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3.
Nature ; 575(7781): 109-118, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31695205

RESUMO

The current trajectory for crop yields is insufficient to nourish the world's population by 20501. Greater and more consistent crop production must be achieved against a backdrop of climatic stress that limits yields, owing to shifts in pests and pathogens, precipitation, heat-waves and other weather extremes. Here we consider the potential of plant sciences to address post-Green Revolution challenges in agriculture and explore emerging strategies for enhancing sustainable crop production and resilience in a changing climate. Accelerated crop improvement must leverage naturally evolved traits and transformative engineering driven by mechanistic understanding, to yield the resilient production systems that are needed to ensure future harvests.


Assuntos
Produção Agrícola/métodos , Produção Agrícola/estatística & dados numéricos , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Abastecimento de Alimentos/métodos , Abastecimento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Aquecimento Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Desenvolvimento Sustentável/tendências , Aclimatação/genética , Aclimatação/fisiologia , Animais , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Produtos Agrícolas/microbiologia , Produtos Agrícolas/virologia , Fertilizantes , Humanos , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Doenças das Plantas/estatística & dados numéricos , Chuva
4.
Rev Saude Publica ; 53: 91, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31644722

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To develop and assess the reliability of an instrument that enables auditing information on consumer food environment indicators, such as availability, price, promotional and advertising strategies, and quantity of brands available, using the food recommendations adopted by the Dietary Guidelines for the Brazilian Population as a theoretical basis. METHODS: This is a methodological study in two phases: 1. development of the audit instrument and 2. assessment of its reliability and reproducibility . The Content Validity Index was estimated for each instrument item (>0.80 satisfactory). Inter-rater and test-retest reliability were assessed by percentage agreement and Kappa coefficients. Pearson's correlation coefficient and Scatter-plots were used to measure the degree of linear correlation between two quantitative variables. RESULTS: The Content Validity Index was 0.91. Inter-rater and test-retest reliability were mostly high (Kappa> 0.80), for food availability indicators. Among the items that measure advertising, Kappa values for inter-rater reliability ranged from 0.57 to 1.00 and for the test-retest ranged from 0.18 to 0.90. Prices and quantity of brands showed a positive linear correlation between measurements performed by researcher 1 and 2 and between visits 1 and 2. CONCLUSIONS: AUDITNOVA is reliable for measuring aspects such as availability, price, quantity of brands, and advertising of foods available in the consumer food environment.


Assuntos
Comércio/estatística & dados numéricos , Abastecimento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , /estatística & dados numéricos , Brasil , Abastecimento de Alimentos/normas , Humanos , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Valores de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
5.
Rev Saude Publica ; 53: 93, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31644772

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the potential support of schools for oral health promotion and associated factors in Brazilian capitals. METHODS: Data from 1,339 public and private schools of the 27 Brazilian capitals were obtained from the National Survey of School Health (PeNSE) 2015. Data from the capitals were obtained from the United Nations Development Program and the Department of Informatics of the Brazilian Unified Health System (Datasus). The indicator " ambiente escolar promotor de saúde bucal " (AEPSB - oral health promoting school environment) was designed from 21 variables of the school environment with possible influence on students' oral health employing the categorical principal components analysis (CATPCA). Associations between the AEPSB and characteristics of schools, capitals and regions were tested (bivariate analysis). RESULTS: Ten variables comprised CAPTCA, after excluding those with low correlation or high multicollinearity. The analysis resulted in a model with three dimensions: D1. Within-school aspects (sales of food with added sugar in the canteen and health promotion actions), D2. Aspects of the area around the school (sales of food with added sugar in alternative points) and D3. prohibitive policies at school (prohibition of alcohol and tobacco consumption). The sum of the scores of the dimensions generated the AEPSB indicator, dichotomized by the median. From the total of schools studied, 51.2% (95%CI 48.5-53.8) presented a more favorable environment for oral health (higher AEPSB). In the capitals, this percentage ranged from 36.6% (95%CI 23.4-52.2) in Rio Branco to 80.4% (95%CI 67.2-89.1) in Florianópolis. Among the Brazilian regions, it ranged from 45.5% (95%CI 40.0-51.2) in the North to 67.6% (95%CI 59.4-74.9) in the South. Higher percentages of schools with higher AEPSB were found in public schools [58.1% (95%CI 54.9-61.2)] and in capitals and regions with higher Human Development Index [61.0% (95%IC 55.8-66.0) and 57.4% (95%CI 53.2-61.4), respectively] and lower Gini index [55.7% (95%CI 51.2-60.0) and 52.8 (95%CI 49.8-55.8), respectively]. CONCLUSIONS: The potential to support oral health promotion in schools in Brazilian capitals, assessed by the AEPSB indicator, was associated with contextual factors of schools, capitals and Brazilian regions.


