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1.
Waste Manag ; 101: 161-170, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31610477

RESUMO

Food losses and waste are a global problem, with an estimated 1.3 billion tons lost annually. In Brazil, fruit and vegetable losses amount to approximately 30% and occur in the processing, handling and storage stages. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the post-harvest losses of fruits and vegetables in the Central Supply (CEASA) of Salvador, Brazil, its determinants and potential solutions to minimize the problem. A cross-sectional, descriptive and quantitative study was carried out in which data were collected by observing the operation of the supply units, registration in a field notebook, and administering a questionnaire to sellers that covered four main dimensions: socioeconomic profile of vendors; hygienic-sanitary conditions; characteristics of acquisition, storage and commercialization of products; and measures used by sellers to reduce losses. Many inadequacies were found, including the transportation and reception of products and their commercialization. Regarding hygiene, there were flaws in the care of the environment, the products and the food handlers. At most sites (75%), there were problems with infrastructure. The loss was estimated to be on the order of 9.5 tonnes/week, especially bananas, papayas, tomatoes, peppers and lettuce. The main causes of loss were exceeding volume in purchases, storage without refrigeration and careless handling by consumers and vendors. Strategies to reduce losses included price reduction, donation practices and consumption by sellers. The study indicates the need for improvements both in the infrastructure and in the hygienic care, management and post-harvest conservation of the fruits and vegetables.


Assuntos
Frutas , Verduras , Brasil , Comércio , Estudos Transversais , Abastecimento de Alimentos
2.
Sci Total Environ ; 698: 133999, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31499345

RESUMO

When water and solutes enter the plant root through the epidermis, organic contaminants in solution either cross the root membranes and transport through the vascular pathways to the aerial tissues or accumulate in the plant roots. The accumulation of contaminants in plant roots and edible tissues is measured by root concentration factor (RCF) and fruit concentration factor (FCF). In this paper, 1) a neural network (NN) was applied to model RCF based on physicochemical properties of organic compounds, 2) correlation and significance of physicochemical properties were assessed using statistical analysis, 3) fuzzy logic was used to examine the simultaneous impacts of significant compound properties on RCF and FCF, 4) a clustering algorithm (k-means) was used to identify unique groups and discover hidden relationships within contaminants in various parts of the plants. The physicochemical cutoffs achieved by fuzzy logic for the RCF and the FCF were compared versus the cutoffs for compounds that crossed the plant root membranes and found their way into transpiration stream (measured by transpiration stream concentration factor, TSCF). The NN predicted the RCF with improved accuracy compared to mechanistic models. The analysis indicated that log Kow, molecular weight, and rotatable bonds are the most important properties for predicting the RCF. These significant compound properties are positively correlated with RCF while they are negatively correlated with TSCF. Comparing the relationships between compound properties in various plant tissues showed that compounds detected in the edible parts have physicochemical cutoffs that are more like the compounds crossing the plant root membranes (into xylem tissues) than the compounds accumulating in the plant roots, with clear relationships to food security. The cluster analysis placed the contaminants into three meaningful groups that were in agreement with the results of fuzzy logic.


Assuntos
Abastecimento de Alimentos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Plantas/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Análise por Conglomerados , Lógica Fuzzy , Xilema
3.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 24(1): 68, 2019 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31785611

