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1.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(44): 1635-1640, 2020 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33151917

RESUMO

Pregnant women with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are at increased risk for severe illness and might be at risk for preterm birth (1-3). The full impact of infection with SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, in pregnancy is unknown. Public health jurisdictions report information, including pregnancy status, on confirmed and probable COVID-19 cases to CDC through the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System.* Through the Surveillance for Emerging Threats to Mothers and Babies Network (SET-NET), 16 jurisdictions collected supplementary information on pregnancy and infant outcomes among 5,252 women with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection reported during March 29-October 14, 2020. Among 3,912 live births with known gestational age, 12.9% were preterm (<37 weeks), higher than the reported 10.2% among the general U.S. population in 2019 (4). Among 610 infants (21.3%) with reported SARS-CoV-2 test results, perinatal infection was infrequent (2.6%) and occurred primarily among infants whose mother had SARS-CoV-2 infection identified within 1 week of delivery. Because the majority of pregnant women with COVID-19 reported thus far experienced infection in the third trimester, ongoing surveillance is needed to assess effects of infections in early pregnancy, as well the longer-term outcomes of exposed infants. These findings can inform neonatal testing recommendations, clinical practice, and public health action and can be used by health care providers to counsel pregnant women on the risks of SARS-CoV-2 infection, including preterm births. Pregnant women and their household members should follow recommended infection prevention measures, including wearing a mask, social distancing, and frequent handwashing when going out or interacting with others or if there is a person within the household who has had exposure to COVID-19.†.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Aborto Espontâneo/epidemiologia , Adulto , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/estatística & dados numéricos , Laboratórios , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(40): e22538, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019462

RESUMO

The current studies revealed inconsistent relationship between reproductive factors and osteoarthritis. Community-based research has not been conducted in China. The study was to examine the association of reproductive factors with the prevalence of knee osteoarthritis (OA).Through a multistage stratified random sampling method, 10 streets or villages from 5 cities in Hunan province were randomly selected, a total 2746 eligible women aged 50 to 83 were recruited in this cross-sectional study. A structured questionnaire including demographic factors, socio-economic status, reproductive factors, and knee OA was used. According to the criteria of American College of Rheumatology, clinical knee OA was assessed by doctors in community or village health clinics for knee pain, age, morning stiffness, crepitus on active motion or for knee pain, morning stiffness, crepitus on active motion, and tenderness of the bony navigation of the joint. Self-reported age of menarche, parity, abortion history, and menopausal status were collected.The prevalence of knee OA was 13.44%. Abortion is associated with knee OA (odds ratio [OR] = 1.271, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.007, 1.606), but age at menarche, parity, and menopausal status were not the factors. Furthermore, age (OR = 1.040, 95% CI = 1.020, 1.060), weight (OR = 1.019, 95% CI = 1.004, 1.035), higher education level (OR = 1.530, 95% CI = 1.121, 2.088), higher monthly household income (OR = .583, 95% CI = 0.441, 0.770 for 3000-4999 ¥ and OR = 0.599, 95% CI = 0.431, 0.833 for 5000 ¥ or more), and chronic gastritis (OR = 3.364, 95% CI = 2.548, 4.442) were associated with knee OA.Abortion may increase the risk of knee OA. Special attention should be paid to women with a history of abortion, and women who are planning to abort should be informed of the risk of knee OA later in life. The relationship between abortion and knee OA should be interpreted with caution and further confirmed.


Assuntos
Aborto Espontâneo/epidemiologia , Osteoartrite do Joelho/epidemiologia , Osteoartrite do Joelho/etiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoartrite do Joelho/diagnóstico por imagem , Osteoartrite do Joelho/patologia , Dor/diagnóstico , Dor/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Radiografia/métodos , Medição de Risco , Autorrelato , Classe Social , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 10: CD002125, 2020 10 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33091963

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tubal disease accounts for 20% of infertility cases. Hydrosalpinx, caused by distal tubal occlusion leading to fluid accumulation in the tube(s), is a particularly severe form of tubal disease negatively affecting the outcomes of assisted reproductive technology (ART). It is thought that tubal surgery may improve the outcome of ART in women with hydrosalpinges. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness and safety of tubal surgery in women with hydrosalpinges prior to undergoing conventional in vitro fertilisation (IVF) or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Gynaecology and Fertility (CGF) Group trials register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL, DARE, and two trial registers on 8 January 2020, together with reference checking and contact with study authors and experts in the field to identify additional trials. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing surgical treatment versus no surgical treatment, or comparing surgical interventions head-to-head, in women with tubal disease prior to undergoing IVF. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used Cochrane's standard methodological procedures. The primary outcomes were live birth rate (LBR) and surgical complication rate per woman randomised. Secondary outcomes included clinical, multiple and ectopic pregnancy rates, miscarriage rates and mean numbers of oocytes retrieved and of embryos obtained. MAIN RESULTS: We included 11 parallel-design RCTs, involving a total of 1386 participants. The included trials compared different types of tubal surgery (salpingectomy, tubal occlusion or transvaginal aspiration of hydrosalpingeal fluid) to no tubal surgery, or individual interventions to one another. We assessed no studies as being at low risk of bias across all domains, with the main limitations being lack of blinding, wide confidence intervals and low event and sample sizes. We used GRADE methodology to rate the quality of the evidence. Apart from one moderate-quality result in one review comparison, the evidence provided by these 11 trials ranged between very low- to low-quality. Salpingectomy versus no tubal surgery No included study reported on LBR for this comparison. We are uncertain of the effect of salpingectomy on surgical complications such as the rate of conversion to laparotomy (Peto odds ratio (OR) 5.80, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.11 to 303.69; one RCT; n = 204; very low-quality evidence) and pelvic infection (Peto OR 5.80, 95% CI 0.11 to 303.69; one RCT; n = 204; very low-quality evidence). Salpingectomy probably increases clinical pregnancy rate (CPR) versus no surgery (risk ratio (RR) 2.02, 95% CI 1.44 to 2.82; four RCTs; n = 455; I2 = 42.5%; moderate-quality evidence). This suggests that in women with a CPR of approximately 19% without tubal surgery, the rate with salpingectomy lies between 27% and 52%. Proximal tubal occlusion versus no surgery No study reported on LBR and surgical complication rate for this comparison. Tubal occlusion may increase CPR compared to no tubal surgery (RR 3.21, 95% CI 1.72 to 5.99; two RCTs; n = 209; I2 = 0%; low-quality evidence). This suggests that with a CPR of approximately 12% without tubal surgery, the rate with tubal occlusion lies between 21% and 74%. Transvaginal aspiration of hydrosalpingeal fluid versus no surgery No study reported on LBR for this comparison, and there was insufficient evidence to identify a difference in surgical complication rate between groups (Peto OR not estimable; one RCT; n = 176). We are uncertain whether transvaginal aspiration of hydrosalpingeal fluid increases CPR compared to no tubal surgery (RR 1.67, 95% CI 1.10 to 2.55; three RCTs; n = 311; I2 = 0%; very low-quality evidence). Laparoscopic proximal tubal occlusion versus laparoscopic salpingectomy We are uncertain of the effect of laparoscopic proximal tubal occlusion versus laparoscopic salpingectomy on LBR (RR 1.21, 95% CI 0.76 to 1.95; one RCT; n = 165; very low-quality evidence) and CPR (RR 0.81, 95% CI 0.62 to 1.07; three RCTs; n = 347; I2 = 77%; very low-quality evidence). No study reported on surgical complication rate for this comparison. Transvaginal aspiration of hydrosalpingeal fluid versus laparoscopic salpingectomy No study reported on LBR for this comparison, and there was insufficient evidence to identify a difference in surgical complication rate between groups (Peto OR not estimable; one RCT; n = 160). We are uncertain of the effect of transvaginal aspiration of hydrosalpingeal fluid versus laparoscopic salpingectomy on CPR (RR 0.69, 95% CI 0.44 to 1.07; one RCT; n = 160; very low-quality evidence). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: We found moderate-quality evidence that salpingectomy prior to ART probably increases the CPR compared to no surgery in women with hydrosalpinges. When comparing tubal occlusion to no intervention, we found that tubal occlusion may increase CPR, although the evidence was of low quality. We found insufficient evidence of any effect on procedure- or pregnancy-related adverse events when comparing tubal surgery to no intervention. Importantly, none of the studies reported on long term fertility outcomes. Further high-quality trials are required to definitely determine the impact of tubal surgery on IVF and pregnancy outcomes of women with hydrosalpinges, particularly for LBR and surgical complications; and to investigate the relative efficacy and safety of the different surgical modalities in the treatment of hydrosalpinges prior to ART.


