Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 343
Filtrar
1.
R I Med J (2013) ; 103(6): 8-13, 2020 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32752556

RESUMO

Field hospitals have long been used to extend health care capabilities in times of crisis. In response to the pandemic and an anticipated surge in patients, Rhode Island Gov. Gina Raimondo announced a plan to create three field hospitals, or "alternate hospital sites" (AHS), totaling 1,000 beds, in order to expand the state's hospital capacity. Following China's Fangcang shelter hospital model, the Lifespan AHS (LAHS) planning group attempted to identify existing public venues that could support rapid conversion to a site for large numbers of patients at a reasonable cost. After discussions with many stakeholders - pharmacy, laboratory, healthcare providers, security, emergency medical services, and infection control - design and equipment recommendations were given to the architects during daily teleconferencing and site visits. Specific patient criteria for the LAHS were established, staffing was prioritized, and clinical protocols were designed to facilitate care. Simulations using 4 different scenarios were practiced in order to assure proper patient care and flow, pharmacy utilization, and staffing.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Planejamento em Desastres , Hospitais de Isolamento , Unidades Móveis de Saúde , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Betacoronavirus , Abrigo de Emergência , Humanos , Rhode Island
3.
BMJ Glob Health ; 5(6)2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-603209

RESUMO

Since the COVID-19 outbreak, Wuhan has adopted three methods of admitting patients for treatment: designated hospitals, newly built temporary hospitals and Fangcang shelter hospitals. It has been proven that converting large-scale public venues such as stadiums and exhibition centres into Fangcang shelter hospitals, which serve as hospitals for isolation, treatment and disease monitoring of patients with mild symptoms, is the most effective way to control virus transmission and reduce mortality. This paper presents some experiences learnt from treating COVID-19 in Wuhan, the first city to report the outbreak and which suffered from a shortage of emergency supplies, heavy workload among staff and a shortage of hospital beds during the early stages of the pandemic. The experiences include location, accessibility, spacious outdoor area, spacious indoor space, power supply, architectural layout design and partition isolation, ventilation, sewage, and problems in the construction and management of Fangcang shelter hospitals. During the COVID-19 pandemic, traditional approaches to disaster preparedness have demonstrated intrinsic problems, such as poor economic performance, inefficiency and lack of flexibility. Converting large-scale public venues into Fangcang shelter hospitals is an important means to rapidly improve the function of the city's healthcare system during a pandemic. This valuable experience in Wuhan will help other countries in their battle against the current COVID-19 pandemic and will also contribute to disaster preparedness and mitigation in the future.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Planejamento em Desastres , Hospitais de Isolamento , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Logradouros Públicos , Betacoronavirus , China , Surtos de Doenças , Abrigo de Emergência , Humanos
4.
BMJ Glob Health ; 5(6)2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32546589

RESUMO

Since the COVID-19 outbreak, Wuhan has adopted three methods of admitting patients for treatment: designated hospitals, newly built temporary hospitals and Fangcang shelter hospitals. It has been proven that converting large-scale public venues such as stadiums and exhibition centres into Fangcang shelter hospitals, which serve as hospitals for isolation, treatment and disease monitoring of patients with mild symptoms, is the most effective way to control virus transmission and reduce mortality. This paper presents some experiences learnt from treating COVID-19 in Wuhan, the first city to report the outbreak and which suffered from a shortage of emergency supplies, heavy workload among staff and a shortage of hospital beds during the early stages of the pandemic. The experiences include location, accessibility, spacious outdoor area, spacious indoor space, power supply, architectural layout design and partition isolation, ventilation, sewage, and problems in the construction and management of Fangcang shelter hospitals. During the COVID-19 pandemic, traditional approaches to disaster preparedness have demonstrated intrinsic problems, such as poor economic performance, inefficiency and lack of flexibility. Converting large-scale public venues into Fangcang shelter hospitals is an important means to rapidly improve the function of the city's healthcare system during a pandemic. This valuable experience in Wuhan will help other countries in their battle against the current COVID-19 pandemic and will also contribute to disaster preparedness and mitigation in the future.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Planejamento em Desastres , Hospitais de Isolamento , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Logradouros Públicos , Betacoronavirus , China , Surtos de Doenças , Abrigo de Emergência , Humanos
5.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 270: 1321-1322, 2020 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32570639

RESUMO

During disasters, prompt assessment of evacuation centres and appropriate measures taken based on the assessment are important for protecting local residents' lives and health. To clarify experts' tacit knowledge for improving the management of shelters under disaster, we conducted a questionnaire survey of specialists in disaster management to examine the assessment items to which they accorded top priority. Our results suggest that specialists give highest priority to the number of evacuees, followed by infrastructure and need for medical intervention. Identifying their common views on priorities can be the first step towards taking standard appropriate measures in evacuation centres.


