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1.
GM Crops Food ; 12(1): 25-35, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32687427

RESUMO

The importance of food security and nourishment is recognized in Southern African region and in many communities, globally. However, the attainment of food security in Southern African countries is affected by many factors, including adverse environmental conditions, pests and diseases. Scientists have been insistently looking for innovative strategies to optimize crop production and combat challenges militating against attainment of food security. In agriculture, strategies of increasing crop production include but not limited to improved crop varieties, farming practices, extension services, irrigation services, mechanization, information technology, use of fertilizers and agrochemicals. Equally important is genetic modification (GM) technology, which brings new prospects in addressing food security problems. Nonetheless, since the introduction of genetically modified crops (GMOs) three decades ago, it has been a topic of public discourse across the globe, conspicuously so in Southern African region. This is regardless of the evidence that planting GMOs positively influenced farmer's incomes, economic access to food and increased tolerance of crops to various biotic and abiotic stresses. This paper looks at the issues surrounding GMOs adoption in Southern Africa and lack thereof, the discourse, and its potential in contributing to the attainment of food security for the present as well as future generations.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Alimentos Geneticamente Modificados , África Austral , Agricultura , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas
2.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240009, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33002052

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Brighter Bites is a school-based health promotion program that delivers fresh produce and nutrition education to low-income children and families. Due to COVID-19-related school closures, states were under "shelter in place" orders, and Brighter Bites administered a rapid assessment survey to identify social needs among their families. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the methodology used to identify those with greatest social needs during this time ("high risk"), and to describe the response of Brighter Bites to these "high risk" families. METHODS: The rapid assessment survey was collected in April 2020 across Houston, Dallas, Washington DC, and Southwest Florida. The survey consisted of items on disruption of employment status, financial hardship, food insecurity, perceived health status and sociodemographics. The open-ended question "Please share your greatest concern at this time, or any other thoughts you would like to share with us." was asked at the end of each survey to triage "high risk" families. Responses were then used to articulate a response to meet the needs of these high risk families. RESULTS: A total of 1048 families completed the COVID-19 rapid response survey, of which 71 families were triaged and classified as "high risk" (6.8% of survey respondents). During this time, 100% of the "high risk" participants reported being food insecure, 85% were concerned about their financial stability, 82% concerned about the availability of food, and 65% concerned about the affordability of food. A qualitative analysis of the high-risk group revealed four major themes: fear of contracting COVID19, disruption of employment status, financial hardship, and exacerbated food insecurity. In response, Brighter Bites pivoted, created, and deployed a framework to immediately address a variety of social needs among those in the "high risk" category. Administering a rapid response survey to identify the immediate needs of their families can help social service providers tailor their services to meet the needs of the most vulnerable.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Características da Família , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pobreza , Betacoronavirus , Criança , District of Columbia , Emprego , Florida , Alimentos/economia , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Renda , Pandemias , Serviço Social , Inquéritos e Questionários , Texas
4.
Nutrients ; 12(9)2020 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32887422

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has exacerbated economic vulnerabilities and disrupted the Australian food supply, with potential implications for food insecurity. This study aims to describe the prevalence and socio-demographic associations of food insecurity in Tasmania, Australia, during the COVID-19 pandemic. A cross-sectional survey (deployed late May to early June 2020) incorporated the U.S. Household Food Security Survey Module: Six-Item Short Form, and fifteen demographic and COVID-related income questions. Survey data (n = 1170) were analyzed using univariate and multivariate binary logistic regression. The prevalence of food insecurity was 26%. The adjusted odds of food insecurity were higher among respondents with a disability, from a rural area, and living with dependents. Increasing age, a university education, and income above $80,000/year were protective against food insecurity. Food insecurity more than doubled with a loss of household income above 25% (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR): 2.02; 95% CI: 1.11, 3.71; p = 0.022), and the odds further increased with loss of income above 75% (AOR: 7.14; 95% CI: 2.01, 24.83; p = 0.002). Our results suggest that the prevalence of food insecurity may have increased during the COVID-19 pandemic, particularly among economically vulnerable households and people who lost income. Policies that support disadvantaged households and ensure adequate employment opportunities are important to support Australians throughout and post the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Abastecimento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/economia , Estudos Transversais , Demografia , Pessoas com Deficiência , Escolaridade , Emprego , Família , Feminino , Abastecimento de Alimentos/economia , Humanos , Renda , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias/economia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/economia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , População Rural , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Tasmânia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237637, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866157