Assuntos
Doenças das Tubas Uterinas/cirurgia , Tubas Uterinas/cirurgia , Fertilização In Vitro , Aborto Espontâneo/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Gravidez Ectópica/epidemiologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Salpingectomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Injeções de Esperma Intracitoplásmicas , Esterilização Tubária/estatística & dados numéricos
4.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 10: CD006359, 2020 10 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33112418

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A frozen embryo transfer (FET) cycle is when one or more embryos (frozen during a previous treatment cycle) are thawed and transferred to the uterus. Some women undergo fresh embryo transfer (ET) cycles with embryos derived from donated oocytes. In both situations, the endometrium is primed with oestrogen and progestogen in different doses and routes of administration. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the most effective endometrial preparation for women undergoing transfer with frozen embryos or embryos from donor oocytes with regard to the subsequent live birth rate (LBR). SEARCH METHODS: The Cochrane Gynaecology and Fertility Group trials register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, LILACS, trials registers and abstracts of reproductive societies' meetings were searched in June 2020 together with reference checking and contact with study authors and experts in the field to identify additional studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating endometrial preparation in women undergoing fresh donor cycles and frozen embryo transfers. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard methodological procedures recommended by Cochrane. We analysed all available interventions versus placebo, no treatment, or between each other. The primary review outcome was live birth rate. Secondary outcomes were clinical and multiple pregnancy, miscarriage, cycle cancellation, endometrial thickness and adverse effects. MAIN RESULTS: Thirty-one RCTs (5426 women) were included. Evidence was moderate to very low-quality: the main limitations were serious risk of bias due to poor reporting of methods, and serious imprecision. Stimulated versus programmed cycle We are uncertain whether a letrozole-stimulated cycle compared to a programmed cycle, for endometrial preparation, improves LBR (odds ratio (OR) 1.26, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.49 to 3.26; 100 participants; one study; very low-quality evidence). Stimulating with follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), letrozole or clomiphene citrate may improve clinical pregnancy rate (CPR) (OR 1.63, 95% CI 1.12 to 2.38; 656 participants; five studies; I2 = 11%; low-quality evidence). We are uncertain if they reduce miscarriage rate (MR) (OR 0.79, 95% CI 0.36 to 1.71; 355 participants; three studies; I2 = 0%; very low-quality evidence). Endometrial thickness (ET) may be reduced with clomiphene citrate (mean difference(MD) -1.04, 95% CI -1.59 to -0.49; 92 participants; one study; low-quality evidence). Other outcomes were not reported. Natural versus programmed cycle We are uncertain of the effect from a natural versus programmed cycle for LBR (OR 0.97, 95% CI 0.74 to 1.28; 1285 participants; four studies; I2 = 0%; very low-quality evidence) and CPR (OR 0.79, 95% CI 0.62 to 1.01; 1249 participants; five studies; I2 = 60%; very low-quality evidence), while a natural cycle probably reduces the cycle cancellation rate (CCR) (OR 0.60, 95% CI 0.44 to 0.82; 734 participants; one study; moderate-quality evidence). We are uncertain of the effect on MR and ET. No study reported other outcomes. Transdermal versus oral oestrogens From low-quality evidence we are uncertain of the effect transdermal compared to oral oestrogens has on CPR (OR 0.86, 95% CI 0.59 to 1.25; 504 participants; three studies; I2 = 58%) or MR (OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.27 to 1.09; 414 participants; two studies; I2 = 0%). Other outcomes were not reported. Day of starting administration of progestogen When doing a fresh ET using donated oocytes in a synchronised cycle starting progestogen on the day of oocyte pick-up (OPU) or the day after OPU, in comparison with recipients that start progestogen the day prior to OPU, probably increases the CPR (OR 1.87, 95% CI 1.13 to 3.08; 282 participants; one study, moderate-quality evidence). We are uncertain of the effect on multiple pregnancy rate (MPR) or MR. It probably reduces the CCR (OR 0.28, 95% CI 0.11 to 0.74; 282 participants; one study; moderate-quality evidence). No study reported other outcomes. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist versus control A cycle with GnRH agonist compared to without may improve LBR (OR 2.62, 95% CI 1.19 to 5.78; 234 participants; one study; low-quality evidence). From low-quality evidence we are uncertain of the effect on CPR (OR 1.08, 95% CI 0.82 to 1.43; 1289 participants; eight studies; I2 = 20%), MR (OR 0.85, 95% CI 0.36 to 2.00; 828 participants; four studies; I2 = 0%), CCR (OR 0.49, 95% CI 0.21 to 1.17; 530 participants; two studies; I2 = 0%) and ET (MD -0.08, 95% CI -0.33 to 0.16; 697 participants; four studies; I2 = 4%). No study reported other outcomes. Among different GnRH agonists From very low-quality evidence we are uncertain if cycles among different GnRH agonists improves CPR or MR. No study reported other outcomes. GnRH agonists versus GnRH antagonists GnRH antagonists compared to agonists probably improves CPR (OR 0.62, 95% CI 0.42 to 0.90; 473 participants; one study; moderate-quality evidence). We are uncertain of the effect on MR and MPR. No study reported other outcomes. Aspirin versus control From very low-quality evidence we are uncertain whether a cycle with aspirin versus without improves LBR, CPR, or ET. Steroids versus control From very low-quality evidence we are uncertain whether a cycle with steroids compared to without improves LBR, CPR or MR. No study reported other outcomes. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: There is insufficient evidence on the use of any particular intervention for endometrial preparation in women undergoing fresh donor cycles and frozen embryo transfers. In frozen embryo transfers, low-quality evidence showed that clinical pregnancy rates may be improved in a stimulated cycle compared to a programmed one, and we are uncertain of the effect when comparing a programmed cycle to a natural cycle. Cycle cancellation rates are probably reduced in a natural cycle. Although administering a GnRH agonist, compared to without, may improve live birth rates, clinical pregnancy rates will probably be improved in a GnRH antagonist cycle over an agonist cycle. In fresh synchronised oocyte donor cycles, the clinical pregnancy rate is probably improved and cycle cancellation rates are probably reduced when starting progestogen the day of or day after donor oocyte retrieval. Adequately powered studies are needed to evaluate each treatment more accurately.


Assuntos
Criopreservação , Transferência Embrionária/métodos , Embrião de Mamíferos , Endométrio/efeitos dos fármacos , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/agonistas , Doação de Oócitos , Aborto Espontâneo/epidemiologia , Viés , Clomifeno/administração & dosagem , Esquema de Medicação , Implantação do Embrião/fisiologia , Endométrio/fisiologia , Feminino , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Letrozol/administração & dosagem , Nascimento Vivo/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Taxa de Gravidez , Progesterona/administração & dosagem , Progestinas/administração & dosagem , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
5.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem ; 28: e3350, 2020 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês, Português, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32901768

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to examine personal and contextual protective and risk factors associated with women's mental health after a spontaneous abortion. METHOD: a cross-sectional study was carried out where 231 women who had experienced spontaneous abortions in the past 4 years answered a self-reporting online questionnaire to assess their mental health (symptoms of depression, anxiety, perinatal grief) and to collect personal as well as contextual characteristics. RESULTS: women who had experienced spontaneous abortions within the past 6 months had higher scores for depressive symptoms than those who had experienced spontaneous abortions between 7 and 12 months ago, while anxiety level and perinatal grief did not vary according to the time since the loss. Moreover, low socioeconomic status, immigrant status, and childlessness were associated with worse mental health after a spontaneous abortion. In contrast, the quality of the conjugal relationship and the level of satisfaction with health care were positively associated with women's mental health. CONCLUSION: women in vulnerable situations, such as immigrants, women with a low socioeconomic status, or childless women are particularly vulnerable to mental health problems after a spontaneous abortion. However, beyond those personal and contextual factors, the quality of the conjugal relationship and the level of satisfaction with health care could be important protective factors.


