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1.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0272618, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36103509

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Child undernutrition is a challenge in Ethiopia, where morbidity and mortality among children are attributed to it. This study aimed to describe the dietary practices, household food insecurity, and nutritional status of young children in Dale district, Sidama region, southern Ethiopia. We discuss our findings in light of research from the same area 3 to 5 decades ago, and we analyze factors associated with linear growth of young children. METHOD: A community-based cross-sectional study design was employed. Children less than two years old and their primary caretakers (n = 903) were included in this study. Among whom 791 children were aged above six months and 742 children out of 791 provided a 24-hour dietary recall. Interviews capturing other dietary practices, food insecurity, socio-demographic characteristics, anthropometric measurements, and haemoglobin assessments were performed for all. The WHO Child Growth Standards were used to calculate anthropometric indices and to describe stunting (length-for-age z-score <-2). Haemoglobin measures below 11g/dl were defined as low haemoglobin levels (anaemia). Multilevel linear regression was used to identify factors associated with length-for-age z-scores. RESULT: The prevalence of stunting, wasting, and anaemia was 39.5%, 3.9%, and 61.7%, respectively. The majority of children (97%) ate cereals (maize) during the past 24 hours, and 79.6% of households use maize as the main food. Three fourth (75%) of the total households were food insecure ranging from mild to severe food insecurity. Boys were at higher risk of having lower length-for-age z-score than girls (ß -0.53; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): -0.78, -0.27). For each month the children grew older, length-for-age z-score decreased slightly (ß -0.06; -0.07, -0.04). Household food insecurity scores (ß -0.05; -0.08, -0.01) and children haemoglobin levels, (ß 0.21; 0.06, 0.35) were also associated with length-for-age z-score among young children. CONCLUSION: Linear growth failure (stunting) was prevalent among young children in the rural Sidama region and the majority of them were also anaemic. Older age, male sex, a lower haemoglobin level in children, and household food insecurity were risk factors of linear growth failure in young children. Maize seems to be the dominant food in this previously ensete dominated area; however, there have been minimal improvements in length-for-age z-score over decades. Strategies to ensure household's food access and improve the quality of child diets need to be implemented.


Assuntos
Anemia , Musaceae , Idoso , Anemia/complicações , Anemia/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Crescimento/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Estado Nutricional
2.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 15511, 2022 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36109660

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has posed a significant multifaceted threat to the global community. Ethiopia, as a Sub-Saharan African country, is suffering from chronic food insecurity, and the emergence of such a pandemic will exacerbate the situation. As a result, this study investigated the spatial variation of non-resilience to food insecurity, its relationship with COVID-19, and household coping strategies to become resilient in the long run among households in the East Gojjam Zone of Northwest Ethiopia. From September 22 to December 24, 2020, an agro-ecological-based cross-sectional study of 3532 households was conducted to assess the spatial distribution and associated factors of non-resilience to household food insecurity. The enumeration areas (EAs) and households were chosen using a multistage sampling technique. Data were gathered using a semi-structured questionnaire and checklist using an Android device loaded with an Open Data Kit (ODK) template. Binary logistic regression was used to identify the specific factors associated with household non-resilience to food insecurity. A thematic analysis was conducted to investigate the opportunities and challenges of resilience for household food insecurity. Nearly two-thirds (62.5%) of the households were farmers, 67.9% lived in rural areas, and nearly three-quarters (73.8%) earned less than or equal to ETB 2100 per month. Males headed more than four-fifths of the households (81.7%). We found that nearly two-thirds of the households (60.02%), 95% CI 58.40, 61.64) were food insecure. After bivariate logistic regression, we found that households who were divorced (AOR = 2.54 (1.65, 3.87)), daily laborers (AOR = 2.37 (1.15, 4.87)), government employees (AOR = 2.06 (1.05, 4.05)), residents of highland and hot areas (AOR = 11.5 (5.37, 16.77)) and lowland areas (AOR = 1.35 (1.02, 3.15)) were frustrated by COVID-19 (AOR = 1.23 (1.02, 1.50)) and price inflation (1.89 (AOR = 1.42, 2.56))) were at higher odds of being non-resilient to household food insecurity at a 95% confidence level. Geospatial hot spot analysis revealed that Kurar kebele (the lowest government administrative unit) in Dejen District and Debre Markos town were the red-hotspot areas of household non-resilience to food insecurity. Less than a quarter of the households attempted to cope with food insecurity by adjusting their food consumption, while more than 60% of the households chose none of the coping strategies tested. According to the thematic analysis, the degree of poverty (lack of asset ownership), the COVID-19 pandemic, farm decreased variety, and low crop productivity were identified as challenges to coping with the hardship of resilience to food insecurity. During the COVID-19 pandemic and public emergency, the proportion of households that were unprepared for food insecurity reached its peak. It was recognized that a segment of the population with low economic capacity was more vulnerable to food insecurity and less resilient. Tough developmental gains will be undermined in this case. As a result, each responsible body and stakeholder should develop and implement solid corrective plans for the local context.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Adaptação Psicológica , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Características da Família , Insegurança Alimentar , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Fatores Socioeconômicos
3.
J Nutr Sci ; 11: e68, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36106091

