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1.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 54(5): 272, 2022 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36058994

RESUMO

In this study, it was aimed to determine of the shelter conditions and welfare levels of Anatolian Black cattle grown in two different regions of Turkey. Accordingly, welfare assessment was made at the farm level according to the Animal Needs Index (ANI 35L/2000) method, a total of 76 in Ankara and Antalya provinces. The material of the research was composed of Anatolian Black cattle farms within the scope of the Project on Conservation of Domestic Genetic Resources. According to the ANI welfare assessment method, scoring was composed of a total of 30 criteria in 5 different categories, namely, locomotion, social interaction, flooring, light air and stockmanship. In the study, the average of all farms was determined as 22.73 points in winter and 41.36 points in summer. These values were found to be 22.00 and 23.98 in winter and 40.87 and 42.20 in summer, respectively, in Ankara and Antalya provinces. As a result of the study, it was found that the opportunity for animals to go to the courtyard and pasture has positive contributions to animal welfare. Moreover, it determined that factors such as stall size, available floor area, flooring and lighting adversely affected animal welfare in winter. The ANI 35L method can be recommended to determine the welfare levels of farms that have production by traditional methods and not possible to examine many animal-based parameters.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos , Abrigo para Animais , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais , Bovinos , Fazendas , Pisos e Cobertura de Pisos
2.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 15505, 2022 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36109559

RESUMO

It is still unclear which commercial housing system provides the best quality of life for laying hens. In addition, there are large individual differences in stress levels within a system. Hippocampal neurogenesis or plasticity may provide an integrated biomarker of the stressors experienced by an individual. We selected 12 adult hens each with good and poor body condition (based on body size, degree of feather cover and redness of the comb) from a multi-tier free range system containing H&N strain hens, and from an enriched cage system containing Hy-Line hens (n = 48 total). Immature neurons expressing doublecortin (DCX) were quantified in the hippocampus, contents of the caecal microbiome were sequenced, and expression of inflammatory cytokines was measured in the spleen. DCX+ cell densities did not differ between the housing systems. In both systems, poor condition hens had lower DCX+ cell densities, exhibited elevated splenic expression of interleukin-6 (IL6) mRNA, and had a higher relative caecal abundance of methanogenic archea Methanomethylophilaceae. The findings suggest poor body condition is an indicator that individual hens have experienced a comparatively greater degree of cumulative chronic stress, and that a survey of the proportion of hens with poor body conditions might be one way to evaluate the impact of housing systems on hen welfare.


Assuntos
Bem-Estar do Animal , Abrigo para Animais , Animais , Galinhas/fisiologia , Proteínas do Domínio Duplacortina , Feminino , Hipocampo , Interleucina-6 , Qualidade de Vida , RNA Mensageiro
3.
J Dairy Sci ; 105(10): 8316-8327, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36055855

RESUMO

Impoverished housing environments are thought to prevent motivated behaviors and may result in frustration. We first aimed to investigate an effective physical enrichment protocol to improve dairy calves' welfare and initially determine their use of various items. Thereafter, we aimed to determine dairy calves' preference for and ways of interacting with various items, and whether this was influenced by social housing. In experiment 1, at 21 ± 3 d of age, 27 individually housed calves were assigned alternately into 1 of 3 treatments: control (CON, no additional items), rotating enrichment (RE, one item each week on a rotating presentation schedule), and fixed enrichment (FE, 4 types of item at the same time). The items were stationary brushes, ropes, springs, nets filled with strawberry-scented hay, and dry teats. Calves' behaviors were observed from 4 to 7 wk of age using focal observations after feeding, followed by instantaneous scan sampling. Their behavioral responses to a novel object were assessed at 43 ± 1 d of age. In the instantaneous scans, calves in FE tended to interact with items more often than calves in RE. Calves in RE and FE expressed less non-nutritive oral behavior than those in CON. Latency to touch novel objects did not differ significantly between treatments. Calves in RE and FE interacted with nets filled with strawberry-scented hay more often than with other items in instantaneous scans. In experiment 2, 24 calves were assigned alternately into 8 individual pens and 8 pair pens at 2 d of age. All pens were provided with a stationary brush, plastic chain, net filled with strawberry-scented hay, and dry teat. Calves' behaviors were collected from 2 to 5 wk of age using instantaneous scan sampling. Calves interacted with nets filled with strawberry-scented hay more often than with other items. Pair housing reduced calves' interactions with items compared with individual housing. Individually and pair-housed calves' frequencies of overall interaction with items varied with time of day, with frequencies increasing to peaks at 0700, 1500, and 1900 h. Calves showed scratching, sniffing, sucking, butting, and hay intake toward nets filled with strawberry-scented hay and showed the first 3 behaviors toward stationary brushes, plastic chains, and dry teats. In conclusion, dairy calves are likely to prefer a fixed multi-item enrichment presentation schedule over a rotating schedule with a single enrichment item presented at one time. For the fixed multi-item enrichment presentation schedule, items were used more in individual pens than in pair pens, and a diurnal pattern was observed for use of the items. Nets filled with scented hay might be the most multifunctional and attractive item of the items tested.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Alimentos , Abrigo para Animais , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bovinos , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Plásticos , Desmame
4.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0272445, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35976860