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Food safety in the food market is one of the key areas of focus in public health, because it affects people of every age, race, gender, and income level around the world. The local and international food marketing continues to have significant impacts on food safety and health of the public. Food supply chains now cross multiple national borders which increase the internationalization of health risks. This systematic review of literature was, therefore, conducted to identify common public health risks related to food safety issues in the food market. METHODS: All published and unpublished quantitative, qualitative, and mixed method studies were searched from electronic databases using a three step searching. Analytical framework was developed using the PICo (population, phenomena of interest, and context) method. The methodological quality of the included studies was assessed using mixed methods appraisal tool (MMAT) version 2018. The included full-text articles were qualitatively analyzed using emergent thematic analysis approach to identify key concepts and coded them into related non-mutually exclusive themes. We then synthesized each theme by comparing the discussion and conclusion of the included articles. Emergent themes were identified based on meticulous and systematic reading. Coding and interpreting the data were refined during analysis. RESULTS: The analysis of 81 full-text articles resulted in seven common public health risks related with food safety in the food market. Microbial contamination of foods, chemical contamination of foods, food adulteration, misuse of food additives, mislabeling, genetically modified foods (GM foods), and outdated foods or foods past their use-by dates were the identified food safety-related public health risks in the food market. CONCLUSION: This systematic literature review identified common food safety-related public health risks in the food market. The results imply that the local and international food marketing continues to have significant impacts on health of the public. The food market increases internationalization of health risks as the food supply chains cross multiple national borders. Therefore, effective national risk-based food control systems are essential to protect the health and safety of the public. Countries need also assure the safety and quality of their foods entering international trade and ensure that imported foods conform to national requirements.


Assuntos
Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Saúde Pública , Qualidade de Produtos para o Consumidor , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Fatores de Risco , Gestão de Riscos
4.
J Dent Hyg ; 93(6): 42-50, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31882560

RESUMO

Purpose. To determine the association of eating competence and Mediterranean diet adherence with oral health and to examine if they lessen any impact of food insecurity on oral health of SNAP-eligible persons.Methods. Free clinic patrons (n=93) in Pennsylvania evaluated oral health nutrition education via an online survey. The Satter Eating Competence Inventory, Mediterranean diet and USDA Food Security scores were compared to tested measures of oral health as assessed by self-report.Results. Respondents noted food insecurity (33%), food selection (32%), and oral health problems that interfered with life satisfaction (30%), and unafforded dental care (60%). Mediterranean diet adherence was associated with annual dental visits (82% vs. 46%, p=.026). Competent eaters had greater food security and less frequently reported oral health issues interfering with life satisfaction (13% vs. 43%; p=.002) or avoiding particular foods (18% vs 45%; p=.006). These relationships remained significant controlling for low-income (p=.008, p=.006 respectively) but not when controlling for food security.Conclusions. Competent eaters had fewer oral health issues except when controlling for food security, a considerable challenge to oral health.


Assuntos
Assistência Alimentar , Estudos Transversais , Dieta , Alimentos , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Humanos , Saúde Bucal , Pobreza
6.
Nature ; 575(7781): 109-118, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31695205

RESUMO

The current trajectory for crop yields is insufficient to nourish the world's population by 20501. Greater and more consistent crop production must be achieved against a backdrop of climatic stress that limits yields, owing to shifts in pests and pathogens, precipitation, heat-waves and other weather extremes. Here we consider the potential of plant sciences to address post-Green Revolution challenges in agriculture and explore emerging strategies for enhancing sustainable crop production and resilience in a changing climate. Accelerated crop improvement must leverage naturally evolved traits and transformative engineering driven by mechanistic understanding, to yield the resilient production systems that are needed to ensure future harvests.


Assuntos
Produção Agrícola/métodos , Produção Agrícola/estatística & dados numéricos , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Abastecimento de Alimentos/métodos , Abastecimento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Aquecimento Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Desenvolvimento Sustentável/tendências , Aclimatação/genética , Aclimatação/fisiologia , Animais , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Produtos Agrícolas/microbiologia , Produtos Agrícolas/virologia , Fertilizantes , Humanos , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Doenças das Plantas/estatística & dados numéricos , Chuva
7.
Nature ; 575(7781): 98-108, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31695208

RESUMO

Much of the Earth's biosphere has been appropriated for the production of harvestable biomass in the form of food, fuel and fibre. Here we show that the simplification and intensification of these systems and their growing connection to international markets has yielded a global production ecosystem that is homogenous, highly connected and characterized by weakened internal feedbacks. We argue that these features converge to yield high and predictable supplies of biomass in the short term, but create conditions for novel and pervasive risks to emerge and interact in the longer term. Steering the global production ecosystem towards a sustainable trajectory will require the redirection of finance, increased transparency and traceability in supply chains, and the participation of a multitude of players, including integrated 'keystone actors' such as multinational corporations.


