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1.
Pan Afr Med J ; 35(Suppl 2): 142, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33193957

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic continues to cause uncertainty to Uganda's food security among underprivileged households. The Corona virus Response Team inaugurated a relief food distribution campaign, ensuing from the countrywide COVID-19 lockdown to counter the rising food insecurities in many urban and rural poor households. However, the relief response campaign has received a lot of critics from both rural and urban communities who were planned as the beneficiaries. Three months into the COVID-19 pandemic the population reports; delays in the distribution, poor quality supplies, arrests and continued restrictions, slow paced distribution among household, and a negative impact on the health care system. As a learning from the current experience, we recommend; a multisectoral engagement, better planning, a decentralized food distribution, and formulation of clear food distribution guidelines to guide the future responses. Use of mobile cash transfers to reach out to the food insecure households can support local economies and lower the cost on middlemen and interrelated corruption.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Assistência Alimentar , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Características da Família , Assistência Alimentar/economia , Assistência Alimentar/organização & administração , Assistência Alimentar/estatística & dados numéricos , Abastecimento de Alimentos/economia , Abastecimento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Colaboração Intersetorial , População Rural , Uganda/epidemiologia , Populações Vulneráveis
2.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 40: 171-178, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33183533

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Novel coronavirus (COVID-19) and subsequent quarantine could raise the risk of food inadequacy and nutrition deficiency crises. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to assess the impacts of COVID-19 on household food security in Jordan, determined the percentage of food security and the levels of food insecurity during the quarantine, determined the associated factor with food insecurity, and determined main food groups associated with FINS during the quarantine. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study was conducted using a Web-based validated questionnaire. The Food Insecurity Experience Scale was used to measure the food insecurity during the first four weeks of the quarantine, and a modified food consumption score was used to determine the number of times the household consumes each food group. Univariate and multiple logistic regression models were used to describe, explore, and predict risk factors correlated with food insecurity among Jordanians, during the first four weeks of the quarantine. RESULTS: A total of 3129 Jordanians had responded to the assessment and fully answered the questionnaire. 23.1% of the total participants were severe food insecure, while 36.1% were moderate food insecure, 40.7% were food secure. The regression model demonstrated the monthly income per capita below the poverty line and a number of the family member (1-4 and 5-7) associated significantly with moderate food insecurity (OR: 5.33; 95% CI: 4.44-6.40, OR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.47-0.86, OR: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.58-0.98, respectively). As well as with the severe food insecurity (OR: 6.87; 95% CI: 5.542-8.512, OR: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.37-0.74, 0.64; 95% CI: 0.48-0.87, respectively). Age 18-30 years old (OR: 1.80; 95% CI: 1.23-2.65) and living in a rented house (OR: 1.30; 95% CI: 1.01-1.69) were associated significantly with severe food insecurity. Carbohydrates and the meat group were significantly related to food insecurity (p-value was <0.001 for both groups). CONCLUSION: Covid-19 and its subsequent quarantine have a tangible impact on food security levels for the populations. Awareness and strategies to support individuals at higher risks should be guided not only by the income but also by other risk factors identified in the present study as the number of persons in the family, younger adults (18-30 years old), and those who do not own their houses).


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Abastecimento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Família , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Jordânia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
3.
Public Health ; 187: 161-164, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32980783