Assuntos
Planejamento em Desastres , Desastres , Abrigo de Emergência , Habitação , Japão , Conhecimento
6.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(20): 613-617, 2020 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32437337

RESUMO

The Camp Fire, California's deadliest wildfire, began November 8, 2018, and was extinguished November 25 (1). Approximately 1,100 evacuees from the fire sought emergency shelter. On November 10, acute gastroenteritis (AGE) was reported in two evacuation shelters; norovirus illness was suspected, because it is commonly detected in shelter-associated AGE outbreaks. Norovirus is highly contagious and resistant to several disinfectants. Butte County Public Health Department (BCPHD), assisted by the California Department of Public Health (CDPH), initiated active surveillance to identify cases, confirm the etiology, and assess shelter infection prevention and control (IPC) practices to guide recommendations. During November 8-30, a total of 292 patients with AGE were identified among nine evacuation shelters; norovirus was detected in 16 of 17 unique patient stool specimens. Shelter IPC assessments revealed gaps in illness surveillance, isolation practices, cleaning, disinfection, and handwashing. CDPH and BCPHD collaborated with partner agencies to implement AGE screening, institute isolation protocols and 24-hour cleaning services, and promote proper hand hygiene. During disasters with limited resources, damaged infrastructure, and involvement of multiple organizations, establishing shelter disease surveillance and IPC is difficult. However, prioritizing effective surveillance and IPC at shelter activation is necessary to prevent, identify, and contain outbreaks.


Assuntos
Infecções por Caliciviridae/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Abrigo de Emergência , Incêndios Florestais , Idoso , California/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
7.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2020-05-21. (PAHO/PHE/CPI/COVID-19-20-0020).
em Inglês | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52170

RESUMO

Most shelters in the Caribbean are community centers, schools, or churches that are limited in size. The novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) distancing requirements subsequently reduced the number of persons a shelter can accommodate during the hurricane season. This document reinforces some measures to follow per international emergency shelter protocols factoring in conditions for spacing between beds/cots, recreation areas and ventilation according to The Sphere Handbook, FEMA, and Australian Red Cross. Physical distancing and hygienic standards were modified highlighting that ideal requirements are not always feasible; therefore, we may choose realistic recommendations for practical purposes and suspected cases of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Coronavirus , Abrigo , Abrigo de Emergência , Aviso de Furacão , Desastres Naturais , Região do Caribe
8.
Yakugaku Zasshi ; 140(2): 289-300, 2020.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32009048

RESUMO

In this paper, as a program targeting school pharmacists engaged in health counseling and health guidance at elementary and junior high schools, which are often evacuation centers, we have rebuilt the disaster evacuation shelter support chart program for community pharmacists. As a result of the questionnaire survey, there were seen 4 groups. There were a group that was conscious of shelter support, a group who felt that they did not have aptitude for disaster relief, a group that was conscious of general support and logistical support, and a group that showed a negative attitude towards disaster relief. From this, it was suggested that this training program worked enlighteningly to support affected area by school pharmacists, and at the same time participants themselves could lead to consideration of aptitude for support at the time of disaster.


Assuntos
Planejamento em Desastres , Educação Continuada em Farmácia , Abrigo de Emergência , Farmacêuticos , Instituições Acadêmicas , Análise por Conglomerados , Análise Fatorial , Humanos , Japão
10.
Nihon Koshu Eisei Zasshi ; 67(1): 26-32, 2020.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32023591