Assuntos
Biomassa , Ecossistema , Fontes Geradoras de Energia , Retroalimentação , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Atividades Humanas , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Agricultura/economia , Animais , Comércio/economia , Fontes Geradoras de Energia/economia , Abastecimento de Alimentos/economia , Agricultura Florestal , Água Subterrânea/análise , Atividades Humanas/economia , Humanos , Desenvolvimento Sustentável/economia
8.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(33): 34448-34458, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31637612

RESUMO

In the present (twenty-first) century, the pertinent challenge of attaining the regime of food security with low pollution amidst the drive for sustainable economy and energy efficiency is core to governance and intergovernmental agencies. Therefore, in an attempt to investigate environmental issues among the coastline Mediterranean countries (CMCs) for the first time, the current study examines the dynamic long-run nexus of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions with food production and inflation rate over the annual period 1995-2014. Using a dynamic Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) approach, the consumption of renewable energy in the panel of sixteen (16) CMCs is empirically observed to be an efficient policy vehicle for mitigating CO2 emissions. Also, in all the examined CMCs, consumption of renewables is observed to cause significant decline in CO2 emissions, thus securing a sustainable environment. However, in the long run and in the panel of CMCs, the study reveals that increase in food production (a drive toward food security) increases environmental risk. Additionally, the study found that high inflation regime in the panel CMCs is associated with low CO2 emissions especially in the long-run, thus necessitating efficient policy mechanism. In adopting the genetic resources of the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources, as well as employing price control policy, the members of the CMCs might have unearthed a suitable policy directive in effectively sustaining environmental quality.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Econômico , Poluição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Energia Renovável , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Alimentos , Região do Mediterrâneo
9.
Rev Saude Publica ; 53: 91, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31644722

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To develop and assess the reliability of an instrument that enables auditing information on consumer food environment indicators, such as availability, price, promotional and advertising strategies, and quantity of brands available, using the food recommendations adopted by the Dietary Guidelines for the Brazilian Population as a theoretical basis. METHODS: This is a methodological study in two phases: 1. development of the audit instrument and 2. assessment of its reliability and reproducibility . The Content Validity Index was estimated for each instrument item (>0.80 satisfactory). Inter-rater and test-retest reliability were assessed by percentage agreement and Kappa coefficients. Pearson's correlation coefficient and Scatter-plots were used to measure the degree of linear correlation between two quantitative variables. RESULTS: The Content Validity Index was 0.91. Inter-rater and test-retest reliability were mostly high (Kappa> 0.80), for food availability indicators. Among the items that measure advertising, Kappa values for inter-rater reliability ranged from 0.57 to 1.00 and for the test-retest ranged from 0.18 to 0.90. Prices and quantity of brands showed a positive linear correlation between measurements performed by researcher 1 and 2 and between visits 1 and 2. CONCLUSIONS: AUDITNOVA is reliable for measuring aspects such as availability, price, quantity of brands, and advertising of foods available in the consumer food environment.


Assuntos
Comércio/estatística & dados numéricos , Abastecimento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , /estatística & dados numéricos , Brasil , Abastecimento de Alimentos/normas , Humanos , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Valores de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
10.
Rev Saude Publica ; 53: 93, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31644772

