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1.
Wiad Lek ; 73(1): 91-94, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32124814

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of investigation was to study the structural and functional conditions of cortical and trabecular layers of lumbar vertebrae L1-L5 in different age groups. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: In order to assess BMD of the lumbar vertebrae 102 people18 to 75 years old was examined. Study of bone mineral density cortical and trabecular layer of lumbar vertebrae (L1-L5) performed by computed tomography in Hounsfield Units (HU) in terms of standard deviation (SD). RESULTS: Results: The results of computed tomography showed a direct relationship of bone mineral density of lumbar vertebrae with age of examined persons. Osteoporosis and osteopenia was registered in 15% of men and 30% women in middle adulthood, in late adulthood - 35% and 50% respectively. During early old age osteopenia and osteoporosis are observed in 37,5% and 25% of men and 26% and 64% women. Osteoporosis in the middle old age has been reported in 50% of men and 75% of women. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: Results of the study showed a direct link between mineral density, age and gender. The middle adulthood age period was characterized by the highest mineral mass compared with the other age periods. Then there is a loss of bone mass throughout life, and with the onset of aging osteopenia and osteoporosis are recorded. It was investigated that in the early old age, loss of bone mass is mainly observed in female.


Assuntos
Abdome , Absorciometria de Fóton , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Densidade Óssea , Remodelação Óssea , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoporose , Adulto Jovem
2.
Can Assoc Radiol J ; 71(1): 19-29, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32063003

RESUMO

The presence of intralesional fat provides an invaluable tool for narrowing the differential diagnosis for both benign and malignant neoplasms of the abdomen and pelvis. The ability to characterize intralesional fat is further expanded by the ability of magnetic resonance imaging to detect small quantities (intravoxel) of fat. While the presence of intralesional fat can help to provide a relatively narrow set of diagnostic possibilities, depending on the type of fat (macroscopic vs intravoxel) that is present and the organ of origin, radiologists must be aware of uncommon mimickers of pathology, both benign and malignant.


Assuntos
Abdome/diagnóstico por imagem , Tecido Adiposo/diagnóstico por imagem , Tecido Adiposo/patologia , Neoplasias/diagnóstico por imagem , Pelve/diagnóstico por imagem , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
3.
Orv Hetil ; 161(9): 347-353, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32088976

RESUMO

Introduction: Giant abdominal wall defects represent a major challenge for surgeons. CT scan can determine the ratio between the volume of the hernia sac and the abdominal cavity, determining the extent of the disproportion, which is related to the postoperative abdominal pressure value. Aim: Confirmation of the significance of CT examination in postoperative giant abdominal wall defects, effectiveness analysis of the reconstruction method by abdominal pressure measurement. Method: A prospective study is conducted on patients with giant incisional hernias, with preoperatively performed abdominal CT scan. Tension-free abdominal wall reconstruction is realized with retromuscular Prolene mesh and hernial sac. Abdominal pressure is measured during and after surgery. Patients' follow-up is performed through phone after 2-4-6 months. Results: We present our results through three cases. First case: 48-year-old woman presented a giant recurrent incisional hernia and multiple comorbidities. Maximum defect diameter was: 155 mm, hernia volume: 1536.63 cm3, BMI = 43.6. The patient was discharged after seven days. Second case: 51-year-old male patient presented with multilocular giant incisional hernia, BMI = 26,85. Maximum diameter of the two wall defects were 123 mm and 105 mm, their total volume: 406.41cm3. The patient was discharged after five days. Third case: A 67-year-old male patient presented with giant incisional hernia. The abdominal defect size was 100/100 mm (LL/CC), volume: 258.10 cm3, BMI = 23.7. The patient was discharged after four days. Conclusion: The proper surgical technique can be established based on the preoperative CT scan. Abdominal wall reconstruction with retromuscular Prolene mesh and hernial sac provides a cheap, reliable, tension-free technique. The technique's short-term efficacy can be determined by abdominal pressure measuring through the bladder. Orv Hetil. 2020; 161(9): 347-353.


