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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445539

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Myocarditis is an inflammatory heart disease caused by viral infections that can lead to heart failure, and occurs more often in men than women. Since animal studies have shown that myocarditis is influenced by sex hormones, we hypothesized that endocrine disruptors, which interfere with natural hormones, may play a role in the progression of the disease. The human population is exposed to the endocrine disruptor bisphenol A (BPA) from plastics, such as water bottles and plastic food containers. METHODS: Male and female adult BALB/c mice were housed in plastic versus glass caging, or exposed to BPA in drinking water versus control water. Myocarditis was induced with coxsackievirus B3 on day 0, and the endpoints were assessed on day 10 post infection. RESULTS: We found that male BALB/c mice that were exposed to plastic caging had increased myocarditis due to complement activation and elevated numbers of macrophages and neutrophils, whereas females had elevated mast cell activation and fibrosis. CONCLUSIONS: These findings show that housing mice in traditional plastic caging increases viral myocarditis in males and females, but using sex-specific immune mechanisms.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coxsackievirus/complicações , Enterovirus Humano B/patogenicidade , Abrigo para Animais/estatística & dados numéricos , Miocardite/patologia , Plásticos/efeitos adversos , Animais , Infecções por Coxsackievirus/virologia , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Miocardite/etiologia , Miocardite/virologia , Fatores Sexuais
2.
Viruses ; 13(8)2021 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34452497

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic raised concerns that companion animals might be infected with, and could become a reservoir of, SARS-CoV-2. As cats are popular pets and susceptible to Coronavirus, we investigated the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in shelter cats housed in Dutch animal shelters during the COVID-19 pandemic. In this large-scale cross-sectional study, serum samples of shelter cats were collected during the second wave of human COVID-19 infections in The Netherlands. Seroprevalence was determined by using an indirect protein-based ELISA validated for cats, and a Virus Neutralization Test (VNT) as confirmation. To screen for feline SARS-CoV-2 shedding, oropharyngeal and rectal swabs of cats positive for ELISA and/or VNT were analyzed using PCR tests. In 28 Dutch animal shelters, 240 shelter cats were convenience sampled. Two of these cats (0.8%; CI 95%: 0.1-3.0%) were seropositive, as evidenced by the presence of SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies. The seropositive animals tested PCR negative for SARS-CoV-2. Based on the results of this study, it is unlikely that shelter cats could be a reservoir of SARS-CoV-2 or pose a (significant) risk to public health.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , COVID-19/veterinária , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Animais , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/imunologia , Teste de Ácido Nucleico para COVID-19/veterinária , Teste Sorológico para COVID-19/veterinária , Doenças do Gato/imunologia , Gatos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Abrigo para Animais , Humanos , Masculino , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Eliminação de Partículas Virais
3.
J Dairy Sci ; 104(9): 9383-9417, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34253364

RESUMO

Many dairy cattle worldwide are housed in tiestalls, meaning that they are tethered by the neck to individual stalls. On some farms, tied cattle are permitted seasonal access to pasture, but otherwise their movements are restricted compared with cows housed in freestall barns or other loose housing systems. The aim of this systematic review is to summarize the scientific literature pertaining the welfare of tied dairy cattle through comparison with less-restrictive housing systems. Articles identified by PubMed and Web of Science underwent a 5-phase screening process, resulting in the inclusion of 102 papers. These papers addressed measures of welfare related to affective state, natural behavior, and health (with the lattermost category subdivided into hoof and leg disorders, lameness, mastitis, transition disease, and other diseases or conditions). Health was the most researched topic (discussed in 86% of articles); only 19% and 14% of studies addressed natural behavior and affective state, respectively. Our review highlights different health benefits for tethered and loose cattle. For example, tied cattle experience reduced prevalence of white line disease and digital dermatitis, whereas loose cattle experience fewer leg lesions and injuries. The prevalence of mastitis, transition diseases, and other conditions did not differ consistently across housing types. We found that the expression of certain natural behaviors, particularly those associated with lying down (e.g., time spent kneeling, unfulfilled intentions to lie down), were impaired in tiestalls. Articles addressing affective state found benefits to loose housing, but these studies focused almost exclusively on (1) physiological measurements and (2) cow comfort, a concept that lacks a consistent operational definition across studies. We call for future research into the affective state of tied cattle that extends beyond these explorations and employs more sophisticated methodologies.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Casco e Garras , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Indústria de Laticínios , Fazendas , Feminino , Abrigo para Animais , Coxeadura Animal
4.
Poult Sci ; 100(9): 101360, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34320453

