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1.
Chemosphere ; 238: 124623, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31545212

RESUMO

The Indo-Gangetic alluvium is prime region for intensive agricultural. In some areas of this region, groundwater is now becoming progressively polluted by contamination with poisonous substances like arsenic. Intensive irrigation with arsenic contaminated ground water in dry spell results in the formation of As(III) which is more toxic. Thus groundwater quality assessment of Gangetic basin has become essential for its safer use. Therefore we under took study on the spatial variability of arsenic by collecting georeferred groundwater samples on grid basis from various water sources like dug well, bore and hand pumps covering the river bank region of Ganga basin. Water quality was investigated through determination pH, EC, TDS, salinity, Na, K, Ca, Mg, SAR, SSP, CO3, HCO3, RSC, Cl, As, Fe, Zn, Mn and Cu, etc. Results pointed severe As contamination in ground water of three sites of the study area. ARC GIS software is now able to process maps along with tabular data and compare them well, to provide the spatial visualization of information and using this tool, the Geographical Information System (GIS) of arsenic was developed. It was noticed from spatial maps that concentration of arsenic was more near the meandering points of Ganga.


Assuntos
Arsênico/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Água Subterrânea/química , Rios/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Geografia , Humanos , Índia , Íons , Medição de Risco , Salinidade , Poluição da Água/análise , Qualidade da Água , Abastecimento de Água/normas
3.
J Water Health ; 17(6): 896-909, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31850897

RESUMO

Sanitation planners make complex decisions in the delivery of sanitation services to achieve health outcomes. We present findings from a stakeholder engagement workshop held in Kampala, Uganda, to educate, interact with, and solicit feedback from participants on how the relevant scientific literature on pathogens can be made more accessible to practitioners to support decision-making. We targeted Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) practitioners involved in different levels of service delivery. Practitioners revealed that different sanitation planning tools are used to inform decision-making; however, most of these tools are not user-friendly or adapted to meet their needs. Most stakeholders (68%) expressed familiarity with pathogens, yet less than half (46%) understood that fecal coliforms were bacteria and used as indicators for fecal pollution. A number of stakeholders were unaware that fecal indicator bacteria do not behave and persist the same as helminths, protozoa, or viruses, making fecal indicator bacteria inadequate for assessing pathogen reductions for all pathogen groups. This suggests a need for awareness and capacity development around pathogens found in excreta. The findings underscore the importance to engage stakeholders in the development of support tools for sanitation planning and highlighted broader opportunities to bridge science with practice in the WASH sector.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões , Higiene , Saneamento/normas , Microbiologia da Água , Qualidade da Água/normas , Abastecimento de Água/normas , Animais , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Uganda , Água
4.
J Water Health ; 17(6): 944-956, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31850901

RESUMO

The incidence of infectious waterborne disease in Canada continues to be a public health issue and can be associated with the source of drinking water. Millions of Canadians relying on unregulated private well water are at increased risk of disease. This study examined relationships between well and owner characteristics and the frequency of microbial testing of private wells in two southern-Ontario counties. Using multi-level logistic regression models, testing frequency (i.e., at least once per year vs. less) was modeled, as both self-reported and laboratory-validated, for associations with owner and well characteristics. For the self-reported outcome, a previous adverse test result significantly increased the odds of being classified as a frequent tester, and owners with a well-head more than 16 inches (40.6 cm) above the ground were at significantly higher odds of being classified as frequent testers compared to those with well-heads less than 16 inches above the ground and those below ground level. For the model based on the laboratory-validated outcome, the odds of an owner being a frequent tester significantly varied with the length of occupancy and the occurrence of a previous adverse result. The absence of associations between other well characteristics and testing frequency suggests that well safety education could benefit these communities.


