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1.
JAMA ; 328(17): 1699-1700, 2022 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36318122

RESUMO

This Viewpoint discusses passage and implementation of Law 27.610, which legalized abortion in Argentina under certain circumstances, and examines the ongoing clinical issues and legal challenges to the law.


Assuntos
Aborto Criminoso , Aborto Induzido , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Aborto Induzido/legislação & jurisprudência , Aborto Induzido/tendências , Aborto Legal/legislação & jurisprudência , Aborto Legal/tendências , Argentina , Aborto Criminoso/legislação & jurisprudência , Aborto Criminoso/tendências
2.
Cien Saude Colet ; 27(8): 3079-3090, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35894320

RESUMO

The use of misoprostol for abortifacient purposes is a phenomenon observed in Brazil since the late 1980s. The drug started to be used at that time for self-induced abortion, when it began to be commercialized for the treatment of peptic ulcer. Its access was restricted from 1998 onwards, but the drug continues to be commercialized illegally. The objective of this article is to summarize the knowledge produced by research in Brazil about induced abortion and the use of misoprostol. An integrative review of original studies carried out in Brazil and published in journals indexed in SciELO, PubMed and Lilacs databases was performed. The search found 68 titles, and 28 articles were included in the review. Most women who induced pregnancy interruption were young and did it before 15 gestational weeks. The rate of misoprostol use ranged from 89% to 36%. This drug is effective for terminating pregnancy in the first trimester and has a low rate of complications. However, the more socially vulnerable the woman is, the greater are the health risks in the abortion process. The conclusion is that the purchase of misoprostol as an abortifacient is facilitated, despite it being prohibited, and its complications are associated with the context of vulnerability of the pregnant woman.


O uso do misoprostol com finalidade abortiva é um fenômeno observado no Brasil desde o final da década de 1980. O medicamento começou a ser utilizado nessa época para autoindução do aborto, quando passou a ser comercializado para o tratamento de úlcera péptica. Seu acesso foi restringido a partir de 1998, porém o fármaco continua sendo comercializado na ilegalidade. O objetivo desse artigo é sintetizar o conhecimento produzido em pesquisas no Brasil sobre o aborto induzido e o uso do misoprostol. Foi realizada uma revisão integrativa de estudos originais feitos no Brasil e publicados em revistas indexadas nas bases SciELO, PubMed e Lilacs. Foram encontrados 68 títulos e incluídos 28 artigos na revisão. A maioria das mulheres que induz a interrupção da gestação é jovem e o faz antes das 15 semanas de gestação. A taxa de utilização do misoprostol variou entre 89% e 36%. Esse medicamento é eficaz para a interrupção da gestação no primeiro trimestre e apresenta baixa taxa de complicações. Contudo, quanto mais vulnerável socialmente a mulher, maiores os riscos para a saúde no processo do abortamento. Conclui-se que a compra do misoprostol como abortivo é facilitada, apesar de proibida, e suas complicações estão associadas ao contexto de vulnerabilidade da gestante.


Assuntos
Abortivos não Esteroides , Abortivos , Aborto Induzido , Misoprostol , Aborto Criminoso , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez
4.
Cad Saude Publica ; 37(10): e00272520, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34730693

RESUMO

Misoprostol is a medicine with a "double" social life recorded in several places, including Brazil. Within formal and authorized health facilities, it is an essential medicine, used for life-saving obstetric procedures. On the streets, or in online informal markets, misoprostol is treated as a dangerous drug used to induce illegal abortions. In the Brazilian case, despite a rich anthropological and public health analysis of the social consequences of misoprostol's double life, there are no studies on the legal implications. This article offers such descriptive analysis, presenting and examining a comprehensive dataset of how Brazilian courts have treated misoprostol in the past three decades. It consists of an encompassing mapping of the "when, where, how, and who" of misoprostol criminalization in Brazil, pointing to the unjust consequences of the use of criminal law for the purpose of protecting public health.


Assuntos
Abortivos não Esteroides , Aborto Induzido , Misoprostol , Aborto Criminoso , Brasil , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez
5.
Med Law Rev ; 29(1): 80-105, 2021 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34370037

RESUMO

Significant scientific progress has been made toward artificial womb technology, which would allow part of human gestation to occur outside the body. Bioethical and legal scholars have argued that artificial wombs will challenge defences of abortion based in arguments for protecting bodily autonomy, for a pregnant person could have the foetus transferred to an artificial womb instead of being terminated. Drawing on examples from the common law jurisdictions of Canada, the USA, and the UK, I assess three ways scholars have argued abortion might be defended after ectogenesis (through redefining foetal viability, through a property right, and through a right to avoid genetic parenthood). I argue that while each of these proposals has strategic merit, each has significant legal and ethical limitations. Taking the normative position that abortion will remain a vital healthcare resource, I make the case for protecting abortion rights from a challenge posed by ectogenesis by focusing on decriminalisation.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido/legislação & jurisprudência , Órgãos Artificiais , Ectogênese , Direitos Sexuais e Reprodutivos/legislação & jurisprudência , Útero , Aborto Criminoso , Aborto Induzido/ética , Aborto Legal , Canadá , Feminino , Viabilidade Fetal , Humanos , Propriedade , Gravidez , Direitos Sexuais e Reprodutivos/ética , Reino Unido , Estados Unidos
6.
Leg Med (Tokyo) ; 53: 101927, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34130172