Assuntos
Aborto Espontâneo/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Saúde da Mulher
6.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 32(4): 423-425, 2020 Aug 24.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32935522

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the correlation between Toxoplasma gondii infection and spontaneous abortion among pregnant women, so as to provide the evidence for the developmentofpreventivemeasuresforspontaneousabortion. METHODS: A total of 228 serum samples collected from women with spontaneous abortion for the first time from January 2018 to December 2019 were selected as the case group, while 228 serum samples collected from pregnant women with a normal delivery and without a history of abortion during the same period were selected as the control group. The serum IgG and IgM antibodies against T. gondii were detected and compared in both groups, and the correlation between T. gondii infection and spontaneous abortion was evaluated. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between the case and control groups in terms of age, education levels, occupation, residency and proportion of keeping cats (all P values > 0.05). The positive rate of anti-T. gondii IgM antibody was significantly higher in the case group than in the control group (adjusted χ2 = 4.08, P < 0.05; OR = 8.25), while no significant difference was seen between the case and control groups (χ2 = 0.42, P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Acute maternal T. gondii infection may remarkably increase the chance of spontaneous abortion. Progestational health education regarding toxoplasmosis prevention and control knowledge and detection of T. gondii infection during pregnancy should be strengthened.


Assuntos
Aborto Espontâneo , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose , Aborto Espontâneo/sangue , Aborto Espontâneo/epidemiologia , Aborto Espontâneo/etiologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Gatos , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Toxoplasmose/complicações , Toxoplasmose/epidemiologia
7.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 9: CD007421, 2020 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32876946

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This is an update of a Cochrane Review first published in the Cochrane Library (2010, Issue 7). To increase the success rate of assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs), adherence compounds such as hyaluronic acid (HA) have been introduced into subfertility management. Adherence compounds are added to the embryo transfer medium to increase the likelihood of embryo implantation, with the potential for higher clinical pregnancy and live birth rates. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether adding adherence compounds to embryo transfer media could improve pregnancy outcomes, including improving live birth and decreasing miscarriage, in women undergoing assisted reproduction. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Gynaecology and Fertility Group Trials Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, and PsycINFO electronic databases on 7 January 2020 for randomised controlled trials that examined the effects of adherence compounds in embryo transfer media on pregnancy outcomes. Furthermore, we communicated with experts in the field, searched trials registries, checked reference lists of relevant studies, and conference abstracts were handsearched. SELECTION CRITERIA: Only truly randomised controlled trials comparing embryo transfer media containing functional concentrations of adherence compounds to media with no or low adherence compound concentrations were included. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors selected trials for inclusion according to the above criteria, after which the same two review authors independently extracted data for subsequent analysis. Statistical analysis was performed according to the guidelines developed by Cochrane. We combined data to calculate pooled risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We assessed statistical heterogeneity using the I² statistic. We used GRADE methods to assess the overall quality of evidence for the main comparisons. MAIN RESULTS: We analysed 26 studies with a total of 6704 participants. Overall, the certainty of evidence was low to moderate: the main limitations were imprecision and/or heterogeneity. Compared to embryos transferred in media containing no or low (0.125 mg/mL) HA, the addition of functional (0.5 mg/mL) HA concentrations to the transfer media probably increases the live birth rate (RR 1.21, 95% CI 1.1 to 1.31; 10 RCTs, N = 4066; I² = 33%; moderate-quality evidence). This suggests that if the chance of live birth following no HA addition in media is assumed to be 33%, the chance following HA addition would be between 37% and 44%. The addition of HA may slightly decrease miscarriage rates (RR 0.82, 95% CI 0.67 to 1.00; 7 RCTs, N = 3091; I² = 66%; low-quality evidence). Nevertheless, when only studies with low risk of bias were included in the analysis, there was no conclusive evidence of a difference in miscarriage rates (RR 0.96, 95% CI 0.75 to 1.23; N = 2219; I² = 36%). Adding HA to transfer media probably results in an increase in both clinical pregnancy (RR 1.16, 95% CI 1.09 to 1.23; 17 studies, N = 5247; I² = 40%; moderate-quality evidence) and multiple pregnancy rates (RR 1.45, 95% CI 1.24 to 1.70; 7 studies, N = 3337; I² = 36%; moderate-quality evidence). We are uncertain of the effect of HA added to transfer media on the rate of total adverse events (RR 0.86, 95% CI 0.40 to 1.84; 3 studies, N = 1487; I² = 0%; low-quality evidence). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Moderate-quality evidence shows improved clinical pregnancy and live birth rates with the addition of HA as an adherence compound in embryo transfer media in ART. Low-quality evidence suggests that adding HA may slightly decrease miscarriage rates, but when only studies at low risk of bias were included in the analysis, the results were inconclusive. HA had no clear effect on the rate of total adverse events. The increase in multiple pregnancy rates may be due to combining an adherence compound and transferring more than one embryo. Further studies of adherence compounds with single embryo transfer need to be undertaken.


Assuntos
Meios de Cultura/química , Implantação do Embrião/efeitos dos fármacos , Adesivo Tecidual de Fibrina/farmacologia , Ácido Hialurônico/farmacologia , Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida , Adesivos Teciduais/farmacologia , Aborto Espontâneo/epidemiologia , Adulto , Implantação do Embrião/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Nascimento Vivo/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Gravidez Múltipla/estatística & dados numéricos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
8.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 9: CD005291, 2020 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32898291

