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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(6)2021 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33799744

RESUMO

Lasioglossin III (LL-III) is a cationic antimicrobial peptide derived from the venom of the eusocial bee Lasioglossum laticeps. LL-III is extremely toxic to both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and it exhibits antifungal as well as antitumor activity. Moreover, it shows low hemolytic activity, and it has almost no toxic effects on eukaryotic cells. However, the molecular basis of the LL-III mechanism of action is still unclear. In this study, we characterized by means of calorimetric (DSC) and spectroscopic (CD, fluorescence) techniques its interaction with liposomes composed of a mixture of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) and 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-rac-phosphoglycerol (POPG) lipids as a model of the negatively charged membrane of pathogens. For comparison, the interaction of LL-III with the uncharged POPC liposomes was also studied. Our data showed that LL-III preferentially interacted with anionic lipids in the POPC/POPG liposomes and induces the formation of lipid domains. Furthermore, the leakage experiments showed that the peptide could permeabilize the membrane. Interestingly, our DSC results showed that the peptide-membrane interaction occurs in a non-disruptive manner, indicating an intracellular targeting mode of action for this peptide. Consistent with this hypothesis, our gel-retardation assay experiments showed that LL-III could interact with plasmid DNA, suggesting a possible intracellular target.


Assuntos
Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/farmacologia , Abelhas/metabolismo , Membrana Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Citotóxicas Formadoras de Poros/farmacologia , Animais , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/análise , Calorimetria/métodos , Membrana Celular/química , Permeabilidade da Membrana Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Bicamadas Lipídicas/química , Lipossomos/química , Fosfatidilcolinas/química , Fosfatidilgliceróis/química , Proteínas Citotóxicas Formadoras de Poros/análise , Espectrofotometria/métodos
2.
Molecules ; 26(4)2021 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33670262

RESUMO

Stingless bee-collected pollen (bee bread) is a mixture of bee pollen, bee salivary enzymes, and regurgitated honey, fermented by indigenous microbes during storage in the cerumen pot. Current literature data for bee bread is overshadowed by bee pollen, particularly of honeybee Apis. In regions such as South America, Australia, and Southeast Asia, information on stingless bee bee bread is mainly sought to promote the meliponiculture industry for socioeconomic development. This review aims to highlight the physicochemical properties and health benefits of bee bread from the stingless bee. In addition, it describes the current progress on identification of beneficial microbes associated with bee bread and its relation to the bee gut. This review provides the basis for promoting research on stingless bee bee bread, its nutrients, and microbes for application in the food and pharmaceutical industries.


Assuntos
Abelhas/química , Mel , Própole/química , Glândulas Salivares/química , Animais , Austrália , Abelhas/metabolismo , Fermentação , Pólen/química , Própole/uso terapêutico , Glândulas Salivares/metabolismo , América do Sul
3.
J Insect Sci ; 21(1)2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33560356

RESUMO

Honey bees are important pollinators of wild plants and crops. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous regulators of gene expression. In this study, we initially determined that the lethal concentration 50 (LC50) of dinotefuran was 0.773 mg/l. Then, the expression profiles and differentially expressed miRNAs (DE miRNAs) in honey bee brains after 1, 5, and 10 d of treatment with the lethal concentration 10 (LC10) of dinotefuran were explored via deep small-RNA sequencing and bioinformatics. In total, 2, 23, and 27 DE miRNAs were identified after persistent exposure to the LC10 of dinotefuran for 1, 5, and 10 d, respectively. Some abundant miRNAs, such as ame-miR-375-3p, ame-miR-281-5p, ame-miR-3786-3p, ame-miR-10-5p, and ame-miR-6037-3p, were extremely significantly differentially expressed. Enrichment analysis suggested that the candidate target genes of the DE miRNAs are involved in the regulation of biological processes, cellular processes, and behaviors. These results expand our understanding of the regulatory roles of miRNAs in honey bee Apis mellifera (Hymenopptera: Apidae) responses to neonicotinoid insecticides and facilitate further studies on the functions of miRNAs in honey bees.