RESUMO

The present study aimed to assess the prevalence of food insecurity (FI) among college students and explore its association with indicators of mental and psychosocial health. Data were collected using a cross-sectional online survey from college students in different universities in Lebanon during the Spring 2021 semester. FI was assessed using the validated eight-item food insecurity experience scale. The mental health of college students was assessed using validated screening tools for depression, anxiety and well-being, namely the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), the General Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7) and the World Health Organization (WHO-5) index, respectively. Multiple linear regression models were conducted to assess the relationship of FI with PHQ-9, GAD-7 and WHO-5 scores. A total of 745 students completed the online survey. Approximately 39 % of students in the sample were experiencing FI of which 27·4, 8·1, and 3·5 % were experiencing mild, moderate and severe FI , respectively. Low maternal education, low household monthly income and high levels of stress were significant correlates of FI among college students (P-trend < 0·001). In addition, 22·6 and 34·4 % of students showed severe symptoms of depression and anxiety, respectively. Regression models showed that FI was associated with higher scores on PHQ-9 and GAD-7 (ß = 2·45; 95 % CI [1·41, 3·49]) and (ß = 1·4; 95 % CI [1·1, 2·2], respectively) and lower scores on WHO-5 (ß = -4·84; 95 % CI [-8·2, -1·5]). In conclusion, a remarkable proportion of college students reported experiencing different forms of FI, which was associated with poorer mental health and well-being outcomes. Public health programmes and interventions are needed to mitigate FI and improve student health-related outcomes.


Assuntos
Abastecimento de Alimentos , Saúde Mental , Estudos Transversais , Insegurança Alimentar , Humanos , Líbano/epidemiologia , Estudantes/psicologia
5.
Cad Saude Publica ; 38(8): e00252121, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36102381

RESUMO

This study explores the gender differences in the use of coping strategies to reduce food insecurity in Colombian urban and rural households. Data was collected from the Colombian National Survey of Nutritional Status (ENSIN 2015), and analyzed using ordinal logistic regression models, logistic models, and simultaneous equation models. Results show that rural households have a higher prevalence of food insecurity than their urban counterparts. After adjusting for household characteristics - e.g., head of household schooling level -, urban households were more likely to present severe and moderate food insecurity, whereas rural households were more likely to experience mild food insecurity. This result was explained by self-consumption and certain coping strategies, such as selling seeds from the next harvest or animals, implemented by rural households. Even though female-headed households present on average higher levels of food insecurity than male-headed ones, because they are more likely to use coping strategies, especially in rural areas, they can reduce and even cancel out this gap. Hence, female heads are more successful in mitigating food insecurity.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Animais , Brasil , Colômbia , Feminino , Insegurança Alimentar , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36078257

RESUMO

Despite increasing rates of food insecurity in high income countries, food insecurity and its related factors are inconsistently and inadequately assessed, especially among households with young children (0-6 years) and pregnant women. To fill this gap, researchers from the U.S. and Australia collaborated to develop a comprehensive household food security tool that includes the known determinants and outcomes of food insecurity among parents of young children and pregnant women. A five-stage mixed methods approach, including a scoping literature review, key informant interviews, establishing key measurement constructs, identifying items and scales to include, and conducting cognitive interviews, was taken to iteratively develop this new comprehensive tool. The resulting 78-item tool includes the four dimensions of food security (access, availability, utilization, and stability) along with known risk factors (economic, health, and social) and outcomes (mental and physical health and diet quality). The aim of this novel tool is to comprehensively characterize and assess the severity of determinants and outcomes of food insecurity experienced by households with young children and pregnant women.