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In in vitro fertilisation (IVF) with or without intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), selection of the most competent embryo(s) for transfer is based on morphological criteria. However, many women do not achieve a pregnancy even after 'good quality' embryo transfer. One of the presumed causes is that such morphologically normal embryos have an abnormal number of chromosomes (aneuploidies). Preimplantation genetic testing for aneuploidies (PGT-A), formerly known as preimplantation genetic screening (PGS), was therefore developed as an alternative method to select embryos for transfer in IVF. In PGT-A, the polar body or one or a few cells of the embryo are obtained by biopsy and tested. Only polar bodies and embryos that show a normal number of chromosomes are transferred. The first generation of PGT-A, using cleavage-stage biopsy and fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) for the genetic analysis, was demonstrated to be ineffective in improving live birth rates. Since then, new PGT-A methodologies have been developed that perform the biopsy procedure at other stages of development and use different methods for genetic analysis. Whether or not PGT-A improves IVF outcomes and is beneficial to patients has remained controversial. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of PGT-A in women undergoing an IVF treatment. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Gynaecology and Fertility (CGF) Group Trials Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and two trials registers in September 2019 and checked the references of appropriate papers. SELECTION CRITERIA: All randomised controlled trials (RCTs) reporting data on clinical outcomes in participants undergoing IVF with PGT-A versus IVF without PGT-A were eligible for inclusion. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently selected studies for inclusion, assessed risk of bias, and extracted study data. The primary outcome was the cumulative live birth rate (cLBR). Secondary outcomes were live birth rate (LBR) after the first embryo transfer, miscarriage rate, ongoing pregnancy rate, clinical pregnancy rate, multiple pregnancy rate, proportion of women reaching an embryo transfer, and mean number of embryos per transfer. MAIN RESULTS: We included 13 trials involving 2794 women. The quality of the evidence ranged from low to moderate. The main limitations were imprecision, inconsistency, and risk of publication bias. IVF with PGT-A versus IVF without PGT-A with the use of genome-wide analyses Polar body biopsy One trial used polar body biopsy with array comparative genomic hybridisation (aCGH). It is uncertain whether the addition of PGT-A by polar body biopsy increases the cLBR compared to IVF without PGT-A (odds ratio (OR) 1.05, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.66 to 1.66, 1 RCT, N = 396, low-quality evidence). The evidence suggests that for the observed cLBR of 24% in the control group, the chance of live birth following the results of one IVF cycle with PGT-A is between 17% and 34%. It is uncertain whether the LBR after the first embryo transfer improves with PGT-A by polar body biopsy (OR 1.10, 95% CI 0.68 to 1.79, 1 RCT, N = 396, low-quality evidence). PGT-A with polar body biopsy may reduce miscarriage rate (OR 0.45, 95% CI 0.23 to 0.88, 1 RCT, N = 396, low-quality evidence). No data on ongoing pregnancy rate were available. The effect of PGT-A by polar body biopsy on improving clinical pregnancy rate is uncertain (OR 0.77, 95% CI 0.50 to 1.16, 1 RCT, N = 396, low-quality evidence). Blastocyst stage biopsy One trial used blastocyst stage biopsy with next-generation sequencing. It is uncertain whether IVF with the addition of PGT-A by blastocyst stage biopsy increases cLBR compared to IVF without PGT-A, since no data were available. It is uncertain if LBR after the first embryo transfer improves with PGT-A with blastocyst stage biopsy (OR 0.93, 95% CI 0.69 to 1.27, 1 RCT, N = 661, low-quality evidence). It is uncertain whether PGT-A with blastocyst stage biopsy reduces miscarriage rate (OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.52 to 1.54, 1 RCT, N = 661, low-quality evidence). No data on ongoing pregnancy rate or clinical pregnancy rate were available. IVF with PGT-A versus IVF without PGT-A with the use of FISH for the genetic analysis Eleven trials were included in this comparison. It is uncertain whether IVF with addition of PGT-A increases cLBR (OR 0.59, 95% CI 0.35 to 1.01, 1 RCT, N = 408, low-quality evidence). The evidence suggests that for the observed average cLBR of 29% in the control group, the chance of live birth following the results of one IVF cycle with PGT-A is between 12% and 29%. PGT-A performed with FISH probably reduces live births after the first transfer compared to the control group (OR 0.62, 95% CI 0.43 to 0.91, 10 RCTs, N = 1680, I² = 54%, moderate-quality evidence). The evidence suggests that for the observed average LBR per first transfer of 31% in the control group, the chance of live birth after the first embryo transfer with PGT-A is between 16% and 29%. There is probably little or no difference in miscarriage rate between PGT-A and the control group (OR 1.03, 95%, CI 0.75 to 1.41; 10 RCTs, N = 1680, I² = 16%; moderate-quality evidence). The addition of PGT-A may reduce ongoing pregnancy rate (OR 0.68, 95% CI 0.51 to 0.90, 5 RCTs, N = 1121, I² = 60%, low-quality evidence) and probably reduces clinical pregnancies (OR 0.60, 95% CI 0.45 to 0.81, 5 RCTs, N = 1131; I² = 0%, moderate-quality evidence). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: There is insufficient good-quality evidence of a difference in cumulative live birth rate, live birth rate after the first embryo transfer, or miscarriage rate between IVF with and IVF without PGT-A as currently performed. No data were available on ongoing pregnancy rates. The effect of PGT-A on clinical pregnancy rate is uncertain. Women need to be aware that it is uncertain whether PGT-A with the use of genome-wide analyses is an effective addition to IVF, especially in view of the invasiveness and costs involved in PGT-A. PGT-A using FISH for the genetic analysis is probably harmful. The currently available evidence is insufficient to support PGT-A in routine clinical practice.


Assuntos
Aneuploidia , Fertilização In Vitro , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Diagnóstico Pré-Implantação/métodos , Injeções de Esperma Intracitoplásmicas , Aborto Espontâneo/epidemiologia , Viés , Biópsia , Coeficiente de Natalidade , Blastocisto/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Nascimento Vivo , Idade Materna , Corpos Polares/patologia , Gravidez , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
9.
J Perinat Med ; 48(9): 950-958, 2020 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32975205

RESUMO

Objectives To evaluate the strength of association between maternal and pregnancy characteristics and the risk of adverse perinatal outcomes in pregnancies with laboratory confirmed COVID-19. Methods Secondary analysis of a multinational, cohort study on all consecutive pregnant women with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 from February 1, 2020 to April 30, 2020 from 73 centers from 22 different countries. A confirmed case of COVID-19 was defined as a positive result on real-time reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction (RT-PCR) assay of nasal and pharyngeal swab specimens. The primary outcome was a composite adverse fetal outcome, defined as the presence of either abortion (pregnancy loss before 22 weeks of gestations), stillbirth (intrauterine fetal death after 22 weeks of gestation), neonatal death (death of a live-born infant within the first 28 days of life), and perinatal death (either stillbirth or neonatal death). Logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate parameters independently associated with the primary outcome. Logistic regression was reported as odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI). Results Mean gestational age at diagnosis was 30.6±9.5 weeks, with 8.0% of women being diagnosed in the first, 22.2% in the second and 69.8% in the third trimester of pregnancy. There were six miscarriage (2.3%), six intrauterine device (IUD) (2.3) and 5 (2.0%) neonatal deaths, with an overall rate of perinatal death of 4.2% (11/265), thus resulting into 17 cases experiencing and 226 not experiencing composite adverse fetal outcome. Neither stillbirths nor neonatal deaths had congenital anomalies found at antenatal or postnatal evaluation. Furthermore, none of the cases experiencing IUD had signs of impending demise at arterial or venous Doppler. Neonatal deaths were all considered as prematurity-related adverse events. Of the 250 live-born neonates, one (0.4%) was found positive at RT-PCR pharyngeal swabs performed after delivery. The mother was tested positive during the third trimester of pregnancy. The newborn was asymptomatic and had negative RT-PCR test after 14 days of life. At logistic regression analysis, gestational age at diagnosis (OR: 0.85, 95% CI 0.8-0.9 per week increase; p<0.001), birthweight (OR: 1.17, 95% CI 1.09-1.12.7 per 100 g decrease; p=0.012) and maternal ventilatory support, including either need for oxygen or CPAP (OR: 4.12, 95% CI 2.3-7.9; p=0.001) were independently associated with composite adverse fetal outcome. Conclusions Early gestational age at infection, maternal ventilatory supports and low birthweight are the main determinants of adverse perinatal outcomes in fetuses with maternal COVID-19 infection. Conversely, the risk of vertical transmission seems negligible.


Assuntos
Aborto Espontâneo/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Morte Fetal , Morte Perinatal , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/virologia , Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Estudos de Coortes , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Resultado da Gravidez , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Fatores de Risco
10.
BMJ ; 370: m2519, 2020 08 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32759285

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the ongoing pregnancy rate between a freeze-all strategy and a fresh transfer strategy in assisted reproductive technology treatment. DESIGN: Multicentre, randomised controlled superiority trial. SETTING: Outpatient fertility clinics at eight public hospitals in Denmark, Sweden, and Spain. PARTICIPANTS: 460 women aged 18-39 years with regular menstrual cycles starting their first, second, or third treatment cycle of in vitro fertilisation or intracytoplasmic sperm injection. INTERVENTIONS: Women were randomised at baseline on cycle day 2 or 3 to one of two treatment groups: the freeze-all group (elective freezing of all embryos) who received gonadotropin releasing hormone agonist triggering and single frozen-thawed blastocyst transfer in a subsequent modified natural cycle; or the fresh transfer group who received human chorionic gonadotropin triggering and single blastocyst transfer in the fresh cycle. Women in the fresh transfer group with more than 18 follicles larger than 11 mm on the day of triggering had elective freezing of all embryos and postponement of transfer as a safety measure. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was the ongoing pregnancy rate defined as a detectable fetal heart beat after eight weeks of gestation. Secondary outcomes were live birth rate, positive human chorionic gonadotropin rate, time to pregnancy, and pregnancy related, obstetric, and neonatal complications. The primary analysis was performed according to the intention-to-treat principle. RESULTS: Ongoing pregnancy rate did not differ significantly between the freeze-all and fresh transfer groups (27.8% (62/223) v 29.6% (68/230); risk ratio 0.98, 95% confidence interval 0.87 to 1.10, P=0.76). Additionally, no significant difference was found in the live birth rate (27.4% (61/223) for the freeze-all group and 28.7% (66/230) for the fresh transfer group; risk ratio 0.98, 95% confidence interval 0.87 to 1.10, P=0.83). No significant differences between groups were observed for positive human chorionic gonadotropin rate or pregnancy loss, and none of the women had severe ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome; only one hospital admission related to this condition occurred in the fresh transfer group. The risks of pregnancy related, obstetric, and neonatal complications did not differ between the two groups except for a higher mean birth weight after frozen blastocyst transfer and an increased risk of prematurity after fresh blastocyst transfer. Time to pregnancy was longer in the freeze-all group. CONCLUSIONS: In women with regular menstrual cycles, a freeze-all strategy with gonadotropin releasing hormone agonist triggering for final oocyte maturation did not result in higher ongoing pregnancy and live birth rates than a fresh transfer strategy. The findings warrant caution in the indiscriminate application of a freeze-all strategy when no apparent risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome is present. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02746562.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer , Blastocisto , Criopreservação , Fertilização In Vitro/métodos , Transferência de Embrião Único/métodos , Aborto Espontâneo/epidemiologia , Adulto , Gonadotropina Coriônica/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Nascimento Vivo , Ciclo Menstrual , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Taxa de Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo
11.
Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol ; 253: 71-75, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32805629