Assuntos
Abelhas/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Guanidinas/toxicidade , Inseticidas/toxicidade , MicroRNAs/genética , Neonicotinoides/toxicidade , Nitrocompostos/toxicidade , Transcriptoma , Animais , Abelhas/genética , Abelhas/metabolismo , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , MicroRNAs/metabolismo
4.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(2): 627-637, 2021 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33416324

RESUMO

The honey bee pollen/nectar diet is rich in bioactive phytochemicals and recent studies have demonstrated the potential of phytochemicals to influence honey bee disease resistance. To unravel the role of dietary phytochemicals in honey bee health it is essential to understand phytochemical uptake, bioavailability, and metabolism but presently limited knowledge exists. With this study we aim to build a knowledge foundation. For 5 days, we continuously fed honey bees on eight individual phytochemicals and measured the concentrations in whole and dissected bees by HPLC-MS/MS. Ample phytochemical metabolization was observed, and only 6-30% of the consumed quantities were recovered. Clear differences in metabolization rates were evident, with atropine, aucubin, and triptolide displaying significantly slower metabolism. Phytochemical gut uptake was also demonstrated, and oral bioavailability was 4-31%, with the highest percentages observed for amygdalin, triptolide, and aucubin. We conclude that differences in the chemical properties and structure impact phytochemical uptake and metabolism.


Assuntos
Abelhas/metabolismo , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Abelhas/química , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Trato Gastrointestinal/química , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
5.
Gene ; 776: 145446, 2021 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33484761

RESUMO

Bumblebees are important pollinators that have evolved between solitary and advanced eusocial insects. Compared with advanced honeybees, workers of social bumblebee species are prone to laying eggs during the competition phase, which leads to the end of the colony. Therefore, worker reproductive behavior has become a popular research topic for exploring various biological phenomena. Here, we demonstrate a novel reproduction-related function of an immune response protein-encoding gene (Immune Responsive Protein 30, IRP30) in Bombus terrestris by employing RNA interference (RNAi) and a transgenic Drosophila melanogaster system. The results show that worker egg-laying was significantly affected by IRP30 expression levels (P < 0.01). Compared with those in the dsGFP-treated groups, the first egg-laying time was delayed by 3.7 d and the egg number was decreased by 41% in the dsIRP30-treated group. In addition, the average size of the largest oocyte and the relative mRNA expression levels of Vg (vitellogenin) were significantly reduced in the dsIRP30-treated group (P < 0.05). Cellular localization by immunofluorescence demonstrated that IRP30 has important functions in the germ cells of workers' ovarioles. Overexpression of IRP30 was confirmed to increase the reproductive capability of the transgenic D. melanogaster. In conclusion, IRP30 regulates worker egg-laying by affecting the expression of Vg, the size of the ovary and the formation of the oocyte. These findings provide essential information for understanding the mechanisms underlying worker reproductive regulation.


Assuntos
Abelhas/genética , Abelhas/metabolismo , Reprodução/genética , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/metabolismo , Feminino , Expressão Gênica/genética , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Ovário/metabolismo , Oviposição , Óvulo/metabolismo , Polinização , Reprodução/fisiologia , Comportamento Sexual Animal/fisiologia , Vitelogeninas/genética
6.
Chemosphere ; 262: 127848, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32771708

RESUMO

Honey bees are important pollinators and are subject to numerous stressors, such as changing floral resources, parasites, and agrochemical exposure. Pesticide exposure has been linked to the decline in the global honey bee population. We have limited knowledge of the metabolic pathways and synergistic effects of xenobiotics in bees. Quercetin is one of the most abundant phytochemicals in plants and is therefore abundant in the honey bee diet. Quercetin can upregulate the detoxification system in honey bees; however, it is still unknown to what extent quercetin ingestion can reduce the content of absorbed pesticides. In this study, we investigated the effect of dietary quercetin on the contents of three pesticides in honey bees: imidacloprid (insecticide), tebuconazole (fungicide), and tau-fluvalinate (insecticide and acaricide). Bees were divided into two main groups and fed either quercetin-sucrose paste or only sucrose for 72 h. Thereafter, they were orally exposed to ∼10 ng/bee imidacloprid or contact-exposed to ∼0.9 µg/bee tau-fluvalinate or ∼5.2 µg/bee tebuconazole. After 1 h of oral exposure or 24 h of contact exposure, the bees were anaesthetised with CO2, sacrificed by freezing, and extracted with a validated QuEChERS method. Subsequently, the concentrations of the three pesticides and quercetin in the bees were determined with a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer coupled to an HPLC system. No significant effect on the concentration of tebuconazole or tau-fluvalinate was observed in bees fed quercetin. Intake of quercetin led to a reduction in the concentration of imidacloprid in honey bees. Quercetin-rich plants may be exploited in future beekeeping.