Assuntos
Abastecimento de Alimentos , Gestantes , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Países Desenvolvidos , Feminino , Segurança Alimentar , Humanos , Renda , Gravidez
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36078356

RESUMO

Children living in food-insecure households have poorer overall health than children in food-secure households. While U.S. nutrition assistance programs provide resources, these cannot consistently offer age-appropriate nutritional foods for young children. This study aimed to determine community stakeholders' perceptions of the barriers and facilitators to obtaining adequate, high-quality, and age-appropriate foods for children ages 0-3 in Florida before and during COVID-19. Community stakeholders (n = 32) participated in a 60 min interview via Zoom using a semi-structured script based on the PRECEDE component of the PRECEDE-PROCEED model. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and coded by two researchers using a thematic analysis approach. Stakeholders' perceptions revealed a lack of awareness surrounding eligibility for assistance programs, a lack of knowledge regarding how to obtain resources and services, and stigma associated with receiving benefits. These remained significant barriers to obtaining healthful foods for households with young children before and during COVID-19. Nonetheless, barriers were exacerbated during the pandemic. Unemployment rates rose, intensifying these households' financial hardships and food insecurity levels. Likewise, stakeholders suggested the need for families to become more aware of federal assistance eligibility requirements and available opportunities via social media and referrals. Identifying risk factors associated with food insecurity can inform future interventions to safeguard young children's health and well-being.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Assistência Alimentar , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Características da Família , Segurança Alimentar , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Estado Nutricional
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36078442

RESUMO

This qualitative study aimed to elicit the perspectives of individuals with food insecurity (FI) who were enrolled in a Fresh Food Prescription (FFRx) delivery program through a collaboration between an academic medical center and multiple community partners in the southeastern United States. Semi-structured interviews and open-ended survey responses explored the experiences of participants enrolled in a FFRx delivery program during the COVID-19 pandemic. The interviews probed the shopping habits, food security, experience, and impact of the program on nutrition, health, and well-being; the surveys explored the perceptions of and satisfaction with the program. A coding scheme was developed inductively, and a thematic analysis was conducted on raw narrative data using Atlas.ti 8.4 to sort and manage the data. The themes included that the program promoted healthy dietary habits, improved access to high-quality foods, improved well-being, enhanced financial well-being, and alleviated logistical barriers to accessing food and cooking. Participants provided suggestions for FFRx improvement. Future studies may facilitate improved clinical-community partnerships to address FI.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Insegurança Alimentar , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Humanos , Pandemias , Prescrições
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36078510

RESUMO

The Retail Food Environment Index (RFEI) and its variants have been widely used in public health to measure people's accessibility to healthy food. These indices are purely environmental as they only concern the geographic distribution of food retailers, but fail to include human factors, such as demographics, socio-economy, and mobility, which also shape the food environment. The exclusion of human factors limits the explanatory power of RFEIs in identifying neighborhoods of the greatest concern. In this study, we first proposed a hybrid approach to integrate human and environmental factors into the RFEI. We then demonstrated this approach by incorporating neighborhood commuting patterns into a traditional RFEI: we devised a multi-origin RFEI (MO_RFEI) that allows people to access food from both homes and workplaces, and further an enhanced RFEI (eRFEI) that allows people to access food with different transportation modes. We compared the traditional and proposed RFEIs in a case study of Florida, USA, and found that the eRFEI identified fewer and more clustered underserved populations, allowing policymakers to intervene more effectively. The eRFEI depicts more realistic human shopping behaviors and better represents the food environment. Our study enriches the literature by offering a new and generic approach for assimilating a neighborhood context into food environment measures.