Assuntos
Abdome/cirurgia , Hérnia Incisional/terapia , Abdome/fisiologia , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Hérnia Incisional/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pressão , Estudos Prospectivos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
4.
Isr Med Assoc J ; 22(1): 43-47, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31927805

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Temporary abdominal closure (TAC) surgical technique relates to a procedure in which the post-surgical abdominal wall remains open in certain indications. The Bogota bag (BB) technique is a tension-free TAC method that covers the abdominal contents with a sterilized fluid bag. There are very few reports of pediatric patients treated with this technique. OBJECTIVES: To describe our institution's 15 years of experience using the BB technique on pediatric patients. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study describing our experience treating patients with BB was conducted. The medical files of 17 pediatric patients aged 0-18 years were reviewed. RESULTS: Between January 2000 and December 2014, 17 patients were treated with BB at our medical center (6 females, median age 12 years). Indications for BB were a need for a surgical site re-exploration, mechanical inability for primary abdominal closure, and high risk for ACS development. Median BB duration was 5 days and median bag replacement was 2 days. Median ICU length of stay (LOS) was 10 days and hospital LOS was 27 days. The ICU admission and BB procedure was tolerated well by 6 patients who were discharged home without complications. Of the remaining 11 patients, 6 patients died during the admission (35%) and the others presented with major complications not related to the BB but to the patient's primary disease. CONCLUSIONS: This report represents the largest series of children treated with BB. The technique is simple to perform, inexpensive, and has very few complications.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Fechamento de Ferimentos Abdominais , Abdome/cirurgia , Parede Abdominal/cirurgia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos
5.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys ; 106(2): 440-448, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31928642

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Recent studies suggest that ultrahigh-dose-rate, "FLASH," electron radiation therapy (RT) decreases normal tissue damage while maintaining tumor response compared with conventional dose rate RT. Here, we describe a novel RT apparatus that delivers FLASH proton RT (PRT) using double scattered protons with computed tomography guidance and provide the first report of proton FLASH RT-mediated normal tissue radioprotection. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Absolute dose was measured at multiple depths in solid water and validated against an absolute integral charge measurement using a Faraday cup. Real-time dose rate was obtained using a NaI detector to measure prompt gamma rays. The effect of FLASH versus standard dose rate PRT on tumors and normal tissues was measured using pancreatic flank tumors (MH641905) derived from the KPC autochthonous PanCa model in syngeneic C57BL/6J mice with analysis of fibrosis and stem cell repopulation in small intestine after abdominal irradiation. RESULTS: The double scattering and collimation apparatus was dosimetrically validated with dose rates of 78 ± 9 Gy per second and 0.9 ± 0.08 Gy per second for the FLASH and standard PRT. Whole abdominal FLASH PRT at 15 Gy significantly reduced the loss of proliferating cells in intestinal crypts compared with standard PRT. Studies with local intestinal irradiation at 18 Gy revealed a reduction to near baseline levels of intestinal fibrosis for FLASH-PRT compared with standard PRT. Despite this difference, FLASH-PRT did not demonstrate tumor radioprotection in MH641905 pancreatic cancer flank tumors after 12 or 18 Gy irradiation. CONCLUSIONS: We have designed and dosimetrically validated a FLASH-PRT system with accurate control of beam flux on a millisecond time scale and online monitoring of the integral and dose delivery time structure. Using this system, we found that FLASH-PRT decreases acute cell loss and late fibrosis after whole-abdomen and focal intestinal RT, whereas tumor growth inhibition is preserved between the 2 modalities.


Assuntos
Órgãos em Risco/efeitos da radiação , Terapia com Prótons/instrumentação , Lesões Experimentais por Radiação/prevenção & controle , Proteção Radiológica/instrumentação , Radioterapia Guiada por Imagem/instrumentação , Abdome/efeitos da radiação , Animais , Proliferação de Células/efeitos da radiação , Desenho de Equipamento/métodos , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Fibrose , Raios gama , Intestino Delgado/patologia , Intestino Delgado/efeitos da radiação , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Tratamentos com Preservação do Órgão/instrumentação , Tratamentos com Preservação do Órgão/métodos , Órgãos em Risco/patologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/radioterapia , Terapia com Prótons/métodos , Proteção Radiológica/métodos , Radiometria/métodos , Radioterapia Guiada por Imagem/métodos , Espalhamento de Radiação , Células-Tronco/efeitos da radiação , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
6.
JAMA ; 323(3): 225-236, 2020 01 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31961418

