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1.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 30(3): e008821, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34586175

RESUMO

This cross-sectional study investigates Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum among 445 recently spontaneously aborted (RSA) Jordanian women using ELISA and indirect fluorescent antibody (at a cut-off value of 1/200) tests, respectively. The type of hospital, age, cat and dog contacts, raw and barbecued meat and wild plant consumption, number of abortions, and stillbirths were tested as independent variables using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. The true seroprevalences were 22.1% for T. gondii-IgG, 22.7% for N. caninum-IgG, 2.6% for T. gondii-IgM, 10.6% for N. caninum-IgM, 0% for T. gondii-IgG and IgM, 6.7% for N. caninum-IgG and IgM, and 4.6% and 0% for both parasite IgG and IgM, respectively. T. gondii-IgM-seropositivity was associated with the number of abortions with odds ratios (OR) of 2.4 and eating barbecued meat (OR = 0.12). N. caninum-IgG-seropositivity was associated with having a dog in the house (OR = 2.6), and with stillbirth (OR = 0.1). N. caninum-IgM was associated with visiting a private-hospital (OR = 2.7). RSA Jordanian women are equally exposed to both parasites with significantly (p < 0.05) higher seroprevalence of N. caninum-IgM compared to T. gondii-IgM suggestive of active infections among RSA women in Jordan.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato , Doenças do Cão , Neospora , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose Animal , Aborto Animal/epidemiologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários , Gatos , Estudos Transversais , Cães , Feminino , Gravidez , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
2.
Theriogenology ; 174: 121-123, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34428677

RESUMO

This study aims to evaluate the association between reproductive disorders and the main serogroups of Leptospira spp. in dairy herds. Blood samples from 216 cows from nine herds were collected for a Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT), and a reproductive follow-up with ultrasonography was carried out monthly for at least 12 months. A total of 75 (16.5%) cows were reactive, while seroreactivity to a herd level ranged from 16.0% to 52.8%. Out of the nine herds, in five (55.0%) Sejroe was found to be the predominant serogroup and in four (45.0%) it was Icterohaemorrhagiae. The major reproductive problems identified were embryonic death (ED) and abortions. All herds presented ED and abortion was observed in three (33.3%). Herds with high seroreactivity (>20%) had more reproductive problems. Those with a predominance of Sejroe were associated with ED (P < 0.05), while those with Icterohaemorrhagiae were associated with abortion. The results show that different leptospiral strains lead to different reproductive problems, as well as showing that the main problem - ED - is caused by leptospirosis, particularly for those determined by strains of the serogroup Sejroe.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Leptospira , Leptospirose , Aborto Animal/epidemiologia , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Feminino , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Leptospirose/veterinária , Gravidez , Sorogrupo
3.
Theriogenology ; 172: 289-299, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34304044

RESUMO

In this paper, we described the incidence of early pregnancy loss (EPL) both after natural mating and embryo transfer, evaluated risk factors, and summarized the outcome of twin pregnancies throughout gestation in dromedaries under reproductive care. Data were collected over seven breeding seasons at the world's largest camel dairy farm (study 1). In addition, we determined the timing of EPL and monitored serum progesterone (P4) concentration between Days 13-70 of gestation during one breeding season (study 2). In the first study, out of 2970 pregnancies, 507 cases (17.1%) of EPL were diagnosed with transrectal ultrasonography. The rate of EPL after natural mating and embryo transfer was 16.1% (n = 422 out of 2616) and 24.0% (n = 85 out of 354), respectively. Twin pregnancies were detected in 215 cases (7.2% of all gestations), and 57 of those (26.5%) underwent complete EPL. Almost half of the early losses (n = 243; 47.9%) occurred before 30 d of gestation. Another 43.2% (n = 219) of EPL was diagnosed during the next month, and 8.9% (n = 45) occurred after 60 d of gestation. Multivariable mixed effects logistic regression models revealed that the breeding season (year) and twin pregnancy were the most important exposure variables affecting the rate of EPL (P < 0.001). The effect of some male camels was also demonstrated while other factors, such as type of breeding, age category, month of mating, breed/ecotype and reproductive history did not prove to have a significant influence. In the second study, the overall rate of EPL was 24.5% (n = 34 of 139). There was no difference in the incidence of EPL between ET recipient (24.2%, n = 23 of 95) and mated (25%, n = 11 of 44) camels. Weekly rate of EPL ranged from 0.9% to 4.8% with a decreasing tendency, and approx. 41% of the animals (n = 14 of 34) had some ultrasonographic signs of impending EPL 1 week before the final diagnosis. Mean serum P4 concentration in camels with subsequent EPL was 5.3 ± 0.1 ng/ml compared to 5.6 ± 0.04 ng/ml in normal pregnant dromedaries. Day of gestation and future EPL influenced serum P4 levels (P < 0.001) with an interaction between the two fixed factors (P < 0.05). At the time of the final diagnosis of EPL, mean serum P4 concentration was 2.8 ± 0.44 ng/ml. Although twinning had an unfavorable prognosis with a total pregnancy loss of 36.7%, it was not entirely detrimental for the final outcome of gestation as two-thirds of twin pregnancies (n = 136 out of 212) resulted in the birth of a live calf.