Assuntos
Comércio , Características de Residência , Alimentos , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Humanos , Meios de Transporte
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36078726

RESUMO

People with low incomes suffer disproportionately from diet-related chronic diseases and may have fewer resources to manage their diseases. The "food as medicine" movement encourages healthcare systems to address these inequities while controlling escalating healthcare costs by integrating interventions such as produce prescriptions, in which healthcare providers distribute benefits for fruit and vegetable purchases. The purpose of this study was to identify perceived facilitators and barriers for designing and implementing produce prescriptions within the healthcare system. Nineteen semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with experts, and interviews were analyzed using thematic analysis. Overall, interviewees perceived that produce prescriptions could impact patients' diets, food security, disease management, and engagement with the healthcare system, while reducing healthcare costs. Making produce prescriptions convenient to use for patients, while providing resources to program implementers and balancing the priorities of payers, will facilitate program implementation. Integrating produce prescriptions into the healthcare system is feasible but requires program administrators to address implementation barriers such as cost and align complex technology systems (i.e., electronic medical records and benefit/payment processing). Engaging patients, clinics, retailers, and payers in the design phase can improve patient experience with a produce-prescription program; enhance clinic and retail processes enrolling patients and redeeming benefits; and ensure payers can measure outcomes of interest.


Assuntos
Abastecimento de Alimentos , Verduras , Atenção à Saúde , Frutas , Humanos , Prescrições
11.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 19(1): 115, 2022 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36068538

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Food insecurity during the COVID-19 pandemic has been impacted by necessary public health restrictions. Tasmania, an island state south of the Australian mainland, recorded no community transmission of COVID-19 between May 2020 to November 2021 due to strong border restrictions. This study aimed to determine the changes in prevalence and sociodemographic predictors of food insecurity throughout the COVID-19 pandemic in Tasmania, Australia. METHODS: In May 2020 (survey 1: during lockdown), September 2020 (survey 2: eased restrictions) and May 2021 (survey 3: 1-year post-lockdown), cross-sectional, online surveys using convenience sampling methods determined food insecurity in Tasmanian adults using the USDA Household Food Security Survey Module: Six-Item Short Form, in addition to key sociodemographic questions. Crude and age-adjusted prevalence of food insecurity was calculated, and binary logistic regression determined at-risk groups and changes in prevalence over time. RESULTS: The age-adjusted prevalence of food insecurity was 27.9% during lockdown (n = 1168), 19.5% when restrictions had eased (n = 1097) and 22.6% 1-year post-lockdown (n = 1100). Young adults, Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander people, individuals with disabilities, families with dependents and temporary residents were at highest risk across all time points. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of food insecurity was higher than pre-pandemic levels across all three time points. Our results indicate the potential long-term impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on food security in Australia, where despite easing social distancing restrictions and a lack of COVID-19 transmission, the prevalence of food insecurity reduced, but did not recover to pre-pandemic levels 1-year following a lockdown.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Austrália/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Estudos Transversais , Insegurança Alimentar , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Humanos , Pandemias , Adulto Jovem
12.
Nephrol Nurs J ; 49(4): 351-358, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36054808

RESUMO

This project examined the effect of an educational intervention on blood pressure control among minority patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Adherence to a low-sodium diet is crucial for blood pressure control. It is also vital to assess food insecurity to improve diet adherence, especially among high-risk underrepresented populations. Participants were recruited from a public hospital renal clinic. Knowledge and food access was assessed using CKD and food insecurity questionnaires. Food frequency and 24-hour 3-day food diaries were completed and analyzed. Eighteen patients were enrolled (Black, non-Hispanic = 66.6%, Hispanic = 27.7%, uninsured = 33.3%, and Medicaid recipients = 27.7%). Eighty-nine percent of participants screened positive for food insecurity and received vouchers for healthy food from a food depository. Paired t tests showed statistically significant increase in knowledge (p < 0.00) and self-efficacy, and systolic blood pressure improved post-intervention. This study suggests that Black non-Hispanic and Hispanic patients with CKD have limited access to healthy food and consume higher sodium. Patient education, screening for food insecurity, and access to a food depository enhanced adherence to low sodium diet and improved blood pressure control.