Assuntos
Abelhas/metabolismo , Praguicidas/metabolismo , Quercetina , Acaricidas , Animais , Criação de Abelhas , Dieta , Inseticidas , Neonicotinoides , Nitrilos , Nitrocompostos , Compostos Fitoquímicos , Piretrinas , Xenobióticos
7.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 21943, 2020 12 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33318550

RESUMO

Formic acid (FA) has been used for decades to control Varroa destructor, one of the most important parasites of the western honey bee, Apis mellifera. The rather unselective molecular mode of action of FA and its possible effects on honeybees have long been a concern of beekeepers, as it has undesirable side effects that affect the health of bee colonies. This study focuses on short-term transcriptomic changes as analysed by RNAseq in both larval and adult honey bees and in mites after FA treatment under applied conditions. Our study aims to identify those genes in honey bees and varroa mites differentially expressed upon a typical FA hive exposure scenario. Five detoxification-related genes were identified with significantly enhanced and one gene with significantly decreased expression under FA exposure. Regulated genes in our test setting included members of various cytochrome P450 subfamilies, a flavin-dependent monooxygenase and a cytosolic 10-formyltetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase (FDH), known to be involved in formate metabolism in mammals. We were able to detect differences in the regulation of detoxification-associated genes between mites and honey bees as well as between the two different developmental stages of the honey bee. Additionally, we detected repressed regulation of Varroa genes involved in cellular respiration, suggesting mitochondrial dysfunction and supporting the current view on the mode of action of FA-inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation. This study shows distinct cellular effects induced by FA on the global transcriptome of both host and parasite in comparison. Our expression data might help to identify possible differences in the affected metabolic pathways and thus make a first contribution to elucidate the mode of detoxification of FA.


Assuntos
Abelhas , Formiatos/farmacologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Varroidae/metabolismo , Animais , Abelhas/metabolismo , Abelhas/parasitologia
8.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244140, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33332426

RESUMO

Caste polymorphism in eusocial insects is based on morphological plasticity and linked to physiological and behavioral characteristics. To test the possibility that dopamine production in the brain is associated with the caste-specific morphology and behavior in female honey bees, an intermediate caste was produced via artificial rearing using different amounts of diet, before quantifying the dopamine levels and conducting behavioral tests. In field colonies, individual traits such as mandibular shape, number of ovarioles, diameter of spermatheca, and dopamine levels in the brain differed significantly between workers and queens. Females given 1.5 times the amount of artificial diet that control worker receives during the larval stage in the laboratory had characteristics intermediate between castes. The dopamine levels in the brain were positively correlated with the mandibular shape indexes, number of ovarioles, and spermatheca diameter among artificially reared females. The dopamine levels were significantly higher in females with mandibular notches than those without. In fighting experiments with the intermediate caste females, the winners had significantly higher dopamine levels in the brain than the losers. Brain levels of tyrosine were positively correlated with those of catecholamines but not phenolamines, thereby suggesting a strong metabolic relationship between tyrosine and dopamine. Thus, the caste-specific characteristics of the honey bee are potentially continuous in the same manner as those in primitively eusocial species. Dopamine production in the brain is associated with the continuous caste-specific morphology, as well as being linked to the amount of tyrosine taken from food, and it supports the aggressive behavior of queen-type females.


Assuntos
Abelhas/metabolismo , Comportamento Animal , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Dopamina/metabolismo , Animais , Feminino
9.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0236724, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32956406

RESUMO

Aquaporins (AQP) are a family of plasma membrane proteins responsible for water transport through cell membranes. They are differentially expressed in different parts of the alimentary canal of insects where they regulate water transport. These proteins have been studied in detail in some insects, but few data are available for aquaporins of the honey bee, Apis mellifera. We used quantitative PCR to study the expression of six putative aquaporin genes in forager honey bees. We found differential expression of all putative AQP genes in crop, midgut, ileum, rectum and Malpighian tubules. We found the entomoglyceroporin Am_Eglp 1 expressed at extremely high levels in the midgut. We performed a functional characterization of Am_Eglp 1 using heterologous expression in Xenopus laevis oocyte followed by water uptake assays. Our results confirmed that the Am_Eglp 1 gene encodes a functional water transporter. This study shows that all putative honey bee aquaporin genes have complex expression patterns in the digestive and excretory organs of honey bee workers. Our results suggest that Am_Eglp 1 is the principal water transporter in the midgut of A. mellifera workers.