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to follow up the monitoring, health and anxiety from women who became pregnant after an embryo transfer or a intrauterine insemination during the COVID-19 epidemic in France STUDY DESIGN: This is a single centre, retrospective study from December 2019 to March 2020 based on a phone call interview using a specific questionnaire sheet specially developed for this study. Questionnaires from 104 pregnant women were completed and descriptive data are then analyzed. RESULTS: Women with ongoing pregnancies (n = 88) did not change their physician visits. The COVID-19 outbreak has created no or few additional stresses for 77 % of pregnant women since the lockdown started. We report a miscarriage rate of 14.4 % (n = 15) and documented 10 patients (11.3 %) who had symptoms related to COVID-19. No severe symptoms and no hospitalization in intensive care unit were identified. CONCLUSION: The epidemic context did not disrupt the medical monitoring of pregnancies and we did not recover an increased rate of miscarriage after ART. None of the patients who had COVID-related symptoms presented with severe clinical manifestations. Surprisingly, pregnant women were psychologically able to experience the lockdown.


Assuntos
Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Taxa de Gravidez , Quarentena/psicologia , Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida/estatística & dados numéricos , Aborto Espontâneo/epidemiologia , Aborto Espontâneo/virologia , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/virologia , Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida/psicologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
12.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 601, 2020 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32799811

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Listeriosis is a rare but severe foodborne infectious disease. Perinatal listeriosis is often associated with septicemia, central nervous system (CNS) infection, and serious adverse pregnancy outcomes (miscarriage and neonate death). Here we report the characteristics and outcomes of perinatal listeriosis cases treated over 6 years at Beijing Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital (BOGH), the largest maternity hospital in China. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the records of laboratory-confirmed, pregnancy-associated listeriosis cases treated from January 1, 2013 to December 31, 2018. The clinical manifestations, laboratory results, perinatal complications and outcomes (post-natal follow-up of 6 months) were investigated. RESULTS: In BOGH, 12 perinatal listeriosis cases were diagnosed based on Listeria monocytogenes positive culture, including 10 single pregnancies and 2 twin pregnancies. The corresponding incidence of pregnancy-associated listeriosis was 13.7/100,000 deliveries. Among those cases, four pregnant women and four newborns had septicemia, and two of the neonates with septicemia also suffered CNS infection. All the maternal patients recovered. Two inevitable miscarriages and four fetal stillbirths occurred. Of the eight delivered newborns, six survived, and two died within 2 days from birth. None of the survivors had neurological sequelae during a 6-month follow-up. The overall feto-neonatal fatality rate was 57.1%; notably, this rate was 100% for infections occurring during the second trimester of pregnancy and only 14.3% for those occurring in the third trimester. CONCLUSIONS: Perinatal listeriosis is associated with high feto-neonatal mortality, and thus, a public health concern. Additional large-scale studies are needed to strengthen the epidemiological understanding of listeriosis in China.


Assuntos
Listeriose/tratamento farmacológico , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Aborto Espontâneo/epidemiologia , Adulto , Pequim/epidemiologia , Infecções do Sistema Nervoso Central/microbiologia , Feminino , Maternidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Incidência , Recém-Nascido , Listeria monocytogenes/isolamento & purificação , Listeriose/diagnóstico , Listeriose/epidemiologia , Morte Perinatal , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Resultado da Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sepse/etiologia , Natimorto
13.
Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol ; 60(5): 640-659, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32779193

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since its emergence in December 2019, COVID-19 has spread to over 210 countries, with an estimated mortality rate of 3-4%. Little is understood about its effects during pregnancy. AIMS: To describe the current understanding of COVID-19 illness in pregnant women, to describe obstetric outcomes and to identify gaps in the existing knowledge. METHODS: Medline Ovid, EMBASE, World Health Organization COVID-19 research database and Cochrane COVID-19 in pregnancy spreadsheet were accessed on 18/4, 18/5 and 23/5 2020. Articles were screened via Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. The following were excluded: reviews, opinion pieces, guidelines, articles pertaining solely to other viruses, single case reports. RESULTS: Sixty articles were included in this review. Some pregnant participants may have been included in multiple publications, as admission dates overlap for reports from the same hospital. However, a total of 1287 confirmed SARS-CoV-2 positive pregnant cases are reported. Where universal testing was undertaken, asymptomatic infection occurred in 43.5-92% of cases. In the cohort studies, severe and critical COVID-19 illness rates approximated those of the non-pregnant population. Eight maternal deaths, six neonatal deaths, seven stillbirths and five miscarriages were reported. Nineteen neonates were SARS-CoV-2 positive, confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction of nasopharyngeal swabs. [Correction added on 2 September 2020, after first online publication: the number of neonates indicated in the preceding sentence has been corrected from 'Thirteen' to 'Nineteen'.] CONCLUSIONS: Where universal screening was conducted, SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnancy was often asymptomatic. Severe and critical disease rates approximate those in the general population. Vertical transmission is possible; however, it is unclear whether SARS-CoV-2 positive neonates were infected in utero, intrapartum or postpartum. Future work should assess risks of congenital syndromes and adverse perinatal outcomes where infection occurs in early and mid-pregnancy.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Mortalidade Infantil/tendências , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Aborto Espontâneo/epidemiologia , Adulto , Austrália , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Parto Obstétrico/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Mortalidade Materna/tendências , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Trimestres da Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Organização Mundial da Saúde , Adulto Jovem
14.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 8: CD013063, 2020 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32797689