Assuntos
Água Potável/microbiologia , Microbiologia da Água/normas , Poços de Água , Água Potável/normas , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Ontário , Saúde Pública , Política Pública , Abastecimento de Água/normas
5.
J Water Health ; 17(6): 989-1001, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31850905

RESUMO

Unsafe drinking water is a recognized health threat in Ethiopia, and climate change, rapid population growth, urbanization and agricultural practices put intense pressure on availability and quality of water. Climate change-related health problems due to floods and waterborne diseases are increasing. With increasing insight into impacts of climate change and urbanization on water availability and quality and of required adaptations, a shift towards climate-resilient water safety planning was introduced into an Ethiopian strategy and guidance document to guarantee safe drinking water. Climate-resilient water safety planning was implemented in the urban water supplies of Addis Ababa and Adama, providing drinking water to 5 million and 500,000 people, respectively. Based on the risks identified with climate-resilient water safety planning, water quality monitoring can be optimized by prioritizing parameters and events which pose a higher risk for contaminating the drinking water. Water quality monitoring was improved at both drinking water utilities and at the Public Health Institute to provide relevant data used as input for climate-resilient water safety planning. By continuously linking water quality monitoring and climate-resilient water safety planning, utilization of information was optimized, and both approaches benefit from linking these activities.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Água Potável , Qualidade da Água , Abastecimento de Água/normas , Etiópia , Humanos , Medição de Risco , Gestão de Riscos
6.
J Water Health ; 17(6): 870-883, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31850895

RESUMO

The World Health Organization (WHO) promotes water safety plans (WSPs) - a risk-based management approach - for premise plumbing systems in buildings to prevent deterioration of drinking-water quality. Experience with the implementation of WSPs in buildings were gathered within a pilot project in Germany. The project included an evaluation of the feasibility and advantages of WSPs by all stakeholders who share responsibility in drinking-water safety. While the feasibility of the concept was demonstrated for all buildings, benefits reported by building operators varied. The more technical standards were complied with before implementing WSP, the less pronounced were the resulting improvements. In most cases, WSPs yielded an increased system knowledge and awareness for drinking-water quality issues. WSPs also led to improved operation of the premise plumbing system and provided benefits for surveillance authorities. A survey among the European Network of Drinking-Water Regulators on the existing legal framework regarding drinking-water safety in buildings exhibited that countries are aware of the need to manage risks in buildings' installations, but experience with WSP is rare. Based on the successful implementation and the positive effects of WSPs on drinking-water quality, we recommend the establishment of legal frameworks that require WSPs for priority buildings whilst accounting for differing conditions in buildings and countries.


Assuntos
Água Potável/normas , Qualidade da Água , Abastecimento de Água/normas , Alemanha , Humanos , Projetos Piloto , Medição de Risco , Gestão de Riscos
7.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(12): 768, 2019 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31761967

RESUMO

Deterioration of groundwater quality due to the introduction of pollutants from natural and anthropic sources has become a major environmental issue. We tested three methodologies in assessing groundwater quality and intrinsic aquifer vulnerability in the Agro-Aversano area (Southern Italy). A geographic information system (GIS)-based groundwater quality index (GQI) was realized to assess groundwater quality for drinking and irrigation use and, in parallel, standard SINTACS was applied to evaluate the intrinsic vulnerability of the aquifer. Nitrate concentrations and sodium absorption ratio (SAR) in groundwater samples were used to verify the reliability of vulnerability data. GQI analysis pointed to a general poor quality of groundwater both for drinking and irrigation use, especially in sub-urban areas. The spatial pattern of water quality from GQI analysis was positively related to nitrate and fluoride concentrations for drinking use and to bicarbonate and sodium concentrations for irrigation use, whose levels exceeded the WHO and FAO recommended thresholds, respectively. Standard SINTACS was found to be inadequate for describing the aquifer state, its results showing no correlation with nitrate concentration or SAR. Because of this inconsistency, we tested a novel approach combining GQI with SINTACS analysis. Results showed positive correlation with nitrate (r = 0.63) and SAR (r = 0.64) contents, thus pointing to combined SINTACS-GQI as a more reliable approach than standard methodologies.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Água Potável , Água Subterrânea , Qualidade da Água , Água Potável/normas , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Fluoretos/análise , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Água Subterrânea/análise , Água Subterrânea/normas , Itália , Minerais/análise , Nitratos/análise , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Abastecimento de Água/normas
8.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 244, 2019.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31692810