Assuntos
Aborto Animal , Camelus , Aborto Animal/epidemiologia , Animais , Transferência Embrionária/veterinária , Feminino , Incidência , Masculino , Parto , Gravidez
4.
Vet J ; 273: 105683, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34148605

RESUMO

Late-term foal loss due to the traditional avian pathogen Chlamydia psittaci recently emerged as a threat to the Australian Thoroughbred industry. A longitudinal study of 14 stud farms was undertaken to better understand C. psittaci infection in pregnant mares and their foals by evaluating C. psittaci prevalence, equine herpesvirus-1 (EHV-1) co-infection, avian reservoirs, and potential risk factors. Mucosal swabs taken from 228 healthy pregnant mares and their foals were tested for C. psittaci and EHV-1 using species-specific qPCR assays. No foal loss was recorded due to either pathogen, and no mare tested positive to either C. psittaci or EHV-1. However, healthy newborn foals tested positive to both pathogens, at low levels, with 13.2% (n = 30/228) and 14.5% (n = 33/228) prevalence for C. psittaci and EHV-1, respectively. Co-infection occurred in 1.3% (n = 3/228) of foals. In avian environmental faecal samples collected from the same studs, C. psittaci was detected at 5.3% (n = 5/94). Multiple logistic regression modelling found that foals born in winter were more likely to be infected with C. psittaci (adjusted odds ratio = 15.83; P < 0.001; Confidence Interval 5.12-48.49). Being a maiden mare, absence of prophylactic vaginal suture, interventions in the last trimester and residing on a farm with prior history of C. psittaci abortion posed no higher risk to infection in the newborn. Analysis of all reported C. psittaci abortion cases (Hunter Valley, 2016-2019) revealed a dominant C. psittaci sequence type (denoted ST24) and a significant correlation with frost events (Spearmans' rho = 0.44; P = 0.002).


Assuntos
Animais Recém-Nascidos/microbiologia , Chlamydophila psittaci/isolamento & purificação , Doenças dos Cavalos/epidemiologia , Psitacose/veterinária , Aborto Animal/epidemiologia , Aborto Animal/microbiologia , Animais , Austrália/epidemiologia , Aves , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Infecções por Herpesviridae/veterinária , Herpesvirus Equídeo 1/isolamento & purificação , Doenças dos Cavalos/microbiologia , Cavalos , Masculino , Gravidez , Psitacose/epidemiologia , Estações do Ano
5.
Res Vet Sci ; 138: 125-136, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34139624

RESUMO

Salmonella enterica subspecies diarizonae serovar 61:(k):1, 5, (7) (sheep associated S. diarizonae, SASd) is the most common Salmonella serotype identified in sheep flocks. Despite the involvement with animal and human infections, there is limited information regarding virulence profiles of SASds and their antibiotic resistance gene complement, particularly for those circulating in the U.S. In this study, we genetically characterized three SASds, 20-265, 20-269, and 20-312, isolated from sheep placental tissues during an abortion storm affecting a flock in Connecticut during 2020. SASds were the only bacteria isolated from analyzed sheep tissues. The isolates were sensitive to all the antibiotics tested, but all these SASd isolates carry the aminoglycoside resistance gene, aac(6')-Iaa, and a chromosomal substitution in the parC gene. The proportion of pseudogenes (5.3-5.5%) was similar among the isolates, and these SASds carry IncX1 type plasmids. Comparing with the SASds isolates from Enterobase, the three isolates showed an identical genomic virulence profile carrying virulence genes in the conserved set of other SASd isolates except for steC, iagB, iacP, sseI, and slrP genes. In the SNP-based phylogenetic analysis, SASd sequences were grouped into group A-C, and the group C was further subdivided into subgroup C1-C6. The three isolates clustered with other SASd isolates from the U.S. and Canada in subgroup C6. SASd isolates in the identical phylogenetic groups tended to have similar geographical origin. The results of our study did not provide conclusive evidence about which are the genetic traits that trigger SASds to become virulent in sheep, but our data will provide a point for comparative studies of this Salmonella serovar.


