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1.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 11684, 2020 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32669633

RESUMO

Poor reproducibility is considered a serious problem in laboratory animal research, with important scientific, economic, and ethical implications. One possible source of conflicting findings in laboratory animal research are environmental differences between animal facilities combined with rigorous environmental standardization within studies. Due to phenotypic plasticity, study-specific differences in environmental conditions during development can induce differences in the animals' responsiveness to experimental treatments, thereby contributing to poor reproducibility of experimental results. Here, we studied how variation in weaning age (14-30 days) and housing conditions (single versus group housing) affects the phenotype of SWISS mice as measured by a range of behavioral and physiological outcome variables. Weaning age, housing conditions, and their interaction had little effect on the development of stereotypies, as well as on body weight, glucocorticoid metabolite concentrations, and behavior in the elevated plus-maze and open field test. These results are surprising and partly in conflict with previously published findings, especially with respect to the effects of early weaning. Our results thus question the external validity of previous findings and call for further research to identify the sources of variation between replicate studies and study designs that produce robust and reproducible experimental results.


Assuntos
Experimentação Animal/normas , Animais de Laboratório/fisiologia , Variação Biológica Individual , Abrigo para Animais/normas , Fatores Etários , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Peso Corporal , Feminino , Glucocorticoides/metabolismo , Masculino , Aprendizagem em Labirinto/fisiologia , Camundongos , Fenótipo , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Desmame
2.
Res Vet Sci ; 132: 262-267, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32693250

RESUMO

African swine fever (ASF) is one of the most important diseases in pigs. Since there are no effective vaccines against the virus, farm biosecurity and good farming practices are the only effective tools to prevent the spread of the ASF virus (ASFV) in pig holdings. Hence, an important component of farm biosecurity is the Cleaning and Disinfection (C&D) procedure. Precise indications regarding the ideal disinfectant against ASFV are lacking, but every country has approved and/or authorized a list of biocides effective against ASFV. Lipidic solvents, which destroy the envelope of the virus and commercial disinfectants based on iodine and phenolic compounds are effective in inactivating the ASFV. This review describes the C&D protocol to apply in pig holdings with particular reference to ASFV.


Assuntos
Febre Suína Africana/prevenção & controle , Desinfecção , Abrigo para Animais/normas , Vírus da Febre Suína Africana , Animais , Microbiologia Ambiental , Suínos
3.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234922, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32559221

RESUMO

If a laboratory animal survives an experiment without lasting compromised welfare, its future must be negotiated. Rehoming may be a consideration. This paper reports on research findings that provide an indication of the uptake of animal rehoming by UK facilities and the associated moral, ethical, practical and regulatory considerations that inform decisions to rehome or not. This research addresses a widely acknowledged gap in the literature to understand both the numbers, and types of animals rehomed from UK research facilities, as well as the main motivations for engaging in the practice, and the barriers for those facilities not currently rehoming. From the ~160 UK research facilities in the UK, 41 facilities completed the questionnaire, giving a response rate of approximately 25%. Results suggest rehoming occurs routinely, yet the numbers are small; just 2322 animals are known to have been rehomed between 2015-2017. At least 1 in 10 facilities are rehoming. There exists a clear preference for the rehoming of some species (mainly cats, dogs and horses) over others (rodents, agricultural animals and primates). Indeed, although 94.15% of species kept in laboratories are rodents, they make up under a fifth (19.14%) of all animals known to be rehomed between 2015-2017. The primary motivation for rehoming is to boost staff morale and promote a positive ethical profile for the facility. Barriers include concern for the animal's welfare following rehoming, high scientific demand for animals that leaves few to be rehomed, and, finally, certain animals (mainly those genetically modified) are simply unsuited to rehoming. The findings of this research will support facilities choosing to rehome, as well as those that are not currently engaging in the practice. By promoting the practice, the benefits to rehoming in terms of improving laboratory animal's quality of life, helping facility staff to overcome the moral stress of killing, and addressing public concern regarding the fate of laboratory animals, can be attained. It is only once an understanding of rehoming from the perspective of UK research facilities has been ascertained, that appropriate policy and support can be provided.


Assuntos
Experimentação Animal/estatística & dados numéricos , Bem-Estar do Animal/estatística & dados numéricos , Animais de Laboratório , Abrigo para Animais/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Experimentação Animal/ética , Experimentação Animal/normas , Bem-Estar do Animal/ética , Bem-Estar do Animal/normas , Animais , Abrigo para Animais/ética , Abrigo para Animais/normas , Humanos , Motivação , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Reino Unido
4.
Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract ; 36(2): 375-383, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32451031