Assuntos
Inquéritos de Saúde Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Saúde Escolar/estatística & dados numéricos , Meio Social , Adolescente , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Abastecimento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Geografia , Humanos , Masculino , Valores de Referência , Fatores de Risco , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Análise Espacial
6.
Int J Public Health ; 64(8): 1215-1222, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31598744

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the association between household food insecurity (FI) and the presence of anaemia among Mexican children who were between 12 and 59 months old, and to determine whether this association differs by geographical regions. METHODS: We analysed 7468 children of ages between 12 and 59 months, based on data from the 2012 National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT 2012). Haemoglobin was measured in capillary blood. Household FI levels were defined according to the Latin American and Caribbean Food Security Scale. An ordinal logistic regression model was developed to assess the relationship between FI and anaemia. The interaction between geographical regions and FI was determined. RESULTS: The highest proportion of anaemia occurred in children with severe household FI (24.3%), compared to those from households with food security (21.2%). Children from severe FI households have a higher adjusted prevalence of anaemia than those from households with food security. FI and anaemia were associated mainly among children residing in the southern region of Mexico. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings can contribute to a better understanding of FI and anaemia in children and to strengthen interventions to address these problems.


Assuntos
Anemia/epidemiologia , Abastecimento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , México/epidemiologia , Prevalência
7.
Malar J ; 18(1): 320, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533727

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Over the past decade, food insecurity, connected to erratic rains and reduced agricultural outputs, has plagued Malawi. Many households are turning to fishing to seek additional sources of income and food. There is anecdotal evidence that insecticide-treated net (ITN) recipients in Malawi are using their nets for purposes other than sleeping, such as for fishing, protecting crops, and displaying merchandise, among others. The objective of this qualitative study was to explore the factors leading residents of waterside communities in Malawi to use ITNs for fishing. METHODS: This study used qualitative and observational methods. Five waterside communities were identified, two each in the North, Central and Southern regions, representing a mix of lakeside and riverside settings. Fifteen focus group discussions were conducted with a total of 146 participants, including men, women, and community leaders. RESULTS: Respondents stated that they knew that ITNs should be slept under to protect from malaria. Respondents discussed financial hardships their communities were facing due to droughts, poverty, food scarcity, unemployment, and devaluation of the Malawian currency, the kwacha. Many described selling household goods, including clothes and cooking pots, to generate short-term income for their family. Though no respondents admitted to selling an ITN themselves, the practice was commonly known. Participants said that food shortages were forcing them to make difficult choices. Fishing with ITNs was reported to be common in the study sites, as a response to food insecurity, and was widely understood to be harmful over the longer term. Respondents felt that it was everyone's responsibility to cut down on this practice, but that efforts to confiscate or burn nets and boats of those caught fishing with ITNs were counter-productive since boats, especially, were a required resource for a productive livelihood. Respondents feared that if the health workers, government officials and donors continued to see ITNs being misused for fishing, the distribution of free ITNs would end, which would worsen malaria in their communities. CONCLUSIONS: Faced with economic hardships and food security crises, participants reported being forced to look for alternative incomes to feed their families. This sometimes included selling or repurposing their belongings, including ITNs, for income. This issue is complex and will require a community-led multisectoral response to preserve health, fisheries, and livelihoods.