RESUMO

Under commercial conditions turkeys are housed in large groups in poorly structured environments. This leads to stress and subsequently to pecking and cannibalism. Environmental enrichment is suggested to reduce stress and feather pecking, thus leading to an increase of the overall flock health. However, the effect of increasing age on the use of enrichment elements and on the behavior repertoire as well as its correlation with health parameters has scarcely been studied. Therefore, our objective was to investigate the influence of environmental enrichment on the behavioral repertoire and on health parameters of turkeys. In 3 consecutive trials, female turkeys were housed up to 12 wk either in an unstructured (control group) or enriched environment (EE group) featuring elevated plateaus at different levels ("turkey tree"). Behavior parameters, clinical health, and immune parameters were determined at selected time points. The percentage of birds using the turkey tree increased with age up to 55 to 77% at 22 to 30 d post hatch (dph). Thereafter, the number of birds located on the turkey tree decreased to 25 to 32% at 73 to 79 dph. Feather pecking and fighting was significantly lower in the EE group compared to the control group in 2 and 3 trials, respectively (P < 0.05). The integrity of feathers and integument, scored in the head/neck, wing, and tail regions was repeatedly better in the EE birds compared to control birds at most investigated time points (P < 0.05), suggesting a reduction in stress related aggression by the use of the turkey tree. Head pecking, running and flying activity, foraging, and preening were overall comparable between the EE and the control group (P > 0.05). Humoral immunity as determined by vaccination-induced anti-Newcastle disease virus antibody titers was not affected by the turkey tree use. The flow cytometric evaluation of blood monocyte and T-lymphocyte numbers showed no repeatable difference between control and EE groups. Interestingly, compared to the control groups, EE birds displayed significantly higher numbers of circulating MHC class II+ lymphocytes and lower numbers of thrombocytes at various time points compared to controls (P < 0.05). This study provides clear evidence that environmental enrichment with plateaus not only leads to an altered behavioral repertoire but also modifies some of the investigated immune parameters, implying that EE may have a modulatory effect on turkeys' immunity and overall fitness. Further studies are needed to understand the correlation between behavior and health parameters in birds more closely.


Assuntos
Abrigo para Animais , Perus , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Galinhas , Plumas , Feminino , Contagem de Leucócitos/veterinária
6.
Animal ; 15(8): 100301, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34245955

RESUMO

Animal welfare in livestock production is of great interest to consumers. The organic farming approach strives to ensure animal welfare based on preventive measures, but there are very few scientific studies that compare the actual differences in animal welfare between organic and conventional farms. Those studies that have been carried out frequently focus on specific aspects of animal welfare, mostly health issues. The aim of the present study, therefore, was to investigate the effects of the farming system on the welfare of dairy cows in a more holistic way. Although this study was carried out in just two federal states of Germany, the results could serve as a suitable model for the whole country. We used the Welfare Quality assessment protocol to measure welfare for dairy cattle (Welfare Quality®, 2009) and the results showed significant differences (P < 0.05) between organic and conventional farms, but there was also considerable variance between individual farms of the same farming system. Organic farms scored higher in all four Welfare Quality® principles: "Good Feeding", "Good Housing", "Good Health" and "Appropriate Behavior" compared to conventional farms. In particular, organic farms obtained higher scores with respect to Welfare Quality® measures of resting comfort, which contributes to a lower percentage of lameness; organic farms also implemented less painful methods for disbudding, or indeed carried out no disbudding, and provided access to pasture and outdoor exercise. However, organic farms still have room for improvement, especially with respect to animal health. Therefore, outcome-based specifications should be included in the current (purely action-oriented) European regulation of organic production (EC, 2008; EU, 2018) to safeguard the health-related aspects of animal welfare.