RESUMO

Objectives The Great East Japan Earthquake occurred in March 2011. As of November 2018, 1100 survivors of its still lived in the Miyagi prefecture's temporary housing. Previous studies revealed that the residential relocation to temporary housing from their own houses due to damages caused by the earthquake exacerbated the evacuees' health. However, there is a lack of long-term observation of the trajectory of their health conditions in temporary housing. To the best of our knowledge, there is no study involving residents in public disaster housing. The aim of the present study was to reveal the trajectory of health conditions of residents of temporary and public disaster housing.Method This repeated cross-sectional study included residents aged 20 years and older, residing in private rented housing, prefabricated temporary housing, and public disaster housing. The survey period lasted for six years (2011 to 2017). We used self-rated health as the dependent variable, the year of the survey and type of house as independent variables, and sex and age as covariates. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated using multivariate logistic regression analysis.Results In total, 179,255 participants were included in this study. The average age was the highest among the residents of public disaster housing: 63.0 years in 2017. The number of residents who reported poor self-rated health declined yearly of private rented housing, but not of prefabricated temporary housing. The highest number of residents reporting poor self-rated health was from public disaster housing, compared to other temporary housing. Multivariate analysis showed that self-rated health improved in recent years (P for trend <0.001). Compared to the residents of private rented housing, those from public disaster housing reported poorer health conditions (aOR, 1.20 ; 95% CI, 1.15-1.27), although no significant difference was observed among the residents of prefabricated housing.Conclusion Health conditions of residents of temporary housing and public disaster housing tended to improve on a yearly basis. Residents of public disaster housing reported poor health. Therefore, monitoring and adequate intervention should be offered.


Assuntos
Terremotos , Abrigo de Emergência , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Habitação , Fatores Etários , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores de Tempo
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31936871

RESUMO

Catastrophic natural disasters cause devastating damage and leave a huge number of homeless people. Waiting for resettlement in a post-disaster environment brings human suffering, which is defined by waiting cost in this paper. Taking into account waiting cost and fairness consideration simultaneously, a mixed integer linear programming model is constructed for the multiperiod location-allocation process. Two fairness indicators are incorporated to guarantee both the whole-process equity and the periodic equity. The model is implemented in the General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS) and solved by the CPLEX solver. An illustrative example is provided to explain the model characteristics. Furthermore, a case study of the Yushu earthquake is conducted to demonstrate the applicability of the model to practical problems.


Assuntos
Terremotos/estatística & dados numéricos , Abrigo de Emergência , Modelos Estatísticos , Desastres Naturais , Pessoas em Situação de Rua , Humanos
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31952331

RESUMO

Timely and secure evacuation of residents during flood disasters or other emergency events is an important issue in urban community flood risk management, especially in vulnerable communities. An agent-based modeling framework was proposed in order to indicate how the community properties (e.g., community density and percentage of vulnerable residents), residents' psychological attributes (e.g., flood risk tolerance threshold) and mutual aid mechanism affect the flood evacuation process. Results indicated that: (1) The community density negatively affected the flood evacuation efficiency. The greater the density of the community, the longer the evacuation time. (2) There was a negative correlation between the flood risk tolerance threshold of residents and evacuation efficiency. (3) The proportion of vulnerable resident agents had opposite effects on the evacuation efficiency of different types of communities, which was to negatively affect low-density communities and positively affect high-density communities. (4) Mutual aid mechanism can reduce evacuation time in low-density communities, and the effect was more pronounced with a higher proportion of vulnerable resident agents in the community. These findings can help managers to develop better emergency evacuation management for urban communities.


Assuntos
Simulação por Computador , Planejamento em Desastres/organização & administração , Desastres , Inundações , Abrigo de Emergência/organização & administração , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Gestão de Riscos
14.
Nihon Koshu Eisei Zasshi ; 66(10): 629-637, 2019.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31708563

