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1.
Theriogenology ; 176: 217-224, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34628084

RESUMO

Mixed infection with Escherichia coli and Trueperella pyogenes (T. pyogenes) leads to purulent endometritis, but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of tanshinone ⅡA (Tan ⅡA) on E. coli and T. pyogenes -induced purulent endometritis and explore the underlying mechanism. First, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) isolated from E. coli and bacteria-free filtrates (BFFs) isolated from T. pyogenes were used to induce a model of bovine endometrial epithelial cell (bEEC) damage in vitro. bEECs were pretreated with or without Tan ⅡA for 2 h, before LPS and BFFs were introduced to induce damage to investigate the protective effect of Tan IIA. Then, the cytolytic activity and inflammatory response in bEECs were examined using CCK-8, LDH and RT-qPCR assays. Furthermore, we confirmed the molecular mechanism by which Tan ⅡA reversed the damaged phenotypes in LPS- and BFFs-induced bEECs via the NF-κB/Snail2 pathway using qPCR and Western blotting. Tan ⅡA significantly decreased the cytolytic activity and inflammatory response in LPS- and BFFs-induced bEECs. In addition, Tan ⅡA reversed the dysregulation of E-cadherin, N-cadherin and vimentin. Moreover, Tan ⅡA significantly inhibited the activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway and decreased the expression level of Snail2, which is the main regulator of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). In summary, Tan ⅡA inhibits the LPS-induced EMT and protects bEECs from pyolysin-induced damage by modulating the NF-κB/Snail2 signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Lipopolissacarídeos , NF-kappa B , Abietanos , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias , Toxinas Bacterianas , Bovinos , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Feminino , Proteínas Hemolisinas , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
2.
Planta ; 254(5): 95, 2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34643823

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: A novel cytochrome P450 from Tripterygium wilfordii, CYP81AM1, specifically catalyses the C-15 hydroxylation of dehydroabietic acid. This is the first CYP450 to be found in plants with this function. Cytochrome P450 oxygenases (CYPs) play an important role in the post-modification in biosynthesis of plant bioactive terpenoids. Here, we found that CYP81AM1 can catalyze the formation of 15-hydroxydehydroabietic acid by in vitro enzymatic reactions and in vivo yeast feeding assays. This is the first study to show that CYP81 family enzymes are involved in the hydroxylation of abietane diterpenoids. At the same time, we found that CYP81AM1 could not catalyse abietatriene and dehydroabietinol, suggesting that the occurrence of the reaction may be related to the carboxyl group. Through molecular docking and site mutations, it was found that some amino acid sites (F104, K107) near the carboxyl group had an important effect on enzyme activity, also suggesting that the carboxyl group played an important role in the occurrence of the reaction.


Assuntos
Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450 , Tripterygium , Abietanos , Catálise , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/genética , Hidroxilação , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular
3.
Molecules ; 26(19)2021 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34641608

RESUMO

The effect of spontaneous fermentation by lactic acid bacteria on the extraction yield of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity from rosemary leaf extracts was investigated using high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC). Brining and spontaneous fermentation with lactic acid bacteria more than doubled extraction of polyphenolics and antioxidants from the rosemary leaves. The results show that lactic acid fermentation enhances antioxidant activity in extracts by increasing the total phenolic content but does not increase extraction of phytosterols. Increased extraction of phenolic oxidants during fermentation assisted extraction, results from the in situ generated natural eutectic solvent from the plant sample. ATR-FTIR spectra from the bioactive bands suggests that this increased antioxidant activity is associated with increased extraction of rosmarinic acid, depolymerised lignin, abietane diterpenoids and 15-hydroxy-7-oxodehydroabietic acid.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Lactobacillales/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Rosmarinus/química , Rosmarinus/metabolismo , Abietanos/química , Abietanos/metabolismo , Cromatografia em Camada Delgada , Cinamatos/química , Cinamatos/metabolismo , Depsídeos/química , Depsídeos/metabolismo , Fermentação , Humanos , Lignina/química , Lignina/metabolismo , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
4.
Soft Matter ; 17(43): 9950-9956, 2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34694306