RESUMO

The present paper is a case-based review on rare complications of illegal abortion, i.e., necrotizing fasciitis missed early by the treating gynecologists which landed up into a negligence tort against the physicians. The common complications of the abortion like incomplete abortion, haemorrhage, sepsis, etc. are usually handled successfully by the gynecologists; however, early detection often missed when a rare complication like necrotising fasciitis occurs. Eventually leading to litigations in case of death of the patient. The newer techniques have reduced the complications in medically terminated pregnancies (MTP); however, the deaths due to illegal abortions carried out by the clandestine abortion practitioners (CAP) poses a challenge, especially in rural areas. A 30-year-old woman went for an illegal abortion from a CAP to avoid social stigma. She developed sepsis & necrotising fasciitis (NF) of right lower limb due to intra-vaginal use of abortifacient herbs prescribed by the CAP. She was succumbed to the complications of necrotising fasciitis allegedly due to delayed diagnosis by the gynecologists. This led to a negligence tort filed by her family members against the treating gynecologists. The prudent medicolegal and medical steps are discussed here, that could have prevented such sequel.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido , Fasciite Necrosante , Imperícia , Aborto Criminoso/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Fasciite Necrosante/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Responsabilidade Legal , Gravidez
7.
S Afr Fam Pract (2004) ; 63(1): e1-e3, 2021 01 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33567837

RESUMO

Despite the implementation of the Choice on Termination of Pregnancy (CTOP) Act, many women continue to procure illegal abortions in South Africa. A lack of knowledge of the CTOP Act and poor access to legal abortion in public health facilities is a big challenge. In the scope of the CTOP Act, the termination of pregnancy is a time-restricted health service, and women presented to a health care facility in the second trimester have encounter more obstacles to access the services.


Assuntos
Aborto Criminoso , Aborto Legal , Feminino , Instalações de Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Gravidez , Segundo Trimestre da Gravidez
8.
J Health Econ ; 76: 102413, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33385853

RESUMO

We examine the impact of progressive and regressive abortion legislation on women's health in Mexico. Following a 2007 reform in the Federal District of Mexico which decriminalised and subsidised early-term elective abortion, multiple other Mexican states increased sanctions on illegal abortion. We observe that the original legalisation resulted in a sharp decline in maternal morbidity, particularly morbidity due to haemorrhage early in pregnancy. We observe small or null impacts on women's health from increasing sanctions on illegal abortion. These results quantify the considerable improvements in non-mortal health outcomes flowing from legal access to abortion.


Assuntos
Aborto Criminoso , Aborto Induzido , Aborto Legal , Feminino , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , México/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Saúde da Mulher
11.
Rio de Janeiro; Fiocruz; 2021. 313 p. il, tabs^c23 cm.(Coleção criança, mulher e saúde).
Monografia em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1369836

RESUMO

A pesquisa sócioantropológica abordada nesse livro amplifica as vozes femininas adolescentes em seus caminhos trôpegos na direção do aborto, escancarando a hipocrisia de uma grande parte que condena essa prática, mas não se incomoda com a desigualdade social de gênero e racial vigentes


Assuntos
Gravidez na Adolescência , Gravidez não Desejada , Comportamento Sexual , Aborto Criminoso , Adolescente , Aborto Induzido
12.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 37(10): e00272520, 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345621

RESUMO

Misoprostol is a medicine with a "double" social life recorded in several places, including Brazil. Within formal and authorized health facilities, it is an essential medicine, used for life-saving obstetric procedures. On the streets, or in online informal markets, misoprostol is treated as a dangerous drug used to induce illegal abortions. In the Brazilian case, despite a rich anthropological and public health analysis of the social consequences of misoprostol's double life, there are no studies on the legal implications. This article offers such descriptive analysis, presenting and examining a comprehensive dataset of how Brazilian courts have treated misoprostol in the past three decades. It consists of an encompassing mapping of the "when, where, how, and who" of misoprostol criminalization in Brazil, pointing to the unjust consequences of the use of criminal law for the purpose of protecting public health.