RESUMO

Comprehensive assessment of food insecurity across all college community members is lacking. This research surveyed a random sample of an entire campus population at a Northeast University in two surveys (spring 2017, n = 1,037 and fall 2017, n = 1,123). Analysis of variance, t-tests, and multivariable logit models were used to understand food insecurity outcomes and comparisons among groups. The overall rate of food insecurity on campus was 19.6% (spring) and 15.0% (fall). Food insecurity rates were highest among undergraduates, graduate and medical students, and staff as compared to faculty. First generation students and off-campus students were also more likely to be food insecure in both surveys, while people of color were more likely to be food insecure in the spring survey. Findings suggest university members beyond undergraduates also face high rates of food insecurity, which has important implications for efforts to reduce food insecurity on college campuses.


Assuntos
Abastecimento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Estudantes/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Universidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr ; 29(3): 446-449, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32990602

RESUMO

The contributors to and consequences of disordered health are increasingly complex with sociodemographic, ecological, economic and food system change. But there are opportunities for any adversity to be mitigated by advances in the understanding of human, especially nutritional, ecobiology and in its more accessible and affordable evaluation and monitoring. Viral pandemics are on the rise with climate change and loss of ecosystems. They threaten human civilisation and planetary habitability. Human security is dependent on sustainable livelihoods of which food and water systems are a vital part. We are socioecological beings and depend for our health on biodiversity and the food diversity that ensures; and on connectedness and communication, made more difficult in pandemics. Rapid and accessible point-of-care (POC) tools are now becoming available to compliment other selfmonitoring network approaches, whether checklist or questionnaire, physical, chemical, or biological, for healthcare and nutritional health. They can provide information as several complimentary and interdependent health indices to facilitate personal, group and community action and management plans. This applies to indices of both communicable and non-communicable disease which problems separately and together are compromising health prospects. These indices include ones of physical and mental activities, dietary patterns, metabolites, blood pressure and now the presence and severity of viruses like Covid-19.Of imminent relevance and promise are optically- readable biosensor based strips for nasal, pharyngeal or salivary samples to check viral presence or finger prick blood for immunoglobulins and interleukins. These should allow less socially prohibitive measures to curb viral transmission and promote personal and societal wellbeing.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Autocuidado , Comportamento Social , Betacoronavirus , Pressão Sanguínea , Mudança Climática , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Ecossistema , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Humanos , Hipertensão/dietoterapia , Exame Físico , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus , Telemedicina
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(38): e22245, 2020 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32957371

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: CMS recently decided to produce private "healthcare disparities reports" that include dual eligibility (DE) as the sole stratifying variable used to assess pneumonia readmission disparities. RESEARCH DESIGN: We measure the relationship between DE status and readmissions, both with and without conceptually relevant social risk factors, including air pollution, severe housing problems, and food insecurity, using data from county- and hospital-level readmission rates, DE status, and social risk factors. RESULTS: At the county level, the relationship between DE status and readmissions is partially confounded by at least three social risk factors. DE populations vary widely across hospitals, creating unequal between-hospital comparisons. CONCLUSIONS: Because of differences in the DE population, between-hospital comparisons could be misleading using a methodology that stratifies by DE only. We suggest viable alternatives to sole-factor stratification to properly account for social risk factors and better isolate quality differences that might yield readmission rate inequities. IMPLICATIONS: CMS's healthcare disparities reports provided to hospitals are limited by relying exclusively on DE proportion as the measure of social risk, undercutting the power of quality measurement and its related incentives to close or minimize healthcare inequities.