RESUMO

The morphology and physicochemical properties of ordered molecular aggregates are closely related to surfactant molecules. Herein, a rosin-based amine oxide surfactant containing a large hydrophobic group (abbreviated R-10-AO) was synthesized from dehydroabietic acid, which is an important derivative of rosin. Cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) images and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) showed that at a concentration of ∼5 mM, R-10-AO molecules formed flexible nanobelts with a thickness of only 2-3 nm. The width of these nanobelts was 50-150 nm and the length was more than 1 µm. The formation of the stable nanobelts arose from the strong van der Waals forces of the bulky hydrophobic portions of R-10-AO in solution, facilitating the stability of the asymmetrical aggregates. Rheological tests showed that the formed nanobelts were thermodynamically stable. The entanglement of these nanobelts led to significant viscoelasticity of the solutions. The zero-shear viscosity (η0) of the R-10-AO solution reached 10 Pa s at a concentration of 5 mM, which is much greater than that of most wormlike micellar solutions. This work provides the inspirations of preparing aggregates with novel properties using natural products.


Assuntos
Abietanos , Tensoativos , Espalhamento a Baixo Ângulo , Difração de Raios X
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(19)2021 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34638551

RESUMO

Different approaches have been reported to enhance penetration of small drugs through physiological barriers; among them is the self-assembly drug conjugates preparation that shows to be a promising approach to improve activity and penetration, as well as to reduce side effects. In recent years, the use of drug-conjugates, usually obtained by covalent coupling of a drug with biocompatible lipid moieties to form nanoparticles, has gained considerable attention. Natural products isolated from plants have been a successful source of potential drug leads with unique structural diversity. In the present work three molecules derived from natural products were employed as lead molecules for the synthesis of self-assembled nanoparticles. The first molecule is the cytotoxic royleanone 7α-acetoxy-6ß-hydroxyroyleanone (Roy, 1) that has been isolated from hairy coleus (Plectranthus hadiensis (Forssk.) Schweinf). ex Sprenger leaves in a large amount. This royleanone, its hemisynthetic derivative 7α-acetoxy-6ß-hydroxy-12-benzoyloxyroyleanone (12BzRoy, 2) and 6,7-dehydroroyleanone (DHR, 3), isolated from the essential oil of thicket coleus (P. madagascariensis (Pers.) Benth.) were employed in this study. The royleanones were conjugated with squalene (sq), oleic acid (OA), and/or 1-bromododecane (BD) self-assembly inducers. Roy-OA, DHR-sq, and 12BzRoy-sq conjugates were successfully synthesized and characterized. The cytotoxic effect of DHR-sq was previously assessed on three human cell lines: NCI-H460 (IC50 74.0 ± 2.2 µM), NCI-H460/R (IC50 147.3 ± 3.7 µM), and MRC-5 (IC50 127.3 ± 7.3 µM), and in this work Roy-OA NPs was assayed against Vero-E6 cells at different concentrations (0.05, 0.1, and 0.2 mg/mL). The cytotoxicity of DHR-sq NPs was lower when compared with DHR alone in these cell lines: NCI-H460 (IC50 10.3 ± 0.5 µM), NCI-H460/R (IC50 10.6 ± 0.4 µM), and MRC-5 (IC5016.9 ± 0.5 µM). The same results were observed with Roy-OA NPs against Vero-E6 cells as was found to be less cytotoxic than Roy alone in all the concentrations tested. From the obtained DLS results, 12BzRoy-sq assemblies were not in the nano range, although Roy-OA NP assemblies show a promising size (509.33 nm), Pdl (0.249), zeta potential (-46.2 mV), and spherical morphology from SEM. In addition, these NPs had a low release of Roy at physiological pH 7.4 after 24 h. These results suggest the nano assemblies can act as prodrugs for the release of cytotoxic lead molecules.