RESUMO

Confined cow-calf operations are a relatively new production model in the United States. As with any new technology, there will be a learning curve for producers and veterinarians as we attempt to optimize animal health and profitability. It is critical that cattle are managed properly in these units if disease issues are to be minimized. Allowing for adequate space in the pen and at the feed bunk is a critical factor affecting animal welfare, nutritional management, and disease transmission.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Complexo Respiratório Bovino/etiologia , Abrigo para Animais/normas , Criação de Animais Domésticos/normas , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino , Gravidez , Estados Unidos
5.
Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract ; 36(2): 385-398, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32451032

RESUMO

Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in young cattle. Housing factors that lead to poor ventilation and stagnant air are often considered the primary reasons for high levels of endemic disease. This article reviews the literature from the past 40 years in order to determine which housing factors have been associated with respiratory disease. Penning strategy and its affect on calf respiratory health were most commonly studied. The wide variation in disease definitions and quality of reporting make drawing conclusions from the available literature extraordinarily difficult.


Assuntos
Complexo Respiratório Bovino/etiologia , Indústria de Laticínios/métodos , Abrigo para Animais/normas , Animais , Complexo Respiratório Bovino/epidemiologia , Bovinos , Indústria de Laticínios/normas , Indústria de Laticínios/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Abrigo para Animais/estatística & dados numéricos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/veterinária , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Ventilação
6.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(2): 346-354, Mar./Apr. 2020. ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1128185

RESUMO

O bem-estar dos animais, além dos aspectos individuais, depende do entendimento e dedicação dos responsáveis pelo abrigo. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar o bem-estar dos cães mantidos em abrigos municipais do estado do Paraná, mediante a aplicação do protocolo Shelter Quality. Foram avaliados 16 abrigos, 439 cães e 165 recintos, na estação do outono de 2017. A maioria dos abrigos apresentou cães com condição corporal adequada e pelagem limpa, em recintos seguros, com metragem e suprimento de água adequados e conforto térmico. Além disso, a maioria dos cães eram mantidos em recintos coletivos e em ambientes abertos, com baixo nível de ruído e demonstravam mais emoções positivas, desejáveis na adoção. Como aspectos negativos, 58% (96/165) dos recintos avaliados tinham camas inadequadas ou inexistentes e 30% (50/165) dos recintos mantinham cães individualmente, sendo indicadores de baixo grau de bem-estar para os cães envolvidos. Além disso, nenhum abrigo disponibilizava ração para cães idosos e 81% (13/16) dos abrigos negligenciavam o diagnóstico e tratamento da dor. Apesar de a maioria dos abrigos apresentarem mais pontos positivos que negativos em sua avaliação, a gestão dos abrigos deve sempre visar à correção dos pontos críticos que comprometam o bem-estar dos animais.(AU)


Animal welfare, in addition to individual aspects, depends on the understanding and dedication of those responsible for the shelter. The objective of this study was to evaluate the welfare of dogs kept in municipal shelters in the state of Paraná, using the Shelter Quality protocol. A total of 16 shelters, 439 dogs and 165 enclosures were evaluated in the fall season of 2017. Most shelters presented dogs with adequate body condition and clean coat, in secure enclosures with adequate water supply and thermal comfort. In addition, most dogs were kept in collective enclosures and in open environments, with low noise levels and showing more positive, desirable emotions in adoption. As negative aspects, 58% (96/165) of the precincts evaluated had inadequate or inexistent beds and 30% (50/165) of the enclosures kept dogs individually, being indicators of a low degree of well-being for the dogs involved. In addition, no shelter provided elderly dog rations and 81% (13/16) of the shelters neglected the diagnosis and treatment of pain. Although most shelters present more positive than negative points in their evaluation, shelter management should always aim at correcting critical points that compromise animal welfare.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Cães , Qualidade de Vida , Bem-Estar do Animal , Protocolos/métodos , Abrigo para Animais/normas , Brasil , Ingestão de Líquidos
7.
J Vis Exp ; (156)2020 02 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32150158

RESUMO

Animal welfare assessment techniques try to take into consideration the specific needs and wants of the animal in question. Providing enrichment (the addition of physical objects or conspecifics in the housing environment) is often a way to give captive animals the opportunity to choose who or what they interact with and how they spend their time. A fundamental component of the aquatic environment that is often overlooked in captivity, however, is the ability for the animal to choose to engage in physical exercise. For many animals, including fish, exercise is an important aspect of their life history, and is known to have many health benefits, including positive changes in the brain and behavior. Here we present a method for assessing habitat preferences in captive animals. The protocol could easily be adapted to look at a variety of environmental factors (e.g., gravel versus sand as a substrate, plastic plants versus live plants, low flow versus high flow of water) in different aquatic species, or for use with terrestrial species. Statistical assessment of preference is carried out using Jacob's preference index, which ranks the habitats from -1 (avoidance) to +1 (most preferred). With this information, it can be determined what the animal wants from a welfare perspective, including their preferred location.