RESUMO

Objectives Improvement in the quality of meals provided after a disaster is an important issue. We reanalyzed the data obtained from the dietary survey of emergency shelters in Miyagi Prefecture 2 and 3 months after the Great East Japan Earthquake in 2011 to improve the quality of meals at emergency shelters.Methods We performed a secondary analysis of the data from the dietary survey conducted by the Miyagi prefectural government. Two hundred and forty-one and 49 emergency shelters participated in the 1-day dietary survey in May 2011 and June 2011, respectively. We targeted emergency shelters that had no missing data and provided 3 meals a day. As a result, we targeted 216 emergency shelters in May and 49 in June. We examined the amounts of nutrients (i.e. energy, protein, vitamin B1, vitamin B2, and vitamin C) and food groups (i.e. cereal, potatoes, meat, seafood, eggs, dairy, vegetables, fruits, and fats) in meal portions provided in lunch boxes, rationing, and mass feeding.Results We found significant differences in the amounts of energy and nutrients in the meals provided at the emergency shelters 2 months after the Great East Japan Earthquake but found no significant differences 3 months after the disaster. The amounts of energy, protein, seafood, and fats were high, and those of vitamins B1 and C, potatoes, and vegetables were low, at the emergency shelters where lunch boxes were provided. The amounts of potatoes, meat, and vegetables were high at the emergency shelters where mass feeding was conducted.Conclusion Two months after the Great East Japan Earthquake, the provision of lunch boxes at emergency shelters may have increased the amounts of energy, protein, and seafood in meals served to survivors, whereas the amounts of vitamins B1 and C have remained low. These results indicate that providing lunch boxes at an early stage in the event of a disaster can improve energy and protein supply. We believe a combination of lunch box and mass feeding will improve the nutrient supply at emergency shelters.


Assuntos
Planejamento em Desastres/métodos , Terremotos , Abrigo de Emergência , Ingestão de Energia , Métodos de Alimentação , Almoço , Nutrientes/administração & dosagem , Melhoria de Qualidade , Humanos , Japão , Fatores de Tempo
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31635076

RESUMO

Disasters such as hurricanes, earthquakes and floods continue to have devastating socioeconomic impacts and endanger millions of lives. Shelters are safe zones that protect victims from possible damage, and evacuation routes are the paths from disaster zones toward shelter areas. To enable the timely evacuation of disaster zones, decisions regarding shelter location and routing assignment (i.e., traffic assignment) should be considered simultaneously. In this work, we propose a risk-averse stochastic programming model with a chance constraint that takes into account the uncertainty in the demand of disaster sites while minimizing the total evacuation time. The total evacuation time reflects the efficacy of emergency management from a system optimal (SO) perspective. A conditional value-at-risk (CVaR) is incorporated into the objective function to account for risk measures in the presence of uncertain post-disaster demand. We resolve the non-linear travel time function of traffic flow by employing a second-order cone programming (SOCP) approach and linearizing the non-linear chance constraints into a new mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) reformulation so that the problem can be directly solved by state-of-the-art optimization solvers. We illustrate the application of our model using two case studies. The first case study is used to demonstrate the difference between a risk-neutral model and our proposed model. An extensive computational study provides practical insight into the proposed modeling approach using another case study concerning the Black Saturday bushfire in Australia.


Assuntos
Planejamento em Desastres/organização & administração , Abrigo de Emergência/organização & administração , Desastres Naturais , Austrália , Condução de Veículo , Tempestades Ciclônicas , Terremotos , Inundações , Humanos , Fatores de Tempo , Incerteza
17.
Disasters ; 43(4): 926-953, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31435962

RESUMO

Participation has long been considered important for post-disaster recovery. Establishing what constitutes participation in post-disaster shelter projects, however, has remained elusive, and the links between different types of participation and shelter programme outcomes are not well understood. Furthermore, recent case studies suggest that misguided participation strategies may be to blame for failures. This study analysed 19 shelter projects implemented in the Philippines following Typhoon Haiyan in November 2013 to identify the forms of participation employed. Using fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis, it assessed how household participation in the planning, design, and construction phases of shelter reconstruction led to outcomes of household satisfaction and safe shelter design. Participation was operationalised via eight central project tasks, revealing that the involvement of households in the early planning stages of projects and in construction activities were important for satisfaction and design outcomes, whereas engagement during the design phase of projects had little impact on the selected outcomes.


Assuntos
Participação da Comunidade , Abrigo de Emergência/normas , Arquitetura de Instituições de Saúde/normas , Características da Família , Satisfação Pessoal , Socorro em Desastres/organização & administração , Segurança , Humanos , Filipinas , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31370366