RESUMO

Domestic horses are currently often subject to management practices that can entail social stressors, which in turn can negatively influence immunocompetence and disease susceptibility. The present study therefore aimed to characterize the number of various blood leukocyte subsets in horses, focusing on two potentially stressful housing environments: changes in group composition and relocation to individual stabling. Immune measurements were conducted before as well as one and eight days after changes were made. They were complemented by an assessment of plasma cortisol concentrations as well as behavioral observations. One and eight days after relocation to single housing, the mean numbers of eosinophils, T helper cells and cytotoxic T cells decreased by up to 31%, 20% and 22% respectively, whereas the mean numbers of neutrophils increased by 25%. In contrast, one and eight days after changes in group composition not only the mean number of neutrophils, but also of monocytes, T helper cells and cytotoxic T cells increased by up to 24%, 17%, 9%, and 15% respectively. In consequence, an increase in the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio indicating stress-induced immune modulation was found after relocation to single housing, but not after changes in group composition. The changes in leukocyte numbers after relocation to single housing were accompanied by a transient increase in cortisol concentrations after one day and the occurrence of disturbed behavior patterns one week after change in housing condition. In contrast, changes in group composition did not result in an increase of cortisol concentrations or in an increase of aggressive interactions. The results strongly indicate that individual stabling is an intense stressor leading to acute and lasting alterations in blood counts of various leukocyte types. The study highlights a probable negative impact of single housing on welfare and health of horses and an advantage of group housing systems in view of immunocompetence.


Assuntos
Abrigo para Animais , Hidrocortisona , Animais , Cavalos , Imunomodulação , Contagem de Leucócitos , Leucócitos
5.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 54(5): 266, 2022 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35970907

RESUMO

Buffalo population has dramatically increased during the last two decades, especially in tropical and subtropical regions. Although buffalo are important milk and meat-producing animal, still practices of buffalo farming and welfare aspects are not well established. Housing system and stocking density are significant factors that affect the welfare and production of animals; however, no space allowance standards have been demonstrated for buffalo at different ages. This review article presents the following: (1) an overview of buffalo subtypes and their geographical distribution of buffalo populations and their production; (2) the effect of housing systems and space allowance on the social behavior and welfare indices; (3) the effects of space allowance on milk production and growth performance of buffalo; and (4) the relationship between space allowance and reproductive performance. Although the limited data in this area of research, it can be driven that a larger space allowance with access to a pool, especially during the hot season, maintains buffalo production at optimal levels. Moreover, optimal floor space improves the welfare and social indices of buffalo; however, there are discrepancies in aggressive and agonistic behavior results. Surprisingly, the reproductive performance of buffalo was not affected by space allowance. Therefore, further research is needed to identify the impact of the housing aspects, including space allowance and enrichment tools. on the productive performance, and welfare indices of buffalo. This would assist in implementing welfare-economic standards for buffalo production and reveal the potentiality of this eco-friendly animal.


Assuntos
Abrigo para Animais , Leite , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Búfalos , Carne , Reprodução
6.
F1000Res ; 11: 564, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36035883