RESUMO

Importance: It is not known if use of colloid solutions containing hydroxyethyl starch (HES) to correct for intravascular deficits in high-risk surgical patients is either effective or safe. Objective: To evaluate the effect of HES 130/0.4 compared with 0.9% saline for intravascular volume expansion on mortality and postoperative complications after major abdominal surgery. Design, Setting, and Participants: Multicenter, double-blind, parallel-group, randomized clinical trial of 775 adult patients at increased risk of postoperative kidney injury undergoing major abdominal surgery at 20 university hospitals in France from February 2016 to July 2018; final follow-up was in October 2018. Interventions: Patients were randomized to receive fluid containing either 6% HES 130/0.4 diluted in 0.9% saline (n = 389) or 0.9% saline alone (n = 386) in 250-mL boluses using an individualized hemodynamic algorithm during surgery and for up to 24 hours on the first postoperative day, defined as ending at 7:59 am the following day. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was a composite of death or major postoperative complications at 14 days after surgery. Secondary outcomes included predefined postoperative complications within 14 days after surgery, durations of intensive care unit and hospital stays, and all-cause mortality at postoperative days 28 and 90. Results: Among 826 patients enrolled (mean age, 68 [SD, 7] years; 91 women [12%]), 775 (94%) completed the trial. The primary outcome occurred in 139 of 389 patients (36%) in the HES group and 125 of 386 patients (32%) in the saline group (difference, 3.3% [95% CI, -3.3% to 10.0%]; relative risk, 1.10 [95% CI, 0.91-1.34]; P = .33). Among 12 prespecified secondary outcomes reported, 11 showed no significant difference, but a statistically significant difference was found in median volume of study fluid administered on day 1: 1250 mL (interquartile range, 750-2000 mL) in the HES group and 1500 mL (interquartile range, 750-2150 mL) in the saline group (median difference, 250 mL [95% CI, 83-417 mL]; P = .006). At 28 days after surgery, 4.1% and 2.3% of patients had died in the HES and saline groups, respectively (difference, 1.8% [95% CI, -0.7% to 4.3%]; relative risk, 1.76 [95% CI, 0.79-3.94]; P = .17). Conclusions and Relevance: Among patients at risk of postoperative kidney injury undergoing major abdominal surgery, use of HES for volume replacement therapy compared with 0.9% saline resulted in no significant difference in a composite outcome of death or major postoperative complications within 14 days after surgery. These findings do not support the use of HES for volume replacement therapy in such patients. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02502773.


Assuntos
Abdome/cirurgia , Hidratação/métodos , Derivados de Hidroxietil Amido/uso terapêutico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Solução Salina/uso terapêutico , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/efeitos adversos , Lesão Renal Aguda/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Cuidados Intraoperatórios , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Estatísticas não Paramétricas
7.
Khirurgiia (Mosk) ; (1): 53-60, 2020.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31994500

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess position of mesh endoprosthesis in retroperitoneal space after TARR hernioplasty using ultrasound in early and long-term postoperative period. MATERIAL AND METHODS: There were 30 patients with inguinal hernias after TARR procedure. Standard technology of laparoscopic transabdominal preperitoneal hernioplasty was used in all patients. In all cases, a large-pore monofilament polypropylene mesh 10x15 cm was used. Control examination and ultrasound of the mesh implant were performed the next day, in 1, 3, 6, 12 months after surgery. Correct position of the implant was determined by its placement at the level of pubic bone with complete overlap of posterior wall of the inguinal canal and inner ring. RESULTS: US-image of the implant is present in two geometric forms - linear and sinusoid. The shape of prosthesis varies depending on postoperative period and the use of fixing elements. Thus, sinusoidal shape of prosthesis was observed in patients without fixation of prosthesis the next day and in 1 month after TARR. Geometry of the implant acquired the form of a straight line after 3 months and became almost a straight line in 12 months after surgery. Linear shape of prosthesis in early postoperative period was found after intraoperative fixation of endoprosthesis. Sinusoidal shape is noted after 3 months. Ultrasonic pattern of endoprosthesis looked as a thin hyperechoic band with thickness of 1.2-3.9 mm. Mean thickness of prosthesis was 2.2±0.1 mm the next day after surgery, 2.8±0.2 mm after 1 month and 1.6±0.05 mm after 12 months. CONCLUSION: Geometry of synthetic implants after TARR hernioplasty undergoes significant changes and depends on duration of postoperative period and fixation of the prosthesis.