Assuntos
Aborto Animal/microbiologia , Salmonelose Animal/microbiologia , Salmonella/genética , Doenças dos Ovinos/microbiologia , Ovinos/microbiologia , Aborto Animal/epidemiologia , Animais , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Filogenia , Placenta/microbiologia , Plasmídeos/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Gravidez , Salmonella/imunologia , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Salmonella/patogenicidade , Salmonelose Animal/epidemiologia , Sorogrupo , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Virulência/genética
6.
Vet Res ; 52(1): 84, 2021 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34116730

RESUMO

Lamb survival is an important welfare and productivity issue for sheep industries worldwide. Lower lamb survival has been reported for primiparous ewes, but the causes of this are not well studied. The aim of this study was to determine causes of perinatal deaths for lambs born to primiparous ewes in Western Australia, and identify if infectious diseases are implicated. Lamb mortality from birth to marking were determined for 11 primiparous ewe flocks on 10 farms in Western Australia. Lamb mortality from birth to marking averaged 14% for single-born and 26% for multiple-born lambs. Lamb necropsies (n = 298) identified starvation-mismosthering-exposure (34%), dystocia (24%) and stillbirth (15%) as the most common causes of perinatal lamb death. There was no evidence of exotic abortigenic pathogens in aborted and stillborn lambs (n = 35). Chlamydia pecorum was detected by qPCR in 15/35 aborted and stillborn lambs on 5/6 farms. Preliminary molecular characterisation of C. pecorum detected in samples from aborted and stillborn lambs (n = 8) using both Multilocus Sequence Typing and ompA genotyping indicated all strains were genetically identical to previously described pathogenic livestock strains, denoted ST23, and dissimilar to gastrointestinal strains. High frequency of detection of a pathogenic C. pecorum strains ST23 associated with ovine abortion and stillbirth on multiple farms located across a wide geographic area has not been previously reported. Chlamydia pecorum may contribute to reproductive wastage for primiparous sheep in Western Australia. Further investigation to understand C. pecorum epidemiology and impact on sheep reproduction is warranted.


Assuntos
Aborto Animal/epidemiologia , Infecções por Chlamydia/veterinária , Chlamydia/isolamento & purificação , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Natimorto/veterinária , Aborto Animal/microbiologia , Animais , Infecções por Chlamydia/epidemiologia , Infecções por Chlamydia/microbiologia , Feminino , Incidência , Masculino , Prevalência , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/microbiologia , Carneiro Doméstico , Natimorto/epidemiologia , Austrália Ocidental/epidemiologia
7.
Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis ; 77: 101665, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34051649

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the epidemiology of 10 suspicious pathogenic bacteria in 250 stomach contents of aborted calf, lamb, and goat foetuses in 2019. The 155 positive samples obtained from PCR consisted of 53 (58.88 %) bacteria from 90 lamb samples, 10 (43.47 %) bacteria from 23 goat samples, and 92 (67.15 %) bacteria from 137 calf samples. The five most common bacteria associated with abortions were Brucella melitensis, 52 (20.9 %); B. abortus, 13 (5.2 %); Leptospira spp., 34 (13.6 %); Campylobacter fetus, 52 (20.9 %); and Coxiella burnetii, 4 (1.6 %). The highest rate of B. melitensis (65.4 %), B. abortus (69.2 %), Leptospira spp. (67.6 %), and C. fetus (50 %) was detected in the aborted calf samples. The highest individual rate was that of C. fetus (5.2 %). The flock-herd rates of B. melitensis, B. abortus, Leptospira spp., C. fetus, and C. burnetii infections in the 29 farms studied were 34.48 %, 20.69 %, 62.06 %, 82.75 %, and 3.44 %, respectively, with a confidence level and interval of 95 %. The frequency of abortions caused by Leptospira spp. and Campylobacter fetus may be related to increasing in B. melitensis. The rates of aborted calf, lamb, and goat foetuses among the various sampling periods and regions were significantly (P < 0.01) different. In conclusion, precautions should be applied to reduce the spread of these bacterial agents in high-risk areas and to eliminate the risk of harbouring these zoonotic infections in humans. Therefore, these results must be taken into account in the development of control and protection strategies against abortions in animals.