RESUMO

Introduction: Access to drinking water and sanitation has been a long-standing issue between many States. However, it represents a daily struggle for hundreds of thousands of city dwellers who live mainly in the developing countries. The government of Cameroon with the assistance of providers of funds have implemented strategies to make sanitation and access to safe drinking water a reality. We have therefore decided to assess sanitation and access to drinking water in Douala V sub division. Method: We conducted a cross-sectional descriptive study from May to June 2018. We used a two-stage random sampling. Data were collected using a questionnaire. The analysis was conducted using Epi Info Version 7.1.3.3. Results: Our study shows that 22.47% of subjects discharged waters into the natural environment after use. Then, 65,55% (493/752) of households consumed borehole water; 53.69% of households rode between 1 to 5 km, 49.25% walked more than 15 minutes to collect water and 85,50% of households did not use a water treatment method. Only 14.49% of subjects used a water treatment method. No household used solar water disinfection (SODIS); 2/752 households (0.26%) had no latrine. Most of the households (54.52%; 410/752) discharged domestic wastes onto the street. Conclusion: The creation of decentralized units: the drillings, waste disposal systems and water treatment education to meet basic needs are essential.


Assuntos
Água Potável/normas , Saneamento/normas , Abastecimento de Água/normas , Camarões , Estudos Transversais , Países em Desenvolvimento , Desinfecção/métodos , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Toaletes/estatística & dados numéricos
9.
Environ Sci Process Impacts ; 21(11): 1899-1907, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31641706

RESUMO

In the present study analytical methodologies were developed for two newly emerging polar perfluorinated alkyl substances (PFAS), namely F3-MSA, and HFPO-DA, in order to assess the occurrence and levels of these PFAS in Dutch and Belgian waters. Two separate methods were needed for analysing F3-MSA and HFPO-DA. A mixed-mode and a reversed phase C18 method were developed for F3-MSA and HFPO-DA, respectively, using a high resolution Orbitrap Fusion mass spectrometer for detection, yielding satisfactory LOD and LOQ results for both analytes. A sample campaign was performed collecting single grab samples from various locations and different stages of the drinking water production chain. Whereas both PFAS were absent in groundwaters, they were found to be present in surface waters, river bank and dune infiltrates, process water, and drinking water, demonstrating the persistence and mobility of both compounds. Based on provisional health-based guideline values (0.15 µg L-1 for HFPO-DA, 11.9 mg L-1 for F3-MSA), the current levels in drinking water from the suppliers involved in this study do not pose a health risk for the human population. Common removal processes used in drinking water production appeared to remove these polar compounds at most partially. At locations close to potential sources of these chemicals (e.g. fluoropolymer production sites), the quality of surface water or river bank filtrate abstracted for production of drinking water must therefore be monitored.


Assuntos
Água Potável/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Mesilatos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Abastecimento de Água/normas , Água Subterrânea/química , Humanos , Rios/química
10.
Chemosphere ; 236: 124886, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31564425

RESUMO

Managed aquifer recharge with reclaimed water is a promising strategy for indirect potable reuse. However, residual contaminants in the treated wastewater effluent could potentially have adverse effects on human health. Hence, adequate water pretreatment is required. A multi-criteria approach was used to select and evaluate suitable water pretreatment technologies that can remove these critical contaminants in wastewater effluent for MAR identified in a previous study (Yuan et al., 2017). The treatment efficiency targets were calculated based on the concentrations and the suggested limits of critical contaminants. Treatment efficiency credits were then assigned to each treatment option for the removal of critical contaminants based on literature data. Treatment units that resulted in the highest efficiency credit scores were selected and combined into treatment train options, which were evaluated in terms of treatability, cost, and sustainability. This paper proposes an approach for the selection and evaluation of water treatment options, which will be helpful to guide the future implementation of MAR projects with reclaimed water.