Assuntos
Abietanos/química , Abietanos/farmacologia , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Nanopartículas/química , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Chlorocebus aethiops , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Bromados/química , Ácido Oleico/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Plectranthus/química , Pró-Fármacos/efeitos adversos , Pró-Fármacos/farmacologia , Esqualeno/química , Testes de Toxicidade Aguda/métodos , Células Vero
6.
Molecules ; 26(17)2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500582

RESUMO

Salvia corrugata Vahl. is an interesting source of abietane and abeo-abietane compounds that showed antibacterial, antitumor, and cytotoxic activities. The aim of the study was to obtain transformed roots of S. corrugata and to evaluate the production of terpenoids in comparison with in vivo root production. Hairy roots were initiated from leaf explants by infection with ATCC 15834 Agrobacterium rhizogenes onto hormone-free Murashige and Skoog (MS) solid medium. Transformation was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction analysis of rolC and virC1 genes. The biomass production was obtained in hormone-free liquid MS medium using Temporary Immersion System bioreactor RITA®. The chromatographic separation of the methanolic extract of the untransformed roots afforded horminone, ferruginol, 7-O-acetylhorminone and 7-O-methylhorminone. Agastol and ferruginol were isolated and quantified from the hairy roots. The amount of these metabolites indicated that the hairy roots of S. corrugata can be considered a source of these compounds.


Assuntos
Abietanos/química , Diterpenos/química , Raízes de Plantas/química , Salvia/química , Agrobacterium/química , Agrobacterium/genética , Biomassa , Reatores Biológicos , Meios de Cultura/química , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/química , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Salvia/genética , Transformação Genética/genética
7.
Molecules ; 26(18)2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34577074

RESUMO

Nepeta bracteata Benth. is used clinically to treat tracheal inflammation, coughs, asthma, colds, fevers, adverse urination, and other symptoms, along with functions in clearing heat and removing dampness. However, there have been few studies characterizing the material basis of its efficacy. Therefore, the aim of this study was to screen for compounds with anti-inflammatory activities in N. bracteata Benth. Using silica gel, ODS C18, and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography, as well as semipreparative HPLC, 10 compounds were separated from N. bracteata Benth. extract, including four new diterpenoids (1-4), one amide alkaloid (5), and five known diterpenoids (6-10). The structures of all the isolates were elucidated by HR-ESI-MS, NMR, and CD analyses. Using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells, we investigated the anti-inflammatory activities of compounds 1-10. It is worth noting that all were able to inhibit nitric oxide (NO) production with IC50 values < 50 µM and little effect on RAW 264.7 macrophage viability. Compounds 2 and 4 displayed remarkable inhibition with IC50 values of 19.2 and 18.8 µM, respectively. Meanwhile, screening on HCT-8 cells demonstrated that compounds 2 and 4 also had moderate cytotoxic activities with IC50 values of 36.3 and 41.4 µM, respectively, which is related to their anti-inflammatory effects.


Assuntos
Abietanos/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Nepeta/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Abietanos/química , Abietanos/toxicidade , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/toxicidade , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , Camundongos , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Células RAW 264.7
8.
Phytochemistry ; 192: 112950, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34530282

RESUMO

Carnosic acid (CA), a phenolic diterpene and abietane-type compound, is a potent natural antioxidant with medical benefits. The present paper elucidates, for the first time, the kinetics and the exact mechanism of the peroxyl radical scavenging activity of CA in the gas phase and under physiological conditions. According to the obtained results, the reaction of CA with HOO• is significantly faster in aqueous solution than in the gas phase and nonpolar environments. The abstraction of the hydrogen atom from 2-OH is the decisive mechanism in the gas phase and nonpolar media, while both hydrogen abstraction (15%) and electron transfer (85%) mechanisms can take place in aqueous solution. The overall rate coefficient in water (4.73 × 106 M-1 s-1) is about 36 times higher than that of the reference antioxidant Trolox (1.30 × 105 M-1 s-1), suggesting that CA is a potent scavenger of peroxyl radicals in polar media.