Assuntos
Abdome/diagnóstico por imagem , Hérnia Inguinal/diagnóstico por imagem , Herniorrafia/métodos , Abdome/cirurgia , Hérnia Inguinal/cirurgia , Humanos , Laparoscopia , Telas Cirúrgicas , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Ultrassonografia
8.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 54, 2020 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31952510

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Varicella is normally a self-limited childhood disease caused by varicella-zoster virus infection. However, it sometimes causes severe diseases, especially in immunocompromised individuals. We report a case of severe varicella in a young woman. CASE PRESENTATION: A 19-year-old woman presented to the emergency department with abdominal pain and a rash after taking methylprednisolone for 2 weeks for systemic lupus erythematosis. The laboratory data showed leukocytosis, thrombocytopenia, an elevated level of the liver transaminases and disseminated intravascular coagulation. Computed tomography of the abdomen revealed multiple air-fluid levels in the intestines. Hemorrhagic varicella was considered and antiviral therapy as well as immunoglobin were applied. Her condition deteriorated and she eventually died due to multi-organ failure and refractory shock. Next-generation sequencing performed on fluid from an unroofed vesicle confirmed the diagnosis of varicella. CONCLUSION: In its severe form, VZV infection can be fatal, especially in immunocompromised patients. Hemorrhagic varicella can be misdiagnosed by clinicians because of unfamiliar with the disease, although it is associated with a high mortality rate. In patients with suspected hemorrhagic varicella infection, antiviral therapies along with supportive treatment need to be initiated as soon as possible in order to minimize the case fatality rate.


Assuntos
Varicela/diagnóstico , Abdome/diagnóstico por imagem , Dor Abdominal/etiologia , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Varicela/complicações , Varicela/tratamento farmacológico , Varicela/virologia , DNA Viral/química , DNA Viral/metabolismo , Feminino , Herpesvirus Humano 3/genética , Herpesvirus Humano 3/isolamento & purificação , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/diagnóstico , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/etiologia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Adulto Jovem
9.
Cir. pediátr ; 33(1): 47-50, ene. 2020. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-186138

RESUMO

Introducción: La hernia hiatal congénita es poco frecuente, con una edad media de presentación a los 28 meses de vida. Las hernias paraesofágicas/mixtas provocan más frecuentemente infecciones respiratorias repetitivas, vómitos, anemia y fallo de medro. Caso clínico: Nos encontramos ante un lactante de 4 meses que presenta irritabilidad desde el nacimiento y rechazo parcial de las tomas en las últimas 24 horas. En el tránsito esófago-gastro-duodenal se evidencia un estómago parcialmente intratorácico. Tras realizarse una tomografía computarizada toraco-abdominal, se plantean como diagnósticos hernia hiatal mixta gigante vs. hernia diafragmática posterolateral derecha vs. esófago corto congénito. Intraoperatoriamente se visualiza hernia hiatal mixta gigante, realizándose herniorrafia laparoscópica y funduplicatura de Nissen. Comentarios: Las hernias con afectación diafragmática más frecuentes en Pediatría son la hernia de Bochdalek y de Morgagni. La hernia hiatal produce más frecuentemente síntomas gastrointestinales; así, el tratamiento es quirúrgico, con el objetivo de evitar o minimizar dichos síntomas y prevenir las consecuencias de la volvulación gástrica


Introduction: Congenital hiatal hernia is a rare pathology, presenting at 28 months of age on average. Paraesophageal/mixed hernias cause recurrent respiratory infections, vomiting, anemia, and growth failure. Clinical case: Four-month-old infant, with irritability since birth and partial feeding intolerance in the last 24 hours. A partial intratho-racic stomach was evidenced in the esophago-gastro-duodenal contrast study. A thoraco-abdominal CT scan was carried out, with giant mixed hiatal hernia, right posterolateral diaphragmatic hernia, and congenital short esophagus being considered as potential diagnoses. A giant mixed hiatal hernia was noted during surgery. Laparoscopic herniorrhaphy and Nissen fundoplication were performed. Discussion: In the pediatric population, Bochdalek's hernia and Morgagni's hernia are the most frequent congenital diaphragmatic hernias. Hiatal hernia is rare and causes gastrointestinal symptoms more frequently. Surgery is the treatment of choice, with the objective of preventing or minimizing these symptoms as well as gastric volvulus