Assuntos
Abortivos , Doenças das Cabras , Aborto Animal/epidemiologia , Animais , Animais Domésticos , Bactérias , Feminino , Gravidez , Ovinos , Turquia/epidemiologia
8.
J Parasitol ; 107(2): 309-319, 2021 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33886960

RESUMO

Toxoplasma gondii infections are common in humans and animals worldwide. The ingestion of food or water contaminated with oocysts excreted by infected cats or ingestion of uncooked or undercooked meat containing tissue cysts of T. gondii are the 2 major modes of transmission of T. gondii. Deer are a popular game. Recently, outbreaks of clinical toxoplasmosis were reported in humans in North America linked to ingestion of undercooked venison. Here, we review prevalence, persistence of infection, clinical disease, epidemiology, and public health risks of T. gondii infections in deer and other cervids for the past decade. Estimates of worldwide serological prevalence are summarized individually for each species of deer, elk, moose, and caribou. Genetic diversity of 112 viable isolates of T. gondii from cervids is discussed, including its public health significance. Prevalence of T. gondii in deer is very high. Any part of a deer, including liver, spleen, and muscles, should be cooked thoroughly before human consumption.


Assuntos
Cervos/parasitologia , Carne/parasitologia , Toxoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/transmissão , Toxoplasmose/etiologia , Aborto Animal/epidemiologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Culinária/métodos , Culinária/normas , DNA de Protozoário/análise , Genótipo , Humanos , Fígado/parasitologia , Músculos/parasitologia , Prevalência , Baço/parasitologia , Toxoplasma/classificação , Toxoplasma/genética , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Toxoplasmose/epidemiologia , Toxoplasmose/transmissão , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
9.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0250116, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33852632

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coxiella burnetii is the causative agent of Q fever which is a highly infectious zoonotic disease. C. burnetii has become one of the most important causes of abortion in livestock, which can lead to widespread abortions in these animals. There are very limited studies on the prevalence of C. burnetii infection in cases of animal abortion in Iran. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of C. burnetii in ruminant abortion samples in Iran. METHODS: Abortion samples from cattle, sheep and goats were collected from different parts of Iran and were tested using Real-time PCR targeting the IS1111 element of C. burnetii. RESULTS: In this study, 36 samples (24.7%) of the 146 collected samples were positive for C. burnetii. The prevalence of C. burnetii was 21.3% (20 of 94 samples) in sheep samples. Also, 10 of 46 cattle samples (21.7%) were positive. All six goat abortion samples were positive for C. burnetii. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of the study demonstrate that C. burnetii plays an important role in domestic ruminant abortions in Iran, suggesting that more attention should be paid to the role of C. burnetii in domestic animal abortions by veterinary organizations. The risk of transmitting the infection to humans due to abortion of animals should also be considered.


Assuntos
Aborto Animal/microbiologia , Coxiella burnetii/isolamento & purificação , Febre Q/epidemiologia , Aborto Animal/epidemiologia , Animais , Animais Domésticos/genética , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Coxiella burnetii/genética , Coxiella burnetii/patogenicidade , Feminino , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Doenças das Cabras/microbiologia , Cabras , Irã (Geográfico) , Gado/genética , Gado/microbiologia , Gravidez , Febre Q/diagnóstico , Febre Q/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/veterinária , Ruminantes/genética , Ruminantes/microbiologia , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/microbiologia , Zoonoses/epidemiologia
10.
Prev Vet Med ; 189: 105312, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33676324

RESUMO

The porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is an enveloped RNA virus, with high mutation rates and genetic variability; which is evident by the large number of discrete strains that co-circulate in swine populations. Veterinary practitioners frequently identify certain discrete PRRSV strains as having a higher clinical impact on production. However, with exception of a few strains, production impact is not well characterized for the majority of PRRSV variants. Predictive analytics, coupled with routine diagnostic sequencing of PRRSV, provide opportunities to study the clinical impact of discrete PRRSV strains on production. Thus, the primary objective of this research was to evaluate clinical impact of discrete PRRSV clades observed in Ontario sow farms. PRRS viruses were classified into discrete clades using Bayesian analysis of the nucleotide sequences of the ORF-5 region of the genome. Production data were gathered through veterinary clinics from herds participating in the ongoing PRRSV surveillance system. Data about pre-weaning mortality, sow mortality, and abortion rates were measured up to 8 weeks post initial PRRSV outbreak. Through conventional regression analysis, results support that clinical impact of the viruses varied among clades over time for abortion rate (p = 0.05) and pre-weaning mortality (p < 0.01). Using predictive modelling approaches based on grouped K-fold cross-validation, it was identified that PRRSV clade designations and other measured factors showed low predictive performance for abortion (R2 = 0.07), pre-weaning mortality (R2 = 0.09), and sow mortality (R2 = 0.04). Clade designation consistently showed moderate importance for abortion and pre-weaning mortality, with clade 2 viruses being identified, on average, as having higher impact. These results demonstrate that the prediction of clinical impact, through production parameters, based on phylogenetic classification of PRRS viruses is possible. However, very high impact outbreaks were difficult to predict across production parameters. More surveillance-derived data are required to continue to improve predictive performance of the models.