Assuntos
Água Subterrânea/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Purificação da Água/métodos , Abastecimento de Água/normas , Humanos , Tecnologia/métodos , Tecnologia/normas , Águas Residuárias/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química
11.
Chemosphere ; 235: 1162-1171, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31561307

RESUMO

Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) draw considerable attention for their potential toxic effects in humans and environment. Drinking water is accepted as one of the major exposure pathways for PFASs. In this study, we measured concentrations of 10 perfluoroalkyl substances in 94 tap water samples collected in two different sampling periods (August 2017 and February 2018) from 33 provinces of Turkey, as well as in 26 different brands of plastic and glass-bottled water samples sold in supermarkets in Turkey. Perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS) and perfluoropentanoic acid (PFPeA) were the most frequently detected PFASs in the samples of tap waters. The maximum concentrations in tap waters were measured as 2.90, 2.37, 2.18, 2.04, and 1.93 ng/L, for PFHxA, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), and perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA), respectively. The most abundant perfluorinated chemical in tap water samples was PFBA with 17%, followed by PFOS (13%), PFBS (12%), perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA) (11%), PFHxA (11%), and PFOA (11%). The total PFASs concentration in tap water ranged from 0.08 to 11.27 ng/L. As regards bottled waters, the concentrations of PFASs were generally lower than those in tap water samples. These results revealed that tap water samples in Turkey might be considered generally safe based on the established guidelines around the world. However, due to their persistence and potential to accumulate and reach higher concentrations in the environment, careful monitoring of PFASs in all types of water is critical.


Assuntos
Água Potável/química , Fluorcarbonetos , Abastecimento de Água/normas , Caproatos/análise , Fluorcarbonetos/análise , Humanos , Turquia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
12.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(36): e16823, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31490368

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To evaluate prevention and control strategies for children with Kashin-Beck disease (KBD) in China through a systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: We conducted literature searches of articles indexed in Web of Knowledge, PubMed, Springerlink, Elsevier, the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Wanfang data until February 2019. Search terms included "Kashin-Beck disease" or "KBD," and "improvement of water" or "change of grain" or "salt-rich selenium" or "comprehensive measures." Eligible studies were prospective trials of interventions in endemic area. Data extraction was performed by 2 independent authors using predefined data fields that also included quality evaluation. RESULTS: We screened 1183 potentially relevant articles, and included 22 studies that reported 24 trials, with data from 3700 healthy children and 2961 children KBD. The pooled odds ratios (ORs) and confidence intervals (95% CIs) for primary prevention new incidence in healthy children following interventions to comprehensive measures, change of grain, salt-rich selenium, and improvements of water were 0.15 (0.02, 0.95), 0.15 (0.03, 0.70), 0.19 (0.09, 0.38), and 0.20 (0.09, 0.42), respectively. The OR (95% CI) for clinical improvement in children KBD following interventions to improvement of water, salt-rich selenium, comprehensive measures, and change of grain were 5.03 (3.21, 7.89), 4.39 (3.15, 6.11), 2.98 (1.61, 5.52), and 2.35 (1.59, 3.47), respectively. All interventions showed significant differences and were effective (P < .05). CONCLUSION: Comprehensive measures and change of grain were the most effective measures in preventing new case, whereas improvement of water and salt-rich selenium resulted in clinical improvements in children KBD.


Assuntos
Grão Comestível/normas , Substâncias Húmicas/efeitos adversos , Doença de Kashin-Bek/etiologia , Doença de Kashin-Bek/prevenção & controle , Selênio/administração & dosagem , Abastecimento de Água/normas , China/epidemiologia , Doenças Endêmicas , Feminino , Humanos , Doença de Kashin-Bek/epidemiologia , Doença de Kashin-Bek/terapia , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos
13.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(10): 617, 2019 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31493154