Assuntos
Abietanos , Sequestradores de Radicais Livres , Abietanos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Sequestradores de Radicais Livres/farmacologia , Cinética , Peróxidos
9.
Int J Pharm ; 607: 121034, 2021 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34425193

RESUMO

Our previous studies have proven that carnosic acid (CA) induces apoptosis of liver cancer cells. However, the poor chemical properties of CA limit its in vivo anti-cancer effects. In this study, CA was loaded into liposomes (LP-CA), and LP-CA was further conjugated with transferrin (Tf-LP-CA) to overcome the shortcomings of poor solubility and absorption at the lesion site. In HepG2 and SMMC-7721 cells, compared with CA and LP-CA, more Tf-LP-CA was absorbed by liver cancer cells, which induced higher levels of apoptosis and reduced the mitochondrial membrane potential more effectively. In HepG2- and SMMC-7721-xenotransplanted mice, Tf-LP-CA inhibited tumor growth with no cytotoxicity to the liver, spleen, or kidney. Furthermore, compared with CA and LP-CA, Tf-LP-CA targeted the tumor site more effectively, enhanced the expressions of cleaved poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, and Caspase-3 and -9, and regulated the expression levels of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl2) family members in the tumor tissues. Tf-LP-CA was taken up by tumor cells and targeted at tumor tissues, ensuring the precise delivery of CA, which further promoted mitochondria-mediated intrinsic apoptosis in the liver cancer cells. These results provide evidence for the clinical application of the Tf-LP-based CA drug delivery system for liver cancer.


Assuntos
Lipossomos , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Abietanos , Animais , Apoptose , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Camundongos , Mitocôndrias , Transferrina
10.
Dermatol Ther ; 34(5): e15086, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34350676

RESUMO

Tanshinone IIA has been reported to exhibit anti-inflammatory effects, while it is not clear whether Tanshinone IIA has protective role in vitiligo. Premelanosome (PMEL) CD8+ T cells were adoptive transferred into Krt14- Kitl* mice with Kit ligand (KITL) over-expressed, to construct the vitiligo model. Pdk1fl/fl and Stat3fl/fl mice were crossed with Cd8cre mice to establish Pdk1TKO and Stat3TKO mice. Tanshinone IIA (200 µg) was intravenous injected to treat vitiligo in mice every 3 days. The accumulation of macrophages and CD8+ T cells in the ear skin was assayed by flow cytometry. Bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) were induced and stimulated with lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and IL-4. It was found that Tanshinone IIA alleviated the development of vitiligo, impaired PMEL CD8+ T cells accumulation in the ear skin, and inhibited LPS-induced TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1ß expression and secretion in BMDMs, which could also inhibit IL-4-induced Arg-1 and Mrc-1 expression in BMDMs. In addition, Tanshinone IIA could inhibit the proliferation and cytotoxic function of CD8+ T cells indicated by the expression of Perforin, Granzymeb, and IFN-γ. Furthermore, Tanshinone IIA treated Pdk1TKO mice, not Stat3TKO mice, showed impaired PMEL CD8+ T cells accumulation in the ear skin. In summary, Tanshinone IIA alleviates vitiligo development with impaired CD8+ T cells accumulation and activation of Pdk1-Akt pathway.


Assuntos
Vitiligo , Abietanos/farmacologia , Animais , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos , Camundongos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt , Vitiligo/tratamento farmacológico
11.
Phytother Res ; 35(10): 5883-5898, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34427348

RESUMO

Efficient therapy of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is still a major challenge. The current studies with single-target drug therapy are the pessimistic approaches due to the complex characteristics of IPF. Here, a combination therapy of Tanshinone IIA and Puerarin for IPF was proposed to alleviate IPF due to their antiinflammatory and anti-fibrotic effects. In vivo, the combination therapy could significantly attenuate the area of ground glass opacification that was presented by 85% percentile density score of the micro-CT images when compared to single conditions. In addition, the combination therapy enormously improved the survival rate and alleviated pathological changes in bleomycin (BLM)-induced IPF mice. By using a wide spectrum of infiltration biomarkers in immunofluorescence assay in pathological sections, we demonstrate that fewer IL6 related macrophage infiltration and fibrosis area after this combination therapy, and further proved that IL6-JAK2-STAT3/STAT1 is the key mechanism of the combination therapy. In vitro, combination therapy markedly inhibited the fibroblasts activation and migration which was induced by TGF-ß1 or/and IL6 through JAK2-STAT3/STAT1 signaling pathway. This study demonstrated that combination therapeutic effect of TanIIA and Pue on IPF may be related to the reduced inflammatory response targeting IL6, which could be an optimistic and effective approach for IPF.