RESUMO

Background: For decades, pig farmers have used gestation crates - small metal enclosures about two feet wide - to confine pregnant sows (female breeding pigs). Gestation crates physically restrain sows for most of their life, preventing them from walking or even turning around. Millions of females are still housed in these systems. Growing societal concern about animal welfare has been pressuring the industry for change, with recent legislation in the European Union and California restricting the use of crates. Still, the notion that gestation crates negatively affect sow welfare has been challenged by producers in regions where crates are widely used, who argue that, by facilitating health monitoring and preventing aggression, crates lead to lower sow mortality and higher piglet outputs per sow. We address these claims by comparing sow mortality and performance across countries with different housing systems. Methods: To this end, we use publicly available data from InterPig, a network of pig production economists in 17 countries that provides internationally harmonized methods for meaningful comparisons of national production data. Results: The results show that sow mortality is significantly higher, and annual pig production per sow significantly lower, in those countries where gestation crates are still the norm compared to countries in the European Union, where use of gestation crates is restricted to up to four weeks after insemination. Conclusions: Claims of higher mortality and reduced productivity per sow in crate-free systems are not substantiated by this data. This evidence should be considered in policies affecting the welfare of breeding pigs.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos , Abrigo para Animais , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Feminino , Humanos , Mães , Gravidez , Suínos
7.
Meat Sci ; 193: 108953, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36041290

RESUMO

The present study analysed the effect of housing system (caged versus penned) on the growth performance, carcass traits, and meat quality of rabbits. The physiochemical quality of five muscles was evaluated, together with the chemical composition and fatty acid profile of the meat from the hind leg. Sensory properties of the longissimus lumborum (LL) was also assessed. The LL yields were higher in caged rabbits. According to the results, meat from rabbits raised in cages had higher b* values for the LL (i.e., meat was yellower) than rabbits raised in pens. In addition, the quadriceps femoris from penned rabbits had higher a* and b* values (i.e., were redder and yellower) than caged rabbits. The MUFAs (18:1 n-9 and 20:1 n-9) and ash contents of the hind leg meat were higher in caged rabbits. In conclusion, while housing system influenced the physiochemical traits of rabbit meat, the sensory properties were not influenced.


Assuntos
Abrigo para Animais , Carne , Animais , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Carne/análise , Músculos/química , Fenótipo , Coelhos
8.
Acta Vet Scand ; 64(1): 19, 2022 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35964105

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Digital dermatitis (DD) is a contagious bovine foot disease causing painful lesions, lameness, and reduced animal welfare. Previous studies indicate a complex aetiology of the disease. The aim of this study was to compare DD negative and DD positive herds to identify factors associated with DD in Norwegian dairy herds by analysing data obtained in a questionnaire and data recorded in the Norwegian Dairy Herd Recording System (NDHRS). The questionnaire was e-mailed to the owners of all 380 herds recorded with DD in 2019 and to 1530 randomly selected herds with no recordings of DD. Altogether 559 dairy herds were included in the final study population, of which 113 was classified as DD positive (≥ one cow recorded with DD in NDHRS) and 446 as DD negative. When stratified by housing system, the ratio between DD positive and negative herds was 108/281 in free stalls and 5/165 in tie stalls. Multilevel logistic regression was used to model the association between potential risk factors and variables related to the detection and diagnosis of DD, and the outcome in the free-stall population. Geographical area (county) was included in the model as a random effect. RESULTS: In the final study population 108/113 (96%) of the DD positive herds were housed in free stalls versus 5/113 (4%) in tie stalls. The free-stall herds' DD status was associated with purchase of cattle during the last 5 years (baseline: 0 animals, OR = 2.30 for category 12-27 animals, OR = 4.34 for 28-52 animals, and OR = 5.39 for ≥ 53 animals). The DD status was also associated with claw trimming frequency (Baseline: 1 < 2/year, OR = 0.41 for category < 1/year, and OR = 4.09 for ≥ 3/year), whether the claw trimming was done by a certified professional trimmer or not (baseline: ≤ 90% of the cows, OR = 3.98 for category ≥ 90% of the cows), cleaning of feet in the chute before trimming (baseline: no cleaning, OR = 1.98 for category cleaning), and alley flooring (baseline: slatted floor, OR = 2.36 for category solid floor). CONCLUSIONS: Digital dermatitis was far more frequent in Norwegian dairy herds housed in free stalls versus those housed in tie stalls. In the free-stall herds purchase of cattle, increasing trimming frequency, use of certified professional trimmer, cleaning of the feet in the chute, and solid flooring in the alleys were associated with increased odds of recorded DD.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Dermatite Digital , Doenças do Pé , Casco e Garras , Animais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/etiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/patologia , Dermatite Digital/epidemiologia , Feminino , Doenças do Pé/epidemiologia , Doenças do Pé/etiologia , Doenças do Pé/veterinária , Casco e Garras/patologia , Abrigo para Animais
9.
J Dairy Sci ; 105(10): 8387-8400, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35965119