RESUMO

Delta State of the Niger Delta, Nigeria, is an oil exploration and production region that is characterized by huge revenue generation but with its attendant waste generation and oil spillage that impact the environment. The variability in the hydrochemical characteristics, hydrochemical controlling processes and quality in space has been investigated. The pH of the groundwater samples ranged from slightly acidic to slightly alkaline nature. Biological oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand of the coastal area are higher than those of the inland area indicating more domestic and industrial contamination. Total dissolved solid values across the region indicated fresh and brackish water for the coastal area and fresh water only for the inland area. The orders of abundance of the cations and anions for the coastal and inland areas are Ca>Mg>Na>K/Cl>HCO3>SO4>NO3 and Na>Ca>K>Mg/HCO3>Cl>NO3>SO4 respectively. A Piper diagram identified four hydrochemical facies, namely CaHCO3, NaHCO3, NaCl and CaMgClSO4. Ionic cross plots and correlation matrix revealed that the groundwater chemistry of the inland area is predominantly influenced by silicate weathering and ion exchange processes while those of the coastal area are influenced by silicate weathering, ion exchange processes and seawater tidal flushing. The groundwater from the coastal area is more polluted by heavy metals than those from the inland area. The observed variability may be attributed to effects of industrial wastes and exploration activities. In terms of water quality for domestic and irrigation, the groundwater of the coastal and the inland areas are not generally potable and suitable as drinking and irrigation water sources.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Água Subterrânea/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Qualidade da Água , Água Subterrânea/normas , Hidrocarbonetos/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Nigéria , Silicatos/análise , Abastecimento de Água/normas
14.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(11): 9711-9720, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31447161

RESUMO

Artisanal Colonial-type cheese is made from raw milk and is the main cheese produced by rural families of the southern region of Brazil. The aim of this study was to investigate, identify problems, and propose solutions for the current situation of small family farms producing and informally selling artisanal Colonial-type cheese located in the western part of Santa Catarina State in Southern Brazil. A semistructured questionnaire was employed in 12 rural properties to analyze the mode of production. Physical-chemical and microbiological analyses of water, raw milk, and cheese were performed, and it was found that 92, 50, and 100% of the samples, respectively, were outside of the current Brazilian regulatory parameters. None of the cheesemakers involved in this study met the requirements, as established by law, for artisanal cheese production from raw milk. This study concluded that technical support and changes in public policy are needed to ensure the preservation of this artisanal cheese, considering the historical importance and cultural traditions of these local communities and the socioeconomic importance of cheesemaking to family farming. Furthermore, more research on the safety of the cheese produced from raw milk is needed as well as the development of specific microbiological standards for artisanal Brazilian cheeses. Public policies aimed at guaranteeing food safety that formalize the commercialization of these cheeses will increase food security in those communities that currently produce artisanal cheese informally.


Assuntos
Queijo/normas , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Legislação sobre Alimentos , Leite/normas , Animais , Brasil , Queijo/análise , Queijo/classificação , Queijo/microbiologia , Fazendas/normas , Humanos , Leite/química , Leite/microbiologia , População Rural , Inquéritos e Questionários , Microbiologia da Água , Abastecimento de Água/normas
15.
J Chromatogr A ; 1605: 360350, 2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31378527

RESUMO

According to the recent proposal released by the European Commission for the revision of the 98/83/EC Directive, water suppliers will be requested to monitor the nine bromine- and chlorine congeners of haloacetic acids, HAAs, as well as the oxyhalides chlorite and chlorate, as disinfection by-products (DBPs) originated during the potabilization process. In this work, we propose a direct-injection method based on ion chromatography and mass spectrometric detection for the determination of the mentioned DBPs as well as bromate (already included in the 98/83/EC), implemented also for the following emerging HAAs monoiodo-, chloroiodo- and diiodo-acetic acids. The method was optimized to include the fifteen compounds in the same analytical run, tuning the chromatographic (column and gradient) and detection conditions (suppression current, transitions, RF lens settings and collision energies). To avoid matrix effect and to manage the instrumental conditions, optimization was performed directly in drinking water matrix. The method quantitation limits satisfy the new limits imposed by the future directive and range from 0.08 µg/L (monobromoacetic acid) to 0.34 µg/L (trichloroacetic acid). The performance of the method was checked along different strategic sampling points of three potabilization plants serving the city of Turin (Italy), including intermediate treatments and finished waters. Recovery was checked according to the ±30% limit of acceptability set by EPA regulations. The effect of disproportionate concentrations of chlorite and chlorate in respect to HAAs on HAA signals was studied; this aspect is underestimated in literature. The method is routinely applied by the potabilization plant of the city of Turin to confirm the effectiveness of all control measures in abstraction, treatment, distribution and storage. This study represents the first example in Italy of development and use of a cutting-edge technique for HAAs analysis along the potabilization processes.