Assuntos
Indústria de Laticínios , Abrigo para Animais , Agricultura , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais , Bovinos , Fazendas , Feminino
7.
Poult Sci ; 100(8): 101294, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34237550

RESUMO

Cold temperature is a common environmental stressor that induces pathophysiological stress in birds with profound economic losses. Current methods used for preventing cold stress, such as reducing ventilation and using gas heaters, are facing challenges due to poor indoor air quality and deleterious effects on bird and caretaker health. The aim of this study was to examine if the novel designed warmed perch system, as a thermal device, can reduce cold stress-associated adverse effects on laying hens. Seventy-two 32-week-old DeKalb hens were randomly assigned to 36 cages arranged to 3 banks. The banks were assigned to 1 of 3 treatments: cages with warmed perches (WP; perches with circulating water at 30°C), air perches (AP, regular perches only), or no perches (NP) for a 21-d trial. The room temperature was set at 10°C during the entire experimental period. Rectal temperature and body weight were measured from the same bird of each cage at d 1, 8, 15, and 21 during the cold exposure. Egg production was recorded daily. Feed intake, egg and eggshell quality were determined during the 1st and 3rd wk of cold stress. Plasma levels of corticosterone, thyroid hormones (3, 3', 5-triiodothyronine and thyroxine), interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-10, were determined after 1 d and 21 d of cold exposure. Compared to both AP and NP hens, WP hens were able to maintain their body temperature without increasing feed intake and losing BW. The eggs from WP hens had thicker eggshell during the 3rd wk of cold exposure. Warmed perch hens also had a lower thyroxine conversion rate (3, 3', 5-triiodothyronine/thyroxine) at d 1, while higher plasma concentrations of IL-6 at d 21. Plasma levels of corticosterone, 3, 3', 5-triiodothyronine, and IL-10 were not different among treatments. Our results indicate that the warmed perch system can be used as a novel thermal device for preventing cold stress-induced negative effects on hen health and welfare through regulating immunity and metabolic hormonal homeostasis.


Assuntos
Abrigo para Animais , Percas , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais , Galinhas , Temperatura Baixa , Resposta ao Choque Frio , Corticosterona , Feminino , Oviposição , Óvulo
8.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4589, 2021 07 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34321476

RESUMO

CRISPR-based gene-drives targeting the gene doublesex in the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae effectively suppressed the reproductive capability of mosquito populations reared in small laboratory cages. To bridge the gap between laboratory and the field, this gene-drive technology must be challenged with vector ecology.Here we report the suppressive activity of the gene-drive in age-structured An. gambiae populations in large indoor cages that permit complex feeding and reproductive behaviours.The gene-drive element spreads rapidly through the populations, fully supresses the population within one year and without selecting for resistance to the gene drive. Approximate Bayesian computation allowed retrospective inference of life-history parameters from the large cages and a more accurate prediction of gene-drive behaviour under more ecologically-relevant settings.Generating data to bridge laboratory and field studies for invasive technologies is challenging. Our study represents a paradigm for the stepwise and sound development of vector control tools based on gene-drive.


Assuntos
Anopheles/genética , Tecnologia de Impulso Genético , Mosquitos Vetores/genética , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Teorema de Bayes , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Repetições Palindrômicas Curtas Agrupadas e Regularmente Espaçadas , Abrigo para Animais , Malária/transmissão , Controle de Mosquitos , Estudos Retrospectivos
9.
J Dairy Sci ; 104(9): 10183-10193, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34099289