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite substantial improvements in the success of assisted reproduction techniques (ART), live birth rates may remain consistently low, and practitioners may look for innovative treatments to improve the outcomes. The injection of embryo culture supernatant in the endometrial cavity can be undertaken at various time intervals before embryo transfer. It provides an altered endometrial environment through the secretion of factors considered to facilitate implantation. It is proposed that injection of the supernatant into the endometrial cavity prior to embryo transfer will stimulate the endometrium and provide better conditions for implantation to take place. An increased implantation rate would subsequently increase rates of clinical pregnancy and live birth, but current robust evidence on the efficacy of injected embryo culture supernatant is lacking. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of endometrial injection of embryo culture supernatant before embryo transfer in women undergoing ART. SEARCH METHODS: Our search strategies were designed with the help of the Cochrane Gynaecology and Fertility Group Information Specialist. We sought to identify all published and unpublished randomised controlled trials (RCTs) meeting inclusion criteria. Searches were performed on 2 December 2019. We searched the Cochrane Gynaecology and Fertility Group Specialised Register of controlled trials, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, trials registries and grey literature. We made further searches in the UK National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) fertility assessment and treatment guidelines. We handsearched reference lists of relevant systematic reviews and RCTs, together with searches of PubMed and Google for any recent trials that have not yet been indexed in the major databases. We had no language or location restrictions. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included RCTs testing the use of endometrial injection of embryo culture supernatant before embryo transfer during an ART cycle, compared with the non-use of this intervention, the use of placebo or the use of any other similar drug. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently selected studies, assessed risk of bias, extracted data from studies and attempted to contact the authors where data were missing. We pooled studies using a fixed-effect model. Our primary outcomes were live birth/ongoing pregnancy and miscarriage. We performed statistical analysis using Review Manager 5. We assessed evidence quality using GRADE methods. MAIN RESULTS: We found five RCTs suitable for inclusion in the review (526 women analysed). We made two comparisons: embryo culture supernatant use versus standard care or no intervention; and embryo culture supernatant use versus culture medium. All studies were published as full-text articles. Data derived from the reports or through direct communication with investigators were available for the final meta-analysis performed. The GRADE evidence quality of studies ranged from very low-quality to moderate-quality. Factors reducing evidence quality included high risk of bias due to lack of blinding, unclear risk of publication bias and selective outcome reporting, serious inconsistency among study outcomes, and serious imprecision due to wide confidence intervals (CIs) and low numbers of events. Comparison 1. Endometrial injection of embryo culture supernatant before embryo transfer versus standard care or no intervention: One study reported live birth only and two reported the composite outcome live birth and ongoing pregnancy. We are uncertain whether endometrial injection of embryo culture supernatant before embryo transfer during an ART cycle improves live birth/ongoing pregnancy rates compared to no intervention (odds ratio (OR) 1.11, 95% CI 0.73 to 1.70; 3 RCTs; n = 340, I2 = 84%; very low-quality evidence). Results suggest that if the chance of live birth/ongoing pregnancy following placebo or no treatment is assumed to be 42%, the chance following the endometrial injection of embryo culture supernatant before embryo transfer would vary between 22% and 81%. We are also uncertain whether the endometrial injection of embryo culture supernatant could decrease miscarriage rates, compared to no intervention (OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.44 to 1.78, 4 RCTs, n = 430, I2 = 58%, very low-quality evidence). Results suggest that if the chance of miscarriage following placebo or no treatment is assumed to be 9%, the chance following injection of embryo culture supernatant would vary between 3% and 30%. Concerning the secondary outcomes, we are uncertain whether the injection of embryo culture supernatant prior to embryo transfer could increase clinical pregnancy rates (OR 1.13, 95% CI 0.80 to 1.61; 5 RCTs; n = 526, I2 = 0%; very low-quality evidence), decrease ectopic pregnancy rates (OR 0.32, 95% CI 0.01 to 8.24; n = 250; 2 RCTs; I2 = 41%; very low-quality evidence), decrease multiple pregnancy rates (OR 0.70, 95% CI 0.26 to 1.83; 2 RCTs; n = 150; I2 = 63%; very low-quality evidence), or decrease preterm delivery rates (OR 0.63, 95% CI 0.17 to 2.42; 1 RCT; n = 90; I2 = 0%; very low-quality evidence), compared to no intervention. Finally, there may have been little or no difference in foetal abnormality rates between the two groups (OR 3.10, 95% CI 0.12 to 79.23; 1 RCT; n = 60; I2 = 0%; low-quality evidence). Comparison 2. Endometrial injection of embryo culture supernatant versus endometrial injection of culture medium before embryo transfer We are uncertain whether the use of embryo culture supernatant improves clinical pregnancy rates, compared to the use of culture medium (OR 1.09, 95% CI 0.48 to 2.46; n = 96; 1 RCT; very low-quality evidence). No study reported live birth/ongoing pregnancy, miscarriage, ectopic or multiple pregnancy, preterm delivery or foetal abnormalities. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: We are uncertain whether the addition of endometrial injection of embryo culture supernatant before embryo transfer as a routine method for the treatment of women undergoing ART can improve pregnancy outcomes. This conclusion is based on current available data from five RCTs, with evidence quality ranging from very low to moderate across studies. Further large well-designed RCTs reporting on live births and adverse clinical outcomes are still required to clarify the exact role of endometrial injection of embryo culture supernatant before embryo transfer.


Assuntos
Meios de Cultura , Técnicas de Cultura Embrionária , Endométrio , Infertilidade Feminina/terapia , Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida , Aborto Espontâneo/epidemiologia , Viés , Transferência Embrionária , Feminino , Humanos , Injeções/métodos , Nascimento Vivo , Gravidez , Taxa de Gravidez , Gravidez Ectópica/epidemiologia , Gravidez Múltipla/estatística & dados numéricos , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
15.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 8: CD003416, 2020 08 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32827168

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transfer of more than one embryo during in vitro fertilisation (IVF) or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) increases multiple pregnancy rates resulting in an increased risk of maternal and perinatal morbidity. Elective single embryo transfer offers a means of minimising this risk, but this potential gain needs to be balanced against the possibility of jeopardising the overall live birth rate (LBR). OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of different policies for the number of embryos transferred in infertile couples undergoing assisted reproductive technology cycles. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Gynaecology and Fertility Group specialised register of controlled trials, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, ClinicalTrials.gov, and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform from inception to March 2020. We handsearched reference lists of articles and relevant conference proceedings. We also communicated with experts in the field regarding any additional studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing different policies for the number of embryos transferred following IVF or ICSI in infertile women. Studies of fresh or frozen and thawed transfer of one to four embryos at cleavage or blastocyst stage were eligible. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed trial eligibility and risk of bias. The primary outcomes were LBR and multiple pregnancy rate. The secondary outcomes were clinical pregnancy and miscarriage rates. We analysed data using risk ratios (RR), Peto odds ratio (Peto OR) and a fixed effect model. MAIN RESULTS: We included 17 RCTs in the review (2505 women). The main limitation was inadequate reporting of study methods and moderate to high risk of performance bias due to lack of blinding. A majority of the studies had low numbers of participants. None of the trials compared repeated single embryo transfer (SET) with multiple embryo transfer. Reported results of multiple embryo transfer below refer to double embryo transfer. Repeated single embryo transfer versus multiple embryo transfer in a single cycle Repeated SET was compared with double embryo transfer (DET) in four studies of cleavage-stage transfer. In these studies the SET group received either two cycles of fresh SET (one study) or one cycle of fresh SET followed by one frozen SET (three studies). The cumulative live birth rate after repeated SET may be little or no different from the rate after one cycle of DET (RR 0.95, 95% CI (confidence interval) 0.82 to 1.10; I² = 0%; 4 studies, 985 participants; low-quality evidence). This suggests that for a woman with a 42% chance of live birth following a single cycle of DET, the repeated SET would yield pregnancy rates between 34% and 46%. The multiple pregnancy rate associated with repeated SET is probably reduced compared to a single cycle of DET (Peto OR 0.13, 95% CI 0.08 to 0.21; I² = 0%; 4 studies, 985 participants; moderate-quality evidence). This suggests that for a woman with a 13% risk of multiple pregnancy following a single cycle of DET, the risk following repeated SET would be between 0% and 3%. The clinical pregnancy rate (RR 0.99, 95% CI 0.87 to 1.12; I² = 47%; 3 studies, 943 participants; low-quality evidence) after repeated SET may be little or no different from the rate after one cycle of DET. There may be little or no difference in the miscarriage rate between the two groups. Single versus multiple embryo transfer in a single cycle A single cycle of SET was compared with a single cycle of DET in 13 studies, 11 comparing cleavage-stage transfers and three comparing blastocyst-stage transfers.One study reported both cleavage and blastocyst stage transfers. Low-quality evidence suggests that the live birth rate per woman may be reduced in women who have SET in comparison with those who have DET (RR 0.67, 95% CI 0.59 to 0.75; I² = 0%; 12 studies, 1904 participants; low-quality evidence). Thus, for a woman with a 46% chance of live birth following a single cycle of DET, the chance following a single cycle of SET would be between 27% and 35%. The multiple pregnancy rate per woman is probably lower in those who have SET than those who have DET (Peto OR 0.16, 95% CI 0.12 to 0.22; I² = 0%; 13 studies, 1952 participants; moderate-quality evidence). This suggests that for a woman with a 15% risk of multiple pregnancy following a single cycle of DET, the risk following a single cycle of SET would be between 2% and 4%. Low-quality evidence suggests that the clinical pregnancy rate may be lower in women who have SET than in those who have DET (RR 0.70, 95% CI 0.64 to 0.77; I² = 0%; 10 studies, 1860 participants; low-quality evidence). There may be little or no difference in the miscarriage rate between the two groups. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Although DET achieves higher live birth and clinical pregnancy rates per fresh cycle, the evidence suggests that the difference in effectiveness may be substantially offset when elective SET is followed by a further transfer of a single embryo in fresh or frozen cycle, while simultaneously reducing multiple pregnancies, at least among women with a good prognosis. The quality of evidence was low to moderate primarily due to inadequate reporting of study methods and absence of masking those delivering, as well as receiving the interventions.