O misoprostol é um medicamento com uma "dupla" vida social registrada em vários lugares, inclusive no Brasil. Nos serviços de saúde formais e autorizados, é considerado um medicamento essencial, utilizado para procedimentos obstétricos que salvam vidas. Nas ruas ou nos mercados informais online, o misoprostol é tratado como um medicamento perigoso, usado para induzir abortos ilegais. No caso brasileiro, apesar de uma rica análise antropológica e de saúde pública das consequências sociais da vida dupla do misoprostol, não há estudos sobre as implicações jurídicas. O artigo oferece essa análise, apresentando e examinando um amplo banco de dados sobre o tratamento dado ao misoprostol pelos tribunais brasileiros nas últimas três décadas. Ele consiste em um mapeamento. Consiste em um mapeamento amplo do "quando, onde, como e por quem" da criminalização do misoprostol no Brasil, apontando as consequências injustas do uso do direito penal em questões de saúde pública.


El misoprostol es una medicina con una "doble" vida social registrada en varios países, incluyendo Brasil. En los centros de salud formales y autorizados, es una medicina esencial, usada en procedimientos obstétricos que salvan vidas. En las calles o en las tiendas en línea informales, el misoprostol está considerado como una peligrosa medicina usada para inducir abortos ilegales. En el caso brasileño, a pesar del rico análisis antropológico y de la salud pública sobre las consecuencias sociales de la doble vida del misoprostol, no existen estudios de sus implicaciones jurídicas. Este artículo ofrece este análisis, presentando y examinando un banco de datos completo de cómo las cortes brasileñas de justicia han tratado el misoprostol en las últimas tres décadas. Consiste en un exhaustivo mapeo del "cuándo, dónde, cómo y quién" respecto a la criminalización del misoprostol en Brasil, señalando las injustas consecuencias del uso del derecho penal en cuestiones de salud pública.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Abortivos não Esteroides , Misoprostol , Aborto Induzido , Brasil , Aborto Criminoso
13.
Sex., salud soc. (Rio J.) ; (37): e21206, 2021.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1290222

RESUMO

Resumo O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar os argumentos empregados na condenação ou absolvição das mulheres acusadas de abortamento, especialmente os processos que foram suspensos. Analisamos sentenças e acórdãos referentes ao autoaborto (art. 124 do Código Penal) dos Tribunais de Justiça dos estados de São Paulo e de Minas Gerais. Como resultado do levantamento, constatamos a reiterada concessão da suspensão condicional do processo ou da pena, o que poderia ser considerado medida despenalizadora, por acarretar a extinção da punibilidade. No entanto, ante a aceitação e devido cumprimento das condições impostas pelo prazo fixado, o conteúdo das decisões de suspensão (de processo e de pena) explicita o caráter moral das sentenças, bem como a discriminação de gênero e a violência institucional. Assim, discute-se os fins da criminalização do abortamento e as consequências para o exercício pleno dos direitos sexuais e reprodutivos das mulheres.


Abstract This article's objective was to analyse the arguments used for the conviction or acquittal of women accused of abortion, especially in processes that were suspended. We analysed judicial decisions from the Justice Courts of São Paulo and Minas Gerais States. As a result of the analysis of these materials, we note the repeated granting of conditional suspension of the process or penalty, which could be considered a decriminalizing measure. However, as it entails the extinction of punishment, once accepted and respected the conditions imposed by a fixed term, the content of the concessive decisions exhibit the explicit moral judgement of the convictions, as well as gender discrimination and institutional violence. Thus, we discuss the overall aim of the criminalisation of abortion and the consequences for the full exercise of women's sexual and reproductive rights.


Resumen El objetivo de este trabajo fue analizar los argumentos utilizados en la condena o absolución de mujeres acusadas de aborto, especialmente los procesos que fueron suspendidos. Analizamos sentencias relacionadas con el aborto autoproducido (art. 124 del Código Penal brasileño) de los Tribunales de Justicia de los estados de São Paulo y Minas Gerais. Como resultado de la investigación, se observa el reiterado otorgamiento de suspensión condicional del proceso o sanción, lo que podría ser considerado una medida despenalizadora, ya que resulta en la extinción de la pena. Sin embargo, ante la aceptación y debido cumplimiento de las condiciones impuestas por el plazo fijado, el contenido de las decisiones de suspensión (de proceso y sentencia) hace explícito el carácter moral de las sentencias, así como la discriminación de género y la violencia institucional. Así, se discute el propósito de criminalizar el aborto y las consecuencias para el pleno ejercicio de los derechos sexuales y reproductivos de las mujeres.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Punição , Aborto Criminoso/legislação & jurisprudência , Aborto Criminoso/tendências , Direito Penal , Decisões Judiciais , Brasil , Gestantes , Direitos Sexuais e Reprodutivos , Estigma Social
14.
Am J Obstet Gynecol MFM ; 2(3): 100126, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33345872

