Rios/química , Qualidade da Água/normas
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