Assuntos
Bem-Estar do Animal/normas , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Comportamento de Escolha/fisiologia , Peixes/fisiologia , Animais , Abrigo para Animais/normas , Condicionamento Físico Animal/fisiologia , Condicionamento Físico Animal/psicologia
8.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(6): 5773-5782, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32089316

RESUMO

Providing more space per animal, soft bedding, and free roaming in animal housing systems is widely presumed to be beneficial for the welfare of the animals. This observational study aimed to investigate the basis of this assumption in free-walk housing systems (FWS) for dairy cows in Europe. The dairy cattle Welfare Quality assessment protocol was adapted for application to FWS, and the focus was on animal-based measures, from individual cow scoring to comfort around resting. The study was conducted on 41 farms [21 FWS and 20 cubicle housing (CH)] from 6 European countries (Germany, the Netherlands, Italy, Austria, Slovenia, and Sweden) displaying a variety of management systems. A total of 4,036 animals were scored. We found differences in animal welfare under different management conditions. The hindquarters and lower hind legs of cows from FWS were dirtier than those of cows in CH, but we found no difference in the dirtiness of udders or teats. Cows from FWS showed fewer hairless patches in all body areas except the neck; fewer lesions in the lower hind legs and hindquarters; and less swelling in the lower hind legs, flanks, and carpus than cows from CH. The prevalence of sound cows appeared to be higher in FWS, and moderate lameness prevalence was lower compared with CH. We found no difference in the prevalence of severe lameness between systems. We conducted a total of 684 observation sessions of comfort around resting, consisting of 830 lying down and 849 rising up movements. Cows in FWS took less time to lie down, had less difficulty rising up, and had fewer collisions with the environment during both behaviors than cows in CH. Cows lay partly or completely outside the supposed lying area less frequently in FWS than in CH. Cows in FWS adopted comfortable lying positions more often compared with CH, showing a higher occurrence of long and wide positions than cows in CH. Short positions were more common in FWS, and narrow positions were slightly more common in CH. We found large variations in animal-based measures between study herds and within housing systems. However, the observed patterns associated with each system demonstrated differences in cow scoring and comfort around resting. This study shows that a wide range of good and bad management practices exist in FWS, especially related to cow hygiene.


Assuntos
Bem-Estar do Animal , Bovinos/fisiologia , Indústria de Laticínios/métodos , Abrigo para Animais/normas , Animais , Europa (Continente) , Feminino
9.
Vet Rec ; 186(9): 282, 2020 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32054719

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little research has been carried out into how guinea pigs are cared for in the UK, and information regarding potential welfare issues is sparse. This study was designed to examine the five welfare needs, collecting data on the extent to which these are each met by a sample of UK guinea pig owners. METHODS: A survey of 4590 owners was conducted. RESULTS: Guinea pigs were housed in a variety of ways, but a hutch or cage, with no attached run, was the most common enclosure. The majority reportedly lived with a conspecific, although some lived on their own, or with a rabbit. Significant associations between aspects of housing and husbandry, and behaviour and health were found, for example, the frequency of positive behaviours displayed was higher in those guinea pigs housed with a conspecific and those in larger enclosures, while the number of reported health issues was lower in animals receiving green vegetables more often. CONCLUSION: This study has identified common practices, and highlighted some potential welfare issues, which would benefit from further research. The authors suggest improved availability of targeted information may enable owners to improve issues identified here.


Assuntos
Bem-Estar do Animal/estatística & dados numéricos , Cobaias , Animais de Estimação , Adolescente , Adulto , Criação de Animais Domésticos/normas , Criação de Animais Domésticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Bem-Estar do Animal/normas , Animais , Feminino , Cobaias/psicologia , Abrigo para Animais/normas , Abrigo para Animais/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Propriedade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Reino Unido , Adulto Jovem
10.
Prev Vet Med ; 172: 104784, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31593877

RESUMO

Our study aimed to evaluate farmers' compliance in implementing recommendations of farm-specific cow comfort changes, and the effects of these changes on lying time, stall cleanliness and cow cleanliness using a randomized controlled trial carried out on 100 smallholder dairy farms in Kenya, with 62 and 11 farms remaining in the intervention and control groups, respectively. On the first farm visit, data loggers were attached on lactating cows to determine lying time and questionnaires utilized to collect baseline data. Three days later, stall design and management recommendations were given to the intervention group of farmers orally and in written form. After an average of 39 ±â€¯7 days, data loggers were re-attached, compliance was assessed, and a post-intervention questionnaire was administered to the intervention group on the third visit. Three days subsequent to the first and third visits, data loggers were removed from all cows. Data were analysed in Stata 14.2® using proportion tests and Kruskal-Wallis rank tests to compare cleanliness scores and lying time, respectively. Interaction effects between treatment groups and visits were assessed using multivariable mixed linear and logistic regression models. While 46 of the 62 intervention farmers (74%) made at least one recommended change to cow comfort, 63% of the 324 overall recommendations were implemented. The odds of a recommendation being implemented were significantly higher when:1) major recommendations were given relative to minor recommendations (OR = 6.28); 2) recommendations were related to floor characteristics (floor softness and flatness) in comparison to recommendations related to stall design (OR = 3.14). The odds of compliance were lower on: 1) farms where the farm-hands received the recommendations compared to farms that had the female principal farmer receive the recommendations (OR = 0.01); 2) farms that had recommended changes related to roof, alley and sharps fixes relative to stall design fixes (OR = 0.13). Post-intervention, stall, udder and upper hind-leg cleanliness scores improved significantly (p < 0.0001, p = 0.021 and p = 0.017, respectively) in the intervention farms but not in the control farms. There was no significant difference in lying times between intervention and control farms, with 0.6 and 0.2 h/day increases being recorded in the intervention and control groups, from the 10.9 and 10.4 h/day at baseline, respectively. Giving farm-specific cow comfort recommendations to smallholder dairy farmers in Kenya, and providing them with a participatory role in the formulation and implementation of improvement recommendations ensured good acceptance and a high degree of implementation, and led to a subsequent improvement in cow comfort and cleanliness.