Assuntos
Fases de Leitura Aberta , Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína , Vírus da Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína , Aborto Animal/epidemiologia , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Teorema de Bayes , Fazendas , Feminino , Genótipo , Ontário/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/epidemiologia , Vírus da Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/genética , Gravidez , Suínos
11.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 23: 100524, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33678379

RESUMO

Dairy production and cattle reproductive parameters exhibit a strong relationship, which can be disrupted by infectious agents, such as Neospora caninum, that affect the reproductive tract of these animals. Neosporosis is a major cause of abortion in cattle worldwide and is responsible for substantial economic losses. We evaluated the impact of N. caninum infection on the reproductive parameters of 434 Holstein dairy cows from a herd in Brazil that had been closed for 4 years through the assessment of serological testing and reproductive parameters. Dairy cows older than 24 months and that required at least 2.2 inseminations to become pregnant had a higher frequency of seropositive results. Analysis of the medians of positive and negative cows revealed that seropositive cows tended to require more insemination efforts to achieve pregnancy and showed a 2-month increase in age at first calving. According to the reproductive parameters, the correlation coefficient was higher in seronegative animals, while no such correlation was detected in seropositive cows. Thus, we concluded that N. caninum negatively affects the reproductive parameters of dairy cows kept in a closed herd.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Coccidiose , Neospora , Reprodução , Aborto Animal/epidemiologia , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Indústria de Laticínios , Feminino , Inseminação Artificial/veterinária , Gravidez
12.
Can Vet J ; 62(2): 124-132, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33542550

RESUMO

A survey of Ontario horse breeders was conducted in 2016 and retrospectively asked farm-level management questions regarding herd sizes, vaccination, respiratory disease, and abortion over the years 2014 to 2015. A total of 88 farm owners completed the survey, reporting 857 broodmares. Using logistic regression modelling, management influences on vaccine use, and the reporting of respiratory disease or abortion was investigated. Having veterinary records and the reasons for breeding were significantly associated with the odds of an abortion even after controlling for broodmare herd size. The odds of having respiratory illness on the farm were significantly greater if the farm was the primary source of income even after controlling for farm size. Respondents with primary breeding operations were more likely to utilize vaccines against equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1), independent of herd size. Veterinarians were more involved with abortions than with respiratory disease, leaving a significant gap in the opportunities for client education.


Assuntos
Infecções por Herpesviridae , Herpesvirus Equídeo 1 , Doenças dos Cavalos , Aborto Animal/epidemiologia , Animais , Feminino , Infecções por Herpesviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Herpesviridae/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Herpesviridae/veterinária , Doenças dos Cavalos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/prevenção & controle , Cavalos , Ontário/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Vacinação/veterinária
13.
BMC Vet Res ; 17(1): 87, 2021 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33607976

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bovine Viral Diarrhea virus (BVDV) is one of important diseases of cattle worldwide causing economic losses to the cattle industry primarily due to increased premature culling and decreased reproductive performance. The virus can cross the placenta during early pregnancy and result in the birth of persistently infected (PI) calves that are efficient transmitters of BVDV and serving as the primary reservoirs for BVDV. Relatively few studies have focused on understanding BVDV seroprevalence, virus detection, genotyping and its distribution in Africa. Most BVDV research in Ethiopia has involved serologic surveys in adult cattle, rather than the identification of PI calves, despite their role in viral shedding and recurring infections. A cross-sectional study was undertaken in three different livestock production systems of Ethiopia with the objective to estimate the prevalence of bovine abortion, calf mortality, and BVDV persistently infected calves. RESULTS: Ear notch samples (882) collected from calves in 349 households were tested for BVDV antigen using antigen capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ACE). All samples tested were negative for BVDV antigen. The overall animal level crude abortion and calf mortality prevalence were 4.0% (95% CI: 2.9-5.2) and 9.2% (95% CI: 7.7-11.0) respectively. The lower BVDV PI prevalence may be due to a lower effective contact rate between cattle reared in small-scale extensive production systems in Ethiopia. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report of BVDV Ag test in Ethiopia and no PI was detected in calves in the study areas. Since BVDV is a disease of great economic importance, this study finding must be interpreted with care since absence of evidence is not evidence of absence and even a single BVDV infected animal can serve as source of infection and contribute to the persistent spread of the virus. Greater attention needs to be given to screening for PI animals through testing large number of animals and culling positive animals. Hence, future research should focus on regions and production systems with high BVDV seroprevalence followed by antigen ELISA or BVDV real-time PCR to detect persistently infected and acutely viremic animals.