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The objectives of the study were to investigate access to free school meals (FSMs) among eligible children, to describe factors associated with uptake and to investigate whether receiving FSMs was associated with measures of food insecurity in the UK using the Coronavirus (COVID-19) wave of the UK Household Longitudinal Study. STUDY DESIGN: The study design was cross-sectional analyses of questionnaire data collected in April 2020. METHODS: Six hundred and thirty-five children who were FSM eligible with complete data were included in the analytic sample. Accessing a FSM was defined as receiving a FSM voucher or a cooked meal at school. Multivariable logistic regression was used to investigate (i) associations between characteristics and access to FSMs and (ii) associations between access to FSMs and household food insecurity measures. All analyses accounted for survey design and sample weights to ensure representativeness. RESULTS: Fifty-one percent of eligible children accessed a FSM. Children in junior schools or above (aged 8+ years) (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 11.81; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 5.54, 25.19), who belonged to low-income families (AOR: 4.81; 95% CI: 2.10, 11.03) or still attending schools (AOR: 5.87; 95% CI: 1.70, 20.25) were more likely to receive FSMs. Children in Wales were less likely to access FSMs than those in England (AOR: 0.11; 95% CI: 0.03, 0.43). Receiving a FSM was associated with increased odds of recently using a food bank but not reporting feeling hungry. CONCLUSIONS: In the month after the COVID-19 lockdown, 49% of eligible children did not receive any form of FSMs. The present analyses highlight that the voucher scheme did not adequately serve children who could not attend school during the lockdown. Moreover, more needs to be done to support families relying on income-related benefits, who still report needing to access a food bank. As the scheme may be continued in summer or in a potential second wave, large improvements will be needed to improve its reach.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Assistência Alimentar/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Alimentação/economia , Abastecimento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Quarentena/legislação & jurisprudência , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
4.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237637, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866157

RESUMO

Comprehensive assessment of food insecurity across all college community members is lacking. This research surveyed a random sample of an entire campus population at a Northeast University in two surveys (spring 2017, n = 1,037 and fall 2017, n = 1,123). Analysis of variance, t-tests, and multivariable logit models were used to understand food insecurity outcomes and comparisons among groups. The overall rate of food insecurity on campus was 19.6% (spring) and 15.0% (fall). Food insecurity rates were highest among undergraduates, graduate and medical students, and staff as compared to faculty. First generation students and off-campus students were also more likely to be food insecure in both surveys, while people of color were more likely to be food insecure in the spring survey. Findings suggest university members beyond undergraduates also face high rates of food insecurity, which has important implications for efforts to reduce food insecurity on college campuses.


Assuntos
Abastecimento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Estudantes/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Universidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
Cad Saude Publica ; 36(8): e00161320, 2020 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32901703

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic poses one of this century's greatest public health challenges, with impacts on the health and living conditions of populations worldwide. The literature has reported that the pandemic affects the hegemonic food system in various ways. In Brazil, the pandemic amplifies existing social, racial, and gender inequalities, further jeopardizing the Human Right to Adequate Food (HRAF) and the attainment of food and nutritional security, especially among more vulnerable groups. In this context, the article aims to analyze the first measures by the Brazilian Federal Government to mitigate the pandemic's effects and that may have repercussions on food and nutritional security, considering the recent institutional changes in policies and programs. A narrative literature review was performed, and the information sources were the bulletins of the Center for Coordination of Operations by the Crisis Committee for Supervising and Monitoring the Impacts of COVID-19 and homepages of various government ministries, from March to May 2020. The actions were systematized according to the guidelines of the National Policy for Food and Nutritional Security. The analysis identified the creation of institutional crisis management arrangements. The proposed actions feature those involving access to income, emergency aid, and food, such as authorization for food distribution outside schools with federal funds from the National School Feeding Program. However, the setbacks and dismantlement in food and nutritional security may undermine the Federal Government's capacity to respond to COVID-19.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Abastecimento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Política Nutricional , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Alocação de Recursos/estatística & dados numéricos , Betacoronavirus , Brasil , Governo Federal , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Estado Nutricional , Saúde Pública , Política Pública , Populações Vulneráveis
6.
Nutrients ; 12(9)2020 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32887422

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has exacerbated economic vulnerabilities and disrupted the Australian food supply, with potential implications for food insecurity. This study aims to describe the prevalence and socio-demographic associations of food insecurity in Tasmania, Australia, during the COVID-19 pandemic. A cross-sectional survey (deployed late May to early June 2020) incorporated the U.S. Household Food Security Survey Module: Six-Item Short Form, and fifteen demographic and COVID-related income questions. Survey data (n = 1170) were analyzed using univariate and multivariate binary logistic regression. The prevalence of food insecurity was 26%. The adjusted odds of food insecurity were higher among respondents with a disability, from a rural area, and living with dependents. Increasing age, a university education, and income above $80,000/year were protective against food insecurity. Food insecurity more than doubled with a loss of household income above 25% (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR): 2.02; 95% CI: 1.11, 3.71; p = 0.022), and the odds further increased with loss of income above 75% (AOR: 7.14; 95% CI: 2.01, 24.83; p = 0.002). Our results suggest that the prevalence of food insecurity may have increased during the COVID-19 pandemic, particularly among economically vulnerable households and people who lost income. Policies that support disadvantaged households and ensure adequate employment opportunities are important to support Australians throughout and post the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Abastecimento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/economia , Estudos Transversais , Demografia , Pessoas com Deficiência , Escolaridade , Emprego , Família , Feminino , Abastecimento de Alimentos/economia , Humanos , Renda , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias/economia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/economia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , População Rural , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Tasmânia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
Am Surg ; 86(9): 1067-1072, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32779478