RESUMO

Although social contact between dairy calves has broad effects on their behavioral development, influences of calf social housing on human-animal relationships are less well understood, despite implications for longer-term calf management and welfare. We characterized human-animal interactions in 3 distinct testing contexts to examine effects of social housing on development of human-directed behavior. At birth, Holstein heifer calves were randomly assigned to individual housing (n = 17 calves) or pair housing (n = 17 calves; 1 focal calf/pair). A human approach test was performed twice in the home pen (wk 3 and 5 of life), within an open testing arena (13 × 7 m; wk 4 of life), and within group-housing pens 6 d after all calves were weaned, mingled between treatments, and moved to groups (4 calves/pen; wk 8 of life). For these tests, a human approached, and then extended their hand, over a 2 min period for home and group pen tests and a 5 min period for the arena test, and behavior was recorded from video. During preweaning human approach tests in the home pen, individually housed calves had shorter latencies to contact the human (22.4 vs. 45.1 s; individual vs. pair housing) and spent more time in contact with the human [80.5 vs. 41.1 s; standard error (SE) = 9.9; individual vs. pair housing], with similar responses between repeated tests. In the arena approach test, individually housed calves spent more time oriented toward the human (134.6 vs. 81.3 s; SE = 16.5; individual vs. pair housing), whereas pair-housed calves were more likely to perform pen-directed non-nutritive oral behavior (60 vs. 40% of calves; pair vs. individual housing), suggesting differences in interest directed toward the human compared with the novel environment. We also found that total duration of human contact was correlated between the first home pen approach test and the novel arena test, but that specific response to human approach varied between testing contexts. Effects of treatment persisted during the postweaning group pen approach test, with previously individually housed calves tending to spend more time looking toward the human (53.0 vs. 30.0 s; SE = 9.4; individual vs. pair housing) and more likely to contact the human (47 vs. 12% of calves; individual vs. pair housing). Overall, these results show persistent effects of early life social housing on human-directed behavior which may have implications for longer-term management.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal , Abrigo para Animais , Animais , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Bovinos , Feminino , Humanos , Desmame
10.
Poult Sci ; 101(9): 102005, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35841633

RESUMO

Outdoor range areas provide laying hens with improved opportunities to perform natural behaviors and increase the available space per bird, however, birds are also exposed to potentially stressful factors including weather and predators. Ability to cope with challenging environments varies between different strains and must be considered to ensure good welfare. The aim of this study was to determine how suitable 2 hybrids, the Dekalb White (DW) and the Bovans Brown (BB), are for organic production with special emphasis on ranging behavior. A total of 1,200 hens were housed according to organic regulations across 12 flocks of 100 birds. Range and shelter use, effect of weather, vegetation cover, egg production and quality, and mortality were assessed in addition to a range of clinical welfare indicators. Initially a greater proportion of DW hens accessed the range. However, after approximately 2 mo, a greater proportion of BB were using the range and venturing further from the house. DW hens were more likely to use the shelters than BB hens (P < 0.001). Vegetation was also worn away to a greater extent in the BB ranges. Weather affected the proportion of hens that went outside, the distance ranged from the popholes, and shelter use. BB hens were found to have better plumage condition (P < 0.001), fewer footpad lesions (P < 0.001), fewer comb wounds (P < 0.001), and lower mortality rates (P = 0.013). Both hybrids experienced keel bone fractures, though DW hens had more at the cranial portion (P < 0.001) and BB at the caudal portion (P < 0.001). DW hens had an earlier onset of lay and higher egg production than BB hens (P < 0.001), though BB hens laid heavier eggs (P < 0.001) with thicker shells (P = 0.001). Overall, BB hens seemed to perform superiorly or equivalently to the DW hens for all variables apart from egg production. These results demonstrate the importance of considering the strain of bird selected for organic production systems in order for the birds to reap the potential benefits that are offered by outdoor access.