Assuntos
Interleucina-6 , Fibrose Pulmonar , Abietanos , Animais , Bleomicina , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Isoflavonas , Pulmão/metabolismo , Camundongos , Fibrose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Fator de Transcrição STAT1 , Transdução de Sinais
12.
Chin J Nat Med ; 19(8): 632-640, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34419263

RESUMO

A phytochemical investigation was carried out on the extract of a medicinal plant Callicarpa nudiflora, resulting in the characterization of five new 3, 4-seco-isopimarane (1-5) and one new 3, 4-seco-pimarane diterpenoid (6), together with four known compounds. The structures of the new compounds were fully elucidated by extensive analysis of MS, 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data, and time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) calculation of electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra, and DFT calculations for NMR chemical shifts and optical rotations.


Assuntos
Abietanos , Callicarpa , Diterpenos , Abietanos/química , Abietanos/isolamento & purificação , Callicarpa/química , Diterpenos/química , Diterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Estrutura Molecular , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Folhas de Planta
13.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443454

RESUMO

Two new abietane diterpenoids (1,2), along with five known diterpenoids (3-7), were first isolated and purified from the stems of Clerodendrum bracteatum. The structures of the new compounds were established by extensive analysis of mass spectrometric and 1-D, 2-D NMR spectroscopic data. Their antioxidant activities were determined on DPPH radical scavenging and ABTS. The in vitro cytotoxic activities of the compounds were evaluated against the HL-60 and A549 cell lines by the MTT method.


Assuntos
Abietanos/isolamento & purificação , Abietanos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Clerodendrum/química , Diterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Diterpenos/farmacologia , Células A549 , Abietanos/química , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Diterpenos/química , Células HL-60 , Humanos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética
14.
Phytochemistry ; 191: 112926, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34425461

RESUMO

Two seco-norabietane diterpenes with unique structures, namely abrotafuran and abrotacid, were isolated from the roots of Salvia abrotanoides (Kar.) Sytsma. The compounds were characterized by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic techniques, ECD, and HR-ESIMS experiments. Plausible biosynthetic pathways of abrotafuran and abrotacid were proposed. These compounds did not exhibit antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. However, the rearranged seco-norabietane abrotafuran showed antiproliferative activity on HeLa (cervical carcinoma) and Jurkat (T-cell leukemia) cell lines.


Assuntos
Diterpenos , Salvia , Abietanos/farmacologia , Diterpenos/farmacologia , Estrutura Molecular , Raízes de Plantas , Esqueleto
15.
Phytochemistry ; 191: 112932, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34454170

RESUMO

The NAC (NAM, ATAF, and CUC) family members are specific transcription factors in plants. The large family is involved in many plant growth and developmental processes, as well as in abiotic/biotic stress responses. It has been well studied in the genomes of various plants, including Arabidopsis thaliana, tomato, and quinoa. However, identification and functional studies of NAC family members in medicinal Salvia miltiorrhiza are limited. Here, we systematically identified 84 NAC genes and named them according to their gene IDs in the recently sequenced genome. The phylogeny of NAC family protein sequences was analyzed using bioinformatics methods, which divided them into nine subfamilies. Then, their chromosomal locations, gene structures and conserved domains were analyzed comprehensively. To further investigate the regulatory functions of NACs in S. miltiorrhiza, we analyzed the response of 10 selected NAC genes to methyl jasmonate and used NAC2 for transgenic experiments. The overexpression of Sm-NAC2 decreased the tanshinone I and IIA contents by 56% and 62%, respectively. However, Sm-NAC2-RNAi promoted the accumulation of four tanshinones, tanshinone I, tanshinone IIA, cryptotanshinone, and dihydrotanshinone I, which increased 3.68-, 4.1-, 3.13- and 5.9- fold, respectively, compared with wild type. In the tanshinone biosynthetic pathways, the overexpression of Sm-NAC2 down-regulated CYP76AH1, and the silencing of Sm-NAC2 up-regulated the expression levels of HMGR1, DXS2, KSL2, and CYP76AH1. This study provides information on the evolution of Sm-NAC genes and their possible functions, and it lays a foundation for further research into the NAC family-associated regulation of tanshinone biosynthesis.