Assuntos
Doença das Mucosas por Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina/isolamento & purificação , Aborto Animal/epidemiologia , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Antígenos Virais , Doença das Mucosas por Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina/imunologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/mortalidade , Estudos Transversais , Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina/imunologia , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Gravidez , Prevalência , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
14.
Aust Vet J ; 99(3): 66-71, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33184848

RESUMO

This initial retrospective study presents information on bacterial and fungal causes of abortion in domestic ruminants in South Africa over 10 years (2006-2016). A complete set of data was collected at the Faculty of Veterinary Science through a keyword search of pathology and bacteriology laboratory registers. Additional electronic data were received from an external laboratory. A total of 288 cases were recorded from six provinces. Overall diagnostic rate was 35.1%. In 14.6% of cases, histological evidence of an infectious process was found, but no aetiological agent was detected. Several cases did not include aetiological diagnoses because applicable diagnostic techniques were not available or not applied when necessary. Increased submission of placenta, as well as additional conventional and molecular diagnostic methods, can contribute to an improved diagnostic rate. In addition, the study highlights the superior significance of Brucella abortus as a major bovine pathogen in South Africa.


Assuntos
Aborto Animal , Doenças dos Bovinos , Aborto Animal/epidemiologia , Animais , Bactérias , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Feminino , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ruminantes , África do Sul/epidemiologia
15.
Vet Med Sci ; 7(1): 141-147, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32864895

RESUMO

An outbreak of 92 abortions out of 1,700 pregnant cows (5.41%) in a period of 3 weeks (19 May to 05 June 2019) occurred in a Georgia Dairy, USA, in cattle that were between 3 and 7 months of gestation. Two sets of samples (aborted fetuses' organs, placental tissues, aborted cows blood) were submitted for laboratory investigations at the Tifton Veterinary Diagnostic and Investigational Laboratory, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia (TVDIL, Tifton, GA, USA). An abortion panel testing for the major abortion-causing agents [e.g. Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus (BVDV), Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis Virus/ Bovine Herpes Virus-I (IBR/ BHV-I), Brucella spp., Leptospira spp.] was conducted on several of the samples. On the first set of samples, microbial cultures, serology and PCR tests for the common abortifacient agents revealed the presence of Neospora caninum (N. caninum) DNA, which was positive by PCR on the placenta and fetal tissues. The second set of diagnostic investigations also identified two out of three submitted freshly aborted fetuses to be positive for N. caninum by PCR and immunohistochemistry. Moreover, all three dams were also sero-positive for N. caninum. The entire herd was being fed on grass silage harvested from a pasture where feral pigs were hunted previously and carcasses were left behind. As a consequence of this action a large population of wild coyotes were attracted to these carcasses, and likely contaminated the pasture with potential N. caninum-infected feces. After the abortion outbreak was resolved, it was recommended that the farmers should avoid disposal of cadavers of hunted animals in the wild, as it could attract carnivorous and omnivorous animals that may potentially spread the disease to the cattle and other wildlife.


Assuntos
Aborto Animal/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Neospora/isolamento & purificação , Aborto Animal/parasitologia , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Indústria de Laticínios , Georgia/epidemiologia
16.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 68(2): 233-239, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32386079

RESUMO

Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is a pestivirus that affects both cattle and sheep, causing an array of clinical signs, which include abortions and malformations in the offspring. Manufacturing of modified live virus (MLV) vaccines often includes the use of bovine-derived products, which implies a risk of contamination with viable BVDV. Recently, the circulation of a specific strain of BVDV 2b among Spanish sheep flocks, associated with outbreaks of abortions and malformations, and whose origin was not determined, has been observed. On February 2018, a MLV orf vaccine was applied to a 1,600 highly prolific sheep flock in the Northeast of Spain that included 550 pregnant ewes. In May 2018, during the lambing season, an unusual high rate (72.7%) of abortions, stillbirths, congenital malformations and neurological signs in the offspring was observed. It was estimated that about 1,000 lambs were lost. Three 1- to 3-day-old affected lambs and a sealed vial of the applied vaccine were studied. Lambs showed variable degrees of central nervous system malformations and presence of pestiviral antigen in the brain. Molecular studies demonstrated the presence of exactly the same BVDV 2b in the tissues of the three lambs and in the orf vaccine, thus pointing to a pestivirus contamination in the applied vaccine as the cause of the outbreak. Interestingly, sequencing at the 5'-untranslated region-(UTR) of the contaminating virus showed a complete match with the virus described in the previously reported outbreaks in Spain, thus indicating that the same contaminated vaccine could have also played a role in those cases. This communication provides a clear example of the effects of the application of this contaminated product in a sheep flock. The information presented here can be of interest in putative future cases of suspected circulation of this or other BVDV strains in ruminants.