Assuntos
Transferência Embrionária/efeitos adversos , Transferência Embrionária/métodos , Fertilização In Vitro , Taxa de Gravidez , Aborto Espontâneo/epidemiologia , Blastocisto , Fase de Clivagem do Zigoto/transplante , Feminino , Humanos , Nascimento Vivo/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Gravidez Múltipla/estatística & dados numéricos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Transferência de Embrião Único , Injeções de Esperma Intracitoplásmicas
16.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 8: CD007807, 2020 08 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32851663

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A couple may be considered to have fertility problems if they have been trying to conceive for over a year with no success. This may affect up to a quarter of all couples planning a child. It is estimated that for 40% to 50% of couples, subfertility may result from factors affecting women. Antioxidants are thought to reduce the oxidative stress brought on by these conditions. Currently, limited evidence suggests that antioxidants improve fertility, and trials have explored this area with varied results. This review assesses the evidence for the effectiveness of different antioxidants in female subfertility. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether supplementary oral antioxidants compared with placebo, no treatment/standard treatment or another antioxidant improve fertility outcomes for subfertile women. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the following databases (from their inception to September 2019), with no language or date restriction: Cochrane Gynaecology and Fertility Group (CGFG) specialised register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL and AMED. We checked reference lists of relevant studies and searched the trial registers. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that compared any type, dose or combination of oral antioxidant supplement with placebo, no treatment or treatment with another antioxidant, among women attending a reproductive clinic. We excluded trials comparing antioxidants with fertility drugs alone and trials that only included fertile women attending a fertility clinic because of male partner infertility. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. The primary review outcome was live birth; secondary outcomes included clinical pregnancy rates and adverse events. MAIN RESULTS: We included 63 trials involving 7760 women. Investigators compared oral antioxidants, including: combinations of antioxidants, N-acetylcysteine, melatonin, L-arginine, myo-inositol, carnitine, selenium, vitamin E, vitamin B complex, vitamin C, vitamin D+calcium, CoQ10, and omega-3-polyunsaturated fatty acids versus placebo, no treatment/standard treatment or another antioxidant. Only 27 of the 63 included trials reported funding sources. Due to the very low-quality of the evidence we are uncertain whether antioxidants improve live birth rate compared with placebo or no treatment/standard treatment (odds ratio (OR) 1.81, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.36 to 2.43; P < 0.001, I2 = 29%; 13 RCTs, 1227 women). This suggests that among subfertile women with an expected live birth rate of 19%, the rate among women using antioxidants would be between 24% and 36%. Low-quality evidence suggests that antioxidants may improve clinical pregnancy rate compared with placebo or no treatment/standard treatment (OR 1.65, 95% CI 1.43 to 1.89; P < 0.001, I2 = 63%; 35 RCTs, 5165 women). This suggests that among subfertile women with an expected clinical pregnancy rate of 19%, the rate among women using antioxidants would be between 25% and 30%. Heterogeneity was moderately high. Overall 28 trials reported on various adverse events in the meta-analysis. The evidence suggests that the use of antioxidants makes no difference between the groups in rates of miscarriage (OR 1.13, 95% CI 0.82 to 1.55; P = 0.46, I2 = 0%; 24 RCTs, 3229 women; low-quality evidence). There was also no evidence of a difference between the groups in rates of multiple pregnancy (OR 1.00, 95% CI 0.63 to 1.56; P = 0.99, I2 = 0%; 9 RCTs, 1886 women; low-quality evidence). There was also no evidence of a difference between the groups in rates of gastrointestinal disturbances (OR 1.55, 95% CI 0.47 to 5.10; P = 0.47, I2 = 0%; 3 RCTs, 343 women; low-quality evidence). Low-quality evidence showed that there was also no difference between the groups in rates of ectopic pregnancy (OR 1.40, 95% CI 0.27 to 7.20; P = 0.69, I2 = 0%; 4 RCTs, 404 women). In the antioxidant versus antioxidant comparison, low-quality evidence shows no difference in a lower dose of melatonin being associated with an increased live-birth rate compared with higher-dose melatonin (OR 0.94, 95% CI 0.41 to 2.15; P = 0.89, I2 = 0%; 2 RCTs, 140 women). This suggests that among subfertile women with an expected live-birth rate of 24%, the rate among women using a lower dose of melatonin compared to a higher dose would be between 12% and 40%. Similarly with clinical pregnancy, there was no evidence of a difference between the groups in rates between a lower and a higher dose of melatonin (OR 0.94, 95% CI 0.41 to 2.15; P = 0.89, I2 = 0%; 2 RCTs, 140 women). Three trials reported on miscarriage in the antioxidant versus antioxidant comparison (two used doses of melatonin and one compared N-acetylcysteine versus L-carnitine). There were no miscarriages in either melatonin trial. Multiple pregnancy and gastrointestinal disturbances were not reported, and ectopic pregnancy was reported by only one trial, with no events. The study comparing N-acetylcysteine with L-carnitine did not report live birth rate. Very low-quality evidence shows no evidence of a difference in clinical pregnancy (OR 0.81, 95% CI 0.33 to 2.00; 1 RCT, 164 women; low-quality evidence). Low quality evidence shows no difference in miscarriage (OR 1.54, 95% CI 0.42 to 5.67; 1 RCT, 164 women; low-quality evidence). The study did not report multiple pregnancy, gastrointestinal disturbances or ectopic pregnancy. The overall quality of evidence was limited by serious risk of bias associated with poor reporting of methods, imprecision and inconsistency. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: In this review, there was low- to very low-quality evidence to show that taking an antioxidant may benefit subfertile women. Overall, there is no evidence of increased risk of miscarriage, multiple births, gastrointestinal effects or ectopic pregnancies, but evidence was of very low quality. At this time, there is limited evidence in support of supplemental oral antioxidants for subfertile women.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Infertilidade Feminina/tratamento farmacológico , Aborto Espontâneo/epidemiologia , Administração Oral , Antioxidantes/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Nascimento Vivo/epidemiologia , Minerais/administração & dosagem , Estresse Oxidativo , Pentoxifilina/efeitos adversos , Pentoxifilina/uso terapêutico , Placebos/administração & dosagem , Gravidez , Taxa de Gravidez , Gravidez Múltipla , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem
17.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236435, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32760090

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity is a major health problem in low and middle income countries (LMICs) and is associated with miscarriage. This study aims to examine the association between obesity and miscarriage among reproductive age women (15-49 years) in Nepal. METHODS: The combined 19160 cross-sectional pregnancy data from the Nepal Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) for the years 2001, 2006, 2011 and 2016 was utilized. Miscarriage was defined as a spontaneous loss of pregnancy that occurred before the foetus reached 7 months of gestational age. Logistic regression analyses that adjusted for clustering, stratification and sampling weights were used to examine the association between obesity and miscarriage among women of reproductive age. RESULTS: The odds of miscarriage were 1.45 times higher (Adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.45; 95%Cl: 1.06, 1.98, P = 0.021) among women with obesity. Women who did not use contraception, younger (15-19 years), and older women (35 years or more) were significantly more likely to have miscarriage. Women who smoked tobacco reported higher odds of miscarriage than women who did not smoke tobacco (AOR = 1.27; 95%Cl: 1.07,1.50, P = 0.006). Stratification of maternal smoking status by maternal Body Mass Index (BMI), after adjusting for contraception, mother age and year of survey revealed that tobacco smoking and obesity are associated with miscarriage (AOR = 1.46; 95%Cl: 1.05,2.04, P = 0.025). CONCLUSIONS: Findings from this study show that obesity and tobacco smoking are associated with miscarriage. Smoking cessation, pregnancy planning and counselling on healthy weight for women of reproductive age in Nepal may help promote healthy behaviours and decrease the likelihood of miscarriage.