Assuntos
Abastecimento de Alimentos , Mosquiteiros Tratados com Inseticida/estatística & dados numéricos , Controle de Mosquitos/estatística & dados numéricos , Pobreza/psicologia , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Abastecimento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Malária/prevenção & controle , Malaui , Masculino , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos
8.
Rev Saude Publica ; 53: 63, 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483005

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the quantity and diversity in the consumption fruits and vegetables, as well as its relationship with the consumer's purchase characteristics and food environment. METHODS: Baseline study stemming from a controlled and randomized community trial investigating a sample representative of Primary Health Care services (Health Academy Program) of Belo Horizonte, state of Minas Gerais. The intake of fruits and vegetables was analyzed in servings/day, whereas diversity was assessed by the Food Frequency Questionnaire. Users were also questioned on the frequency, purchase location and availability of these foods at their households. To assess the consumer's food environment, commercial establishments within a 1.6 km radius around the program unit sampled were audited. RESULTS: 3,414 adults and older adults (88.1% women) were investigated, as well as 336 commercial establishments, in 18 units of the Health Academy Program. The average consumption of fruits and vegetables was adequate [5.4 (SD = 2.1) servings/day] but monotonous, with average daily intake of two different types. In the establishments audited, a good diversity (77.7% and 85.0%) and variety (74.5% and 81.4%) of fruits and vegetables was observed, although with lower quality of vegetables (60.4%). After adjusting for sociodemographic variables, we identified that knowledge on food crops (p = 0.006), increased monthly availability of fruits at households (p < 0.001), and greater variety of fruits (p = 0.03) and quality of vegetables (p = 0.05) in commercial establishments could improve the quantitative intake of fruits and vegetables, whereas a greater variety of fruits (p = 0.008) would increase consumption diversity. CONCLUSIONS: The intake of fruits and vegetables was quantitatively adequate but monotonous, being influences by the consumer environment. Such results highlight the need for improving educational actions in health services and programs, in addition to acting on the consumer environment, aiming to promote and maintain the adequate and diversified consumption, as recommended by Brazilian guidelines for proper and healthy eating.


Assuntos
/estatística & dados numéricos , Abastecimento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Brasil , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Feminino , Frutas/classificação , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Características de Residência , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Verduras/classificação
9.
Pediatrics ; 144(4)2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31501233

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Food insecurity and pediatric obesity affect young children. We examine how food insecurity relates to obesity, underweight, stunting, health, and development among children <4 years of age. METHODS: Caregivers of young children participated in a cross-sectional survey at medical centers in 5 US cities. Inclusion criteria were age of <48 months. Exclusion criteria were severely ill or injured and private health insurance. The Household Food Security Survey Module defined 3 exposure groups: food secure, household food insecure and child food secure, and household food insecure and child food insecure. Dependent measures were obesity (weight-age >90th percentile), underweight (weight-age <5th percentile), stunting (height/length-age <5th percentile), and caregiver-reported child health and developmental risk. Multivariable logistic regression analyses, adjusted for demographic confounders, maternal BMI, and food assistance program participation examined relations between exposure groups and dependent variables, with age-stratification: 0 to 12, 13 to 24, 25 to 36, and 37 to 48 months of age. RESULTS: Within this multiethnic sample (N = 28 184 children, 50% non-Hispanic African American, 34% Hispanic, 14% non-Hispanic white), 27% were household food insecure. With 1 exception at 25 to 36 months, neither household nor child food insecurity were associated with obesity, underweight, or stunting, but both were associated with increased odds of fair or poor health and developmental risk at multiple ages. CONCLUSIONS: Among children <4 years of age, food insecurity is associated with fair or poor health and developmental risk, not with anthropometry. Findings support American Academy of Pediatrics recommendations for food insecurity screening and referrals to help families cope with economic hardships and associated stressors.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Abastecimento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Nível de Saúde , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Magreza/epidemiologia , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Etários , Arkansas/epidemiologia , Baltimore/epidemiologia , Boston/epidemiologia , Cuidadores/estatística & dados numéricos , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Minnesota/epidemiologia , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Philadelphia/epidemiologia , Pobreza , Análise de Regressão
10.
Pediatrics ; 144(4)2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31501236

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Food insecurity is an important public health problem facing children in the United States. Although a number of previous studies suggest that food insecurity has negative impacts on health, these studies have not dealt thoroughly with issues of selection bias. We use propensity scoring techniques to approximate the causal effects of food insecurity on children's health and health care use outcomes. METHODS: We use nationally representative data from the 2013-2016 waves of the National Health Interview Study (N = 29 341). Using inverse probability of treatment weighting, a propensity scoring method, we examine a broad range of child health outcomes and account for a comprehensive set of controls, focusing on a sample of children 2 to 17 years old. RESULTS: Household food insecurity was related to significantly worse general health, some acute and chronic health problems, and worse health care access, including forgone care and heightened emergency department use, for children. Compared to rates had they not been food insecure, children in food-insecure household had rates of lifetime asthma diagnosis and depressive symptoms that were 19.1% and 27.9% higher, rates of foregone medical care that were 179.8% higher, and rates of emergency department use that were 25.9% higher. No significant differences emerged for most communicable diseases, such as ear infections or chicken pox, or conditions that may develop more gradually, including anemia and diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: Policies used to reduce household food insecurity among children may also reduce children's chronic and acute health problems and health care needs.