Assuntos
Aborto Animal/epidemiologia , Anormalidades Congênitas/veterinária , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Natimorto/veterinária , Vacinas Virais/efeitos adversos , Animais , Anormalidades Congênitas/epidemiologia , Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina Tipo 2/imunologia , Ovinos , Carneiro Doméstico , Espanha/epidemiologia , Natimorto/epidemiologia
17.
Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis ; 74: 101600, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33260020

RESUMO

Chlamydia abortus is one of the most common abortive agents worldwide in sheep. Few studies have been reported C. abortus infection among sheep in Egypt but the available data is scarce. The objective of the present study was to determine the seroprevalence of C. abortus among sheep, the associated risk factors and its molecular characterization. The present study was conducted on 675 sheep in six Governorates at Northern Egypt. Data analysis confirmed the presence of antibodies against C. abortus in 93 out of 675 sheep. The logistic regression model was fitted to identify the associated risk factors with C. abortus infection. The results revealed that C. abortus increased significantly in ewes (OR = 4.04, 95 %CI: 1.44-11.28) during autumn season (OR = 3.6, 95 %CI: 1.64-8.28), in ewes with a history of abortion (OR = 1.4, 95 %CI: 0.87-2.50) and in farm where no lambing pen (OR = 2.2, 95 %CI: 1.30-3.94) or abscence of post abortion measures (OR = 1.96, 95%CI: 1.23-3.12). In addition, age, flock size and exchange of breeding ram had no significant effect on prevalence of chlamydiosis. Also, PCR assay was confirmed presence of C. abortus as accusative pathogen in aborted ewe and the genetic characterization of Egyptian C. abortus strain revealed 100 % identity with another strain from Iraq. A control program should be applied to reduce economic losses and risk of human infection.


Assuntos
Infecções por Chlamydia , Doenças dos Ovinos , Aborto Animal/epidemiologia , Animais , Chlamydia , Infecções por Chlamydia/epidemiologia , Infecções por Chlamydia/veterinária , Egito/epidemiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia
18.
Equine Vet J ; 53(5): 996-1003, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33205445

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pregnancy loss after Day 70 of gestation manifests as abortion, stillbirth or perinatal death. While previous studies have reported the diagnoses of laboratory submissions, none have quantified the incidence and causes of abortions, stillbirths and perinatal mortality at a population level. OBJECTIVES: To report the incidence and causes of pregnancy loss after Day 70 of gestation in a cohort of Thoroughbreds. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. METHODS: Outcomes of Day 70 pregnancies were collected from eight Thoroughbred farms over the 2013-2017 breeding seasons. Stud, veterinary and laboratory records were supplemented with publicly available data. Cause of loss was categorised using custom criteria. RESULTS: Data were collected on 3,586 pregnancies from 1,802 mares. The incidence risk of a pregnancy failing to produce a live foal at 24 hours post parturition was 7.3% (95% confidence interval (CI) 6.5-8.2, equating to 7.3 cases per 100 Day-70 pregnancies). The incidence of pregnancy loss between Day 70 and 300 of gestation, Day 301-315 and stillbirth/perinatal death was 4.0% (95% CI 3.4-4.7), 0.3% (95% CI 0.2-0.6) and 1.4% (95% CI 1.1-1.9) respectively. Of the pregnancy losses where tissue was available, 61.1% were submitted for post-mortem examination. The incidence risk of loss due to umbilical cord-related pathologies was 1.5% (95% CI 1.1-1.9), 0.4% (95% CI 0.2-0.6) for noninfectious placental disease and 0.3% (95% CI 0.2-0.6) for both infectious placentitis and Equine Herpesvirus infection. No primary diagnosis was made in 11.2% of the cases which underwent full post-mortem examination. MAIN LIMITATIONS: It was not possible to differentiate between intra-partum stillbirth and early post-partum death. CONCLUSION: Pregnancy loss after Day 70 of gestation is a significant source of loss in the Thoroughbred with umbilical cord-related pathologies being the most commonly diagnosed cause. Reporting the incidence of pregnancy loss at a population level with clear case definitions will allow for accurate global comparisons.