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Food insecurity (FI), defined as inadequate access to affordable and quality nutrition, has negative health consequences. FI and violence share similar root causes. The aim of this study was to determine the association of FI with gunshot injury (GSI) incidence. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of all patients from 2012 to 2018 who sustained a GSI. Food access data was abstracted from the US Department of Agriculture. We analyzed the impact of FI, low food access (LA), and low food access with no vehicle (LANV) on the incidence of GSI using Poisson regression. We also compared high-risk zip codes for GSI, FI, LA, and LANV using geospatial analysis. RESULTS: There were 1700 patients in our cohort from 33 different zip codes. The median incidence of GSI per zip code was 142 (85-164); 5 zip codes comprised 50% of all GSI events. FI (incidence rate ratio [IRR] 4.05, 95% CI 3.98-4.13, P < .0001), LA (IRR 2.97, 95% CI 2.92-3.03. P < .0001), and LANV (IRR 2.58, 95% CI 2.55-2.62, P < .0001) were significant predictors of GSI incidence. The FI model was superior to the LA and LANV models. Geospatial analysis demonstrated that both FI (P < .0001) and LANV (P < .0001) were significantly associated with GSI, while LA was not (P > .05). CONCLUSION: FI is an independent risk factor for GSI incidence. Additionally, a majority of GSI events occur in a minority of communities. These data provide a novel opportunity for social services to guide future violence prevention strategies.


Assuntos
Abastecimento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Violência com Arma de Fogo/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferimentos por Arma de Fogo/epidemiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Ferimentos por Arma de Fogo/prevenção & controle , Adulto Jovem
8.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1155, 2020 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32787863

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nearly 40 million American adults report past year food insecurity. This is concerning, as food insecurity is associated with chronic disease morbidity and premature mortality. Women disproportionately experience food insecurity, and sexual minority women (i.e., lesbian, bisexual, and heterosexual women reporting same-sex behavior; SMW) may be at greater risk for experiencing food insecurity disparities. The purpose of this study was to investigate patterns and prevalence of food insecurity and food assistance use in sexual minority and exclusively heterosexual women using population-level health surveillance data. METHODS: Using pooled 2004-2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data (N = 7379), we estimated weighted point prevalence of past 12-month food insecurity, severe food insecurity, Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) use, and emergency food assistance use. We then used Poisson regression with robust variance to estimate prevalence ratios comparing SMW to exclusively heterosexual women on all outcomes. Women were classified by sexual identity and lifetime same-sex behavior as lesbian (n = 88), bisexual (n = 251), heterosexual and reporting same-sex behavior (heterosexual WSW; n = 366), or exclusively heterosexual women (referent; n = 6674). RESULTS: Between 20.6-27.3% of lesbian, bisexual, and heterosexual WSW reported past 12-month food insecurity (versus 13.1% of exclusively heterosexual women). All SMW reported greater prevalence of past 12-month food insecurity and severe food insecurity than exclusively heterosexual women: prevalence ratios (PR) ranged from 1.34 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05-1.70) to 1.84 (95% CI, 1.13-3.01). No differences were found in SNAP participation by sexual orientation, but more lesbians and heterosexual WSW reported using emergency food assistance in the past 12-months (PR = 1.89; 95% CI, 1.29-2.79 and PR = 1.43; 95% CI, 1.03-2.00 respectively). CONCLUSIONS: All SMW reported higher prevalence of food insecurity than exclusively heterosexual women. Lesbians and heterosexual WSW were also more likely to rely on emergency food assistance. This is problematic as SNAP use may reduce food insecurity over time, but emergency food resources (e.g., food pantries) do not. More evidence is needed to understand the multilevel factors driving food insecurity in this population to develop policy and community-based efforts to increase SNAP participation and decrease food insecurity.