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Lactente , Hérnia Hiatal/diagnóstico por imagem , Hérnia Hiatal/cirurgia , Hérnia Diafragmática/complicações , Hérnia Diafragmática/diagnóstico por imagem , Hérnia Hiatal/congênito , Hérnia Hiatal/patologia , Trânsito Gastrointestinal , Abdome/diagnóstico por imagem , Meios de Contraste/administração & dosagem , Radiografia Torácica
10.
Lancet ; 395(10217): 33-41, 2020 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31908284

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adhesions are the most common driver of long-term morbidity after abdominal surgery. Although laparoscopy can reduce adhesion formation, the effect of minimally invasive surgery on long-term adhesion-related morbidity remains unknown. We aimed to assess the impact of laparoscopy on adhesion-related readmissions in a population-based cohort. METHODS: We did a retrospective cohort study of patients of any age who had abdominal or pelvic surgery done using laparoscopic or open approaches between June 1, 2009, and June 30, 2011, using validated population data from the Scottish National Health Service. All patients who had surgery were followed up until Dec 31, 2017. The primary outcome measure was the incidence of hospital readmissions directly related to adhesions in the laparoscopic and open surgery cohorts at 5 years. Readmissions were categorised as directly related to adhesions, possibly related to adhesions, and readmissions for an operation that was potentially complicated by adhesions. We did subgroup analyses of readmissions by anatomical site of surgery and used Kaplan-Meier analyses to assess differences in survival across subgroups. We used multivariable Cox-regression analysis to determine whether surgical approach was an independent and significant risk factor for adhesion-related readmissions. FINDINGS: Between June 1, 2009, and June 30, 2011, 72 270 patients had an index abdominal or pelvic surgery, of whom 21 519 (29·8%) had laparoscopic index surgery and 50 751 (70·2%) had open surgery. Of the 72 270 patients who had surgery, 2527 patients (3·5%) were readmitted within 5 years of surgery for disorders directly related to adhesions, 12 687 (17·6%) for disorders possibly related to adhesions, and 9436 (13·1%) for operations potentially complicated by adhesions. Of the 21 519 patients who had laparoscopic surgery, 359 (1·7% [95% CI 1·5-1·9]) were readmitted for disorders directly related to adhesions compared with 2168 (4·3% [4·1-4·5]) of 50 751 patients in the open surgery cohort (p<0·0001). 3443 (16·0% [15·6-16·4]) of 21 519 patients in the laparoscopic surgery cohort were readmitted for disorders possibly related to adhesions compared with 9244 (18·2% [17·8-18·6]) of 50 751 patients in the open surgery cohort (p<0·005). In multivariate analyses, laparoscopy reduced the risk of directly related readmissions by 32% (hazard ratio [HR] 0·68, 95% CI 0·60-0·77), and of possibly related readmissions by 11% (HR 0·89, 0·85-0·94) compared with open surgery. Procedure type, malignancy, sex, and age were also independently associated with risk of adhesion-related readmissions. INTERPRETATION: Laparoscopic surgery reduces the incidence of adhesion-related readmissions. However, the overall burden of readmissions associated with adhesions remains high. With further increases in the use of laparoscopic surgery expected in the future, the effect at the population level might become larger. Further steps remain necessary to reduce the incidence of adhesion-related postsurgical complications. FUNDING: Dutch Adhesion Group and Nordic Pharma.


Assuntos
Laparoscopia/efeitos adversos , Readmissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/efeitos adversos , Aderências Teciduais/etiologia , Abdome/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pelve/cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Reoperação/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Aderências Teciduais/cirurgia , Adulto Jovem
11.
Anaesthesia ; 75 Suppl 1: e83-e89, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31903571