Assuntos
Aborto Espontâneo , Obesidade , Fumar Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Aborto Espontâneo/epidemiologia , Aborto Espontâneo/etiologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Humanos , Idade Materna , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nepal/epidemiologia , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
18.
Paediatr Respir Rev ; 35: 31-37, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32709462

RESUMO

Beginning in late 2019, a novel coronavirus labeled SARS-CoV-2 spread around the world, affecting millions. The impact of the disease on patients and on health care delivery has been unprecedented. Here, we review what is currently known about the effects of the virus and its clinical condition, Covid-19 in areas of relevance to those providing care to neonates. While aspects of pregnancy, including higher expression of the cell receptor for the virus, ACE2, could put these women at higher risk, preliminary epidemiological information does not support this. Viral carriage prevalence based on universal screening show that rates vary from 13% in "hot spots" such as New York City, to 3% in areas with lower cases. Vertical transmission risks are unknown but 3.1% of 311 babies born to mothers with Covid-19 were positive within a week of birth. The clinical description of 26 neonates <30 days of age showed no deaths and only one requiring intensive care. Risks for breast-feeding and for milk banks are discussed.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Leite Humano/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Aborto Induzido , Aborto Espontâneo/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa , Bancos de Leite , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/fisiopatologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/terapia
19.
Chemosphere ; 257: 127035, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32702804

RESUMO

Human exposure to environmental chemicals might play a role in the pathogenesis of unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion (URSA). Bisphenol A (BPA) and bisphenol S (BPS) have been suggested to affect reproductive health. However, the mechanism remains unclear. To explore the association between BPA and BPS exposure and oxidative stress and immune homeostasis, we conducted a cross-sectional study and revealed BPA and BPS levels in relation to these two factors which were supposed to be implicated in miscarriage. 111 URSA patients were recruited and we analyzed urinary BPA and BPS concentrations, oxidative stress biomarkers (8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine and 8-isoprostane) and serum immune balance biomarkers (IL-1ß, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-13, TNF-α, TGF-ß and IFN-γ). Multivariable linear regression models were used to evaluate the correlation between bisphenols exposure and outcome biomarkers. After adjustment for age, BMI, menstrual cycle, and parity history, creatinine-adjusted BPA was significantly associated with increases in 8-isoprostane (ß = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.07, 1.41; p = 0.031) and IFN-γ (ß = 0.18, 95% CI = 0.00, 0.36; p = 0.046). No statistical correlation between BPS and biomarkers of oxidative stress or immune balance was observed when all participants were analyzed. Further analysis revealed that in the subgroup of BPS > limit of detection (0.01 ng/ml), creatinine-adjusted BPS was significantly associated with increases in IL-10 (ß = 0.22, 95% CI = 0.00, 0.45; p = 0.048). Our findings suggested that BPA and BPS exposure might be related to oxidative stress and immune imbalance in URSA patients. Overall, our work might suggest potential pathogenic and aetiological associations among the bisphenols, biomarkers and URSA, which offers hypotheses for further studies.


Assuntos
Aborto Espontâneo/epidemiologia , Compostos Benzidrílicos/toxicidade , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Exposição Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Fenóis/toxicidade , Sulfonas/toxicidade , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Dinoprosta/análogos & derivados , Feminino , Humanos , Interleucina-10/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Gravidez
20.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 7: CD013497, 2020 07 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32672358

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: GM-CSF (granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor) is a growth factor that is used to supplement culture media in an effort to improve clinical outcomes for those undergoing assisted reproduction. It is worth noting that the use of GM-CSF-supplemented culture media often adds a further cost to the price of an in vitro fertilisation (IVF) cycle. The purpose of this review was to assess the available evidence from randomised controlled trials (RCTs) on the effectiveness and safety of GM-CSF-supplemented culture media. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness and safety of GM-CSF-supplemented human embryo culture media versus culture media not supplemented with GM-CSF, in women or couples undergoing assisted reproduction. SEARCH METHODS: We used standard methodology recommended by Cochrane. We searched the Cochrane Gynaecology and Fertility Group Trials Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, LILACS, DARE, OpenGrey, PubMed, Google Scholar, and two trials registers on 15 October 2019, checked references of relevant papers and communicated with experts in the field. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included RCTs comparing GM-CSF (including G-CSF (granulocyte colony-stimulating factor))-supplemented embryo culture media versus any other non-GM-CSF-supplemented embryo culture media (control) in women undergoing assisted reproduction. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard methodological procedures recommended by Cochrane. The primary review outcomes were live birth and miscarriage rate. The secondary outcomes were clinical pregnancy, multiple gestation, preterm birth, birth defects, aneuploidy, and stillbirth rates. We assessed the quality of the evidence using GRADE methodology. We undertook one comparison, GM-CSF-supplemented culture media versus culture media not supplemented with GM-CSF, for those undergoing assisted reproduction. MAIN RESULTS: We included five studies, the data for three of which (1532 participants) were meta-analysed. We are uncertain whether GM-CSF-supplemented culture media makes any difference to the live-birth rate when compared to using conventional culture media not supplemented with GM-CSF (odds ratio (OR) 1.19, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.93 to 1.52, 2 RCTs, N = 1432, I2 = 69%, low-quality evidence). The evidence suggests that if the rate of live birth associated with conventional culture media not supplemented with GM-CSF was 22%, the rate with the use of GM-CSF-supplemented culture media would be between 21% and 30%. We are uncertain whether GM-CSF-supplemented culture media makes any difference to the miscarriage rate when compared to using conventional culture media not supplemented with GM-CSF (OR 0.75, 95% CI 0.41 to 1.36, 2 RCTs, N = 1432, I2 = 0%, low-quality evidence). This evidence suggests that if the miscarriage rate associated with conventional culture media not supplemented with GM-CSF was 4%, the rate with the use of GM-CSF-supplemented culture media would be between 2% and 5%. Furthermore, we are uncertain whether GM-CSF-supplemented culture media makes any difference to the following outcomes: clinical pregnancy (OR 1.16, 95% CI 0.93 to 1.45, 3 RCTs, N = 1532 women, I2 = 67%, low-quality evidence); multiple gestation (OR 1.24, 95% CI 0.73 to 2.10, 2 RCTs, N = 1432, I2 = 35%, very low-quality evidence); preterm birth (OR 1.20, 95% CI 0.70 to 2.04, 2 RCTs, N = 1432, I2 = 76%, very low-quality evidence); birth defects (OR 1.33, 95% CI 0.59 to 3.01, I2 = 0%, 2 RCTs, N = 1432, low-quality evidence); and aneuploidy (OR 0.34, 95% CI 0.03 to 3.26, I2 = 0%, 2 RCTs, N = 1432, low-quality evidence). We were unable to undertake analysis of stillbirth, as there were no events in either arm of the two studies that assessed this outcome. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Due to the very low to low quality of the evidence, we cannot be certain whether GM-CSF is any more or less effective than culture media not supplemented with GM-CSF for clinical outcomes that reflect effectiveness and safety. It is important that independent information on the available evidence is made accessible to those considering using GM-CSF-supplemented culture media. The claims from marketing information that GM-CSF has a positive effect on pregnancy rates are not supported by the available evidence presented here; further well-designed, properly powered RCTs are needed to lend certainty to the evidence.


Assuntos
Meios de Cultura/química , Fertilização In Vitro/métodos , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos e Macrófagos/uso terapêutico , Aborto Espontâneo/epidemiologia , Aneuploidia , Viés , Intervalos de Confiança , Anormalidades Congênitas/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Nascimento Vivo , Gravidez , Taxa de Gravidez , Gravidez Múltipla/estatística & dados numéricos , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida
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