RESUMO

The adoption of automated milk feeders and group housing of preweaning dairy calves has become more common in Canada; however, disease detection in group-housed calves remains a challenge. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess whether feeding behavior data collected from a single point in time could be used to aid in the detection of neonatal calf diarrhea (NCD), bovine respiratory disease (BRD), and general disease, in preweaning group-housed calves being fed via an automated milk feeder. The data used was collected in an earlier study. A total of 8 dairy farms recruited from an online survey of calf-management practices were enrolled into the study. There was a total of 523 observations with 130 events of NCD, 115 events of BRD, and 210 events of general disease. Each farm was visited once in each of the fall, winter, spring, and summer, when the calves' health was scored, and the data were collected from the automated milk feeders. Mixed linear regression models were used to identify associations between feeding behavior data (milk consumption, time spent at the feeder, drinking speed, and the number of rewarded and unrewarded visits) and the presence of NCD, BRD, or general disease (having one or more of NCD, BRD, or umbilical infection), on the day of health scoring. Generalized linear mixed models were used to analyze the percentage of milk the calf consumed from their daily milk allotment. Calves with BRD consumed 63% less of their daily allotment of milk, had 2 fewer unrewarded visits to the automated milk feeder, and drank milk 152 mL/min slower compared with calves without BRD. Calves with NCD consumed 57% less of their daily milk allotment, consumed 758 mL less per day, and drank 92 mL/min slower than calves compared with calves without NCD. Calves with general disease drank 50% less of their daily milk allowance, consumed 496 mL less per day, drank 80 mL/min slower, and had 2 fewer unrewarded visits to the automated milk feeder, when compared with calves without disease. No significant associations were found between the presence of NCD, BRD, or general disease and time spent at the feeder or number of rewarded visits. Sensitivity and specificity values for disease identification were low when evaluating the feeding behaviors individually, so parallel testing was completed. To do so, if any significant feeding behavior was below the optimal cut point for disease detection as determined using a ROC curve, the calf was considered positive for disease and the sensitivity and specificity were recalculated. Parallel testing resulted in a sensitivity of 0.82, 0.78, and 0.84, and a specificity of 0.26, 0.23, and 0.21, for BRD, NCD, and general disease, respectively. This suggests that automated milk feeders may serve as a useful preliminary tool in the detection of diseased calves. For example, producers could use feeding behavior data to identify calves requiring further inspection; however, they should not use feeding behavior data as a sole disease detection method.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar , Abrigo para Animais , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Leite , Ontário , Desmame
10.
J Dairy Sci ; 104(9): 10282-10290, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34127260

RESUMO

Individual housing of dairy calves prevails in Europe and North America despite its negative effects on calf development. One of the main reasons is that farmers find individual housing of calves more practical than group housing. A compromise between practice and welfare could be housing calves in pairs. Therefore, we aimed to compare health, feed intake, growth, and behavior in a novel arena of 22 individually (INDI) and 44 pair-housed calves that were randomly assigned a treatment. Diarrhea and respiratory problems were recorded every day for the period of 49 d. Intake of calf starter and milk were measured every day for the period 48 and 49 d, respectively. Calf body weight gains were calculated as average daily gain. Calves were individually tested in a novel arena at 11 to 18 d, and their behavior was recorded according to an ethogram including 8 behavioral categories. Behavioral categories were first diminished by principal component (PC) analysis. We found that 2 PC explained 66% of the total variation in calf behavior. Movement-related behaviors (activity, play, and crossing the stair) loaded positively on PC1, and PC2 had positive loading on self-grooming and negative loading on exploration. There were no effects of housing on calf health, feed intake, or average daily gain. The INDI calves had higher PC1 scores than pair-housed calves, indicating a rebound effect of movement. Our results are consistent with other studies that found no negative effect of pair housing of calves on their health, feed intake, or growth compared with individually-housed calves. The rebound effect of movement-related behaviors of INDI calves in a novel arena implies that individual housing of calves causes activity deprivation by the second week of age.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Abrigo para Animais , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bovinos , Dieta/veterinária , Ingestão de Alimentos , Leite , Desmame
11.
J Dairy Sci ; 104(9): 10090-10099, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34176622