Assuntos
Aquaporinas/metabolismo , Abelhas/metabolismo , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Animais , Aquaporinas/genética , Abelhas/genética , Genes de Insetos , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Oócitos , Xenopus laevis
10.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(28): 16283-16291, 2020 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32611810

RESUMO

The difficulty of achieving robust functional expression of insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) has hampered our understanding of these important molecular targets of globally deployed neonicotinoid insecticides at a time when concerns have grown regarding the toxicity of this chemotype to insect pollinators. We show that thioredoxin-related transmembrane protein 3 (TMX3) is essential to enable robust expression in Xenopus laevis oocytes of honeybee (Apis mellifera) and bumblebee (Bombus terrestris) as well as fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) nAChR heteromers targeted by neonicotinoids and not hitherto robustly expressed. This has enabled the characterization of picomolar target site actions of neonicotinoids, findings important in understanding their toxicity.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Neonicotinoides/farmacologia , Agonistas Nicotínicos/farmacologia , Receptores Nicotínicos/metabolismo , Acetilcolina/farmacologia , Animais , Abelhas/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Drosophila melanogaster/metabolismo , Proteínas de Insetos/agonistas , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Oócitos/metabolismo , Subunidades Proteicas/antagonistas & inibidores , Subunidades Proteicas/genética , Subunidades Proteicas/metabolismo , Receptores Nicotínicos/genética , Tiorredoxinas/genética , Tiorredoxinas/metabolismo , Xenopus laevis
11.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233033, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32437365

RESUMO

Pesticide exposures can have detrimental impacts on bee pollinators, ranging from immediate mortality to sub-lethal impacts. Flupyradifurone is the active ingredient in Sivanto™ and sulfoxaflor is the active ingredient in Transform®. They are both relatively new insecticides developed with an intent to reduce negative effects on bees, when applied to bee-attractive crops. With the growing concern regarding pollinator health and pollinator declines, it is important to have a better understanding of any potential negative impacts, especially sub-lethal, of these pesticides on bees. This study reports novel findings regarding physiological stress experienced by bees exposed to field application rates of these two insecticides via a Potter Tower sprayer. Two contact exposure experiments were conducted-a shorter 6-hour study and a longer 10-day study. Honey bee mortality, sugar syrup and water consumption, and physiological responses (oxidative stress and apoptotic protein assays) were assessed in bees exposed to Sivanto™ and Transform®, and compared to bees in control group. For the longer, 10-day contact exposure experiment, only the Sivanto™ group was compared to the control group, as high mortality recorded in the sulfoxaflor treatment group during the shorter contact exposure experiment, made the latter group unfeasible to test in the longer 10-days experiment. In both the studies, sugar syrup and water consumptions were significantly different between treatment groups and controls. The highest mortality was observed in Transform® exposed bees, followed by the Sivanto™ exposed bees. Estimates of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species indicated significantly elevated oxidative stress in both pesticide treatment groups, when compared to controls. Caspase-3 protein assays, an indicator of onset of apoptosis, was also significantly higher in the pesticide treatment groups. These differences were largely driven by post exposure duration, indicating sub-lethal impacts. Further, our findings also emphasize the need to revisit contact exposure impacts of Sivanto™, given the sub-lethal impacts and mortality observed in our long-term (10-day) contact exposure experiment.