Assuntos
Bem-Estar do Animal/estatística & dados numéricos , Indústria de Laticínios/estatística & dados numéricos , Fazendeiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Fazendas/estatística & dados numéricos , Abrigo para Animais/estatística & dados numéricos , Bem-Estar do Animal/normas , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Bovinos , Indústria de Laticínios/normas , Fazendas/normas , Feminino , Abrigo para Animais/normas , Humanos , Quênia , Masculino
11.
PLoS One ; 14(10): e0222955, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31574105

RESUMO

In order to support decision making on how to most effectively improve broiler welfare an innovative expert survey was conducted based on principles derived from semantic modelling. Twenty-seven experts, mainly broiler welfare scientists (n = 20; and 7 veterinarians), responded (response rate 38%) by giving welfare scores (GWS, scale 0-10) to 14 benchmarking housing systems (HSs), and explaining these overall scores by selecting, weighing and scoring main welfare parameters, including both input and output measures. Data exploration followed by REML (Linear Mixed Model) and ALM (Automatic Linear Modelling) analyses revealed 6 clusters of HSs, sorted from high to low welfare, i.e. mean GWS (with superscripts indicating significant differences): 1. (semi-natural backyard) Flock (8.8a); 2. Nature (7.7ab), Label Rouge II (7.4ab), Free range EU (7.2ab), Better Life (7.2ab); 3. Organic EU (7.0bc), Freedom Food (6.2bc); 4. Organic US (5.8bcd), Concepts NL (5.6abcdef), GAP 2 (4.9bcd); 5. Conventional EU (3.7de), Conventional US (2.9ef), Modern cage (2.9abcdef); 6. Battery cage (1.3f). Mean weighting factors (WF, scale 0-10) of frequently (n> = 15) scored parameters were: Lameness (8.8), Health status (8.6), Litter (8.3), Density (8.2), Air quality (8.1), Breed (8.0), Enrichment (7.0) and Outdoor (6.6). These did not differ significantly, and did not have much added value in explaining GWS. Effects of Role (Scientist/Vet), Gender (M/F) and Region (EU/non-EU) did not significantly affect GWS or WF, except that women provided higher WF than men (7.2 vs 6.4, p<0.001). The contribution of welfare components to overall welfare has been quantified in two ways: a) using the beta-coefficients of statistical regression (ALM) analyses, and b) using a semantic-modelling type (weighted average) calculation of overall scores (CalcWS) from parameter level scores (PLS) and WF. GWS and CalcWS were highly correlated (R = ~0.85). CalcWS identified Lameness, Health status, Density, Breed, Air quality and Litter as main parameters contributing to welfare. ALM showed that the main parameters which significantly explained the variance in GWS based on all PLS, were the output parameter Health status (with a beta-coefficient of 0.38), and the input parameters (stocking) Density (0.42), Litter (0.14) and Enrichment (0.27). The beta-coefficients indicated how much GWS would improve from 1 unit improvement in PLS for each parameter, thus the potential impact on GWS ranged from 1.4 welfare points for Litter to 4.2 points for Density. When all parameters were included, 81% of the variance in GWS was explained (77% for inputs alone; 39% for outputs alone). From this, it appears that experts use both input and output parameters to explain overall welfare, and that both are important. The major conventional systems and modern cages for broilers received low welfare scores (2.9-3.7), well below scores that may be considered acceptable (5.5). Also, several alternatives like GAP 2 (4.9), Concepts NL (5.6), Organic US (5.8) and Freedom Food (6.2) are unacceptable, or at risk of being unacceptable due to individual variation between experts and farms. Thus, this expert survey provides a preliminary semi-quantified decision-support tool to help determine how to most effectively improve broiler welfare in a wide range of HSs.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/normas , Bem-Estar do Animal/normas , Galinhas/fisiologia , Abrigo para Animais/normas , Animais , Galinhas/genética , Fazendas/normas , Humanos , Pessoal de Laboratório , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 762, 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31477028