Assuntos
Fraturas Ósseas , Abrigo para Animais , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais , Galinhas/lesões , Feminino , Fraturas Ósseas/veterinária , Óvulo , Esterno/patologia
11.
Animal ; 16(8): 100567, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35849910

RESUMO

Piling behaviour of laying hens often results in smothering or death due to suffocation. Mechanisms leading to piling are not yet understood though various potential factors have been suggested. In this experimental study, we predicted that the presence of a light spot, a novel object (metal foil), or a heat area within animal pens would increase animal numbers around the stimulus leading to piling behaviour. We presented the cues in a 4 × 2 Latin-square design in eight identical experimental pens including each 55 Lohmann Selected Leghorn hens. The cues were presented in two test areas per pen, at two bouts per day in the morning, consecutively for 5 days, over four periods (age: 20, 22, 24, 26 weeks). Each pen received a cue and control condition simultaneously (test areas without cue presentation) once. For a bout, each cue was presented for 35 min except for the light spot where the duration was 10 min. Birds' responses to the cues during bout and non-bout times were video recorded and analysed for the first bout of each period. To assess the cues' attractiveness, the number of hens during bout times was counted at predefined times within the test and control areas. To assess the cues' effects on piling, we described piling behaviour (pile number, duration, animal numbers, trigger) in control and test areas during bout times. Furthermore, we described piling behaviour during bout times and non-bout times on the first day of the first period and fourth period. The best model explaining the number of hens included the interactions of treatment and bout time, and treatment and area. Over the bout's time course, more hens were attracted to the light spot compared to the control condition, and more to test areas compared to control areas. In the novel object condition, more hens were drawn to the test areas compared to the control areas. Hens were not attracted to the heat area. Piling in bout times was observed twice when hens pecked at the novel object. During non-bout times, piling behaviour occurred frequently at midday and in the late morning compared to the afternoon, mostly in corners and mainly preceded by the mutual attraction of hens. Overall, hens were attracted to light spots and less so to the novel object though neither reliably induced piling behaviour. The occurrence of piling behaviour in non-bout times shows that more work is needed to understand mechanisms eliciting piling behaviour.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Abrigo para Animais , Animais , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Galinhas/fisiologia , Feminino , Temperatura Alta
12.
J Neuroendocrinol ; 34(7): e13179, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35866213

RESUMO

With increasing rates of anxiety and mood disorders across the world, there is an unprecedented need for preclinical animal models to generate translational results for humans experiencing disruptive emotional symptoms. Considering that life events resulting in a perception of loss are correlated with depressive symptoms, the enrichment-loss rodent model offers promise as a translational model for stress-initiated psychiatric disorders. Additionally, predisposed temperament characteristics such as coping styles have been found to influence an individual's stress response. Accordingly, male rats were profiled as either consistent or flexible copers and assigned to one of three environments: standard laboratory housing, enriched environment, or enriched environment exposure followed by downsizing to standard laboratory cages (i.e., enrichment-loss group). Throughout the study, several behaviors were assessed to determine stress, social, and reward-processing responses. To assess recovery of the stress response, fecal samples were collected following the swim stress in 3-h increments to determine the recovery trajectory of corticosterone (CORT) and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) metabolite levels. Upon death, neural markers of neuroplasticity including doublecortin, glial fibrillary acidic factor, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor were assessed via immunohistochemistry. Results indicated the flexible coping animals in the continuous enriched group had higher DHEA/CORT ratios (consistent with adaptive responses in past research); furthermore, the enrichment-loss animals exhibited a blunted CORT response throughout the assessments and enriched flexible copers had faster CORT recovery rates than consistent copers. Standard housed animals exhibited less exploratory behavior in the open field task and continuous enriched, flexible rats consumed more food rewards than the other groups. No differences in neuroplasticity neural markers were observed. In sum, the results of the present study support past research indicating the disruptive consequences of enrichment-loss, providing evidence that the model represents a valuable approach for the investigation of neurobiological mechanisms contributing to interindividual variability in responses to changing experiential landscapes.


Assuntos
Abrigo para Animais , Estresse Psicológico , Adaptação Psicológica , Animais , Corticosterona/metabolismo , Desidroepiandrosterona/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Long-Evans , Estresse Psicológico/metabolismo
13.
Lab Anim (NY) ; 51(8): 219-226, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35896636