RESUMO

Social contact affects social development and response to novelty in dairy calves, but the age of introduction to social housing varies on-farm and may have implications for behavioral development and response to social grouping. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of early social contact during approximately the first 2 wk of life on calf early life behavior and performance and responses following initial social regrouping, followed by subsequent regrouping. At birth, calves were randomly assigned to individual (IH; n = 16 calves) or pair-housing (PH; n = 8 pairs). Calves were mingled between treatments and initially grouped (4 calves/pen) at 13 ± 2 d of age (mean ± standard deviation) and then regrouped (8 calves/pen) at 20 ± 5 d of age. Calf ability to learn to feed independently from the teat bucket in early life, and from the autofeeder following grouping, was monitored. Calf health, feed intake, and weight gain were recorded throughout the first 3 wk of life. Activity and social interactions were continuously recorded from video for the first 24 h following grouping and regrouping (except for allogrooming, hay consumption, and social play, which were observed for 12 h due to nighttime visibility). During the period of exposure to different housing treatments, calf feed intake and weight gain did not differ, but calves housed in pairs tended to scour for fewer days [4.1 vs. 5.6 d; PH vs. IH; standard error (SE) = 0.58]. Previously pair-housed calves spent more time lying socially (within 1 body length of another calf) than previously individually housed calves following both initial grouping (9.8 vs. 5.7 h/d; PH vs. IH; SE = 0.83) and regrouping (11.3 vs. 9.1 h/d; PH vs. IH; SE = 1.1). We saw no effects of previous social contact on duration of brush use (31.5 min/d; SE = 4.2), hay feeding (5.1 min/12 h; SE = 1.6), allogrooming (4.1 min/12 h; SE = 0.16), or social play (0.52 min/12 h; SE = 0.19) following initial grouping or regrouping. However, previously pair-housed calves tended to have greater lying time after regrouping. These results suggest that early life social contact before social grouping in the first weeks of life may not greatly affect activity within the pen or active social interactions following the transition to group housing. However, persistent differences in duration of social lying suggests that early life social contact may influence overall comfort toward other calves following social grouping.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar , Abrigo para Animais , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Bovinos , Ingestão de Alimentos , Comportamento Social , Desmame , Ganho de Peso
12.
J Environ Sci Health B ; 56(8): 753-760, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34187315

RESUMO

This study aimed to measure the concentrations of particulate matter (PM10, PM2.5) and ammonia gas (NH3) from different types of laying hen houses during summer. The treatment groups included conventional cage, floor pens, and aviary system, with tunnel ventilation system applied to all poultry houses. The PM10 concentration was highest in the aviary system from 10:00 h to 18:30 h, whereas in the cage, it remained high after 18:30 h until 7:30 h the next day. The cage showed high levels of PM2.5 from 18:30 h to 7:30 h the next day. The correlation between the three breeding systems showed an R2 < 0.2. The mean daily concentrations of PM10, PM2.5, and NH3 were highest in the cage, among all the poultry houses. On comparing the two welfare breeding systems (floor pens and aviary system), particulate matter concentrations were higher in the floor pens, while the aviary system had higher level of NH3. However, no significant differences were observed between the concentrations of PM10, PM2.5, and NH3 between the three laying hen houses in summer. This study provides basic data for improving the rearing environment in the three different types of poultry housing systems.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Material Particulado , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Amônia/análise , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Galinhas , Abrigo para Animais , Material Particulado/análise , Estações do Ano
13.
Animal ; 15(7): 100273, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34171569