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the potential support of schools for oral health promotion and associated factors in Brazilian capitals. METHODS: Data from 1,339 public and private schools of the 27 Brazilian capitals were obtained from the National Survey of School Health (PeNSE) 2015. Data from the capitals were obtained from the United Nations Development Program and the Department of Informatics of the Brazilian Unified Health System (Datasus). The indicator " ambiente escolar promotor de saúde bucal " (AEPSB - oral health promoting school environment) was designed from 21 variables of the school environment with possible influence on students' oral health employing the categorical principal components analysis (CATPCA). Associations between the AEPSB and characteristics of schools, capitals and regions were tested (bivariate analysis). RESULTS: Ten variables comprised CAPTCA, after excluding those with low correlation or high multicollinearity. The analysis resulted in a model with three dimensions: D1. Within-school aspects (sales of food with added sugar in the canteen and health promotion actions), D2. Aspects of the area around the school (sales of food with added sugar in alternative points) and D3. prohibitive policies at school (prohibition of alcohol and tobacco consumption). The sum of the scores of the dimensions generated the AEPSB indicator, dichotomized by the median. From the total of schools studied, 51.2% (95%CI 48.5-53.8) presented a more favorable environment for oral health (higher AEPSB). In the capitals, this percentage ranged from 36.6% (95%CI 23.4-52.2) in Rio Branco to 80.4% (95%CI 67.2-89.1) in Florianópolis. Among the Brazilian regions, it ranged from 45.5% (95%CI 40.0-51.2) in the North to 67.6% (95%CI 59.4-74.9) in the South. Higher percentages of schools with higher AEPSB were found in public schools [58.1% (95%CI 54.9-61.2)] and in capitals and regions with higher Human Development Index [61.0% (95%IC 55.8-66.0) and 57.4% (95%CI 53.2-61.4), respectively] and lower Gini index [55.7% (95%CI 51.2-60.0) and 52.8 (95%CI 49.8-55.8), respectively]. CONCLUSIONS: The potential to support oral health promotion in schools in Brazilian capitals, assessed by the AEPSB indicator, was associated with contextual factors of schools, capitals and Brazilian regions.


Assuntos
Inquéritos de Saúde Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Saúde Escolar/estatística & dados numéricos , Meio Social , Adolescente , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Abastecimento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Geografia , Humanos , Masculino , Valores de Referência , Fatores de Risco , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Análise Espacial
11.
Int J Public Health ; 64(8): 1215-1222, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31598744

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the association between household food insecurity (FI) and the presence of anaemia among Mexican children who were between 12 and 59 months old, and to determine whether this association differs by geographical regions. METHODS: We analysed 7468 children of ages between 12 and 59 months, based on data from the 2012 National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT 2012). Haemoglobin was measured in capillary blood. Household FI levels were defined according to the Latin American and Caribbean Food Security Scale. An ordinal logistic regression model was developed to assess the relationship between FI and anaemia. The interaction between geographical regions and FI was determined. RESULTS: The highest proportion of anaemia occurred in children with severe household FI (24.3%), compared to those from households with food security (21.2%). Children from severe FI households have a higher adjusted prevalence of anaemia than those from households with food security. FI and anaemia were associated mainly among children residing in the southern region of Mexico. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings can contribute to a better understanding of FI and anaemia in children and to strengthen interventions to address these problems.


Assuntos
Anemia/epidemiologia , Abastecimento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , México/epidemiologia , Prevalência
12.
Results Probl Cell Differ ; 68: 183-216, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31598857