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Avian influenza A (H5N6) virus poses a great threat to the human health since it is capable to cross the species barrier and infect humans. Although human infections are believed to largely originate from poultry contaminations, the transmissibility is unclear and only limited information was available on poultry environment contaminations, especially in Fujian Province. METHODS: A total of 4901 environmental samples were collected and tested for Avian Influenza Virus (AIV) from six cities in Fujian Province through the Fujian Influenza Surveillance System from 2013 to 2017. Two patient-related samples were taken from Fujian's first confirmed H5N6 human case and his backyard chicken feces in 2017. Chi-square test or Fisher's exact probability test was used to compare the AIV and the viral subtype positive rates among samples from different Surveillance cities, surveillance sites, sample types, and seasons. Phylogenetic tree analysis and molecular analysis were conducted to track the viral transmission route of the human infection and to map out the evolutions of H5N6 in Fujian. RESULTS: The overall positive rate of the H5 subtype AIVs was 4.24% (208/4903). There were distinctive differences (p < 0.05) in the positive rates in samples from different cities, sample sites, sample types and seasons. The viruses from the patient and his backyard chicken feces shared high homologies (99.9-100%) in all the eight gene segments. Phylogenetic trees also showed that these two H5N6 viruses were closely related to each other, and were classified into the same genetic clade 2.3.4.4 with another six H5N6 isolates from the environmental samples. The patient's H5N6 virus carried genes from H6N6, H5N8 and H5N6 viruses originated from different areas. The R294K or N294S substitution was not detected in the neuraminidase (NA). The S31 N substitution in the matrix2 (M2) gene was detected but only in one strain from the environmental samples. CONCLUSIONS: The H5 subtype of AIVs has started circulating in the poultry environments in Fujian Province. The patient's viral strain originated from the chicken feces in his backyard. Genetic reassortment in H5N6 viruses in Fujian Province was indicated. The H5N6 viruses currently circulating in Fujian Province were still commonly sensitive to Oseltamivir and Zanamivir, but the resistance against Amantadine has emerged.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza A/isolamento & purificação , Influenza Aviária/virologia , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/virologia , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/virologia , Aves Domésticas/virologia , Animais , Embrião de Galinha , Galinhas/virologia , China/epidemiologia , Patos/virologia , Meio Ambiente , Microbiologia Ambiental , Genes Virais , Abrigo para Animais/normas , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A/genética , Influenza Aviária/diagnóstico , Influenza Aviária/epidemiologia , Tipagem Molecular , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/diagnóstico , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/transmissão , Filogenia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/diagnóstico , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Fatores de Risco
13.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(9): e0007775, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31553724

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The widespread emergence of resistance to insecticides used to control adult Aedes mosquitoes has made traditional control strategies inadequate for the reduction of various vector populations. Therefore, complementary vector control methods, such as the Sterile Insect Technique, are needed to enhance existing efforts. The technique relies on the rearing and release of large numbers of sterile males, and the development of efficient and standardized mass-rearing procedures and tools is essential for its application against medically important mosquitoes. METHODS: In the effort to reduce the cost of the rearing process, a prototype low-cost plexiglass mass-rearing cage has been developed and tested for egg production and egg hatch rate in comparison to the current Food and Agriculture Organization/International Atomic Energy Agency (FAO/IAEA) stainless-steel cage. Additionally, an adult-index was validated and used as a proxy to estimate the mosquito survival rates by counting the number of male and female mosquitoes that were resting within each of the 6 squares at a given point of time each day in the cage. RESULTS: The study has shown that the prototype mass-rearing cage is cheap and is as efficient as the FAO/IAEA stainless-steel cage in terms of egg production, with even better overall egg hatch rate. The mean numbers of eggs per cage, after seven cycles of blood feeding and egg collection, were 969,789 ± 138,101 and 779,970 ± 123,042, corresponding to 81 ± 11 and 65 ± 10 eggs per female over her lifespan, in the prototype and the stainless-steel-mass-rearing cages, respectively. The longevity of adult male and female mosquitoes was not affected by cage type and, the adult-index could be considered as an appropriate proxy for survival. Moreover, the mass-rearing cage prototype is easy to handle and transport and improves economic and logistic efficiency. CONCLUSION: The low-cost mass-rearing prototype cage can be recommended to produce Ae. aegypti in the context of rear and release techniques. The proposed adult-index can be used as a quick proxy of mosquito survival rates in mass-rearing settings.