Assuntos
Abastecimento de Alimentos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Pressão Sanguínea , Hispânico ou Latino , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
13.
Soc Sci Med ; 310: 115221, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36058113

RESUMO

Black and low-income neighborhoods tend to have higher concentrations of fast-food restaurants and low produce supply stores. Limited access to and consumption of nutrient-rich foods is associated with poor health outcomes. Given the realities of food access, many members within the Black communities grow food as a strategy of resistance to food apartheid, and for the healing and self-determination that agriculture offers. In this paper, we unpack the history of Black people, agriculture, and land in the United States. In addition to our brief historical review, we conduct a descriptive epidemiologic study of community food-growing spaces, food access, and neighborhood racial composition in present day Philadelphia. We leverage one of the few existing datasets that systematically documents community food-growing locations throughout a major US city. By applying spatial regression techniques, we use conditional autoregressive models to determine if there are spatial associations between Black neighborhoods, poverty, food access, and urban agriculture in Philadelphia. Fully adjusted spatial models showed significant associations between Black neighborhoods and urban agriculture (RR: 1.28, 95% CI = 1.03, 1.59) and poverty and urban agriculture (RR: 1.27, 95% CI = 1.1, 1.46). The association between low food access and the presence of urban agriculture was generally increased across neighborhoods with a higher proportion of Black residents. These results show that Philadelphia neighborhoods with higher populations of Black people and neighborhoods with lower incomes, on average, tend to have more community gardens and urban farms. While the garden data is non-temporal and non-causal, one possible explanation for these findings, in alignment with what Philadelphia growers have claimed, is that urban agriculture may be a manifestation of collective agency and community resistance in Black and low-income communities, particularly in neighborhoods with low food access.


Assuntos
Apartheid , Características de Residência , Alimentos , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Humanos , Philadelphia , Análise Espacial , Estados Unidos
14.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0274434, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36094921

RESUMO

In 2019, the estimated prevalence of food insecurity for Black non-Hispanic households was higher than the national average due to health disparities exacerbated by forms of racial discrimination. During the COVID-19 pandemic, Black households have experienced higher rates of food insecurity when compared to other populations in the United States. The primary objectives of this review were to identify which risk factors have been investigated for an association with food insecurity, describe how food insecurity is measured across studies that have evaluated this outcome among African Americans, and determine which dimensions of food security (food accessibility, availability, and utilization) are captured by risk factors studied by authors. Food insecurity related studies were identified through a search of Google Scholar, PubMed, CINAHL Plus, MEDLINE®, PsycINFO, Health Source: Nursing/Academic Edition, and Web of Science™ (Clarivate), on May 20, 2021. Eligible studies were primary research studies, with a concurrent comparison group, published in English between 1995 and 2021. Ninety-eight relevant studies were included for data charting with 37 unique measurement tools, 115 risk factors, and 93 possible consequences of food insecurity identified. Few studies examined factors linked to racial discrimination, behaviour, or risk factors that mapped to the food availability dimension of food security. Infrequently studied factors, such as lifetime racial discrimination, socioeconomic status (SES), and income insecurity need further investigation while frequently studied factors such as age, education, race/ethnicity, and gender need to be summarized using a systematic review approach so that risk factor impact can be better assessed. Risk factors linked to racial discrimination and food insecurity need to be better understood in order to minimize health disparities among African American adults during the COVID-19 pandemic and beyond.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos , COVID-19 , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Insegurança Alimentar , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Humanos , Pandemias , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
15.
Nutrients ; 14(17)2022 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36079736