RESUMO

All extant species are an outcome of nature's "experiments" during evolution, and hence multiple species need to be studied and compared to gain a thorough understanding of evolutionary processes. The field of evolutionary developmental biology (evo-devo) aspires to expand the number of species studied, because most functional genetic studies in animals have been limited to a small number of "traditional" model organisms, many of which belong to the same phylum (Chordata). The phylum Arthropoda, and particularly its component class Insecta, possesses many important characteristics that are considered favorable and attractive for evo-devo research, including an astonishing diversity of extant species and a wide disparity in body plans. The development of the most thoroughly investigated insect genetic model system to date, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster (a holometabolous insect), appears highly derived with respect to other insects and indeed with respect to most arthropods. In comparison, crickets (a basally branching hemimetabolous insect lineage compared to the Holometabola) are thought to embody many developmental features that make them more representative of insects. Here we focus on crickets as emerging models to study problems in a wide range of biological areas and summarize the currently available molecular, genomic, forward and reverse genetic, imaging and computational tool kit that has been established or adapted for cricket research. With an emphasis on the cricket species Gryllus bimaculatus, we highlight recent efforts made by the scientific community in establishing this species as a laboratory model for cellular biology and developmental genetics. This broad toolkit has the potential to accelerate many traditional areas of cricket research, including studies of adaptation, evolution, neuroethology, physiology, endocrinology, regeneration, and reproductive behavior. It may also help to establish newer areas, for example, the use of crickets as animal infection model systems and human food sources.


Assuntos
Gryllidae/genética , Gryllidae/fisiologia , Modelos Animais , Animais , Drosophila melanogaster , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Gryllidae/embriologia , Gryllidae/microbiologia
13.
Rev Sci Tech ; 38(1): 123-133, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31564735

RESUMO

In 2015, the United Nations General Assembly agreed upon 17 global Sustainable Development Goals. The first of these is: 'End poverty in all its forms everywhere'. The second is to: 'End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition, and promote sustainable agriculture'. Food safety is a global priority, since every global citizen has the right to have access to safe and nutritious food. Safe food contributes to people's health and productivity, as well as providing a strong foundation for development and poverty alleviation. Every year, numerous people are affected by foodborne illnesses in developed countries, while widespread illness is even more likely in developing countries. Among society's major concerns are the health risks posed by microbial pathogens and chemicals in food. A One Health approach is crucial to achieving the global goal of food safety and security for all and will improve health outcomes for every citizen.


Assuntos
Abastecimento de Alimentos , Saúde Única , Agricultura , Animais , Abastecimento de Alimentos/normas , Saúde Global , Humanos , Fome , Nações Unidas
15.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1282, 2019 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31604466

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Food insecurity (FI) - the lack of sufficient access to food to maintain a healthy lifestyle - among college (i.e. post-secondary or higher education institution) students has become a prominent issue in the U.S. However, it is not clear if high rates of FI among students are due to the modern experience in higher education institutions or due to underlying issues in common surveying methods. To understand if there were underlying content validity issues, the present study had two primary research questions: 1) How do students interpret the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food Security Survey Module (FSSM) questionnaire items, and 2) How do responses of students experiencing FI compare with the theorized experiences and coping responses? METHODS: Thirty-three undergraduate students, aged 18- to 24-years old and fluent in English were recruited from a single 4-year university. During a 60-min session, participants completed the 10-item Adult FSSM and then were cognitively interviewed about their responses using the think-aloud method. Interview transcripts were analysed by two researchers using a collaborative process and basic interpretative approach. RESULTS: Students were on average 19.5 years old (± 1.2 years), the majority were in their freshman or sophomore (i.e., first or second) year, and 67% (n = 22) experienced FI. Results indicated that students' interpretations of key terms - such as "money for more," "balanced meals," and "real hunger" - diverge from expectations. Furthermore, students categorized as food insecure reported experiences and responses to FI that varied from theoretical dimensions of the process. CONCLUSIONS: Though limited by sample size and representativeness, the present results indicate that the content validity of the FSSM may be compromised in this population and the managed process of FI may present differently among college students. Further psychometric research on modifications to the FSSM or with new FI assessment tools should be conducted with college students.