Assuntos
Assistência Alimentar/estatística & dados numéricos , Abastecimento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
10.
Soc Sci Med ; 263: 113275, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32823047

RESUMO

Household food insecurity, an inability to provide adequate nutrition for a healthy, active lifestyle, affects nearly 1 in 7 households with children in the United States. Though rates of food insecurity declined to pre-recession levels just prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, they are now once again increasing. As a result, in one of the wealthiest countries in the world, millions of young children continue to grow up in households that struggle daily with a problem that is often associated with the developing world. The result is both immediate and long-term health and development deficits for children. We propose that the degree of demographic and socioeconomic congruence between the households of young children and their neighborhood of residence lends unique insights to food insecurity. We examine this using the ECLS-K 2010-2011 for children in families with incomes below 400 percent of the federal poverty line (N = 8600). Results show that congruence between household and neighborhood education and race/ethnicity associates with the likelihood of experiencing food insecurity. For example, households with non-Hispanic black children living in neighborhoods with high proportions of non-Hispanic blacks have significantly lower probabilities of food insecurity than similar households living in neighborhoods with smaller black populations. Similarly, more highly educated families experience lower probability of food insecurity in high education neighborhoods than when they reside in low education neighborhoods. Focusing on neighborhood risk factors as absolute and independent contributors limits our understanding of how families experience food insecurity as well as any policy efforts to address it.


Assuntos
Características da Família , Abastecimento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Pré-Escolar , Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos
12.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 28(11): 2056-2063, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32762129

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to describe changes in families' home food environment and parent feeding practices, from before to during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, and examine whether changes differed by food security status. METHODS: Parents (N = 584) in the US completed a single online survey, reporting on food security, home food availability, and feeding practices both retrospectively (considering before COVID-19) and currently (during COVID-19). χ2 and univariate regressions examined associations by food security status. RESULTS: The percent of families reporting very low food security increased by 20% from before to during COVID-19 (P < 0.01). About one-third of families increased the amount of high-calorie snack foods, desserts/sweets, and fresh foods in their home; 47% increased nonperishable processed foods. Concern about child overweight increased during COVID-19, with a greater increase for food-insecure versus food-secure parents (P < 0.01). Use of restriction, pressure to eat, and monitoring increased, with a greater increase in pressure to eat for parents with food insecurity compared with food-secure parents (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: During COVID-19, increases in very low food security and changes in the home food environment and parent feeding practices were observed. Results highlight the need to address negative impacts of COVID-19 on children's obesity risk, particularly among those facing health disparities.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Abastecimento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Pais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32785155

RESUMO

The stability of food supply chains is crucial to the food security of people around the world. Since the beginning of 2020, this stability has been undergoing one of the most vigorous pressure tests ever due to the COVID-19 outbreak. From a mere health issue, the pandemic has turned into an economic threat to food security globally in the forms of lockdowns, economic decline, food trade restrictions, and rising food inflation. It is safe to assume that the novel health crisis has badly struck the least developed and developing economies, where people are particularly vulnerable to hunger and malnutrition. However, due to the recency of the COVID-19 problem, the impacts of macroeconomic fluctuations on food insecurity have remained scantily explored. In this study, the authors attempted to bridge this gap by revealing interactions between the food security status of people and the dynamics of COVID-19 cases, food trade, food inflation, and currency volatilities. The study was performed in the cases of 45 developing economies distributed to three groups by the level of income. The consecutive application of the autoregressive distributed lag method, Yamamoto's causality test, and variance decomposition analysis allowed the authors to find the food insecurity effects of COVID-19 to be more perceptible in upper-middle-income economies than in the least developed countries. In the latter, food security risks attributed to the emergence of the health crisis were mainly related to economic access to adequate food supply (food inflation), whereas in higher-income developing economies, availability-sided food security risks (food trade restrictions and currency depreciation) were more prevalent. The approach presented in this paper contributes to the establishment of a methodology framework that may equip decision-makers with up-to-date estimations of health crisis effects on economic parameters of food availability and access to staples in food-insecure communities.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Países Desenvolvidos/estatística & dados numéricos , Países em Desenvolvimento/estatística & dados numéricos , Abastecimento de Alimentos/economia , Abastecimento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Alimentos/economia , Humanos , Fome , Renda , Pandemias , Prevalência
15.
Nutrients ; 12(9)2020 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32825251