RESUMO

The social network has emerged as an essential component in group decision making (GDM) problems. Thus, this paper investigates the social network GDM (SNGDM) problem and assumes that decision makers offer their preferences utilizing additive preference relations (also called fuzzy preference relations). An optimization-based approach is devised to generate the weights of decision makers by combining two reliable resources: in-degree centrality indexes and consistency indexes. Based on the obtained weights of decision makers, the individual additive preference relations are aggregated into a collective additive preference relation. Further, the alternatives are ranked from best to worst according to the obtained collective additive preference relation. Moreover, earthquakes have occurred frequently around the world in recent years, causing great loss of life and property. Earthquake shelters offer safety, security, climate protection, and resistance to disease and ill health and are thus vital for disaster-affected people. Selection of a suitable site for locating shelters from potential alternatives is of critical importance, which can be seen as a GDM problem. When selecting a suitable earthquake shelter-site, the social trust relationships among disaster management experts should not be ignored. To this end, the proposed SNGDM model is applied to evaluate and select earthquake shelter-sites to show its effectiveness. In summary, this paper constructs a novel GDM framework by taking the social trust relationship into account, which can provide a scientific basis for public emergency management in the major disasters field.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões , Planejamento em Desastres , Terremotos , Abrigo de Emergência , Processos Grupais , Rede Social , Consenso , Planejamento em Desastres/métodos , Planejamento em Desastres/organização & administração , Abrigo de Emergência/métodos , Abrigo de Emergência/organização & administração , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Confiança
19.
Nihon Koshu Eisei Zasshi ; 66(7): 348-355, 2019.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31341140

RESUMO

Objective Students find it difficult to take the decision to evacuate from tsunamis. This study explores junior high school students' risk perception regarding tsunamis and their willingness to evacuate.Methods The study surveyed 251 junior high school students from the 7th to 9th grades in Town B, located at the east coast of Prefecture A, Japan, using data from an anonymous questionnaire that was administered with parental consent. Demographic factors (school, grade, and gender), willingness to evacuate, risk perception, tsunami experiences, recognition of tsunami hazard households, and household preventive actions were evaluated. Pearson's chi-squared test and Fisher's exact test were used to analyze the relationship between risk perception and willingness to evacuate. The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of Hokkaido University.Results Valid data were collected from 158 students (62.9%). Of these, 141 (89.2%) were enrolled in a school located in a coastal area. Male students accounted for 81 responses (51.3%) and female students for 77 (48.7%). As for willingness to evacuate, 147 (93.0%) responded that they would evacuate if they heard an evacuation order and 112 (70.9%) responded that they would evacuate if they experienced a persistent tremor. Regarding household altitude, 66 (41.8%) of the students live in houses located less than 15 meters above sea level. The results indicate that 125 (79.1%) of the students discuss tsunamis with their family members. The primary factor promoting the willingness to evacuate after hearing an evacuation order is living in a household under 15 meters in altitude (100% vs. 82.4%, P<0.001) and the major factors for willingness to evacuate after feeling a persistent tremor are living in a household under 15 meters in altitude (84.8% vs. 35.3%, P<0.001) and discussing tsunamis with their families (76.8% vs. 48.5%, P=0.001).Conclusion The results suggest that to promote a willingness to evacuate immediately, recognizing the household's altitude is important, as it can give junior high school students a clearer sense of the danger of tsunamis. In addition, the study suggests that discussing the matter within families is a significant factor that promotes willingness to evacuate.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões , Planejamento em Desastres , Abrigo de Emergência , Oceanos e Mares , Percepção , Risco , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Tsunamis , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Elevação do Nível do Mar
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31357741

RESUMO

We aimed to (1) describe the subjective well-being (SWB) of older residents in Fukushima Prefecture seven years and seven months after the Great East Japan Earthquake (GEJE) and examine the effect of relocation to the restoration public housing (RPH) on SWB, social capital, and health indicators; and (2) investigate the association between social capital and SWB. Questionnaires were administered to collect data of both RPH and non-RPH residents (≥65 years). Respondents' SWB was collected via the Japanese version of the World Health Organization Five Well-Being Index. Additionally, residents' social capital (trust, reciprocity, and participation), physical activity level, social network, functional health, history of chronic disease, and demographic data were collected. We analyzed 101 responses (valid response rate: approximately 34%) from RPH and 158 (53%) from non-RPH residents. SWB was lower in RPH compared to non-RPH residents but not statistically significant. Older RPH residents may demonstrate lower social capital and health indicators after the GEJE. Mistrust was found to be positively associated with low SWB in RPH residents. Future studies should examine the effectiveness of support for enhancing the trust of older RPH residents regarding, for example, the involvement of scientists-including medical professionals-in risk communications in promoting SWB.


Assuntos
Abrigo de Emergência , Envelhecimento Saudável/psicologia , Habitação Popular , Capital Social , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Terremotos , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA