Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 1.170
Filtrar
1.
Prev Vet Med ; 172: 104784, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31593877

RESUMO

Our study aimed to evaluate farmers' compliance in implementing recommendations of farm-specific cow comfort changes, and the effects of these changes on lying time, stall cleanliness and cow cleanliness using a randomized controlled trial carried out on 100 smallholder dairy farms in Kenya, with 62 and 11 farms remaining in the intervention and control groups, respectively. On the first farm visit, data loggers were attached on lactating cows to determine lying time and questionnaires utilized to collect baseline data. Three days later, stall design and management recommendations were given to the intervention group of farmers orally and in written form. After an average of 39 ±â€¯7 days, data loggers were re-attached, compliance was assessed, and a post-intervention questionnaire was administered to the intervention group on the third visit. Three days subsequent to the first and third visits, data loggers were removed from all cows. Data were analysed in Stata 14.2® using proportion tests and Kruskal-Wallis rank tests to compare cleanliness scores and lying time, respectively. Interaction effects between treatment groups and visits were assessed using multivariable mixed linear and logistic regression models. While 46 of the 62 intervention farmers (74%) made at least one recommended change to cow comfort, 63% of the 324 overall recommendations were implemented. The odds of a recommendation being implemented were significantly higher when:1) major recommendations were given relative to minor recommendations (OR = 6.28); 2) recommendations were related to floor characteristics (floor softness and flatness) in comparison to recommendations related to stall design (OR = 3.14). The odds of compliance were lower on: 1) farms where the farm-hands received the recommendations compared to farms that had the female principal farmer receive the recommendations (OR = 0.01); 2) farms that had recommended changes related to roof, alley and sharps fixes relative to stall design fixes (OR = 0.13). Post-intervention, stall, udder and upper hind-leg cleanliness scores improved significantly (p < 0.0001, p = 0.021 and p = 0.017, respectively) in the intervention farms but not in the control farms. There was no significant difference in lying times between intervention and control farms, with 0.6 and 0.2 h/day increases being recorded in the intervention and control groups, from the 10.9 and 10.4 h/day at baseline, respectively. Giving farm-specific cow comfort recommendations to smallholder dairy farmers in Kenya, and providing them with a participatory role in the formulation and implementation of improvement recommendations ensured good acceptance and a high degree of implementation, and led to a subsequent improvement in cow comfort and cleanliness.


Assuntos
Bem-Estar do Animal/estatística & dados numéricos , Indústria de Laticínios/estatística & dados numéricos , Fazendeiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Fazendas/estatística & dados numéricos , Abrigo para Animais/estatística & dados numéricos , Bem-Estar do Animal/normas , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Bovinos , Indústria de Laticínios/normas , Fazendas/normas , Feminino , Abrigo para Animais/normas , Humanos , Quênia , Masculino
2.
J Anim Sci ; 97(10): 4152-4159, 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31504579

RESUMO

In pig production, efficiency is benefiting from uniform growth in pens resulting in single deliveries from a pen of possibly all animals in the targeted weight range. Abnormalities, like pneumonia or aberrant growth, reduce production efficiency as it reduces the uniformity and might cause multiple deliveries per batch and pigs delivered with a low meat yield or outside the targeted weight range. Early identification of pigs prone to develop these abnormalities, for example, at the onset of the growing-finishing phase, would help to prevent heterogeneous pens through management interventions. Data about previous production cycles at the farm combined with data from the piglet's own history may help in identifying these abnormalities. The aim of this study, therefore, was to predict at the onset of the growing-finishing phase, that is, at 3 mo in advance, deviant pigs at slaughter with a machine-learning technique called boosted trees. The dataset used was extracted from the farm management system of a research center. It contained over 70,000 records of individual pigs born between 2004 and 2016, including information on, for example, offspring, litter size, transfer dates between production stages, their respective locations within the barns, and individual live-weights at several production stages. Results obtained on an independent test set showed that at a 90% specificity rate, the sensitivity was 16% for low meat percentage, 20% for pneumonia and 36% for low lifetime growth rate. For low lifetime growth rate, this meant an almost three times increase in positive predictive value compared to the current situation. From these results, it was concluded that routine performance information available at the onset of the growing-finishing phase combined with data about previous production cycles formed a moderate base to identify pigs prone to develop pneumonia (AUC > 0.60) and a good base to identify pigs prone to develop growth aberrations (AUC > 0.70) during the growing-finishing phase. The mentioned information, however, was not a sufficient base to identify pigs prone to develop low meat percentage (AUC < 0.60). The shown ability to identify growth aberrations and pneumonia can be considered a good first step towards the development of an early warning system for pigs in the growing-finishing phase.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Abrigo para Animais/normas , Pneumonia/veterinária , Carne Vermelha/análise , Doenças dos Suínos/prevenção & controle , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Composição Corporal , Meio Ambiente , Feminino , Aprendizado de Máquina , Masculino , Pneumonia/prevenção & controle , Suínos , Árvores
3.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(9): e0007775, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31553724