Assuntos
Aborto Animal , Doenças dos Cavalos , Aborto Animal/epidemiologia , Aborto Animal/etiologia , Animais , Feminino , Doenças dos Cavalos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/etiologia , Cavalos , Incidência , Parto , Placenta , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos
19.
Arch Razi Inst ; 75(3): 377-384, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33025778

RESUMO

Bovine brucellosis is a widespread zoonosis caused by Brucella abortus. The disease is prevalent nationwide in Iran and is on an increasing trend among humans and livestock. The eradication of brucellosis is challenging and requires control policies at both national and regional levels. Regarding this, the aim of the current study was to evaluate if Brucella is implicated in an abortion outbreak that occurred in a dairy cattle herd, in Shahre Rey, Tehran province, Iran, after vaccination with B. abortus Iriba vaccine. The research context was a dairy cattle farm with 2,000 animals located in Shahre Rey. This farm was Brucella-free based on the results of two serological tests performed one month before vaccination. After the incidence of the first case of abortion following vaccination, serodiagnosis revealed a seropositive reaction in 30 non-pregnant cows and 19 pregnant cows that aborted later. Bacteriology and molecular typing facilitated the identification of 16 isolates of B. abortus biovar 3 from the aborted animals. None of the isolates were confirmed as B. abortus Iribavaccine strain. The results confirmed that B. abortus biovar 3 was the most prevalent biovar in the cattle of Iran. The source and time of infection in the current study were not detected most likely due to the low biosecurity level in the farm (e.g., uncontrolled introduction of the agents via humans, infected animals, semen, and vectors). In endemic countries, the serodiagnosis of brucellosis alone is not sufficient and has to be accompanied by isolation and molecular diagnosis. In addition, it is important to evaluate the presence of B. abortus in bovine semen and vectors.


Assuntos
Aborto Animal/epidemiologia , Vacina contra Brucelose/administração & dosagem , Brucella abortus/fisiologia , Brucelose Bovina/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Imunização/veterinária , Aborto Animal/microbiologia , Animais , Brucelose Bovina/prevenção & controle , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Indústria de Laticínios , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Incidência , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia
20.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0232568, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33125372

RESUMO

We studied livestock abortion and various associated risk factors in the Ili region of northwest China. Livestock abortion prevalence was estimated and correlated with infections (Brucellosis, Salmonellosis, Mycoplasma and Chlamydia seropositivity) and management (farming type and contact with other herds/flocks) risk factors. A total of 2996 serum samples (1406 cow, 1590 sheep) were identified by RBPT (Rose Bengal Plate Test) and c-ELISA (competitive-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay), and they showed the overall seroprevalence of brucellosis in the study area was cow 6.76%, sheep 9.50%. The seroprevalence of brucellosis in X county was cow 7.06%, sheep 9.12%; in H county was cow 11.70%, sheep 10.80%; and in Q county was cow 4.22%, sheep 9.11%. The overall seroprevalence of Mycoplasma in the study area was cow 3.20%, sheep 6.42%. The seroprevalence of Mycoplasma in X county was cow 3.39%, sheep 7.98%; in H county was cow 5.26%, sheep 9.97%; and in Q county was cow 2.11%, sheep 4.33%. The Odds ratio of brucellosis for cow and sheep, respectively, were 45.909 [95% CI 26.912-78.317, P<0.001] and 70.507 [95% CI 43.783-113.544, P<0.001] times higher than other abortion-related factors including mixed farming, contact with other flocks and Mycoplasma infection. A total of 54 samples, including aborted cow (22), sheep (30) fetuses and milk samples (2), were identified as Brucella melitensis (B. melitensis) positive. A total of 38 Brucella were isolated from 16 aborted cow, 20 sheep fetuses and 2 milk samples. All of these isolates were identified, and confirmed, as B. melitensis. A phylogenetic tree showed that the Brucella isolates closely matched the B. melitensis biovar 3 isolated in Inner Mongolia, China, and B. melitensis isolated from Norway and India. These results suggest that B. melitensis biovar 3 is the main pathogen responsible for cow and sheep abortion and also pose a human health risk. Additionally, livestock reproduction can also be influenced by Mycoplasma infection and managerial factors (farming type and contact with other herds/flocks), especially in remote areas.


Assuntos
Aborto Animal/epidemiologia , Aborto Animal/etiologia , Aborto Animal/microbiologia , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Brucella melitensis , Brucelose/epidemiologia , Brucelose/veterinária , Brucelose Bovina/epidemiologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Chlamydia , Infecções por Chlamydia/epidemiologia , Infecções por Chlamydia/veterinária , Feminino , Humanos , Infecções por Mycoplasma/epidemiologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/veterinária , Gravidez , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Salmonelose Animal/epidemiologia , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Carneiro Doméstico
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