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Current guidelines for the management of childhood wasting primarily focus on the provision of therapeutic foods and the treatment of medical complications. However, many children with wasting live in food-secure households, and multiple studies have demonstrated that the etiology of wasting is complex, including social, nutritional, and biological causes. We evaluated the contribution of household food insecurity, dietary diversity, and the consumption of specific food groups to the time to recovery from wasting after hospital discharge. METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis of the Childhood Acute Illness Network (CHAIN) cohort, a multicenter prospective study conducted in six low- or lower-middle-income countries. We included children aged 6-23 months with wasting (mid-upper arm circumference [MUAC] ≤ 12.5 cm) or kwashiorkor (bipedal edema) at the time of hospital discharge. The primary outcome was time to nutritional recovery, defined as a MUAC > 12.5 cm without edema. Using Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for age, sex, study site, HIV status, duration of hospitalization, enrollment MUAC, referral to a nutritional program, caregiver education, caregiver depression, the season of enrollment, residence, and household wealth status, we evaluated the role of reported food insecurity, dietary diversity, and specific food groups prior to hospitalization on time to recovery from wasting during the 6 months of posthospital discharge. FINDINGS: Of 1286 included children, most participants (806, 63%) came from food-insecure households, including 170 (13%) with severe food insecurity, and 664 (52%) participants had insufficient dietary diversity. The median time to recovery was 96 days (18/100 child-months (95% CI: 17.0, 19.0)). Moderate (aHR 1.17 [0.96, 1.43]) and severe food insecurity (aHR 1.14 [0.88, 1.48]), and insufficient dietary diversity (aHR 1.07 [0.91, 1.25]) were not significantly associated with time to recovery. Children who had consumed legumes and nuts prior to diagnosis had a quicker recovery than those who did not (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR): 1.21 [1.01,1.44]). Consumption of dairy products (aHR 1.13 [0.96, 1.34], p = 0.14) and meat (aHR 1.11 [0.93, 1.33]), p = 0.23) were not statistically significantly associated with time to recovery. Consumption of fruits and vegetables (aHR 0.78 [0.65,0.94]) and breastfeeding (aHR 0.84 [0.71, 0.99]) before diagnosis were associated with longer time to recovery. CONCLUSION: Among wasted children discharged from hospital and managed in compliance with wasting guidelines, food insecurity and dietary diversity were not major determinants of recovery.


Assuntos
Criança Hospitalizada , Abastecimento de Alimentos , África ao Sul do Saara , Ásia , Criança , Insegurança Alimentar , Humanos , Lactente , Estudos Prospectivos , Verduras
16.
Nutrients ; 14(17)2022 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36079761

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Due to Russia and Ukraine's key roles in supplying cereals and oilseeds, the Russia-Ukraine war intensifies the current food availability and price challenges in Lebanon, which is a major wheat importer. Given these constraints, we conducted this study to assess the prevalence and correlates of food insecurity, low dietary diversity (DD), unhealthy dietary patterns, and the shifts in households' food-related habits in response to the Russia-Ukraine war among a representative sample of Lebanese household's members aged 18 years and above (N = 914). METHODS: Data were collected between June and July 2022 using self-administered questionnaires; Results: Findings showed that nearly half of the households consume an undiversified diet (46%), and 55.3% ate fewer than two meals per day. The prevalence of food insecurity among Lebanese households was 74%, with one in every four households being severely food insecure. In addition, the majority of households' members went out shopping and purchased food less than the pre-war period (68.7% and 70.3%, respectively). Furthermore, almost 68.3% of households' members highlighted price increases for cereal products, which were the least available and most stocked items. Findings obtained through binary logistic regression also showed that food insecurity was two times higher among households with low monthly income, 35% higher among females, and three times higher among married participants; Conclusions: The impact of the Russia-Ukraine conflict on food security in Lebanon requires a systems-thinking approach as well as international effort to understand the challenges and find solutions to minimize the war's negative effects.


Assuntos
Dieta , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Insegurança Alimentar , Humanos , Líbano/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Ucrânia
17.
Nutrients ; 14(17)2022 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36079776