RESUMO

Sows are strongly driven to build a nest prior to farrowing, and the performance of this behaviour is linked to the environment in which the animal is housed. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of two nest-building materials, hessian and straw, on peri-parturient sow behaviour, plasma cortisol concentration and piglet survival and performance in farrowing crates. In the first experiment, sows (parity 1.7 ± 0.1) were allocated to four treatments: (n = 15), straw provided in the lead up to farrowing in an open farrowing pen, with the pen closed after farrowing (STRAW OPEN); (n = 14), straw provided in the lead up to farrowing in a closed farrowing pen (STRAW CLOSED); (n = 15), a closed farrowing pen with hessian sacks provided in the lead up to farrowing (HESSIAN) and; (n = 13), a closed farrowing pen with no nesting materials provided (CONTROL). A second experiment was performed on a separate farm to assess the effect of the same four treatments were applied to sows (parity 2.9 ± 0.1): SRAW OPEN (n = 68), STRAW CLOSED (n = 64), HESSIAN (n = 66) and CONTROL (n = 66), at a commercial level. The first experiment revealed that providing conventionally housed sows with straw or hessian in the lead up to parturition stimulated sows to perform nest-building behaviours similar to sows housed in an open pen with access to straw (nosing events; 16 ± 11 (CONTROL); 169 ± 36 (HESSIAN); 118 ± 29 (STRAW CLOSED); 199 ± 53 (STRAW OPEN); P < 0.05). Additionally, crated sows provided with straw had reduced cortisol levels immediately after farrowing compared to all other treatments (21.9 ± 6.1 ng/ml vs CONTROL; 49.3 ± 8.6 ng/ml; P < 0.01). Piglets born to STRAW CLOSED sows displayed the highest colostrum intake levels (404.8 ± 22.7 g vs CONTROL 361.9 ± 21.9 g; P < 0.01). The second experiment demonstrated a reduced incidence of piglet mortality both prior to fostering (0.7 ± 0.2; P = 0.001) and after fostering (0.7 ± 0.2; P = 0.001) in litters born to sows which were housed in conventional farrowing crates and provided with straw compared to CONTROL (prior to fostering 1.3 ± 0.2, and postfostering 1.1 ± 0.2). In conclusion, straw and hessian sacks are a suitable substrate for stimulating sows to exhibit nest-building behaviour under crated conditions. However, only the provision of straw in the crate environment improved piglet survival and positively affected sow welfare.


Assuntos
Abrigo para Animais , Parto , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Feminino , Lactação , Paridade , Gravidez , Suínos , Desmame
14.
J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci ; 60(4): 431-441, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34172106

RESUMO

Reuse of disposable personal protective equipment is traditionally discouraged, yet in times of heightened medical applications such as the SARS CoV-2 pandemic, it can be difficult to obtain. In this article we examine the reuse of disposable gowns with respect to still providing personnel protection. XR7, a fluorescent powder, was used to track contamination of gowns after manipulation of rodent cages. Mouse cages were treated with XR7 prior to manipulations. Disposable gowns were labeled for single person use and hung in common procedure spaces within the vivarium between usages. A simulated rack change of 140 cages was completed using XR7-treated cages. One individual changed all cages with a break occurring after the first 70 cages, requiring the gown to be removed and reused once. To simulate research activities, 5 individuals accessed 3 XR7-treated cages daily for 5 d. Each mouse in the XR7-treated cages was manipulated at least once before returning cages to the housing room. Disposable gowns were reused 5 times per individual. Gowns, gloves, clothing, bare arms, and hands were scanned for fluorescence before and after removing PPE. Fluorescence was localized to gloves and gown sleeves in closest contact with animals and caging. No fluorescence was detected on underlying clothing, or bare arms and hands after removing PPE. Fluorescence was not detected in procedure spaces where gowns were hung. The lack of fluorescence on personnel or surfaces indicate that gowns can be reused 1 time for routine husbandry tasks and up to 5 times for research personnel. A method for decontamination of used gowns using Vaporized Hydrogen Peroxide (VHP) was also validated for use in areas where animals are considered high risk such as quarantine, or for fragile immunocompromised rodent colonies.


Assuntos
Animais de Laboratório , Equipamentos Descartáveis , Pandemias , Roupa de Proteção , Técnicos em Manejo de Animais , Animais , Pessoal de Saúde , Abrigo para Animais , Humanos , Camundongos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Equipamento de Proteção Individual
15.
Poult Sci ; 100(8): 101223, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34157561