Assuntos
Aedes/fisiologia , Abrigo para Animais/economia , Aedes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Criação de Animais Domésticos/instrumentação , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Animais , Feminino , Abrigo para Animais/normas , Masculino , Mosquitos Vetores
14.
J Anim Sci ; 97(10): 4152-4159, 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31504579

RESUMO

In pig production, efficiency is benefiting from uniform growth in pens resulting in single deliveries from a pen of possibly all animals in the targeted weight range. Abnormalities, like pneumonia or aberrant growth, reduce production efficiency as it reduces the uniformity and might cause multiple deliveries per batch and pigs delivered with a low meat yield or outside the targeted weight range. Early identification of pigs prone to develop these abnormalities, for example, at the onset of the growing-finishing phase, would help to prevent heterogeneous pens through management interventions. Data about previous production cycles at the farm combined with data from the piglet's own history may help in identifying these abnormalities. The aim of this study, therefore, was to predict at the onset of the growing-finishing phase, that is, at 3 mo in advance, deviant pigs at slaughter with a machine-learning technique called boosted trees. The dataset used was extracted from the farm management system of a research center. It contained over 70,000 records of individual pigs born between 2004 and 2016, including information on, for example, offspring, litter size, transfer dates between production stages, their respective locations within the barns, and individual live-weights at several production stages. Results obtained on an independent test set showed that at a 90% specificity rate, the sensitivity was 16% for low meat percentage, 20% for pneumonia and 36% for low lifetime growth rate. For low lifetime growth rate, this meant an almost three times increase in positive predictive value compared to the current situation. From these results, it was concluded that routine performance information available at the onset of the growing-finishing phase combined with data about previous production cycles formed a moderate base to identify pigs prone to develop pneumonia (AUC > 0.60) and a good base to identify pigs prone to develop growth aberrations (AUC > 0.70) during the growing-finishing phase. The mentioned information, however, was not a sufficient base to identify pigs prone to develop low meat percentage (AUC < 0.60). The shown ability to identify growth aberrations and pneumonia can be considered a good first step towards the development of an early warning system for pigs in the growing-finishing phase.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Abrigo para Animais/normas , Pneumonia/veterinária , Carne Vermelha/análise , Doenças dos Suínos/prevenção & controle , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Composição Corporal , Meio Ambiente , Feminino , Aprendizado de Máquina , Masculino , Pneumonia/prevenção & controle , Suínos , Árvores
15.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(11): 10235-10249, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31447147

RESUMO

Design of cubicles and self-locking barriers can affect cow skin alterations, lameness, and dirtiness. We investigated whether the International Commission of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering (CIGR, Gainesville, FL)-recommended cattle housing design and dimensions actually improve cow welfare. We recorded individual cow body dimensions and assessed skin alterations, dirtiness, and lameness on 3,841 cows from 131 loose housing dairy farms (76 farms with cubicles and 55 straw-yard systems). We recorded the dimensions of cubicles (e.g., width, length, and so on) and of the self-locking barrier (e.g., top rail height and so on) for each farm. We then compared whether these dimensions would match with the individual cow body dimensions and whether compliance was associated with the occurrence of skin alterations, lameness, and dirtiness. Most cows (69.2%) had at least one skin alteration, on the tarsus (41.2%); neck, shoulder, or back (28.2%); hindquarters (22.0%); carpus (21.2%); and flank, side, or udder (11.6%). Lameness prevalence reached 17.9%. Most cows (83.1%) were scored dirty in at least one body region, mainly on the lower hind legs including hocks (81.4%), hindquarters (41.8%), and udder (21.0%). Cubicle recommendations were mostly met for cubicle resting length (75.9% of cubicles) and neck rail distance (NRD, 60.7%) but less so for overall cubicle length (CL, 38.8%), cubicle width (CW, 30.9%), neck rail height (NRH, 22.5%), head space (HS, 15.8%), partition zone for controlling lying position (ii zone, 15.7%), head and lunging space (HLS, 10.6%), partition head zone (i zone, 9.4%), and partition zone for pelvis freedom (iii zone, 6.0%). Compliance with design recommendations was associated with fewer skin alterations on neck (recommendation met for CW, CL, HS, and NRD and i zone), hindquarters (CW, CL, NRD), tarsus (CW, i and ii zones), and carpus (CW, HS, i and ii zones); less lameness (CW, NRH, i zone); and less dirtiness on the hindquarters (CW, HLS, NRD), lower hind legs (iii zone), and udder (CW, CL, HLS, NRD). Compliance with recommended i zone and ii zone design was associated with less injury and lameness but more dirtiness, whereas the opposite was true for the iii zone. Self-locking barrier recommendations were mostly met for bottom rail height (68.2%), separation wall width (SWW, 68.3%), and top rail height (TRH, 56.9%) and less often met for separation wall height (36.3%) and height difference between feeding floor and walking alley (26.5%). Risk for skin alterations on carpus and neck only decreased when SWW and TRH met recommendations. In conclusion, compliance with CIGR recommendations for some cubicle dimensions and neck rail position was associated with lower risk for cow welfare. However, the CIGR recommendations on cubicle partitions and self-locking barriers still leave welfare at risk and so need to be refined through further research with close observation of cow lying and feeding behavior.