RESUMO

Food insecurity has emerged as a leading health care problem in the United States, impacting college students' health, well-being, and academic performance. The aims of this study were: (1) to assess the prevalence of food insecurity, (2) to identify college students' perceptions about food access resources, and (3) to explore students' expressed needs from the university in improving food security status. A mixed-methods approach was used to assess the quantitative and qualitative aspects of the study aims. An online survey to gather demographic information and assess food security status using the 6-item version of the US Household Food Security Scale Module (HFSSM) was administered. Next, qualitative focus groups with subsets of participants was conducted to gain further insight into the perceptions, coping mechanisms, and resource utilization issues related to food insecurity. This study found 34.1% of undergraduate college students to be food insecure and demonstrates that students with a meal plan are less likely to be food insecure (p = 0.012; OR = 0.68; 95% CI = 0.489, 0.918). Qualitative data identified key influencers of food insecurity: (1) personal beliefs, (2) life skills, and (3) the university. The results of this study contribute to the literature focused on food insecurity prevalence in college students and presents insight from the college student perspective. Findings may support the development of relevant interventions that are congruent with students' needs, enhancing resource utilization to increase food security status among college students.


Assuntos
Abastecimento de Alimentos , Estudantes , Insegurança Alimentar , Humanos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos , Universidades
18.
Nutrients ; 14(17)2022 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36079826

RESUMO

Qualitative studies suggest that college students with food insecurity (FI) experience stigma and misinterpret some of the USDA Adult Food Security Survey Module (AFSSM) questions, leading to misclassification of food security (FS) status. We aimed to evaluate differences in AFSSM-measured FS status and self-categorized FS status (based on USDA descriptions of the four FS levels) among college students, and to identify differences in the coping strategies and BMI of these students. Data were collected cross-sectionally from a convenience sample via web-based, self-reported surveys. Measured FS, self-categorized FS, coping strategies, and self-reported BMI were key variables of interest. Participants were 1003 undergraduate and graduate students (22.2 ± 4.6 years; 65.7% female). Of the participants measured as food insecure (40.0%), 57.8% self-categorized as food secure (MFI-SFS) and 42.2% self-categorized as food insecure (MFI-SFI). Significantly more MFI-SFI participants were AFSSM-categorized as having very low FS when compared to MFI-SFS participants (71.6% vs. 46.6%, p < 0.05). MFI-SFI participants reported significantly higher BMI (M = 24.7, SD ± 6.0 kg/m2) and coping strategies scores (M = 49.8, SD ± 7.5) when compared to MFI-SFS participants (M = 23.1, SD ± 3.6 kg/m2; M = 46.9, SD ± 7.5, respectively, p ≤ 0.01). Assessment of and interventions to address FI among college students should consider the potential influence of self-perception and students' interpretation of survey questions.


Assuntos
Abastecimento de Alimentos , Estudantes , Adaptação Psicológica , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Segurança Alimentar , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Universidades
19.
Nutrients ; 14(17)2022 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36079839

RESUMO

The insurgence of the COVID-19 pandemic has demonstrated that no country or region was prepared to face such a devastating emergency, nor have researchers uncovered permanent solutions to solve this everlasting crisis thus far [...].


Assuntos
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Insegurança Alimentar , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Humanos , Pandemias
20.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0273241, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36129850

RESUMO

Food security in ancient urban centers is often discussed but rarely formally modelled. Despite its location in an inhospitable desert where food production is a constant challenge ancient Palmyra grew from a small oasis settlement in to a major geopolitical player. Here, we present a spatially explicit reconstruction of the land use and agricultural yield expectations of its hinterland determining the maximum feasible population of the city. Coupling the hinterland carrying capacity model with palaeoclimatic data allowed us to track changes in the food security of the city in the face of changing climate. While initially the hinterland could provide ample food resources for the small settlement with time the deteriorating climate conditions after the Roman Optimum (100 BCE-200 CE) collided with rapidly growing population of the city. The nexus of these two processes fall at mid third century-a period of profound changes in the structure of Palmyrene society, its geopolitical situation and its historical trajectory. The results point to increasingly precarious subsistence levels as a likely factor behind rapid militarization, shift towards an autocratic regime and military expansion of the city in the late third century CE. As a well-established causal mechanism in many modern conflicts and crises, food security is also a potential causal factor behind historical events, if a hard one to prove due to the difficulty of identifying relevant data patterns. The methods presented establishes a robust research pipeline that can be used on other ancient urban centers, contributing to the construction of an empirically supported model of how food security shaped human history, past and present.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Cidades , Segurança Alimentar , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Humanos , Síria
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