Assuntos
Definição da Elegibilidade , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Medicaid/organização & administração , Medicare/organização & administração , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Habitação , Humanos , Readmissão do Paciente , Pneumonia/terapia , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos
9.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 23: e200096, 2020.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32997083

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the factors associated with food insecurity in families living in the urban area of Tocantins/Brazil. METHODS: This is a population-based cross-sectional study conducted in the urban area of 22 municipalities in the 8 microregions of the state. A semi-structured questionnaire was applied to the head of household to obtain socioeconomic and demographic data, and the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale (EBIA) was used to assess food insecurity at home. The anthropometric assessment of the residents was made by measuring weight, height/length and waist circumference. Multinomial logistic regression was performed to assess the association of food insecurity with individual/household variables, and Pearson's chi-square test was used to compare whether there was a difference in the prevalence of food insecurity between microregions and between families with and without individuals under 18 years. RESULTS: A total of 596 households were evaluated, of which 63.4% were in a food insecurity situation. The final model of the multivariate analysis showed that low head-of-household schooling, low per capita income, receiving social assistance benefits and lack of clean drinking water in the household were associated with food insecurity (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study reveal the high prevalence of food insecurity in the families studied and their associated factors, showing the need for local actions and public policies to improve health conditions, education and income of the population, and consequently, improve the scenario of food and nutritional insecurity in the state.


Assuntos
Características da Família , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Vigilância da População/métodos , Adolescente , Brasil , Cidades , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , População Urbana
10.
Cien Saude Colet ; 25(9): 3421-3430, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32876253

RESUMO

The emergence of COVID-19 in Brazil further explained the massive discrepancy between different social realities coexisting in the country, rekindling the discussions about food and nutrition security, similarly to what has been happening in other countries facing the same pandemic situation. In this paper, we argue that the risks to hunger and food security in Brazil have been present since 2016 and are now being exacerbated due to the emergence of the COVID-19 epidemic. This situation requires knowing the extent and magnitude of the issue and articulation of measures in the three governmental spheres(federal, municipal and state) to ensure access to adequate and healthy food and reduce the disease's adverse effectson the diet, health, and nutrition among the most vulnerable people. Thus, this work aims to contribute to the debate on the measures to be adopted by governments and society to promote and ensure food and nutrition security and prevent insecurity and the expansion of hunger during and after the social and health crisis created by the pandemic.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Estado Nutricional , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Brasil , Dieta , Humanos , Fome , Pandemias , Política Pública , Populações Vulneráveis
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32867149

RESUMO

While food insecurity (FI) has been extensively studied in many countries, there have been few empirical contributions in Poland to date. The main objective of our research was to identify the socio-demographic factors affecting the risk of FI in Poland within 2014-2019. Moreover, we aimed to examine the effects of the family-oriented social program "Family 500+" by comparing the situation in various types of households with children a few years before and after the program was launched. The analysis was based on the set of eight-item FI indicators adopted by the Food and Agriculture Organization using the Gallup World Poll nationally representative survey data. Based on our results the most vulnerable groups in the context of FI were identified. We confirmed the importance of education, gender, age, marital status, household composition, status of employment and income in preventing FI. The effectiveness of the support program in reducing FI was demonstrated as households with at least three children experienced significant improvement in the FI status during the studied years. These findings should be especially important in the context of the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on FI. As FI can affect the quality and quantity of food choices it is associated with a poorer health status, which increases the risk of infection, including COVID-19, and worsens recovery prognosis. Planning an efficient response to the pandemic requires a comprehension of the increased risk of exposure experienced by people, especially those who are food insecure.


Assuntos
Abastecimento de Alimentos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Criança , Infecções por Coronavirus , Estudos Transversais , Características da Família , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Polônia , Prevalência
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32887328

RESUMO

The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) is a critical program that helps reduce the risk of food insecurity, yet little is known about how SNAP addresses the needs of rural, food-insecure residents in the United States (U.S.). This study examines how rural, food-insecure residents perceive SNAP. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 153 individuals living in six diverse rural regions of Arkansas, Montana, North Carolina, Oregon, Texas, and West Virginia. SNAP was described as a crucial stop-gap program, keeping families from experiencing persistent food insecurity, making food dollars stretch when the family budget is tight, and helping them purchase healthier foods. For many rural residents interviewed, SNAP was viewed in a largely positive light. In efforts to continue improving SNAP, particularly in light of its relevance during and post-coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, policymakers must be aware of rural families' perceptions of SNAP. Specific improvements may include increased transparency regarding funding formulas, budgeting and nutrition education for recipients, effective training to improve customer service, connections among social service agencies within a community, and increased availability of automation to streamline application processes.