RESUMO

Standardised peri-operative care pathways for patients undergoing emergency laparotomy or laparoscopy for non-traumatic pathologies have been shown to be inadequate and associated with high morbidity and mortality. Recent research has highlighted this problem and showed that simple pathways with 'rescue' interventions have been associated with reduced mortality when implemented successfully. These rescue pathways have focused on early diagnosis and surgery, specialist surgeon and anaesthetist involvement, goal-directed therapy and intensive or intermediary postoperative care for high-risk patients. In elective surgery, enhanced recovery has resulted in reduced length of stay and morbidity by the application of procedure-specific, evidence-based interventions inside rigorously implemented patient pathways based on multidisciplinary co-operation. The focus has been on attenuation of peri-operative stress and pain management to facilitate early recovery. Patients undergoing emergency laparotomy are a heterogeneous group consisting mostly of patients with intestinal perforations and/or obstruction with varying levels of comorbidity and frailty. However, present knowledge of the different pathophysiology and peri-operative trajectory of complications in these patient groups is limited. In order to move beyond rescue pathways and to establish enhanced recovery for emergency laparotomy, it is essential that research on both the peri-operative pathophysiology of the different main patient groups - intestinal obstruction and perforation - and the potentially differentiated impact of interventions is carried out. Procedure- and pathology-specific knowledge is lacking on key elements of peri-operative care, such as: multimodal analgesia; haemodynamic optimisation and fluid management; attenuation of surgical stress; nutritional optimisation; facilitation of mobilisation; and the optimal use and organisation of specialised wards and improved interdisciplinary collaboration. As such, the future challenges in improving peri-operative patient care in emergency laparotomy are moving from simple rescue pathways to establish research that can form a basis for morbidity- and procedure-specific enhanced recovery protocols as seen in elective surgery.


Assuntos
Abdome/cirurgia , Laparoscopia/métodos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Emergências , Hidratação , Humanos , Modalidades de Fisioterapia
12.
Anaesthesia ; 75 Suppl 1: e75-e82, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31903572

RESUMO

Patients undergoing emergency laparotomy are a heterogeneous group with regard to comorbidity, pre-operative physiological state and surgical pathology. There are many factors to consider in the peri-operative period for these patients. Surgical duration should be as short as possible for adequate completion of the procedure. This is of particular importance in the elderly and comorbid population. To date, there are limited data addressing the role of damage control surgery in emergency general surgery. Dual consultant-led care in all stages of emergency laparotomy care is increasing, with increased presence out of hours and also for high-risk patients. The role of the stoma care team should be actively encouraged in all patients who may require a stoma. Due to the emergent and unpredictable nature of surgical emergencies, healthcare teams may need to employ novel strategies to ensure early input from the stoma care team. It is important for all members of the medical teams to ensure that patients have given consent for both anaesthesia and surgery before emergency laparotomy. Small studies suggest that patients and their families are not aware of the high risk of morbidity and mortality following emergency laparotomy before operative intervention. Elderly patients should have early involvement from geriatric specialists and careful attention paid to assessment of frailty due to its association with mortality and morbidity. Additionally, the use of enhanced recovery programmes in emergency general surgery has been shown to have some impact in reducing length of stay in emergency surgical patients. However, the emergent nature of this surgery has been shown to be a detrimental factor in full implementation of enhanced recovery programmes. The use of a national database to collect data on patients undergoing emergency laparotomy and their processes of care has led to reduced mortality and length of stay in the UK. However, internationally, fewer data are available to draw conclusions.


Assuntos
Abdome/cirurgia , Laparoscopia/métodos , Assistência Perioperatória/métodos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Emergências , Humanos
18.
Br J Radiol ; 93(1106): 20190549, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31778311

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that there is a measureable upward motion of the diaphragm during prolonged breath-holds that could have a detrimental effect on image quality in liver MRI and to identify factor that potentially influence the magnitude of this motion. METHODS: 15 healthy volunteers underwent MRI examination using prolonged breath-holds in the maximum inspiratory position and a moderate inspiratory position. Coronal T1 weighted three-dimensional gradient echo sequences of the entire thorax were acquired every 6 s during breath-holding allowing the calculation of total lung volume and the measurement of the absolute position of the dome of the liver. The potential impact of subject's gender, body mass index, and total lung capacity on the change in lung volume/diaphragmatic motion was assessed using random coefficient regression. RESULTS: All volunteers demonstrated a slow reduction of the total lung volume during prolonged breath-holding up to 123 ml. There was a measurable associated upward shift of the diaphragm, measuring up to 5.6 mm after 24 s. There was a positive correlation with female gender (p = 0.037) and total lung volume (p = 0.005) and a negative association with BMI (p = 0.012) for the maximum inspiratory position only. CONCLUSION: There is a measureable reduction of lung volumes with consecutive upward shift of the diaphragm during prolonged breath-holding which likely contributes to motion artifacts in liver MRI. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: There is a measureable gas exchange-related reduction of lung volumes with consecutive upward shift of the diaphragm during prolonged breath-holding which likely contributes to motion artifacts in liver MRI. Correcting for this predictable upward shift has potential to improve image quality.The magnitude of this effect does not seem to be related to gender, BMI or total lung capacity if a moderate inspiratory position is used.