Assuntos
Salvia miltiorrhiza , Abietanos , Família , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Raízes de Plantas , Salvia miltiorrhiza/genética
16.
Biomolecules ; 11(7)2021 07 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34356625

RESUMO

Monoamine oxidases (MAOs) and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) are considered important therapeutic targets for Parkinson's disease (PD). Lipophilic tanshinones are major phytoconstituents in the dried roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza that have demonstrated neuroprotective effects against dopaminergic neurotoxins and the inhibition of MAO-A. Since MAO-B inhibition is considered an effective therapeutic strategy for PD, we tested the inhibitory activities of three abundant tanshinone congeners against recombinant human MAO (hMAO) isoenzymes through in vitro experiments. In our study, tanshinone I (1) exhibited the highest potency against hMAO-A, followed by tanshinone IIA and cryptotanshinone, with an IC50 less than 10 µM. They also suppressed hMAO-B activity, with an IC50 below 25 µM. Although tanshinones are known to inhibit hMAO-A, their enzyme inhibition mechanism and binding sites have yet to be investigated. Enzyme kinetics and molecular docking studies have revealed the mode of inhibition and interactions of tanshinones during enzyme inhibition. Proteochemometric modeling predicted mAChRs as possible pharmacological targets of 1, and in vitro functional assays confirmed the selective M4 antagonist nature of 1 (56.1% ± 2.40% inhibition of control agonist response at 100 µM). These findings indicate that 1 is a potential therapeutic molecule for managing the motor dysfunction and depression associated with PD.


Assuntos
Abietanos , Inibidores da Monoaminoxidase , Monoaminoxidase , Fenantrenos , Receptor Muscarínico M4 , Salvia miltiorrhiza/química , Abietanos/química , Abietanos/farmacologia , Animais , Células CHO , Cricetulus , Humanos , Monoaminoxidase/química , Monoaminoxidase/genética , Monoaminoxidase/metabolismo , Inibidores da Monoaminoxidase/química , Inibidores da Monoaminoxidase/farmacologia , Fenantrenos/química , Fenantrenos/farmacologia , Receptor Muscarínico M4/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor Muscarínico M4/química , Receptor Muscarínico M4/genética , Receptor Muscarínico M4/metabolismo
17.
Molecules ; 26(14)2021 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299396

RESUMO

In this study, two previously undescribed diterpenoids, (5R,10S,16R)-11,16,19-trihydroxy-12-O-ß-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-ß-d-glucopyranosyl-17(15→16),18(4→3)-diabeo-3,8,11,13-abietatetraene-7-one (1) and (5R,10S,16R)-11,16-dihydroxy-12-O-ß-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-ß-d-glucopyranosyl-17(15→16),18(4→3)-diabeo-4-carboxy-3,8,11,13-abietatetraene-7-one (2), and one known compound, the C13-nor-isoprenoid glycoside byzantionoside B (3), were isolated from the leaves of Clerodendrum infortunatum L. (Lamiaceae). Structures were established based on spectroscopic and spectrometric data and by comparison with literature data. The three terpenoids, along with five phenylpropanoids: 6'-O-caffeoyl-12-glucopyranosyloxyjasmonic acid (4), jionoside C (5), jionoside D (6), brachynoside (7), and incanoside C (8), previously isolated from the same source, were tested for their in vitro antidiabetic (α-amylase and α-glucosidase), anticancer (Hs578T and MDA-MB-231), and anticholinesterase activities. In an in vitro test against carbohydrate digestion enzymes, compound 6 showed the most potent effect against mammalian α-amylase (IC50 3.4 ± 0.2 µM) compared to the reference standard acarbose (IC50 5.9 ± 0.1 µM). As yeast α-glucosidase inhibitors, compounds 1, 2, 5, and 6 displayed moderate inhibitory activities, ranging from 24.6 to 96.0 µM, compared to acarbose (IC50 665 ± 42 µM). All of the tested compounds demonstrated negligible anticholinesterase effects. In an anticancer test, compounds 3 and 5 exhibited moderate antiproliferative properties with IC50 of 94.7 ± 1.3 and 85.3 ± 2.4 µM, respectively, against Hs578T cell, while the rest of the compounds did not show significant activity (IC50 > 100 µM).