RESUMO

In 2019, a total of 25 abortion bans were signed into law by states in the Southeast and Midwest. As of May 2019, 33 states have passed laws restricting or limiting abortion services, including "trigger laws" that make abortion illegal in the event that Roe v. Wade is overturned. In addition, 9 states have passed extreme abortion laws, such as making abortion illegal early in gestation (as early as 6-8 weeks' gestation), which are all currently enjoined and not in effect. The Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine, American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, and Society of Family Planning agree that access to abortion is essential to women's health and oppose legislation that directly affects the patient-physician relationship. It is time for maternal-fetal medicine physicians to play a more active role in the fight for abortion access. A 2012 study of maternal-fetal medicine physicians found only 31% of respondents performed dilation and evacuation for termination of pregnancies, predominantly based on whether the provider was trained in dilation and evacuation procedures during fellowship. We performed a 2018 survey of all maternal-fetal medicine fellows and program directors and found that more than two-thirds (62 of 90 [68.9%]) of fellows desire dilation and evacuation training; however, only 9 of 39 (23.1%) program directors believe dilation and evacuation training should be required. The maternal-fetal medicine community is well positioned to improve access to abortion services in the United States by prioritizing dilation and evacuation training for fellows and actively participating in reproductive health advocacy.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido , Médicos , Aborto Criminoso , Feminino , Humanos , Perinatologia , Gravidez , Estados Unidos , Saúde da Mulher
15.
Pan Afr Med J ; 36: 143, 2020.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32874407

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: clandestine abortions increase maternal morbi-mortality in sub-Saharan Africa and are closely linked to restrictive legislation and low contraceptive prevalence. In Brazzaville street drugs are commonly used to induce abortion. The purpose of this study is to determine street drug prevalence and socio-demographic characteristics of these patients. METHODS: we conducted a longitudinal study of 67 patients with induced abortion complications admitted to the Talangaï Hospital from July to December 2018. (i) Socio-demographic (ii) and obstetrical (iii) characteristics as well as abortion features (procedure, Manganguiste involvement, abortion rank and cost) were collected and analyzed using EPI info 7 software. We compared the means using student's test, proportions with CHI-2, p value was set to < 0.05. RESULTS: the average age of patients was 25 years ± 6.6; 59.7% of them were attending college, 53.8% had no income-generating activity, 38.8% lived alone and in 15% of cases biological father had denied paternity. Street drugs had been used in 74.5% of cases, mean abortion cost was 3500 CFA (US$7) and 29500CFA (US$59) when it had been performed by health-care professionals. High school respondents were more likely (73.69%) to know at least contraceptive methods (p<0.05). Greater numbers of singles (p=0.000) and of those who knew a contraceptive method (p=0.003) expressed the intention to use contraception. Conclusion: combatting the use of street drugs and securing the right to safe voluntary abortion are necessary to limit complications due to clandestine abortions.


Assuntos
Aborto Criminoso/efeitos adversos , Aborto Criminoso/estatística & dados numéricos , Aborto Induzido/efeitos adversos , Aborto Induzido/estatística & dados numéricos , Drogas Ilícitas , Aborto Criminoso/mortalidade , Aborto Induzido/mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Congo/epidemiologia , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Drogas Ilícitas/provisão & distribuição , Estudos Longitudinais , Mortalidade Materna , Morbidade , Paridade , Gravidez , Prevalência , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
BMJ Glob Health ; 5(4): e002130, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32337086

RESUMO

Introduction: Induced abortion is legally permitted in Ghana under specific conditions, but access to services that meet guidelines approved by government is limited. As part of a larger project comparing five methodologies to estimate abortion incidence, we implemented an indirect estimation approach: the Abortion Incidence Complications Methodology (AICM), to understand the incidence of abortion in Ghana in 2017. Methods: We drew a nationally representative, two-stage, stratified sample of health facilities. We used information from 539 responding facilities to estimate treated complications stemming from illegal induced abortions, and to estimate the number of legal abortions provided. We used information from 146 knowledgeable informants to generate zonal multipliers representing the inverse of the proportion of illegal induced abortions treated for complications in facilities in Ghana's three ecological zones. We applied multipliers to estimates of treated complications from illegal abortions, and added legal abortions to obtain an annual estimate of all induced abortions. Results: The AICM approach suggests that approximately 200 000 abortions occurred in Ghana in 2017, corresponding to a national abortion rate of 26.8 (95% CI 21.7 to 31.9) per 1000 women 15-49. Abortion rates were lowest in the Northern zone (18.6) and highest in the Middle zone (30.4). Of all abortions, 71% were illegal. Conclusion: Despite Ghana's relatively liberal abortion law and efforts to expand access to safe abortion services, illegal induced abortion appears common. A concurrently published paper compares the AICM-derived estimates presented in this paper to those from other methodological approaches.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido , Aborto Criminoso , Aborto Induzido/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Gana/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Gravidez
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