Assuntos
Abdome/fisiologia , Suspensão da Respiração , Fígado , Adulto , Artefatos , Diafragma/fisiologia , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Inalação/fisiologia , Medidas de Volume Pulmonar , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Movimento/fisiologia , Troca Gasosa Pulmonar/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
Radiol Med ; 125(2): 157-164, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31591701

RESUMO

PURPOSE: MR-guided radiotherapy (MRgRT) relies on the daily assignment of a relative electron density (RED) map to allow the fraction specific dose calculation. One approach to assign the RED map consists of segmenting the daily magnetic resonance image into five different density levels and assigning a RED bulk value to each level to generate a synthetic CT (sCT). The aim of this study is to evaluate the dose calculation accuracy of this approach for applications in MRgRT. METHODS: A planning CT (pCT) was acquired for 26 patients with abdominal and pelvic lesions and segmented in five levels similar to an online approach: air, lung, fat, soft tissue and bone. For each patient, the median RED value was calculated for fat, soft tissue and bone. Two sCTs were generated assigning different bulk values to the segmented levels on pCT: The sCTICRU uses the RED values recommended by ICRU46, and the sCTtailor uses the median patient-specific RED values. The same treatment plan was calculated on two the sCTs and the pCT. The dose calculation accuracy was investigated in terms of gamma analysis and dose volume histogram parameters. RESULTS: Good agreement was found between dose calculated on sCTs and pCT (gamma passing rate 1%/1 mm equal to 91.2% ± 6.9% for sCTICRU and 93.7% ± 5.3% b or sCTtailor). The mean difference in estimating V95 (PTV) was equal to 0.2% using sCTtailor and 1.2% using sCTICRU, respect to pCT values CONCLUSIONS: The bulk sCT guarantees a high level of dose calculation accuracy also in presence of magnetic field, making this approach suitable to MRgRT. This accuracy can be improved by using patient-specific RED values.


Assuntos
Abdome/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Pelve/diagnóstico por imagem , Radioterapia Guiada por Imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Planejamento da Radioterapia Assistida por Computador
20.
Br J Anaesth ; 124(1): 110-120, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31767144

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aimed to examine whether using a high fraction of inspired oxygen (FIO2) in the context of an individualised intra- and postoperative open-lung ventilation approach could decrease surgical site infection (SSI) in patients scheduled for abdominal surgery. METHODS: We performed a multicentre, randomised controlled clinical trial in a network of 21 university hospitals from June 6, 2017 to July 19, 2018. Patients undergoing abdominal surgery were randomly assigned to receive a high (0.80) or conventional (0.3) FIO2 during the intraoperative period and during the first 3 postoperative hours. All patients were mechanically ventilated with an open-lung strategy, which included recruitment manoeuvres and individualised positive end-expiratory pressure for the best respiratory-system compliance, and individualised continuous postoperative airway pressure for adequate peripheral oxyhaemoglobin saturation. The primary outcome was the prevalence of SSI within the first 7 postoperative days. The secondary outcomes were composites of systemic complications, length of intensive care and hospital stay, and 6-month mortality. RESULTS: We enrolled 740 subjects: 371 in the high FIO2 group and 369 in the low FIO2 group. Data from 717 subjects were available for final analysis. The rate of SSI during the first postoperative week did not differ between high (8.9%) and low (9.4%) FIO2 groups (relative risk [RR]: 0.94; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.59-1.50; P=0.90]). Secondary outcomes, such as atelectasis (7.7% vs 9.8%; RR: 0.77; 95% CI: 0.48-1.25; P=0.38) and myocardial ischaemia (0.6% [n=2] vs 0% [n=0]; P=0.47) did not differ between groups. CONCLUSIONS: An oxygenation strategy using high FIO2 compared with conventional FIO2 did not reduce postoperative SSIs in abdominal surgery. No differences in secondary outcomes or adverse events were found. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT02776046.


Assuntos
Oxigênio/uso terapêutico , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , Abdome/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oxigênio/sangue , Oxiemoglobinas/análise , Oxiemoglobinas/metabolismo , Assistência Perioperatória , Respiração com Pressão Positiva , Medicina de Precisão , Atelectasia Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Atelectasia Pulmonar/etiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
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