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The widespread emergence of resistance to insecticides used to control adult Aedes mosquitoes has made traditional control strategies inadequate for the reduction of various vector populations. Therefore, complementary vector control methods, such as the Sterile Insect Technique, are needed to enhance existing efforts. The technique relies on the rearing and release of large numbers of sterile males, and the development of efficient and standardized mass-rearing procedures and tools is essential for its application against medically important mosquitoes. METHODS: In the effort to reduce the cost of the rearing process, a prototype low-cost plexiglass mass-rearing cage has been developed and tested for egg production and egg hatch rate in comparison to the current Food and Agriculture Organization/International Atomic Energy Agency (FAO/IAEA) stainless-steel cage. Additionally, an adult-index was validated and used as a proxy to estimate the mosquito survival rates by counting the number of male and female mosquitoes that were resting within each of the 6 squares at a given point of time each day in the cage. RESULTS: The study has shown that the prototype mass-rearing cage is cheap and is as efficient as the FAO/IAEA stainless-steel cage in terms of egg production, with even better overall egg hatch rate. The mean numbers of eggs per cage, after seven cycles of blood feeding and egg collection, were 969,789 ± 138,101 and 779,970 ± 123,042, corresponding to 81 ± 11 and 65 ± 10 eggs per female over her lifespan, in the prototype and the stainless-steel-mass-rearing cages, respectively. The longevity of adult male and female mosquitoes was not affected by cage type and, the adult-index could be considered as an appropriate proxy for survival. Moreover, the mass-rearing cage prototype is easy to handle and transport and improves economic and logistic efficiency. CONCLUSION: The low-cost mass-rearing prototype cage can be recommended to produce Ae. aegypti in the context of rear and release techniques. The proposed adult-index can be used as a quick proxy of mosquito survival rates in mass-rearing settings.


Assuntos
Aedes/fisiologia , Abrigo para Animais/economia , Aedes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Criação de Animais Domésticos/instrumentação , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Animais , Feminino , Abrigo para Animais/normas , Masculino , Mosquitos Vetores
4.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 762, 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31477028

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Avian influenza A (H5N6) virus poses a great threat to the human health since it is capable to cross the species barrier and infect humans. Although human infections are believed to largely originate from poultry contaminations, the transmissibility is unclear and only limited information was available on poultry environment contaminations, especially in Fujian Province. METHODS: A total of 4901 environmental samples were collected and tested for Avian Influenza Virus (AIV) from six cities in Fujian Province through the Fujian Influenza Surveillance System from 2013 to 2017. Two patient-related samples were taken from Fujian's first confirmed H5N6 human case and his backyard chicken feces in 2017. Chi-square test or Fisher's exact probability test was used to compare the AIV and the viral subtype positive rates among samples from different Surveillance cities, surveillance sites, sample types, and seasons. Phylogenetic tree analysis and molecular analysis were conducted to track the viral transmission route of the human infection and to map out the evolutions of H5N6 in Fujian. RESULTS: The overall positive rate of the H5 subtype AIVs was 4.24% (208/4903). There were distinctive differences (p < 0.05) in the positive rates in samples from different cities, sample sites, sample types and seasons. The viruses from the patient and his backyard chicken feces shared high homologies (99.9-100%) in all the eight gene segments. Phylogenetic trees also showed that these two H5N6 viruses were closely related to each other, and were classified into the same genetic clade 2.3.4.4 with another six H5N6 isolates from the environmental samples. The patient's H5N6 virus carried genes from H6N6, H5N8 and H5N6 viruses originated from different areas. The R294K or N294S substitution was not detected in the neuraminidase (NA). The S31 N substitution in the matrix2 (M2) gene was detected but only in one strain from the environmental samples. CONCLUSIONS: The H5 subtype of AIVs has started circulating in the poultry environments in Fujian Province. The patient's viral strain originated from the chicken feces in his backyard. Genetic reassortment in H5N6 viruses in Fujian Province was indicated. The H5N6 viruses currently circulating in Fujian Province were still commonly sensitive to Oseltamivir and Zanamivir, but the resistance against Amantadine has emerged.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza A/isolamento & purificação , Influenza Aviária/virologia , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/virologia , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/virologia , Aves Domésticas/virologia , Animais , Embrião de Galinha , Galinhas/virologia , China/epidemiologia , Patos/virologia , Meio Ambiente , Microbiologia Ambiental , Genes Virais , Abrigo para Animais/normas , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A/genética , Influenza Aviária/diagnóstico , Influenza Aviária/epidemiologia , Tipagem Molecular , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/diagnóstico , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/transmissão , Filogenia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/diagnóstico , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Fatores de Risco
5.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(11): 10235-10249, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31447147