Assuntos
Cromatografia , Desinfecção , Água Potável/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Acetatos/análise , Bromatos/análise , Cloretos/análise , Cloro/análise , Cidades , Água Potável/normas , Itália , Abastecimento de Água/normas
17.
Ital J Pediatr ; 45(1): 77, 2019 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31272479

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Under nutrition is linked with poor water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) condition. However, there is conflicting evidence on the effect of WASH on nutritional status of children. This review was, therefore, conducted to estimate the pooled effect of WASH interventions on child under nutrition. METHODS: All published and unpublished cluster-randomized, non-randomized controlled trials, and before and after intervention studies conducted in developing countries were included. Relevant articles were searched from MEDLINE/PubMed, Cochrane Collaboration's database, Web of Science, WHO Global Health Library, Google Scholar, Worldcat and ProQuest electronic databases. The methodological quality of the included studies was assessed using JBI critical appraisal checklist for randomized and non-randomized controlled trials. The risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane Collaboration's tool for assessing risk of bias in randomized trials. The treatment effect was expressed as standardized mean differences (SMD) with 95% confidence interval (CI). RESULTS: This meta-analysis of 10 studies including 16,473 children (7776 in the intervention and 8687 in the control group) indicated that WASH interventions significantly associated with increased pooled mean height-for-age-z-score (SMD = 0.14, 95% CI = (0.09, 0.19); I2 = 39.3%]. The effect of WASH on HAZ was heterogeneous in age and types of interventions. WASH intervention had more effect on HAZ among under two children [SMD = 0.20, 95% CI = (0.11, 0.29); I2 = 37%]. Children who received combined WASH interventions grew better compared with children who received single interventions [SMD = 0.15, 95% CI = (0.09, 0.20); I2 = 43.8%]. CONCLUSION: WASH interventions were significantly associated with increased mean height-for-age-z score in under 5 years old children. The effect of WASH on linear growth is markedly different with age and types of interventions, either single or combined. Implementing combined WASH interventions has a paramount benefit to improve nutritional status of children.


Assuntos
Desinfecção das Mãos/normas , Higiene/normas , Desnutrição/prevenção & controle , Estado Nutricional , Saneamento/normas , Qualidade da Água/normas , Abastecimento de Água/normas , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Países em Desenvolvimento , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido
18.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 458, 2019 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31286934

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The risk of cholera outbreak remains high in Cameroon. This is because of the persistent cholera outbreaks in neighboring countries coupled with the poor hygiene and sanitation conditions in Cameroon. The objective of this study was to assess the readiness of health facilities to respond to cholera outbreak in four cholera-prone districts in Cameroon. METHODOLOGY: A cross-sectional study was conducted targeting all health facilities in four health districts, labeled as cholera hotspots in Cameroon in August 2016. Data collection was done by interview with a questionnaire and by observation regarding the availability of resources and materials for surveillance and case management, access to water, hygiene, and sanitation. Data analysis was descriptive with STATA 11. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 134 health facilities were evaluated, most of which (108/134[81%]) were urban facilities. The preparedness regarding surveillance was limited with 13 (50%) health facilities in the Far North and 22(20%) in the Littoral having cholera case definition guide. ORS for Case management was present in 8(31%) health facilities in the Far North and in 94(87%) facilities in the littoral. Less than half of the health facilities had a hand washing protocol and 7(5.1%) did not have any source of drinking water or relied on unimproved sources like lake. A total of 4(3.0%) health facilities, all in the Far North region, did not have a toilet. CONCLUSIONS: The level of preparedness of health facilities in Cameroon for cholera outbreak response presents a lot of weaknesses. These are present in terms of lack of basic surveillance and case management materials and resources, low access to WaSH. If not addressed now, these facilities might not be able to play their role in case there is an outbreak and might even turn to be transmission milieus.