Assuntos
Assistência Alimentar , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Pobreza , Arkansas , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Montana , North Carolina , Oregon , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Texas , West Virginia
13.
Nutrients ; 12(9)2020 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32957585

RESUMO

The present study aimed to investigate whether trust in circulating information and perceived stress are predictors of consumers' fear of limited access to food as well as predictors of food purchase behaviors during the COVID-19 pandemic. The computer-assisted web interviewing (CAWI) technique was used to collect data from 1033 Polish adults in March 2020. Logistic regression was used to estimate the likelihood of fear of limited access to food and the likelihood of purchase of larger amounts of food than usual. The likelihood of experiencing fear of limited access to food increased by 16% with higher perceived stress, by 50% with higher trust in "Mass media and friends", and by 219% with perceived changes in food availability in the previous month. Trust in "Polish government institutions" decreased the chance of experiencing such fears by 22%. The likelihood of purchasing larger quantities of food than usual increased by 9% with higher perceived stress, by 46% with higher trust in "Mass media and friends", by 81% with perceived changes in food availability in the last month, and by 130% with fears of limited access to food as the pandemic spreads. Government institutions may have difficulty in disseminating pandemic-related recommendations through media, not only due to relatively low trust people have in media organizations but also due to the increasing likelihood of the occurrence of both fears regarding food availability and panic-stricken food-buying behaviors with increase in trust in this source of information. Therefore, it is necessary to develop interventions that will reduce perceived stress and improve the trust in information from reputable sources.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Quarentena/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Medo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Polônia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Confiança
14.
Glob Health Action ; 13(1): 1810415, 2020 12 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32867606

RESUMO

At the time of writing, it is unclear how the COVID-19 pandemic will play out in rapidly urbanising regions of the world. In these regions, the realities of large overcrowded informal settlements, a high burden of infectious and non-communicable diseases, as well as malnutrition and precarity of livelihoods, have raised added concerns about the potential impact of the COVID-19 pandemic in these contexts. COVID-19 infection control measures have been shown to have some effects in slowing down the progress of the pandemic, effectively buying time to prepare the healthcare system. However, there has been less of a focus on the indirect impacts of these measures on health behaviours and the consequent health risks, particularly in the most vulnerable. In this current debate piece, focusing on two of the four risk factors that contribute to >80% of the NCD burden, we consider the possible ways that the restrictions put in place to control the pandemic, have the potential to impact on dietary and physical activity behaviours and their determinants. By considering mitigation responses implemented by governments in several LMIC cities, we identify key lessons that highlight the potential of economic, political, food and built environment sectors, mobilised during the pandemic, to retain health as a priority beyond the context of pandemic response. Such whole-of society approaches are feasible and necessary to support equitable healthy eating and active living required to address other epidemics and to lower the baseline need for healthcare in the long term.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Dieta , Exercício Físico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , População Urbana , Urbanização , Betacoronavirus , Ambiente Construído , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Pandemias , Fatores de Risco
15.
S Afr Med J ; 110(9): 864-868, 2020 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880269

RESUMO

Reports indicate that children infected with SARS-CoV-2 have thus far presented with less severe disease than adults. Anxiety regarding a greater ability to transmit the virus is largely unfounded and has played a significant role in the decision to allow children to return to school. In some patients, however, especially in infants and in those with underlying comorbidities, severe disease must be anticipated and planned for accordingly. The most relevant severe clinical presentation in addition to the established respiratory complications, is that of a multisystem inflammatory disorder, with features resembling Kawasaki disease. The impact of the pandemic on the economic and social wellbeing of children, including food insecurity and care when parents are ill, cannot be ignored. During this pandemic, it is imperative to ensure access to routine and emergency medical services to sick children. In so doing, potentially devastating medical and socioeconomic consequences can be mitigated.