RESUMO

Design of cubicles and self-locking barriers can affect cow skin alterations, lameness, and dirtiness. We investigated whether the International Commission of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering (CIGR, Gainesville, FL)-recommended cattle housing design and dimensions actually improve cow welfare. We recorded individual cow body dimensions and assessed skin alterations, dirtiness, and lameness on 3,841 cows from 131 loose housing dairy farms (76 farms with cubicles and 55 straw-yard systems). We recorded the dimensions of cubicles (e.g., width, length, and so on) and of the self-locking barrier (e.g., top rail height and so on) for each farm. We then compared whether these dimensions would match with the individual cow body dimensions and whether compliance was associated with the occurrence of skin alterations, lameness, and dirtiness. Most cows (69.2%) had at least one skin alteration, on the tarsus (41.2%); neck, shoulder, or back (28.2%); hindquarters (22.0%); carpus (21.2%); and flank, side, or udder (11.6%). Lameness prevalence reached 17.9%. Most cows (83.1%) were scored dirty in at least one body region, mainly on the lower hind legs including hocks (81.4%), hindquarters (41.8%), and udder (21.0%). Cubicle recommendations were mostly met for cubicle resting length (75.9% of cubicles) and neck rail distance (NRD, 60.7%) but less so for overall cubicle length (CL, 38.8%), cubicle width (CW, 30.9%), neck rail height (NRH, 22.5%), head space (HS, 15.8%), partition zone for controlling lying position (ii zone, 15.7%), head and lunging space (HLS, 10.6%), partition head zone (i zone, 9.4%), and partition zone for pelvis freedom (iii zone, 6.0%). Compliance with design recommendations was associated with fewer skin alterations on neck (recommendation met for CW, CL, HS, and NRD and i zone), hindquarters (CW, CL, NRD), tarsus (CW, i and ii zones), and carpus (CW, HS, i and ii zones); less lameness (CW, NRH, i zone); and less dirtiness on the hindquarters (CW, HLS, NRD), lower hind legs (iii zone), and udder (CW, CL, HLS, NRD). Compliance with recommended i zone and ii zone design was associated with less injury and lameness but more dirtiness, whereas the opposite was true for the iii zone. Self-locking barrier recommendations were mostly met for bottom rail height (68.2%), separation wall width (SWW, 68.3%), and top rail height (TRH, 56.9%) and less often met for separation wall height (36.3%) and height difference between feeding floor and walking alley (26.5%). Risk for skin alterations on carpus and neck only decreased when SWW and TRH met recommendations. In conclusion, compliance with CIGR recommendations for some cubicle dimensions and neck rail position was associated with lower risk for cow welfare. However, the CIGR recommendations on cubicle partitions and self-locking barriers still leave welfare at risk and so need to be refined through further research with close observation of cow lying and feeding behavior.