RESUMO

Acoustic noise and other environmental variables represent potential confounds for animal research. Of relevance to auditory research, sustained high levels of ambient noise may modify hearing sensitivity and decrease well-being among laboratory animals. The present study was conducted to assess environmental conditions in an animal facility that houses nonhuman primates used for auditory research at the Vanderbilt University Medical Center. Sound levels, vibration, temperature, humidity and luminance were recorded using an environmental monitoring device placed inside of an empty cage in a macaque housing room. Recordings lasted 1 week each, at three different locations within the room. Vibration, temperature, humidity and luminance all varied within recommended levels for nonhuman primates, with one exception of low luminance levels in the bottom cage location. Sound levels at each cage location were characterized by a low baseline of 58-62 dB sound pressure level, with transient peaks up to 109 dB sound pressure level. Sound levels differed significantly across locations, but only by about 1.5 dB. The transient peaks beyond recommended sound levels reflected a very low noise dose, but exceeded startle-inducing levels, which could elicit stress responses. Based on these findings, ambient noise levels in the housing rooms in this primate facility are within acceptable levels and unlikely to contribute to hearing deficits in the nonhuman primates. Our results establish normative values for environmental conditions in a primate facility, can be used to inform best practices for nonhuman primate research and care, and form a baseline for future studies of aging and chronic noise exposure.


Assuntos
Animais de Laboratório , Ruído , Animais , Animais de Laboratório/fisiologia , Audição/fisiologia , Abrigo para Animais , Humanos , Ruído/efeitos adversos , Vibração
14.
Physiol Behav ; 254: 113898, 2022 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35792155

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to describe the physiological response of gestating and lactating sows to naturally-occurring environmental conditions, and to identify factors that may contribute to or prevent heat stress, while being kept outdoors in Québec, Canada during the summer. Six groups of 4 Yorkshire-Landrace sows lived in outdoor pens equipped with a wallow, shade structure, farrowing huts and access to a pasture from July to September 2018. Between week 15 of gestation and week 3 of lactation (inclusive), we recorded the location of each sow 5 days/week during 5 daily 15-min observation periods, and additionally measured the sow's respiratory rate and mud cover at the end of each observation period. Simultaneously, we collected sow body temperature data with vaginal temperature loggers 24 h/d on week 15 of gestation and week 2 of lactation, and monitored environmental conditions with temperature and humidity loggers to calculate the temperature humidity index (THI). Sows had significantly higher and more variable body temperatures during lactation compared to gestation (P ≤ 0.0001), and when THI was analysed as a continuous variable, it was positively associated with sow body temperature during the night in lactation. During gestation, neither respiratory rate nor body temperature were associated with high or low levels of THI (P = 0.15 and 0.79, respectively) or mud cover (P = 0.29 and 0.94, respectively). However, in lactation, respiratory rate was higher when, simultaneously, THI exceeded 74 and mud cover was low (P = 0.006), while a THI higher than 74 and a low mud cover had independent effects on body temperature (P = 0.012 and 0.004, respectively). In lactation, sows that spent an entire observation period in the farrowing hut also had a higher respiratory rate than sows that left the hut at least once (P = 0.009). In summary, lactating sows were more likely to show increases in respiratory rate and body temperature in warmer conditions than gestating sows, and our findings also suggest that time in the farrowing hut may be a risk factor for heat stress. However, mud cover may limit these physiological consequences when sows have access to a wallow.


Assuntos
Abrigo para Animais , Lactação , Animais , Feminino , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Umidade , Lactação/fisiologia , Suínos , Temperatura
15.
J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci ; 61(4): 353-360, 2022 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35840319

RESUMO

Vivarium husbandry practices are based on performance data and adhere to applicable regulatory guidelines. Refinements in husbandry and optimization of sanitization protocols improve animal wellbeing and help standardize the microenvironment, contributing to research reproducibility. The objective of this study was to evaluate the microenvironment to establish performance standards for mouse husbandry and sanitization, including housing at standard and thermoneutral temperatures. Male C57BL/6J mice were housed singly and in groups in disposable IVCs on α-cellulose or corncob bedding and microenvironmental indicators (ammonia, carbon dioxide) were evaluated. In addition, microbial bioburden tests (ATP and RODAC) were performed on cages and cage accessories on days 0, 7, 14 and, 28 to 30 after cage change. Water testing and aerobic culture of the waterspout of bottles containing chlorinated water were performed to determine acceptable replacement schedules. Ammonia levels remained below the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health 8-h recommended exposure limit for humans (25 ppm) at all time points for all housing conditions through day 21 for group-housed mice, and through day 30 for singly housed mice. Microbial bioburden results for cage accessories and water testing were acceptable up to 28 d after cage change (RODAC less than 50 CFU; ATP less than 100,000 RLU) at both standard and thermoneutral housing temperatures. Mice remained clinically healthy throughout the studies. These results support site operating practices and verify extended sanitization recommendations per the Guide of the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals in this disposable IVC environment: group-housed mice receive bottom cage and water bottle change up to every 14 d with full cage change (including lid and accessories) every 28 d, and singly housed mice receive full cage change every 28 to 30 d or sooner.