Assuntos
Bem-Estar da Criança , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Educação a Distância , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Máscaras , Saúde Mental , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Infecções Assintomáticas , Betacoronavirus , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pobreza , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
16.
Cad Saude Publica ; 36(8): e00161320, 2020 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32901703

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic poses one of this century's greatest public health challenges, with impacts on the health and living conditions of populations worldwide. The literature has reported that the pandemic affects the hegemonic food system in various ways. In Brazil, the pandemic amplifies existing social, racial, and gender inequalities, further jeopardizing the Human Right to Adequate Food (HRAF) and the attainment of food and nutritional security, especially among more vulnerable groups. In this context, the article aims to analyze the first measures by the Brazilian Federal Government to mitigate the pandemic's effects and that may have repercussions on food and nutritional security, considering the recent institutional changes in policies and programs. A narrative literature review was performed, and the information sources were the bulletins of the Center for Coordination of Operations by the Crisis Committee for Supervising and Monitoring the Impacts of COVID-19 and homepages of various government ministries, from March to May 2020. The actions were systematized according to the guidelines of the National Policy for Food and Nutritional Security. The analysis identified the creation of institutional crisis management arrangements. The proposed actions feature those involving access to income, emergency aid, and food, such as authorization for food distribution outside schools with federal funds from the National School Feeding Program. However, the setbacks and dismantlement in food and nutritional security may undermine the Federal Government's capacity to respond to COVID-19.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Abastecimento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Política Nutricional , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Alocação de Recursos/estatística & dados numéricos , Betacoronavirus , Brasil , Governo Federal , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Estado Nutricional , Saúde Pública , Política Pública , Populações Vulneráveis
17.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1155, 2020 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32787863

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nearly 40 million American adults report past year food insecurity. This is concerning, as food insecurity is associated with chronic disease morbidity and premature mortality. Women disproportionately experience food insecurity, and sexual minority women (i.e., lesbian, bisexual, and heterosexual women reporting same-sex behavior; SMW) may be at greater risk for experiencing food insecurity disparities. The purpose of this study was to investigate patterns and prevalence of food insecurity and food assistance use in sexual minority and exclusively heterosexual women using population-level health surveillance data. METHODS: Using pooled 2004-2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data (N = 7379), we estimated weighted point prevalence of past 12-month food insecurity, severe food insecurity, Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) use, and emergency food assistance use. We then used Poisson regression with robust variance to estimate prevalence ratios comparing SMW to exclusively heterosexual women on all outcomes. Women were classified by sexual identity and lifetime same-sex behavior as lesbian (n = 88), bisexual (n = 251), heterosexual and reporting same-sex behavior (heterosexual WSW; n = 366), or exclusively heterosexual women (referent; n = 6674). RESULTS: Between 20.6-27.3% of lesbian, bisexual, and heterosexual WSW reported past 12-month food insecurity (versus 13.1% of exclusively heterosexual women). All SMW reported greater prevalence of past 12-month food insecurity and severe food insecurity than exclusively heterosexual women: prevalence ratios (PR) ranged from 1.34 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05-1.70) to 1.84 (95% CI, 1.13-3.01). No differences were found in SNAP participation by sexual orientation, but more lesbians and heterosexual WSW reported using emergency food assistance in the past 12-months (PR = 1.89; 95% CI, 1.29-2.79 and PR = 1.43; 95% CI, 1.03-2.00 respectively). CONCLUSIONS: All SMW reported higher prevalence of food insecurity than exclusively heterosexual women. Lesbians and heterosexual WSW were also more likely to rely on emergency food assistance. This is problematic as SNAP use may reduce food insecurity over time, but emergency food resources (e.g., food pantries) do not. More evidence is needed to understand the multilevel factors driving food insecurity in this population to develop policy and community-based efforts to increase SNAP participation and decrease food insecurity.