Assuntos
Bem-Estar do Animal , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Abrigo para Animais/normas , Coxeadura Animal/epidemiologia , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Indústria de Laticínios , Feminino , Pisos e Cobertura de Pisos , Lactação , Coxeadura Animal/prevenção & controle , Glândulas Mamárias Animais , Prevalência , Tarso Animal/lesões
6.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(11): 9689-9701, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31447152

RESUMO

Sporeforming bacteria are responsible for the spoilage of several dairy products including fluid milk, cheese, and products manufactured using dried dairy powders as ingredients. Sporeforming bacteria represent a considerable challenge for the dairy industry because they primarily enter the dairy product continuum at the farm, survive processing hurdles, and subsequently grow in finished products. As such, strategies to reduce spoilage due to this group of bacterial contaminants have focused on understanding the effect of farm level factors on the presence of spores in bulk tank raw milk with the goal of reducing spore levels in raw milk, as well as understanding processing contributions to spore levels and outgrowth in finished products. The goal of the current study was to investigate sources of spores in the farm environment and survey farm management practices to identify variables using multimodel inference, a model averaging approach that eliminates the uncertainty of traditional model selection approaches, that affect the presence and levels of spores in bulk tank raw milk. To this end, environmental samples including feed, bedding, manure, soil, water, and so on, and bulk tank raw milk were collected twice from 17 upstate New York dairy farms over a 19-mo period and the presence and levels of various spore types (e.g., psychrotolerant, mesophilic, thermophilic, highly heat resistant thermophilic, specially thermoresistant thermophilic, and anaerobic butyric acid bacteria) were assessed. Manure had the highest level of spores for 4 out of 5 aerobic spore types with mean counts of 5.87, 5.22, 4.35, and 3.68 log cfu/g of mesophilic, thermophilic, highly heat resistant thermophilic, and specially thermoresistant thermophilic spores, respectively. In contrast, bulk tank raw milk had mean spore levels below 1 log cfu/mL across spore types. Multimodel inference was used to determine variables (i.e., management factors, environmental spore levels, and meteorological data from each sampling) that were important for presence or levels of each spore type in bulk tank raw milk. Analyses indicated that variables of importance for more than one spore type included the residual level of spores in milk from individual cows after thorough teat cleaning and forestripping, udder hygiene, clipping or flaming of udders, spore level in feed commodities, spore level in parlor air, how often bedding was topped up or changed, the use of recycled manure bedding, and the use of sawdust bedding. These results improve our understanding of how spores transfer from environmental sources into bulk tank raw milk and provide information that can be used to design intervention trials aimed at reducing spore levels in raw milk.


Assuntos
Indústria de Laticínios , Leite/microbiologia , Esporos Bacterianos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ração Animal/microbiologia , Animais , Bovinos , Indústria de Laticínios/métodos , Indústria de Laticínios/normas , Água Potável/microbiologia , Fazendas , Feminino , Abrigo para Animais/normas , Higiene , Estudos Longitudinais , Esterco/microbiologia , New York , Microbiologia do Solo
7.
Theriogenology ; 137: 82-87, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31285050

RESUMO

Protecting boar studs and their clients from emerging infectious disease first involves effective biosecurity measures to keep a disease out that was not present, and second, early identification and ceasing semen distribution prior to disseminating infectious disease. Experiences in the field can best guide us as to what has been effective. Circumstances in North America in the period of 1999-2004 resulted in numerous PRRS virus (Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome) negative boar studs becoming infected and disseminating virus to sow farms. Earlier detection methods were needed, and withholding of semen pending negative test results became standard. To accomplish this, diagnostic labs complied with industry requests for same day testing. At the same time, research efforts helped clarify the major routes of PRRS virus introduction into the farms. The risk of fomites and aerosol spread became viewed as major risks. Addressing issues with people and supply entry alone did not eliminate new virus entry. The implementation of air filtration during 2005-2008 had a major impact on the rate of new virus introductions into boar studs after other measures alone were unsuccessful. Risks exposed with the introduction of PED virus (Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea) into North America further highlighted other risk factors such as feed ingredients, trailer sanitation, and the presence of clear physical barriers. The successful adaptation of testing procedures, combined with biosecurity procedures including air filtration, has made the incidence of infectious disease introduction extremely rare in North American boar studs over the last decade. While survivability of infectious disease agents can vary in different materials or in the air, successful protocols should be applied and adjusted as needed to accommodate new information or risks. Cleary defined physical barriers for people and animal entry and exit, sanitization and/or down time on incoming supplies, risk mitigation and testing of feed ingredients, and filtration have been keys to changing the incidence of emerging infectious disease introduction into boar studs.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/veterinária , Abrigo para Animais/normas , Doenças dos Suínos/prevenção & controle , Animais , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Masculino , América do Norte , Sêmen/virologia , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/transmissão , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia
8.
Vet Microbiol ; 233: 118-123, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31176397