Assuntos
Amônia , Abrigo para Animais , Trifosfato de Adenosina , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Animais , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Temperatura , Ventilação
16.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0269726, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35839225

RESUMO

Swellings of the ribs result from severe injury and affected animals are subjected to considerable and prolonged pain and suffering. The knowledge on rib swellings in dairy cows has yet been very limited. Therefore, the present study aimed at determining the prevalence of rib swellings in tie stall housed dairy cows in Germany as well as at identifying associated factors. Mean animal-level prevalence of rib swellings for 2,134 cows was 7.54% with a mean of 7.00% on farm level (range 0.00% - 37.49%). Multivariable mixed logistic regression models including nested random effects were built and factors associated with swellings of the ribs were evaluated for 1,740 dairy cows on 96 farms in Germany. Out of the initial 22 predictors, 8 factors were selected for the final model. Managing dairy cows on a part-time basis (OR 0.49 [CI 0.25-0.98]) appeared to decrease the odds for rib swellings compared with full-time farming. Cattle breeds other than Simmental entailed lower odds for rib swellings (OR 0.29 [CI 0.14-0.59]). Lame cows (OR 2.59 [CI 1.71-3.93]) and cows with wounds and/or swellings of the hocks (OR 2.77 [CI 1.32-5.84]) had more than two times the odds for rib swellings compared with sound animals. The results of the present study can help raising awareness of rib swellings in dairy cows and contribute to the body of evidence on this condition.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Indústria de Laticínios , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Indústria de Laticínios/métodos , Feminino , Abrigo para Animais , Coxeadura Animal/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Costelas
17.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 94(3): e20210226, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35857961

RESUMO

In this study, we aimed to assess the spatial variability of microclimate inside a closed compost-bedded pack barn (CBP) with a negative ventilation system during summer and winter. The research was carried out in a CBP located in the Zona da Mata region, Minas Gerais, Brazil. For each of the stations analyzed, the following environmental mean variables observed inside a CBP were measured: air dry-bulb temperature (tdb), air relative humidity (RH), and windspeed, Temperature-Humidity index, and specific enthalpy. The kriging maps showed that the most critical housing conditions in the thermal environment were found, mainly, from the central part of the CBP, close to the exhaust fans. The analyses also pointed out that the system presented temperature gradients along the length, up to 3°C. During the summer afternoon, the entire region of the CBP was in a discomfort situation (tdb>26°C; RH>75%). During the winter, the measured environmental data remained within the comfort zone throughout the facility. However, probably due to the lack of thermal insulation of the material used to close the sides of the CBP, it did not allow spatial thermal uniformity for both seasons. It was also inefficient to keep the animals within the comfort zone for lactating cattle during the critical summer period.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Indústria de Laticínios , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino , Abrigo para Animais , Umidade , Lactação , Microclima , Estações do Ano , Análise Espacial , Temperatura
18.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 9119, 2022 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35650239

RESUMO

Changes in network position and behavioral interactions have been linked with infectious disease in social animals. Here, we investigate the effects of an experimental disease challenge on social network centrality of group-housed Holstein bull dairy calves. Within group-housed pens (6/group) calves were randomly assigned to either a previously developed challenge model, involving inoculation with Mannheimia haemolytia (n = 12 calves; 3 calves/group) or a control involving only saline (n = 12 calves; 3 calves/group). Continuous behavioral data were recorded from video on pre-treatment baseline day and for 24 h following inoculation to describe social lying frequency and duration and all active social contact between calves. Mixed-model analysis revealed that changes in network position were related to the challenge. Compared to controls, challenged calves had reduced centrality and connectedness, baseline to challenge day. On challenge day, challenged calves were less central in the directed social contact networks (lower degree, strength and eigenvector centrality), and initiated contact (higher out-degree) with more penmates, compared to healthy calves. This finding suggests that giving rather than receiving affiliative social contact may be more beneficial for challenged calves. This is the first study demonstrating that changes in social network position coincide with an experimental challenge of a respiratory pathogen in calves.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal , Abrigo para Animais , Animais , Bovinos , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Masculino , Comportamento Social , Rede Social
19.
J Dairy Sci ; 105(8): 6845-6857, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35691750