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to evaluate the differences in meat quality of 420 Hubbard JA757 cockerels in relation to the housing system (litter and mobile box) and level of mixed feed (ad libitum [AL], reducing the level by 20% [R20] and 30% [R30]). Three groups of chickens were housed in litter boxes for the entire fattening period (stocking density: 0.094 m2/bird). The other 3 groups were housed in litter boxes until 28 d of age and then relocated into mobile boxes (stocking density: 0.154 m2/bird) on pasture until the end of the experiment at 57 d of age. Restricted groups received a reduced diet level from 29th to 57th d of age. Feed mixture restriction increased the pasture vegetation intake of chickens from 2.63 to 3.50 (R20) and 3.94 g of dry matter/bird/d (R30). Restriction adversely affected the dressing percentage (P < 0.001) and breast yield (P < 0.001), while the leg yield (P < 0.001) was increased with increasing restriction levels. Meat of chickens housed in mobile boxes on a pasture showed lower cooking loss (P < 0.001) and higher redness and yellowness values in the skin (P = 0.030 and P = 0.026; respectively) and meat (P = 0.008 and P < 0.001; respectively). The fragile meat after cooking was observed in chickens reared on litter (P = 0.001). As the level of restriction increased, the number of muscle fibres (P = 0.001) increased, and their cross-sectional area (P = 0.001) and diameter (P = 0.002) decreased. The highest contents of lutein (P = 0.002) and zeaxanthin (P = 0.006) in breast muscle were found in chickens housed in mobile boxes and fed 80% and 70% AL. However, the concentrations of α- and γ-tocopherol (P = 0.006 and P = 0.003) were negatively affected by feed restriction. A 30% reduction in feed level in outdoor housed chickens led to a decrease in oxidative stability (P = 0.024). Feed restriction (R20) in chickens housed in mobile boxes significantly increased the n3 fatty acids content (P = 0.002) and h/H index (P = 0.005) and reduced the n6/n3 ratio (P < 0.001) and atherogenic (P < 0.001) and thrombogenic index (P = 0.003), which possess a health benefits for human. In addition, restriction of mixed feed decreased cholesterol content in breast meat (P = 0.042). It might be concluded that, in terms of meat quality, cereal diet restriction of 20% in medium-growing cockerels housed in mobile boxes on a pasture is beneficial. The higher level of restriction does not lead to further improvement in meat quality indicators.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Galinhas , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Abrigo para Animais , Masculino , Carne/análise , Músculos Peitorais
16.
Poult Sci ; 100(8): 101243, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34175797

RESUMO

Already during early life, chickens need to cope with chronic stressors that can impair their health and welfare, with stocking density being one of the most influential factors. Nevertheless, there is a gap in research on the influence of stocking density on laying hens during rearing and in the subsequent laying period. This study therefore investigated how stocking density during rearing affects the immune system and welfare of pullets, and whether effects are persistent later in life. Pullets were reared at either low (13 birds/m2) or high (23 birds/m2) stocking densities but in identical group sizes from wk 7 to 17. Afterward, hens were kept at the same stocking density (2.4 birds/m2) until wk 28. Blood and tissue samples (spleen and cecal tonsils) were collected at the end of the rearing period and in the laying period. The parameters evaluated encompassed number and distribution of leukocytes and lymphocyte subsets in blood and lymphatic tissue, lymphocyte functionality, plasma corticosterone concentrations as well as behavior and physical appearance of hens. At the end of rearing, pullets kept under high stocking density had lower numbers of T lymphocytes, especially γδ T cells in blood, spleen, and cecal tonsils and displayed a higher heterophil to lymphocyte ratio. These effects are mostly persistent during the laying period, although stocking density was identical at this time. Furthermore, birds from the high stocking density group showed less active behavior, more pecking behavior and worse physical appearance throughout both examination periods. In conclusion, stocking density during rearing affects pullets' immune system and behavior not only in the rearing, but also subsequently in the laying period, indicating a strong correlation between health and welfare during rearing and the laying period.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Abrigo para Animais , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Corticosterona , Feminino , Sistema Imunitário
17.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 93(3): e20200384, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34076182

RESUMO

The aim of this research was to evaluate the spatial distribution of bedding variables in a climate-controlled compost bedded pack barn (CBP) equipped with an evaporative cooling system associated with a tunnel ventilation mode. The study was conducted on a farm in the West Mesoregion of Minas, MG, Brazil. The interior of the animal facility was divided into a mesh of 120 equidistant points, where the bedding surface temperature (tb-sur), the bedding temperature at 0.20 m depth (tb-20) and the bedding penetration resistance (PRb) of layer 0 to 0.20 m depth were measured. Bedding samples were collected to obtain the moisture (Mb) and pH in the surface and at 0.20 m depth. Geostatistics technique was used to evaluate the dependence and spatial distribution. Through the bedding area, the tb-sur presented low variability, with 6 ºC of amplitude, and tb-20 presented highest values (up to 55 °C). The spatial distribution of Mb-20 was similar to that observed on the surface and its highest levels occurred in the region near the feed alley (> 40%). The distribution of pH was similar in both layers. The tendency of high PRb occurred in the layer between 0.15 and 0.20 m (0 and 1500 kPa).