Assuntos
Bem-Estar do Animal , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Abrigo para Animais/normas , Coxeadura Animal/epidemiologia , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Indústria de Laticínios , Feminino , Pisos e Cobertura de Pisos , Lactação , Coxeadura Animal/prevenção & controle , Glândulas Mamárias Animais , Prevalência , Tarso Animal/lesões
16.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(11): 9689-9701, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31447152

RESUMO

Sporeforming bacteria are responsible for the spoilage of several dairy products including fluid milk, cheese, and products manufactured using dried dairy powders as ingredients. Sporeforming bacteria represent a considerable challenge for the dairy industry because they primarily enter the dairy product continuum at the farm, survive processing hurdles, and subsequently grow in finished products. As such, strategies to reduce spoilage due to this group of bacterial contaminants have focused on understanding the effect of farm level factors on the presence of spores in bulk tank raw milk with the goal of reducing spore levels in raw milk, as well as understanding processing contributions to spore levels and outgrowth in finished products. The goal of the current study was to investigate sources of spores in the farm environment and survey farm management practices to identify variables using multimodel inference, a model averaging approach that eliminates the uncertainty of traditional model selection approaches, that affect the presence and levels of spores in bulk tank raw milk. To this end, environmental samples including feed, bedding, manure, soil, water, and so on, and bulk tank raw milk were collected twice from 17 upstate New York dairy farms over a 19-mo period and the presence and levels of various spore types (e.g., psychrotolerant, mesophilic, thermophilic, highly heat resistant thermophilic, specially thermoresistant thermophilic, and anaerobic butyric acid bacteria) were assessed. Manure had the highest level of spores for 4 out of 5 aerobic spore types with mean counts of 5.87, 5.22, 4.35, and 3.68 log cfu/g of mesophilic, thermophilic, highly heat resistant thermophilic, and specially thermoresistant thermophilic spores, respectively. In contrast, bulk tank raw milk had mean spore levels below 1 log cfu/mL across spore types. Multimodel inference was used to determine variables (i.e., management factors, environmental spore levels, and meteorological data from each sampling) that were important for presence or levels of each spore type in bulk tank raw milk. Analyses indicated that variables of importance for more than one spore type included the residual level of spores in milk from individual cows after thorough teat cleaning and forestripping, udder hygiene, clipping or flaming of udders, spore level in feed commodities, spore level in parlor air, how often bedding was topped up or changed, the use of recycled manure bedding, and the use of sawdust bedding. These results improve our understanding of how spores transfer from environmental sources into bulk tank raw milk and provide information that can be used to design intervention trials aimed at reducing spore levels in raw milk.


Assuntos
Indústria de Laticínios , Leite/microbiologia , Esporos Bacterianos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ração Animal/microbiologia , Animais , Bovinos , Indústria de Laticínios/métodos , Indústria de Laticínios/normas , Água Potável/microbiologia , Fazendas , Feminino , Abrigo para Animais/normas , Higiene , Estudos Longitudinais , Esterco/microbiologia , New York , Microbiologia do Solo
17.
Theriogenology ; 137: 82-87, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31285050

RESUMO

Protecting boar studs and their clients from emerging infectious disease first involves effective biosecurity measures to keep a disease out that was not present, and second, early identification and ceasing semen distribution prior to disseminating infectious disease. Experiences in the field can best guide us as to what has been effective. Circumstances in North America in the period of 1999-2004 resulted in numerous PRRS virus (Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome) negative boar studs becoming infected and disseminating virus to sow farms. Earlier detection methods were needed, and withholding of semen pending negative test results became standard. To accomplish this, diagnostic labs complied with industry requests for same day testing. At the same time, research efforts helped clarify the major routes of PRRS virus introduction into the farms. The risk of fomites and aerosol spread became viewed as major risks. Addressing issues with people and supply entry alone did not eliminate new virus entry. The implementation of air filtration during 2005-2008 had a major impact on the rate of new virus introductions into boar studs after other measures alone were unsuccessful. Risks exposed with the introduction of PED virus (Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea) into North America further highlighted other risk factors such as feed ingredients, trailer sanitation, and the presence of clear physical barriers. The successful adaptation of testing procedures, combined with biosecurity procedures including air filtration, has made the incidence of infectious disease introduction extremely rare in North American boar studs over the last decade. While survivability of infectious disease agents can vary in different materials or in the air, successful protocols should be applied and adjusted as needed to accommodate new information or risks. Cleary defined physical barriers for people and animal entry and exit, sanitization and/or down time on incoming supplies, risk mitigation and testing of feed ingredients, and filtration have been keys to changing the incidence of emerging infectious disease introduction into boar studs.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/veterinária , Abrigo para Animais/normas , Doenças dos Suínos/prevenção & controle , Animais , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Masculino , América do Norte , Sêmen/virologia , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/transmissão , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia
18.
Vet Microbiol ; 233: 118-123, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31176397