RESUMO

Lameness is a common condition in dairy cows. Free-choice access to pasture may benefit lame cows by providing a softer and more comfortable lying and standing surface; however, the effects of this system on lameness have not yet been explored. We evaluated whether a 7-wk period of free-choice pasture access would improve lameness recovery and affect the lying behavior of lame dairy cows. Lactating Holstein cows, all clinically lame upon enrollment and housed inside a freestall barn, were pseudo-randomly allocated to 1 of 2 treatments (balancing for gait score, parity, and previous lameness history): free-choice access to pasture (n = 27; pasture) or indoor housing only (n = 27; indoor). Cows were gait scored weekly by an observer blind to treatment, using a 5-point numerical rating system (NRS 1 = sound, NRS 5 = severely lame), and hoof inspections were performed by professional trimmers at the start and end of the 7-wk period. Lying behavior was assessed using accelerometers. Cows were categorized as either having a sound period (NRS <2 over 2 consecutive weeks) or remaining lame. Cows spent, on average, 14.8 ± 10.0% (mean ± SD) of their total time on pasture, with much of this time spent outside at night. Over the 7-wk period, 42% of cows had at least one sound period (pasture: 55.6%, indoor: 26.9%), but this was more likely for cows with pasture access (odds ratio = 4.1; 95% confidence interval: 1.1-14.6%). Pasture cows also spent more total weeks sound compared with indoor cows (2.0 ± 0.34 vs. 0.81 ± 0.35 wk). Cows with pasture access lay down for less overall time than indoor cows (13.9 ± 0.29 vs. 12.7 ± 0.28 h/d) and spent more time standing on pasture (74%) than when indoors (47%). These results suggest that lame dairy cows will use pasture when provided with free-choice access, primarily at night, and that access to pasture aids in lameness recovery. We encourage future research to investigate longer-term effects on the recovery of hoof lesions and reoccurrence of lameness cases.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Casco e Garras , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/terapia , Indústria de Laticínios/métodos , Feminino , Marcha , Abrigo para Animais , Lactação , Coxeadura Animal , Gravidez
20.
Animal ; 16(7): 100559, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35709554

RESUMO

With the keeping of lactating sows in loose housing systems, ensuring work safety for stockpersons is gaining importance. Aim of the present study was to develop tests characterising the behaviour of lactating sows in farrowing environments with more freedom to move. The behaviour towards humans in different management procedures was examined. Emphasis was given to integrate tests into daily routines. The study was conducted in a nucleus herd with 771 purebred Landrace sows. Data were collected from October 2016 until December 2018. Sows were kept in individual indoor pens with movable farrowing crates in which the animals were restrained from 7 days antepartum (ap) to an average of 7 days postpartum (pp). The Dummy Arm Test (DAT; 1444 observations) was used to assess the sows' reaction towards a stockperson handling the piglets around day 4 pp (closed crates). With the Towel Test (TT; 2846 observations), the reaction of sows to a novel object and an unexpected situation was assessed. The Trough Cleaning Test (TCT; 2805 observations) described the sows' response to common procedures such as trough cleaning. TT and TCT were conducted on days 3 pp (closed crates) and 10 pp (open crates). Variance components of behavioural traits were estimated univariately with a linear animal model, and genetic correlations between traits were derived using a multivariate animal model in ASreml 3.0. Most sows showed no or only a slight reaction to human interactions without attempting to attack them. However, a strong defensive reaction of sows was recorded in 4.0% (TCT), 4.5% (TT), and 10.7% (DAT) of observations. This behaviour of sows was observed more frequently in the open than in the closed pen system. Estimates of heritabilities (h2 ± SE) were h2 = 0.17 ± 0.05 for behaviour of sows towards humans (DAT), h2 = 0.19 ± 0.04 for response of sows towards unexpected situations (TT), and h2 = 0.13 ± 0.04 for reactions of animals to TCT. Genetic correlations (rg ± SE) ranged from rg = 0.59 ± 0.37 between TT and TCT to rg = 0.77 ± 0.30 between TT and DAT. Our results show that the developed tests are suitable for assessing the behaviour of sows towards humans. Behavioural traits derived from these tests could be used as new phenotypes for the genetic selection of gentle and easy-to-handle sows. The genetic correlations of all tests studied were positive indicating related reaction patterns.


Assuntos
Abrigo para Animais , Lactação , Animais , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactação/genética , Comportamento Materno , Período Pós-Parto , Suínos/genética
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