Assuntos
4-Butirolactona/análogos & derivados , Abelhas/efeitos dos fármacos , Praguicidas/efeitos adversos , Piridinas/efeitos adversos , Compostos de Enxofre/efeitos adversos , 4-Butirolactona/efeitos adversos , Animais , Abelhas/metabolismo , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Polinização , Fatores de Tempo
12.
Food Chem ; 327: 127041, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32454276

RESUMO

The physicochemical characteristics of honey vary according to bee species, climate, region, period of collection, processing and storage. In this context, this work aimed to perform a comparative study of the physicochemical characteristics of Melipona subnitida and M. fasciculata honey collected at different periods and regions of the State of Piauí, Brazil. Twenty-nine honey samples were collected and evaluated by principal component analysis from physicochemical analysis data. Twenty-two percent of the parameters analyzed differed between species. Evaluating the collection period, the honey of M. subnitida and M. fasciculata presented differences among themselves. The study revealed a similarity between the physicochemical parameters of the honey of the two species of bees, in addition, the time was one of the determining factors in the formation of clusters.


Assuntos
Abelhas/metabolismo , Mel/análise , Animais , Brasil , Fenômenos Químicos , Secas , Especificidade da Espécie
13.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(19): 10511-10519, 2020 05 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32341166

RESUMO

Honey bees (Apis mellifera) produce an enormous economic value through their pollination activities and play a central role in the biodiversity of entire ecosystems. Recent efforts have revealed the substantial influence that the gut microbiota exert on bee development, food digestion, and homeostasis in general. In this study, deep sequencing was used to characterize prokaryotic viral communities associated with honey bees, which was a blind spot in research up until now. The vast majority of the prokaryotic viral populations are novel at the genus level, and most of the encoded proteins comprise unknown functions. Nevertheless, genomes of bacteriophages were predicted to infect nearly every major bee-gut bacterium, and functional annotation and auxiliary metabolic gene discovery imply the potential to influence microbial metabolism. Furthermore, undiscovered genes involved in the synthesis of secondary metabolic biosynthetic gene clusters reflect a wealth of previously untapped enzymatic resources hidden in the bee bacteriophage community.


Assuntos
Bacteriófagos/genética , Abelhas/metabolismo , Abelhas/virologia , Animais , Bactérias/genética , Bacteriófagos/metabolismo , Abelhas/genética , Biodiversidade , Ecossistema , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Metagenômica/métodos , Filogenia , Polinização/genética , Simbiose/genética
14.
Biochim Biophys Acta Proteins Proteom ; 1868(6): 140413, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32179182

RESUMO

Only recently it was discovered that haemoglobin (Hb) belongs to the standard gene repertoire of insects, although their tracheal system is used for respiration. A classical oxygen-carrying function of Hb is only obvious for hexapods living in hypoxic environments. In other insect species, including the common fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, the physiological role of Hb is yet unclear. Here, we study recombinant haemoglobin from the European honeybee Apis mellifera (Ame) and the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae (Aga). Spectroscopic evidence shows that both proteins can be classified as hexacoordinate Hbs with a strong affinity for the distal histidine. AgaHb1 is proposed to play a role in oxygen transport or sensing based on its multimeric state, slow autoxidation, and small but significant amount of five-coordinated haem in the deoxy ferrous form. AmeHb appears to behave more like vertebrate neuroglobin with a complex function given its diversified distribution in the genome.


Assuntos
Anopheles/metabolismo , Abelhas/metabolismo , Hemoglobinas/análise , Sistema Respiratório/metabolismo , Análise Espectral/métodos , Animais , Anopheles/genética , Abelhas/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/metabolismo , Espectroscopia de Ressonância de Spin Eletrônica/métodos , Evolução Molecular , Compostos Férricos/química , Compostos Ferrosos/química , Genoma , Heme/metabolismo , Hemoglobinas/genética , Insetos/genética , Insetos/metabolismo , Ligantes , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Espectrometria de Massas , Modelos Moleculares , Oxigênio
15.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0230240, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32187215