Assuntos
Cólera/epidemiologia , Cólera/prevenção & controle , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Instalações de Saúde/normas , Camarões/epidemiologia , Administração de Caso , Estudos Transversais , Desinfecção das Mãos/normas , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Higiene/normas , Observação , Saneamento/normas , Inquéritos e Questionários , Abastecimento de Água/normas
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31288493

RESUMO

Sustainable Development Goal 6 (SDG-6) addresses poor water quality, inadequate sanitation, and improper hygiene, all of which negatively impact health and disproportionately impact Indigenous Peoples' health. Understanding and responding to local contexts is critical to effectively improve water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH); however, in-depth understanding of local knowledge, practices, and perceptions are often overlooked. As such, this study described the knowledge, practices, and perceptions of WASH held by residents of two Indigenous Shawi communities in the Peruvian Amazon. Quantitative data were collected via a cross-sectional survey and analyzed using descriptive statistics. Qualitative data were collected via interviews, PhotoVoice, focus group discussions, and participatory transect walks, and analyzed using a constant comparative approach to thematic analysis. Emergent themes included characterizing water sources, collection methods, and consumption patterns; knowledge, perceptions, and practices related to WASH; and knowledge and perceptions of health issues related to WASH. This study provides insight into the ongoing challenges related to WASH in Indigenous communities in the Peruvian Amazon and highlights the need to prioritize interventions that will advance WASH-related SDGs.


Assuntos
Higiene , Índios Sul-Americanos , Objetivos Organizacionais , Saneamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Abastecimento de Água/normas , Água , Estudos Transversais , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Peru , Qualidade da Água
20.
J Glob Health ; 9(2): 020402, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31360445

RESUMO

Background: Water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) in schools is promoted by development agencies as a modality to improve school attendance by reducing illness. Despite biological plausibility, the few rigorous studies that have assessed the effect of WASH in schools (WinS) interventions on pupil health and school attendance have reported mixed impacts. We evaluated the impact of the Laos Basic Education, Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Programme - a comprehensive WinS project implemented by UNICEF Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) in 492 primary schools nationwide between 2013 and 2017 - on pupil education and health. Methods: From 2014-2017, we conducted a cluster-randomized trial among 100 randomly selected primary schools lacking functional WASH facilities in Saravane Province, Lao PDR. Schools were randomly assigned to either the intervention (n = 50) or comparison (n = 50) arm. Intervention schools received a school water supply, sanitation facilities, handwashing facilities, drinking water filters, and behavior change education and promotion. Comparison schools received the intervention after research activities ended. At unannounced visits every six to eight weeks, enumerators recorded pupils' roll-call absence, enrollment, attrition, progression to the next grade, and reported illness (diarrhea, respiratory infection, conjunctivitis), and conducted structured observations to measure intervention fidelity and adherence. Stool samples were collected annually prior to de-worming and analyzed for soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infection. In addition to our primary intention-to-treat analysis, we conducted secondary analyses to quantify the role of intervention fidelity and adherence on project impacts. Results: We found no impact of the WinS intervention on any primary (pupil absence) or secondary (enrollment, dropout, grade progression, diarrhea, respiratory infection, conjunctivitis, STH infection) impacts. Even among schools with the highest levels of fidelity and adherence, impact of the intervention on absence and health was minimal. Conclusions: While WinS may create an important enabling environment, WinS interventions alone and as currently delivered may not be sufficient to independently impact pupil education and health. Our results are consistent with other recent evaluations of WinS projects showing limited or mixed effects of WinS.


Assuntos
Absenteísmo , Diarreia/prevenção & controle , Helmintíase/prevenção & controle , Infecções Respiratórias/prevenção & controle , Serviços de Saúde Escolar , Animais , Criança , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Helmintíase/transmissão , Helmintos/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Higiene/educação , Higiene/normas , Laos/epidemiologia , Masculino , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Saneamento/normas , Solo/parasitologia , Abastecimento de Água/normas
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