RESUMO

The vast capacity for maintenance and dissemination in the environment are major challenges for the control of Salmonella spp. in poultry farms. The aim of this study was to assess environmental contamination by non-typhoidal Salmonella in successive broiler flocks in nine commercial broiler farms integrated with three companies in the south of Brazil, for a twelve-month production period. Recycled broiler litter, feed and swabs from the evaporative cooling system pads were analyzed, and the total enterobacteria count in the litter samples was ascertained. Positive broiler houses were identified in two of the three broiler companies studied, in which non-typhoidal Salmonella were detected for the first time in the first or second flock, and recurred in the recycled litter of subsequent flocks. Feed and evaporative cooling pad swab samples were also positive in at least one of the assessed flocks. The majority of the isolates (87.5%) originating from different flocks, broiler houses and companies that were sampled were identified as S. Heidelberg, with the prevalence of one single genotype. The total enterobacteria levels in the litter diminished as the flocks progressed, but the presence of Salmonella spp. was constant over the course of time, indicating that the litter management procedures were not capable of interrupting the cycle of residual contamination. The predominance of S. Heidelberg highlights its emergence and dissemination in this region, as well as its resistance and maintenance in the environment, and reinforces the need to improve prevention and recycled litter management measures.


Assuntos
Galinhas/microbiologia , Microbiologia Ambiental , Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Salmonelose Animal/epidemiologia , Salmonella/genética , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Genótipo , Abrigo para Animais/normas , Estudos Longitudinais , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Prevalência , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Sorogrupo
19.
Theriogenology ; 137: 88-92, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31186129

RESUMO

Reducing the number of spermatozoa per artificial insemination (AI) dose and managing semen in ways to ensure greater quality at the same time represents current challenges with sperm processing in pig AI centers. Based on a multi-year comparative analysis of process steps in different pig AI centers, and complementary experimental studies under standardized laboratory conditions, current process standards for the preservation of boar semen have been updated and new ones developed. Currently, these standards represent an integral part of the quality assurance of 29 European pig AI centers in ten different organizations in Germany, Switzerland and Austria. Improvement of hygiene management and guidelines for prudent use of antibiotics have become key issues. Furthermore, new quality control tools have been implemented in the processing and transport of boar semen: e.g. refractometry as an easy-to-use tool to estimate extender osmolarity and 'mobile sensing' apps for continuous monitoring of various environmental parameters. Moreover, based on a series of experiments under laboratory and field conditions, guidelines for optimizing the dilution process, and time and temperature management during boar semen processing, have been developed and implemented. Similarly, recommendations for the handling of semen doses during storage have been renewed. Over the years, the efficiency of the quality assurance system has been reflected by a decrease of bacterial contamination and a concomitant increase in the quality of semen doses. In conclusion, science-based quality assurance is an effective way to improve the production performance in pig AI centers, resulting in high quality and economically-priced semen for pig producers. Increasing knowledge of sperm physiology together with computational and technical innovations will continue to develop and modify quality assurance concepts in the future.


Assuntos
Abrigo para Animais/normas , Inseminação Artificial/veterinária , Análise do Sêmen/veterinária , Suínos , Animais , Europa (Continente) , Masculino , Manejo de Espécimes/métodos , Manejo de Espécimes/normas , Manejo de Espécimes/veterinária , Suínos/microbiologia
20.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0216544, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31063490

RESUMO

A number of studies have shown widespread public concern over housing animals in ways that restrict their ability to move freely. Dairy cows housed in tie stall barns are tethered continuously or for part of the day, but no study has assessed public support for this type of housing system. We report two experiments assessing public perceptions of tie stall housing for dairy cattle using a hypothetical referenda format. In Experiment 1, 65% of participants (n = 430) said they would support a ban on tie stalls. The probability of supporting a ban increased as the duration of time that cows were tethered increased. In Experiment 2, information about possible economic consequences was included. Relatively fewer (55%) participants (n = 372) indicated they would support a ban. Supporters of a ban were willing to pay an average dairy product price premium of 68% to see the ban enacted. Indirect measures of support indicated socially desirable responding was greater in Experiment 2 where the economic impacts of voting behavior were made explicit. In both studies, women and liberals were more likely to support a ban. The majority of participants in Experiment 1 (51%) and Experiment 2 (57%) said they had never heard or read anything about tie stalls before participating in our survey. We conclude that current knowledge of the use of tie stalls is low, but if this situation were to change there may be considerable public concern about the use of this housing method.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Bem-Estar do Animal/normas , Indústria de Laticínios , Abrigo para Animais/legislação & jurisprudência , Abrigo para Animais/normas , Opinião Pública , Adulto , Animais , Bovinos , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
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