RESUMO

It has been demonstrated in numerous studies that bee pollen supplementation shows numerous positive effects on health. However, its impact on bones is largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of bee pollen supplementation on the tibia biomechanical properties and bone morphometric measures using Japanese quail as an animal model. The experiment was arranged in a 2x2x2 factorial design, with sex, quail line (meat-type or egg-lying type), and bee pollen inclusion (0 or 10 g/kg of feed) as factors. The quails were one-day-old at the beginning of the experiment, they were euthanized after 42 days. Our study showed for the first time unfavorable effects of bee pollen on bones properties. Bee pollen supplementation negatively affected bone structure, irrespective of quails' sex or line type. Bone length (P < 0.001), weight (P < 0.01), and mean relative wall thickness (P < 0.01) and mineralization (P < 0.05) were reduced by bee pollen treatment. For female quails, irrespective of line type, the decrease of yield load (P < 0.001), ultimate load (P < 0.01), yield stress (P < 0.001) and ultimate stress (P < 0.05) was noted. Analysis of growth plate in bone metaphysis showed that bee pollen supplementation slowed the process of bone maturation irrespective of sex (P < 0.05). On contrary, dietary bee pollen positively affected bone homeostasis of trabecular bone in bone metaphysis as bone mineral density increased in experimental groups (P < 0.05). In males, this was the result of the increase of trabecular thickness (P < 0.01), in females due to the reduction of trabecular space (P < 0.001). In conclusion, our results demonstrate that bee pollen (1.0%, 10 g/kg of feed) supplementation caused significant negative effects on the mechanical endurance of the tibia of quails, while showed beneficial effects on trabecular bone histomorphometry.


Assuntos
Abelhas/metabolismo , Densidade Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Desenvolvimento Ósseo/efeitos dos fármacos , Pólen/metabolismo , Tíbia/efeitos dos fármacos , Ração Animal , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Coturnix , Dieta , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Masculino , Carne , Codorniz
16.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0228169, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32049993

RESUMO

Honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies are valued for the pollination services that they provide. However, colony mortality has increased to unsustainable levels in some countries, including the United States. Landscape conversion to monocrop agriculture likely plays a role in this increased mortality by decreasing the food sources available to honey bees. Many land owners and organizations in the Upper Midwest region of the United States would like to restore/reconstruct native prairie habitats. With increasing public awareness of high bee mortality, many landowners and beekeepers have wondered whether these restored prairies could significantly improve honey bee colony nutrition. Conveniently, honey bees have a unique communication signal called a waggle dance, which indicates the locations of the flower patches that foragers perceive as highly profitable food sources. We used these communication signals to answer two main questions: First, is there any part of the season in which the foraging force of a honey bee colony will devote a large proportion of its recruitment efforts (waggle dances) to flower patches within prairies? Second, will honey bee foragers advertise specific taxa of native prairie flowers as profitable pollen sources? We decoded 1528 waggle dances in colonies located near two large, reconstructed prairies. We also collected pollen loads from a subset of waggle-dancing bees, which we then analyzed to determine the flower taxon advertised. Most dances advertised flower patches outside of reconstructed prairies, but the proportion of dances advertising nectar sources within prairies increased significantly in the late summer/fall at one site. Honey bees advertised seven native prairie taxa as profitable pollen sources, although the three most commonly advertised pollen taxa were non-native. Our results suggest that including certain native prairie flower taxa in reconstructed prairies may increase the chances that colonies will use those prairies as major food sources during the period of greatest colony growth and honey production.


Assuntos
Comunicação Animal , Abelhas , Pradaria , Comportamento de Nidação , Animais , Abelhas/metabolismo , Pólen/metabolismo
17.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 2117, 2020 02 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32034205

RESUMO

The mite Varroa destructor is a serious threat to honeybee populations. Selective breeding for Varroa mite tolerance could be accelerated by biomarkers within individual bees that could be applied to evaluate a colony phenotype. Previously, we demonstrated differences in kinase-mediated signaling between bees from colonies of extreme phenotypes of mite susceptibility. We expand these findings by defining a panel of 19 phosphorylation events that differ significantly between individual pupae from multiple colonies with distinct Varroa mite tolerant phenotypes. The predictive capacity of these biomarkers was evaluated by analyzing uninfested pupae from eight colonies representing a spectrum of mite tolerance. The pool of biomarkers effectively discriminated individual pupae on the basis of colony susceptibility to mite infestation. Kinome analysis of uninfested pupae from mite tolerant colonies highlighted an increased innate immune response capacity. The implication that differences in innate immunity contribute to mite susceptibility is supported by the observation that induction of innate immune signaling responses to infestation is compromised in pupae of the susceptible colonies. Collectively, biomarkers within individual pupae that are predictive of the susceptibility of colonies to mite infestation could provide a molecular tool for selective breeding of tolerant colonies.