Assuntos
Abastecimento de Alimentos , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
16.
Prensa méd. argent ; 105(9 especial): 607-612, oct 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1046781

RESUMO

The organoleptic and physicochemical properties and safety indicators of phytobiotic fodder additives based on extracts of herbs growing on the territory of the Siberian Federal District have been studied in the article. It has been established that the organoleptic characteristics of the phytobiotic fodder additives are determined by the specifics of the raw materials and their processing. The following physicochemical parameters of the finished phytobiotic fodder additives have been determined: moisture content, insoluble substances content in water, content of metal-magnetic admixture (particles up to 2 mm inclusive, particles over 2 mm in size and with sharp edges), and mineral impurities. The following safety indicators of the finished phytobiotic fodder additives have also been determined: the content of toxic elements (lead, cadmium, mercury, arsenic), the content of dioxins, the content of polychlorinated biphenyls, dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls, toxicity in bioassay test, and microbiological indicators (Salmonella, in 25 g, enterococci, in 50 g, enteropathogenic E. coli, in 1 g, anaerobes, in 50 g, pathogenic Escherichia, in 50 g, yeast and mold (total), and total bacterial contamination). The amount of biologically active substances in phytobiotic fodder additives was determined in accordance with the pharmaceutical norms and regulations.


Assuntos
Humanos , Extratos Vegetais , Indicadores de Contaminação/prevenção & controle , Processos de Substâncias, Produtos e Materiais , Indicadores (Estatística) , Aditivos Alimentares , Abastecimento de Alimentos
17.
Nature ; 574(7776): 95-98, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31554969

RESUMO

Micronutrient deficiencies account for an estimated one million premature deaths annually, and for some nations can reduce gross domestic product1,2 by up to 11%, highlighting the need for food policies that focus on improving nutrition rather than simply increasing the volume of food produced3. People gain nutrients from a varied diet, although fish-which are a rich source of bioavailable micronutrients that are essential to human health4-are often overlooked. A lack of understanding of the nutrient composition of most fish5 and how nutrient yields vary among fisheries has hindered the policy shifts that are needed to effectively harness the potential of fisheries for food and nutrition security6. Here, using the concentration of 7 nutrients in more than 350 species of marine fish, we estimate how environmental and ecological traits predict nutrient content of marine finfish species. We use this predictive model to quantify the global spatial patterns of the concentrations of nutrients in marine fisheries and compare nutrient yields to the prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies in human populations. We find that species from tropical thermal regimes contain higher concentrations of calcium, iron and zinc; smaller species contain higher concentrations of calcium, iron and omega-3 fatty acids; and species from cold thermal regimes or those with a pelagic feeding pathway contain higher concentrations of omega-3 fatty acids. There is no relationship between nutrient concentrations and total fishery yield, highlighting that the nutrient quality of a fishery is determined by the species composition. For a number of countries in which nutrient intakes are inadequate, nutrients available in marine finfish catches exceed the dietary requirements for populations that live within 100 km of the coast, and a fraction of current landings could be particularly impactful for children under 5 years of age. Our analyses suggest that fish-based food strategies have the potential to substantially contribute to global food and nutrition security.


Assuntos
Pesqueiros , Peixes/metabolismo , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Internacionalidade , Micronutrientes/deficiência , Micronutrientes/metabolismo , Estado Nutricional , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Cálcio/análise , Pré-Escolar , Proteínas na Dieta/análise , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/análise , Produtos Pesqueiros/análise , Produtos Pesqueiros/economia , Pesqueiros/economia , Peixes/classificação , Humanos , Lactente , Ferro/análise , Micronutrientes/análise , Selênio/análise , Vitamina A/análise , Zinco/análise
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31514473

RESUMO

Women's land ownership plays a noteworthy role in improving various development indicators, including her own wellbeing and children's food and nutrition security. However, the literature linking women's access to land rights to the nutritional security of children in Pakistan is limited, even though it is a country facing enormous challenges of childhood malnutrition and gender discrimination. This paper contributes to the existing literature on the benefits of empowering women by studying the association and pathways between women's land rights and child nutrition, using the 2012-2013 Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey. The ordinary least squares (OLS) regression results indicate that women's individual land ownership and women's autonomy in large-scale family purchases have a positive impact on children's food and nutrition security (FNS). The results of quantile regression (QR) show that these effects are more pronounced in cases of children with severe stunted growth. In addition, a structural equation model shows that the positive relationship between women's land ownership and child nutrition is partially mediated by women's increased decision-making power in large-scale household purchases. Our research concludes that ensuring women's land rights can improve women's autonomy, which can be an effective policy tool that not only improves women's welfare but also improves their children's nutritional security.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Infantil , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Propriedade , Autonomia Pessoal , Direitos da Mulher , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Tomada de Decisões , Características da Família , Feminino , Alimentos , Transtornos do Crescimento/prevenção & controle , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Estado Nutricional , Paquistão
19.
J Food Sci ; 84(10): 2705-2718, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31546281