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has increased unemployment and food insecurity in the United States (US). Prior to the pandemic, college students exhibited higher rates of food insecurity than nonstudent households. The objectives of this study were to assess the prevalence and determinants of food insecurity among college students during the COVID-19 pandemic. We administered an online survey to 651 students on three diverse campuses at a state-funded university in Texas, US, in May 2020. Food security was assessed using a multistep approach that included the 2-item Food Sufficiency Screener and 6-Item USDA Food Security Survey Module (FSSM). Overall, 34.5% of respondents were classified as food insecure within the last 30 days. The strongest predictors of food insecurity were change in current living arrangement (OR = 2.70, 95% CI: 2.47, 2.95), being furloughed (OR = 3.22, 95% CI: 2.86, 3.64), laid off (OR = 4.07, 95% CI: 3.55, 4.66), or losing part-time work (OR = 5.73, 95% CI: 5.09, 6.46) due to the COVID-19 pandemic. These findings highlight the high prevalence of food insecurity among college students during the COVID-19 pandemic, with students who experienced housing insecurity and/or loss of income due to the pandemic being impacted the most.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/economia , Abastecimento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias/economia , Pneumonia Viral/economia , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Feminino , Humanos , Renda/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Prevalência , Texas/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
16.
Pediatrics ; 146(3)2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32753371

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Although clinical settings are increasingly screening for social determinants of health, essential questions about optimal screening remain. We aimed to assess primary care contexts of individuals choosing not to answer questions about health-related social needs and to compare screening question response with subsequent use of resource information. METHODS: We compared caregiver responses to an electronic survey administered during a child's emergency department visit and through telephone follow-up 2 weeks later by responses to questions about health-related social needs (no social needs endorsed, ≥1 endorsed, none endorsed but ≥1 question not answered). RESULTS: Of 146 respondents, 42 (29%) endorsed ≥1 health-related social need. Additionally, 19 (13%) endorsed no social needs but did not answer ≥1 question. Compared with those denying all social needs and those endorsing ≥1 social need, respondents who did not answer social needs screening questions reported longer duration since their child's last primary care visit, lower perceptions of primary care, and less social support. For the 61 respondents participating in the 2-week follow-up survey, reported use of a community resource packet was 37% among those who had reported a social need, 26% among those who had denied all social needs, and 0% among those who had not answered ≥1 social needs questions. CONCLUSIONS: Clinicians and systems implementing screening for health-related social risks should plan for individuals who choose not to respond to specific items and may also wish to consider strategies that do not rely on screening and disclosure, particularly in communities known to have high prevalence of social needs.


Assuntos
Acesso à Informação , Cuidadores/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Cuidadores/psicologia , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Seguimentos , Abastecimento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Recursos em Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos , Comportamento de Busca de Informação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Apoio Social , Transportes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
18.
Lancet Glob Health ; 8(11): e1380-e1389, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32857955