Assuntos
Assistência Alimentar/estatística & dados numéricos , Abastecimento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
18.
Nutrients ; 12(9)2020 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32825251

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has increased unemployment and food insecurity in the United States (US). Prior to the pandemic, college students exhibited higher rates of food insecurity than nonstudent households. The objectives of this study were to assess the prevalence and determinants of food insecurity among college students during the COVID-19 pandemic. We administered an online survey to 651 students on three diverse campuses at a state-funded university in Texas, US, in May 2020. Food security was assessed using a multistep approach that included the 2-item Food Sufficiency Screener and 6-Item USDA Food Security Survey Module (FSSM). Overall, 34.5% of respondents were classified as food insecure within the last 30 days. The strongest predictors of food insecurity were change in current living arrangement (OR = 2.70, 95% CI: 2.47, 2.95), being furloughed (OR = 3.22, 95% CI: 2.86, 3.64), laid off (OR = 4.07, 95% CI: 3.55, 4.66), or losing part-time work (OR = 5.73, 95% CI: 5.09, 6.46) due to the COVID-19 pandemic. These findings highlight the high prevalence of food insecurity among college students during the COVID-19 pandemic, with students who experienced housing insecurity and/or loss of income due to the pandemic being impacted the most.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/economia , Abastecimento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias/economia , Pneumonia Viral/economia , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Feminino , Humanos , Renda/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Prevalência , Texas/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
19.
Pediatrics ; 146(3)2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32753371

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Although clinical settings are increasingly screening for social determinants of health, essential questions about optimal screening remain. We aimed to assess primary care contexts of individuals choosing not to answer questions about health-related social needs and to compare screening question response with subsequent use of resource information. METHODS: We compared caregiver responses to an electronic survey administered during a child's emergency department visit and through telephone follow-up 2 weeks later by responses to questions about health-related social needs (no social needs endorsed, ≥1 endorsed, none endorsed but ≥1 question not answered). RESULTS: Of 146 respondents, 42 (29%) endorsed ≥1 health-related social need. Additionally, 19 (13%) endorsed no social needs but did not answer ≥1 question. Compared with those denying all social needs and those endorsing ≥1 social need, respondents who did not answer social needs screening questions reported longer duration since their child's last primary care visit, lower perceptions of primary care, and less social support. For the 61 respondents participating in the 2-week follow-up survey, reported use of a community resource packet was 37% among those who had reported a social need, 26% among those who had denied all social needs, and 0% among those who had not answered ≥1 social needs questions. CONCLUSIONS: Clinicians and systems implementing screening for health-related social risks should plan for individuals who choose not to respond to specific items and may also wish to consider strategies that do not rely on screening and disclosure, particularly in communities known to have high prevalence of social needs.


Assuntos
Acesso à Informação , Cuidadores/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Cuidadores/psicologia , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Seguimentos , Abastecimento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Recursos em Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos , Comportamento de Busca de Informação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Apoio Social , Transportes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
20.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2020-08-21. (PAHO/NMH/RF/20-0031).
em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52594

RESUMO

The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) organized and implemented a two-day Regional workshop on regulatory mechanisms to eliminate industrially produced trans-fatty acids from the food supply in the Region of the Americas to help countries identify key elements to include in policies to eliminate industrially produced trans-fatty acids (IP-TFA). The specific objectives of the workshop were to present a range of existing regulatory pathways to eliminate IP-TFAs and discuss their effectiveness, consider policy options for their elimination, and draft roadmaps to guide policy development. Government officials from Bolivia, Colombia, Costa Rica, Guyana, Jamaica, Mexico, Paraguay, and Peru participated in the meeting. Other participants included representatives of the Brazilian Association of Nutrition (ASBRAN), CARICOM’s Regional Organization for Standards and Quality (CROSQ), the Institute of Nutrition of Central America and Panama (INCAP), Global Health Advocacy Incubator (GHAI), NCD Alliance, PAHO’s sub-regional offices, Resolve to Save Lives (RTSL, an initiative of Vital Strategies), and Salud Justa-Mexico, as well as the author of Peru’s Law 30021 on the elimination of IP-TFA in the country. The first day of the workshop provided the necessary technical information to design an IP-TFA elimination policy, while the second day focused on key elements of policy implementation, monitoring, and enforcement. Both days included technical presentations, discussions using the fishbowl conversation dynamic, participant presentations, plenary sessions, and development of roadmaps by government officials. Materials prepared for the workshop included: a pre-workshop assignment for government officials, discussion questions for the fishbowl exercise, and questions to guide roadmap exercises, related to policy design, implementation, monitoring, and enforcement.


Assuntos
Abastecimento de Alimentos , Indústria de Processamento de Alimentos , Ácidos Graxos Trans
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