Assuntos
Abastecimento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Doença Aguda/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Asma/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Doença Crônica/epidemiologia , Doença Crônica/prevenção & controle , Depressão/epidemiologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Pontuação de Propensão , Dermatopatias/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
11.
Pediatrics ; 144(4)2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31501238

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Fifteen percent of US children live in households with inadequate food. Children who are food insecure often experience worse physical, emotional, and developmental health outcomes. Authors of previous studies have not examined the quality and cost implications of food insecurity in children. METHODS: This is a retrospective study of 7959 nationally representative US children (aged 1-17 years) in the 2016 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. Households with food insecurity were identified by ≥3 positive responses to the 30-day, 10-item US Food Security Survey. Main outcomes were annual health expenditures and quality of care indicators: emergency department (ED) and inpatient use, primary care and specialist visits, routine medical and dental care, patient experience measures, and school absenteeism. Logistic and 2-part regression models were constructed to estimate outcomes conditional on sociodemographic and medical covariates. RESULTS: Children in households with food insecurity were more often publicly insured and had special needs compared with all other children. In multivariable logistic regression, household food insecurity was associated with significantly higher adjusted odds of an ED (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.37) or primary care treatment visit (aOR = 1.24) during the year. Household food insecurity was associated with significantly higher school absenteeism (aOR = 1.74) and lower access to care for routine (aOR = 0.55) or illness (aOR = 0.57) care. There were no differences in annual health expenditures, hospitalizations, or receipt of routine medical or dental care. CONCLUSIONS: Household food insecurity is associated with higher ED use and school absenteeism and lower access to care; however, it was not associated with higher annual health expenditures in children.


Assuntos
Abastecimento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Absenteísmo , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Assistência Odontológica para Crianças/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Abastecimento de Alimentos/economia , Gastos em Saúde , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/economia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Atenção Primária à Saúde/economia , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde , Estudos Retrospectivos , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos
13.
AIDS Behav ; 23(11): 3058-3063, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31429031

RESUMO

Despite established links between food insecurity and HIV outcomes, no studies have examined the role of food insecurity among female sex workers (FSW) in the United States (US). The aim of this exploratory study was to identify correlates (structural vulnerability and health factors) of severe food insecurity among street-based FSW in Baltimore, Maryland using multivariable logistic regression. In adjusted models, FSW with severe food insecurity were at greater odds of recent homelessness, physical intimate partner violence, client condom refusal, and HIV infection. Multi-sectoral approaches must take into consideration the co-occurrence of structural and health vulnerabilities to food insecurity among FSW in the US, including those that address violence, housing, and HIV.


Assuntos
Abastecimento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Violência de Gênero , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Pessoas em Situação de Rua/psicologia , Habitação , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/estatística & dados numéricos , Profissionais do Sexo/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Baltimore , Preservativos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
14.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1145, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31429731

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Home gardens have been found to improve food security and dietary diversity in a wide range of settings. However, there is a need to place home gardens within the larger food and nutrition system landscapes that shape the construction of household diets. Myanmar offers a unique opportunity to study these research questions, given the decades of political isolation, high levels of food insecurity and poor nutrition levels. METHODS: The aim of our paper is to use household survey data from three distinctive agro-ecological settings in rural Myanmar to empirically analyse the role of home gardens in influencing household food insecurity and dietary diversity. Our analysis is based on unique survey data conducted in rural Myanmar. The sample includes 3230 rural households from three States/Districts (Magway, Ayeyarwady and Chin). Using information on two dimensions of food security, a series of variables capturing a household's self-reported food security status and coping strategies when food is not available; and a measure of household's dietary diversity based on 24-h recall data, we empirically estimate a household's probability of being food insecure and the diversity of their diets. RESULTS: There are statistically significant associations between access to home gardens and measures of food security and improved dietary diversity. In particular, for landless households, the ownership of home gardens/ fruits and vines is statistically significant and is associated with a 6.6 percentage points lower probability of a household having to change their diet, and a 7.9 percentage points lower probability of being in hunger. CONCLUSIONS: From a policy perspective, our results show that promoting home gardens among vulnerable households can improve food security and dietary diversity among vulnerable rural households in Myanmar.