Assuntos
Compostagem , Indústria de Laticínios , Animais , Roupas de Cama, Mesa e Banho , Brasil , Abrigo para Animais
18.
Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd ; 163(6): 419-429, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34097636

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The lying and rumination behavior of dairy cows is internationally used as an animal welfare indicator. Dairy cow housing in Switzerland is subordinated to detailed legal requirements. It is particularly described that the lying area for cows must be covered with a sufficient amount of bedding. In the current study, we investigated whether bedding depth influences the lying and rumination behavior and thus, the animal welfare of healthy dairy cows housed in tie stalls. Bedding depth was categorized as ≤ 2 cm and > 2 cm. The lying and rumination behavior of 145 cows from 33 farms was recorded and analyzed considering farm effects; 105 cows were housed on ≤ 2 cm bedding, and 40 cows on > 2 cm bedding. Cows on > 2 cm bedding had on average a one hour longer daily lying time compared with cows on ≤ 2 cm bedding (mixed-effects linear regression: mean difference [cows on > 2 cm bedding - cows on ≤ 2 cm bedding] = 60,7 min/d; standard error = 28,6 min/d; p-value = 0,037). The odds of a cow to lie while ruminating were significantly higher in cows on > 2 cm bedding against cows on ≤ 2 cm bedding (mixed-effects logistic regression: Odds ratio = 1,27; CI95% [1,17-1,38]; p-value 2 cm can make a significant difference in the lying and rumination behavior of healthy dairy cows housed in tie stalls. Consequently, the animal welfare of dairy cows in tie stalls is improved by providing at least 2 cm of bedding.


Assuntos
Bem-Estar do Animal , Roupas de Cama, Mesa e Banho/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Animais , Bovinos , Indústria de Laticínios , Feminino , Abrigo para Animais/normas , Suíça
19.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(2): 320, 2021 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33987733

RESUMO

The present study aimed to determine the effects of varying light intensity (high 121.8, medium 57.4 and low 11.9 lux) and stocking density (high 552.3, medium 736.3, and low 1104.5 cm2 cage floor area per hen) treatments on the performance, egg quality, and certain feather condition traits of Lohmann-Brown hens reared in a battery cage system between 20 and 40 weeks of age. Body weight was determined individually at 19 weeks and at 50% yield age (sexual maturity). Feed intake, egg yield, egg weight, and feed conversion ratio were determined weekly. Feather condition was also evaluated individually at 40 weeks of age. Hens reared under high light intensity and low stocking density reached sexual maturity and peak yield earlier than others. The highest body weight was determined for hens reared under high light intensity (1536.6 g), while the lowest in the medium light intensity group (1461.2 g). Hens reared under high and medium light intensity showed higher egg yield than those reared in low intensity (120.5, 120.0 and 112.8 eggs, respectively). In addition, hens reared at low and medium stocking density had higher egg yield than high density (119.7, 120.7, and 112.9 eggs, respectively). Hens reared under low (61.6 g) and medium (61.0 g) light intensity produced heavier eggs than hens in high light intensity (59.6 g). While feed intake was not affected in any treatment, hens reared at low and medium stocking density had a better feed conversion ratio than hens at high density (2.19, 2.20, and 2.40, respectively). Our study results showed that a sustainable production is possible by maintaining the welfare-performance balance when 50-60 lux light intensity and 700-800 cm2 cage floor area per hen are provided.


Assuntos
Plumas , Abrigo para Animais , Animais , Galinhas , Feminino , Oviposição , Óvulo , Parto , Gravidez
20.
J Anim Sci ; 99(5)2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33939814
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