Assuntos
Abietanos/química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Inibidores da Colinesterase/farmacologia , Clerodendrum/química , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/farmacologia , Glicosídeos/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Humanos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , alfa-Amilases/antagonistas & inibidores
18.
Chemistry ; 27(48): 12410-12421, 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34213030

RESUMO

Polyene cyclizations generate molecular complexity from a linear polyene in a single step. While methods to initiate these cyclizations have been continuously expanded and improved over the years, the majority of polyene substrates are still limited to simple alkyl-substituted alkenes. In this study, we took advantage of the unique reactivity of higher-functionalized bifunctional alkenes. The realization of a polyene tetracyclization of a dual nucleophilic aryl enol ether involving a transannular endo-termination step enabled the total synthesis of the tricyclic diterpenoid pimara-15-en-3α-8α-diol. The highly flexible and modular route allowed for the preparation of a diverse library of cyclization precursors specifically designed for the total synthesis of the tetracyclic nor-diterpenoid norflickinflimiod C. The tetracyclization of three diversely substituted allenes enabled access to complex pentacyclic products and provided a detailed insight into the underlying reaction pathways.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos , Abietanos , Ciclização , Polienos , Estereoisomerismo
19.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(11): 2806-2815, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34296579

RESUMO

The plant root-associated microbiomes include root microbiome and rhizosphere microbiome, which are closely related to plant life activities. Nearly 30% of photosynthesis products of plants are used to synthesize root compounds, there is evidence that root compounds regulate and significantly affect the root microbiome Tanshinones are the main hydrophobic components in Salvia miltiorrhiza. In order to study whether these compounds can regulate the root-associated microbiomes of S. miltiorrhiza, our study first identified a white root S. miltiorrhiza(BG) which contains little tanshinones. Retain of the fifth intron of tanshinones synthesis key enzyme gene SmCPS1 leading to the early termination of the SmCPS1 gene, and a stable white root phenotype. Further, wild type(WT) and BG were planted in greenhouse with nutrient soil(Pindstrup, Denmark) and Shandong soil(collected from the S. miltiorrhiza base in Weifang, Shandong), then high-throughput sequencing was used to analyze the root-associated microbiomes. The results showed that the tanshinones significantly affected the root-associated microbiomes of S. miltiorrhiza, and the impact on root microbiomes was more significant. There are significant differences between WT and BG root microbiomes in species richness, dominant strains and co-occurrence network. Tanshinones have a certain repelling effect on Bacilli which belongs to Gram-positive, while specifically attract some Gram-negative bacteria such as Betaproteobacteria and some specific genus of Alphaproteobacteria. This study determined the important role of tanshinones in regulating the structure of root-associated microbiomes from multiple angles, and shed a light for further improving the quality and yield of S. miltiorrhiza through microenvironment regulation.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Salvia miltiorrhiza , Abietanos , Raízes de Plantas
20.
Molecules ; 26(13)2021 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34202760

RESUMO

A phytochemical investigation of the leaves of the medicinal plant Isodon rubescens led to the isolation of the two new degraded abietane lactone diterpenoids rubesanolides F (1) and G (2). Their structures were elucidated based on the analyses of the HRESIMS and 1D/2D NMR spectral data, and their absolute configurations were determined by ECD spectrum calculations and X-ray single crystal diffraction methods. Compounds 1 and 2, with a unique γ-lactone subgroup between C-8 and C-20, were found to form a carbonyl carbon at C-13 by removal of the isopropyl group in an abietane diterpene skeleton. Rubesanolide G (2) is a rare case of abietane that possesses a cis-fused configuration between rings B and C. The two isolates were evaluated for their biological activities against two cancer cell lines (A549 and HL60), three fungal strains (Candida alba, Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus nigricans) and three bacterial strains (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis).


Assuntos
Abietanos , Anti-Infecciosos , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fungos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Isodon/química , Lactonas , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Folhas de Planta/química , Células A549 , Abietanos/química , Abietanos/isolamento & purificação , Abietanos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/isolamento & purificação , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Células HL-60 , Humanos , Lactonas/química , Lactonas/isolamento & purificação , Lactonas/farmacologia , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/patologia
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