Assuntos
Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Abastecimento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Jardins/estatística & dados numéricos , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Populações Vulneráveis/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Dieta/métodos , Características da Família , Feminino , Abastecimento de Alimentos/métodos , Jardinagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Mianmar , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31443532

RESUMO

With the supply of water, energy and food facing severe challenges, there has been an increased recognition of the importance of studying the regional water-energy-food nexus. In this paper, Inner Mongolia, including 12 cities in China, was selected as a research case. A super-efficiency slack based measure (SBM) model that considered the undesirable outputs was adopted to calculate the regional total factor productivity (TFP) and the Malmquist-Luenberger index was used to investigate the change trend of the TFP from 2007 to 2016 based on understanding the water-energy-food nexus. Finally, influential factors of the TFP were explored by Tobit regression. The results show that the 12 Inner Mongolia cities are divided into higher, moderate and lower efficiency zones. The higher efficiency zone includes Ordos, Hohhot, Xing'an, and Tongliao, and the lower efficiency zone includes Chifeng, Xilin Gol, Baynnur, Wuhai and Alxa. There is a serious difference in TFP between Inner Mongolia cities. During the study period, the TFP of the water-energy-food nexus in Inner Mongolia cities shows a rising trend, which is mainly driven by the growth of technical progress change. However, the average ML values of the lower and moderate efficiency zones were inferior to the higher efficiency zone in six of the ten years, so the difference between Inner Mongolia cities is growing. According to the Tobit regression, the mechanization level and degree of opening up have positive effects on the TFP, while enterprise scale and the output of the third industry have negative effects on the TFP. Government support does not have any significant impact on the TFP. Finally, suggestions were put forward to improve the TFP of the water-energy-food nexus in Inner Mongolia cities.


Assuntos
Eficiência , Fontes Geradoras de Energia/estatística & dados numéricos , Abastecimento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Abastecimento de Água/estatística & dados numéricos , China
17.
Cien Saude Colet ; 24(7): 2431-2441, 2019 Jul 22.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31340262

RESUMO

The study aimed to characterize food insecurity, nutritional status, and eating habits of people affected by leprosy. This is a descriptive cross-sectional study based on a census population. We evaluated 276 cases, reported in the Notifiable Diseases Information System, between 2001 and 2014, in the municipalities of Vitória da Conquista and Tremedal, in the state of Bahia. Food insecurity was estimated according to the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale. We collected weight and height measurements, meal frequency, and household, socioeconomic, psychosocial and clinical variables. The prevalence of food insecurity was 41.0% among the study population - 28.3% mild, 8.0% moderate and 4.7% severe. Overweight/obesity was estimated in 60.1% of the study participants, and excessive salt intake was reported by 8.6%. Beans and red meat were the most regularly consumed foods; there was low consumption of milk, raw and cooked vegetables, and fruits. This population presented high food insecurity prevalence, inadequate eating habits and nutritional status, reflecting nutritional vulnerability. The insertion of nutritional assistance in the leprosy control programmes is recommended, to improve health care.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar , Abastecimento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Hanseníase/epidemiologia , Estado Nutricional , Brasil/epidemiologia , Cidades , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos
18.
BMC Res Notes ; 12(1): 390, 2019 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31296262

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Individuals from low-income countries often migrate abroad for employment. The association between such migration and investment in education as well as other societal and familial outcomes has previously been examined. However, we have a limited understanding of the association between migration and children's nutrition. We aim to determine the extent to which migration of household members influences children's diet in a semi-urban region of Nepal. RESULTS: In our study setting, children in households with a migrant had higher dietary diversity scores, 0.69 on average, than their counterparts in households without a migrant. These children were approximately 43% points more likely to meet a minimum requirement for dietary diversity. These differences originated primarily from higher consumption of meat (41% points) and eggs (20% points). Approximately 37 percent of children in the sample consumed processed food during the 24 h preceding the survey. However, we found no evidence that migration was associated with the consumption of processed foods or with reduced frequency of breastfeeding. Our finding that migration is associated with higher consumption of meat and eggs is particularly encouraging, given that the protein deficiency in Nepal is estimated to be nearly 43 percent.