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stay-at-home orders (lockdowns) have been deployed globally to control COVID-19 transmission, and might impair economic conditions and mental health, and exacerbate risk of food insecurity and intimate partner violence. The effect of lockdowns in low-income and middle-income countries must be understood to ensure safe deployment of these interventions in less affluent settings. We aimed to determine the immediate impact of COVID-19 lockdown orders on women and their families in rural Bangladesh. METHODS: An interrupted time series was used to compare data collected from families in Rupganj upazila, rural Bangladesh (randomly selected from participants in a randomised controlled trial), on income, food security, and mental health a median of 1 year and 2 years before the COVID-19 pandemic to data collected during the lockdown. We also assessed women's experiences of intimate partner violence during the pandemic. RESULTS: Between May 19 and June 18, 2020, we randomly selected and invited the mothers of 3016 children to participate in the study, 2424 of whom provided consent. 2414 (99·9%, 95% CI 99·6-99·9) of 2417 mothers were aware of, and adhering to, the stay-at-home advice. 2321 (96·0%, 95·2-96·7) of 2417 mothers reported a reduction in paid work for the family. Median monthly family income fell from US$212 at baseline to $59 during lockdown, and the proportion of families earning less than $1·90 per day rose from five (0·2%, 0·0-0·5) of 2422 to 992 (47·3%, 45·2-49·5) of 2096 (p<0·0001 comparing baseline with lockdown period). Before the pandemic, 136 (5·6%, 4·7-6·6) of 2420 and 65 (2·7%, 2·1-3·4) of 2420 families experienced moderate and severe food insecurity, respectively. This increased to 881 (36·5%, 34·5-38·4) of 2417 and 371 (15·3%, 13·9-16·8) of 2417 during the lockdown; the number of families experiencing any level of food insecurity increased by 51·7% (48·1-55·4; p<0·0001). Mothers' depression and anxiety symptoms increased during the lockdown. Among women experiencing emotional or moderate physical violence, over half reported it had increased since the lockdown. INTERPRETATION: COVID-19 lockdowns present significant economic, psychosocial, and physical risks to the wellbeing of women and their families across economic strata in rural Bangladesh. Beyond supporting only the most socioeconomically deprived, support is needed for all affected families. FUNDING: National Health and Medical Research Council, Australia.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Abastecimento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Renda/estatística & dados numéricos , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Quarentena/legislação & jurisprudência , Adulto , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Família , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Análise de Séries Temporais Interrompida , Masculino , Mães/psicologia , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
19.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 23: e200068, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32638851

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The relationships between the social indicators (SIs) that determine food insecurity (FI) have not been described yet. This systematic review aims to identify which SIs are associated with FI in Brazilian households and how these relationships are explained. METHODS: The research protocol was registered on the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO - CRD42018106527). Three independent researchers performed the search in the Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (LILACS) and National Library of Medicine (PubMed) databases (June/2018). The study included articles that used the Brazilian Household Food Insecurity Measurement Scale (Escala Brasileira de Insegurança Alimentar - EBIA) to assess FI and that evaluated the association between SIs and FI. RESULTS: We included 18 articles in this review. The Kappa concordance index between the researchers was 0.72 (95%CI 0.42 - 1.00). Most articles were cross-sectional and used multivariate regression for the statistical analysis. At least one income-related SI had a significant association with FI, and, in most studies, they presented the highest values of association measures. We organized the authors' explanation about the relationships between SIs and FI in a conceptual model. The study identified three possible justifications for the association between SIs and FI: direct relationship, relationship mediated by income, or relationship mediated by another SI and income. CONCLUSION: Income assumed a central role in the mediation between several SIs and FI. However, the analysis methods of the studies did not allow us to investigate this mediation. Therefore, improving data analysis to isolate and understand the effect of SIs on FI is still necessary.


Assuntos
Abastecimento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Renda/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos
20.
Am J Public Health ; 110(9): 1422-1428, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32673120

RESUMO

Objectives. To examine emerging adults' experiences of food insecurity in relation to measures of diet quality, food literacy, home food availability, and health behaviors.Methods. We used EAT 2010-2018 (Eating and Activity over Time) study data on 1568 participants who completed surveys as adolescents in 2009 to 2010 and follow-up surveys in 2017 to 2018 (mean age = 22.0 ±2.0 years; 58% female). At baseline, participants were recruited from 20 urban schools in Minneapolis-St Paul, Minnesota. Food insecurity was defined by emerging adult report of both eating less than they thought they should and not eating when hungry because of lack of money.Results. The prevalence at follow up of experiencing food insecurity in the past year was 23.3% among emerging adults. Food insecurity was associated with poorer diet quality (e.g., less vegetables and whole grains, more sugar-sweetened drinks and added sugars), lower home availability of healthy foods, skipping breakfast, frequently eating at fast-food restaurants, binge eating, binge drinking, and substance use (all P < .01).Conclusions. Assistance programs and policies are needed to address food insecurity among emerging adults and should be coordinated with other services to protect health.


Assuntos
Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Alimentar , Abastecimento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamentos de Risco à Saúde , Adolescente , Desjejum , Fast Foods/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Minnesota , Inquéritos Nutricionais , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
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