Assuntos
Abelhas/imunologia , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Olho/imunologia , Tolerância Imunológica/imunologia , Infestações por Ácaros/imunologia , Pupa/imunologia , Varroidae/imunologia , Animais , Abelhas/metabolismo , Olho/metabolismo , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/imunologia , Pupa/metabolismo
18.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 2190, 2020 02 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32042077

RESUMO

Understanding the effect of pesticides on the survival of honeybee colonies is important because these pollinators are reportedly declining globally. In the present study, we examined the changes in the head proteome of nurse honeybees exposed to individual and combined pesticides (the fungicide pyraclostrobin and the insecticide fipronil) at field-relevant doses (850 and 2.5 ppb, respectively). The head proteomes of bees exposed to pesticides were compared with those of bees that were not exposed, and proteins with differences in expression were identified by mass spectrometry. The exposure of nurse bees to pesticides reduced the expression of four of the major royal jelly proteins (MRJP1, MRJP2, MRJP4, and MRJP5) and also several proteins associated with carbohydrate metabolism and energy synthesis, the antioxidant system, detoxification, biosynthesis, amino acid metabolism, transcription and translation, protein folding and binding, olfaction, and learning and memory. Overall, when pyraclostrobin and fipronil were combined, the changes in protein expression were exacerbated. Our results demonstrate that vital proteins and metabolic processes are impaired in nurse honeybees exposed to pesticides in doses close to those experienced by these insects in the field, increasing their susceptibility to stressors and affecting the nutrition and maintenance of both managed and natural colonies.


Assuntos
Abelhas/metabolismo , Praguicidas/efeitos adversos , Proteoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Abelhas/efeitos dos fármacos , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Fungicidas Industriais/efeitos adversos , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Inseticidas/efeitos adversos , Proteoma/metabolismo , Proteômica/métodos , Pirazóis/efeitos adversos , Estrobilurinas/efeitos adversos
19.
J Vis Exp ; (155)2020 01 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32065127

RESUMO

Cluster Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) is a gene editing technique widely used in studies of gene function. We use this method in this study to check for the specificity of antibodies developed against the insect GABAA receptor subunit Resistance to Dieldrin (RDL) and a metabotropic glutamate receptor mGlutR1 (mGluRA). The antibodies were generated in rabbits against the conjugated peptides specific to fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) as well to honeybees (Apis mellifera). We used these antibodies in honeybee brain sections to study the distribution of the receptors in honeybee brains. The antibodies were affinity purified against the peptide and tested with immunoblotting and the classical method of preadsorption with peptide conjugates to show that the antibodies are specific to the corresponding peptide conjugates against which they were raised. Here we developed the CRISPR-Cas9 technique to test for the reduction of protein targets in the brain 48 h after CRISPR-Cas9 injection with guide RNAs designed for the corresponding receptor. The CRISPR-Cas9 method can also be used in behavioral analyses in the adult bees when one or multiple genes need to be modified.


Assuntos
Anticorpos/metabolismo , Abelhas/metabolismo , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/genética , Dieldrin/metabolismo , Receptores de Glutamato Metabotrópico/metabolismo , Animais , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , RNA Guia/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Coelhos
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(2)2020 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31936187

RESUMO

Royal jelly (RJ) is a yellowish-white and acidic secretion of hypopharyngeal and mandibular glands of nurse bees used to feed young worker larvae during the first three days and the entire life of queen bees. RJ is one of the most appreciated and valued natural product which has been mainly used in traditional medicines, health foods, and cosmetics for a long time in different parts of the world. It is also the most studied bee product, aimed at unravelling its bioactivities, such as antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-aging, immunomodulatory, and general tonic action against laboratory animals, microbial organisms, farm animals, and clinical trials. It is commonly used to supplement various diseases, including cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular, and Alzheimer's disease. Here, we highlight the recent research advances on the main bioactive compounds of RJ, such as proteins, peptides, fatty acids, and phenolics, for a comprehensive understanding of the biochemistry, biological, and pharmaceutical responses to human health promotion and life benefits. This is potentially important to gain novel insight into the biological and pharmaceutical properties of RJ.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/química , Antioxidantes/química , Ácidos Graxos/química , Animais , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Abelhas/química , Abelhas/metabolismo , Produtos Biológicos/química , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Cosméticos , Ácidos Graxos/farmacologia , Humanos , Larva/metabolismo , Preparações Farmacêuticas/química
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