Assuntos
Dieta , Emigração e Imigração/estatística & dados numéricos , Abastecimento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Estado Nutricional , Migrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Pré-Escolar , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Masculino , Nepal , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31323771

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Canadian provincial policies, like Ontario's School Food and Beverage Policy (P/PM 150), increasingly mandate standards for food and beverages offered for sale at school. Given concerns regarding students leaving school to purchase less healthy foods, we examined student behaviours and competitive food retail around schools in a large urban region of Southern Ontario. METHODS: Using a geographic information system (GIS), we enumerated food outlets (convenience stores, fast-food restaurants, full-service restaurants) within 500, 1000 and 1500 m of all 389 regional schools spanning years of policy implementation. Consenting grade 6-10 students within 31 randomly selected schools completed a web-based 24-h diet recall (WEB-Q) and questionnaire. RESULTS: Food outlet numbers increased over time (p < 0.01); post-policy, within 1000 m, they averaged 27.31 outlets, with a maximum of 65 fast-food restaurants around one school. Of WEB-Q respondents (n = 2075, mean age = 13.4 ± 1.6 years), those who ate lunch at a restaurant/take-out (n = 84, 4%) consumed significantly more energy (978 vs. 760 kcal), sodium (1556 vs. 1173 mg), and sugar (44.3 vs. 40.1 g). Of elementary and secondary school respondents, 22.1% and 52.4% reported ever eating at fast food outlets during school days. CONCLUSIONS: Students have easy access to food retail in school neighbourhoods. The higher energy, sodium and sugar of these options present a health risk.


Assuntos
Fast Foods/provisão & distribução , Comportamento Alimentar , Restaurantes/provisão & distribução , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Bebidas , Criança , Cidades , Comércio , Dieta , Feminino , Abastecimento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Almoço , Masculino , Ontário , Políticas , Instituições Acadêmicas/legislação & jurisprudência , Estudantes/psicologia , População Urbana
20.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 968, 2019 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31324244

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Ethiopian, the prevalence of anemia among preschool aged children widely varied across regions. Since anemia adversely affects the cognitive and physical development of the children, it is important to determine its burden for implementing appropriate measurements. Therefore, this study was aimed at determining the anemia prevalence and associated factors among preschool aged children. METHOD: A community based cross-sectional study was conducted on a total of 432 preschool children in Menz Gera Midir district from January to May, 2017. A multi stage sampling procedure was applied to select the target groups. Hemocue analyzer for Haemoglobin determination; anthropometric measurements for assessment nutritional status, structured questionnaires for socio-demographic and economic variables were used for data collection. The morphological appearance of red blood cell was assessed microscopically to determine type of anemia. Descriptive statistics were employed to summarize the data and binary logistic regression was used for inferential statistics. A p value less than 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. RESULT: The overall prevalence of anemia was 123 (28.5%); of which 38 (30.9%) and 85 (69.1%) were moderate and mild, respectively. Morphologically about 50.4, 37.4 and 12.2% were microcytic hypochromic, normocytic normochromic and macrocytic anemias, respectively. Child age 6-11 months (COR: 5.67, 95% CI: 2.2, 14.86), child age 12-23 months (COR: 5.8, 95% CI: 2.3, 14.7), wasting (COR: 3.5, 95% CI: 1.2, 9.8), stunting (COR: 3.8, 95% CI: 1.92, 7.77), underweight (COR: 2.12, 95% CI: 1.07, 4.38), MUAC measurement below 13 cm (COR: 5.6, 95% CI: 2.83, 11.15), household headed by female (COR: 3.24, 95% CI: 1.1, 9.63), maternal anemia (COR: 4, 95% CI: 2.2, 7.23) and household food insecurity (COR: 2.12, 95% CI: 1.09, 4.12) were significantly associated with anemia. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of anemia among the children was found to be high and associated with child age group, child nutritional status, house hold headed by female, maternal anemia and household food insecurity. Further studies on nutritional anemia, community based nutritional education, iron supplementation to children at risk should be promoted.


Assuntos
Anemia/epidemiologia , Abastecimento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Avaliação Nutricional , Estado Nutricional , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Magreza/epidemiologia
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