RESUMO

The food industry is advancing at a rapid pace and consumer sensitivity to food safety scares and food fraud scandals is further amplified by rapid communication such as by social media. Academia, regulators, and industry practitioners alike struggle with an evolving issue regarding new terms and definitions including food fraud, food authenticity, food integrity, food protection, economically motivated adulteration, food crime, food security, contaminant, adulterant, and others. This research addressed some of the global need for clarification and harmonization of commonly used terminology. The 150 survey responses were received from various food-related workgroups or committee members, communication with recognized experts, and announcements to the food industry in general. Overall food fraud was identified as a "food safety" issue (86%). The food quality and manufacturing respondents focused mainly on incoming goods and adulterant-substances (<50%) rather than the other illegal activities such as counterfeiting, theft, gray market/diversion, and smuggling. Of the terms included to represent "intentional deception for economic gain" the respondents generally agreed with food fraud as the preferred term. Overall, the preference was 50% "food fraud," 15% "economically motivated adulteration" EMA, 9% "food protection," 7% "food integrity," 5% "food authenticity," and 2% "food crime." It appears that "food protection" and "food integrity" are terms that cover broader concepts such as all types of intentional acts and even possibly food safety or food quality. "Food authenticity" was defined with the phrase "to ensure" so seemed to be identified as an "attribute" that helped define fraudulent acts. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Food Fraud-illegal deception for economic gain using food-is a rapidly evolving research topic and is facing confusion due to the use of different terms and definitions. This research survey presented common definitions and publication details to gain insight that could help provide clarity. The insight from this report provides guidance for others who are harmonizing terminology and setting the overall strategic direction.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos/legislação & jurisprudência , Fraude/legislação & jurisprudência , Terminologia como Assunto , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/economia , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Abastecimento de Alimentos/economia , Abastecimento de Alimentos/legislação & jurisprudência , Fraude/economia , Humanos
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31546670

RESUMO

Previous studies have suggested that European settings face unique food environment issues; however, retail food environments (RFE) outside Anglo-Saxon contexts remain understudied. We assessed the completeness and accuracy of an administrative dataset against ground truthing, using the example of Madrid (Spain). Further, we tested whether its completeness differed by its area-level socioeconomic status (SES) and population density. First, we collected data on the RFE through the ground truthing of 42 census tracts. Second, we retrieved data on the RFE from an administrative dataset covering the entire city (n = 2412 census tracts), and matched outlets using location matching and location/name matching. Third, we validated the administrative dataset against the gold standard of ground truthing. Using location matching, the administrative dataset had a high sensitivity (0.95; [95% CI = 0.89, 0.98]) and positive predictive values (PPV) (0.79; [95% CI = 0.70, 0.85]), while these values were substantially lower using location/name matching (0.55 and 0.45, respectively). Accuracy was slightly higher using location/name matching (k = 0.71 vs 0.62). We found some evidence for systematic differences in PPV by area-level SES using location matching, and in both sensitivity and PPV by population density using location/name matching. Administrative datasets may offer a reliable and cost-effective source to measure retail food access; however, their accuracy needs to be evaluated before using them for research purposes.


Assuntos
Comércio , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Características de Residência , Cidades , Coleta de Dados , Alimentos , Humanos , Classe Social , Espanha
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