RESUMO

The vast capacity for maintenance and dissemination in the environment are major challenges for the control of Salmonella spp. in poultry farms. The aim of this study was to assess environmental contamination by non-typhoidal Salmonella in successive broiler flocks in nine commercial broiler farms integrated with three companies in the south of Brazil, for a twelve-month production period. Recycled broiler litter, feed and swabs from the evaporative cooling system pads were analyzed, and the total enterobacteria count in the litter samples was ascertained. Positive broiler houses were identified in two of the three broiler companies studied, in which non-typhoidal Salmonella were detected for the first time in the first or second flock, and recurred in the recycled litter of subsequent flocks. Feed and evaporative cooling pad swab samples were also positive in at least one of the assessed flocks. The majority of the isolates (87.5%) originating from different flocks, broiler houses and companies that were sampled were identified as S. Heidelberg, with the prevalence of one single genotype. The total enterobacteria levels in the litter diminished as the flocks progressed, but the presence of Salmonella spp. was constant over the course of time, indicating that the litter management procedures were not capable of interrupting the cycle of residual contamination. The predominance of S. Heidelberg highlights its emergence and dissemination in this region, as well as its resistance and maintenance in the environment, and reinforces the need to improve prevention and recycled litter management measures.


Assuntos
Galinhas/microbiologia , Microbiologia Ambiental , Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Salmonelose Animal/epidemiologia , Salmonella/genética , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Genótipo , Abrigo para Animais/normas , Estudos Longitudinais , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Prevalência , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Sorogrupo
9.
Theriogenology ; 137: 88-92, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31186129

RESUMO

Reducing the number of spermatozoa per artificial insemination (AI) dose and managing semen in ways to ensure greater quality at the same time represents current challenges with sperm processing in pig AI centers. Based on a multi-year comparative analysis of process steps in different pig AI centers, and complementary experimental studies under standardized laboratory conditions, current process standards for the preservation of boar semen have been updated and new ones developed. Currently, these standards represent an integral part of the quality assurance of 29 European pig AI centers in ten different organizations in Germany, Switzerland and Austria. Improvement of hygiene management and guidelines for prudent use of antibiotics have become key issues. Furthermore, new quality control tools have been implemented in the processing and transport of boar semen: e.g. refractometry as an easy-to-use tool to estimate extender osmolarity and 'mobile sensing' apps for continuous monitoring of various environmental parameters. Moreover, based on a series of experiments under laboratory and field conditions, guidelines for optimizing the dilution process, and time and temperature management during boar semen processing, have been developed and implemented. Similarly, recommendations for the handling of semen doses during storage have been renewed. Over the years, the efficiency of the quality assurance system has been reflected by a decrease of bacterial contamination and a concomitant increase in the quality of semen doses. In conclusion, science-based quality assurance is an effective way to improve the production performance in pig AI centers, resulting in high quality and economically-priced semen for pig producers. Increasing knowledge of sperm physiology together with computational and technical innovations will continue to develop and modify quality assurance concepts in the future.


Assuntos
Abrigo para Animais/normas , Inseminação Artificial/veterinária , Análise do Sêmen/veterinária , Suínos , Animais , Europa (Continente) , Masculino , Manejo de Espécimes/métodos , Manejo de Espécimes/normas , Manejo de Espécimes/veterinária , Suínos/microbiologia
10.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0216544, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31063490

RESUMO

A number of studies have shown widespread public concern over housing animals in ways that restrict their ability to move freely. Dairy cows housed in tie stall barns are tethered continuously or for part of the day, but no study has assessed public support for this type of housing system. We report two experiments assessing public perceptions of tie stall housing for dairy cattle using a hypothetical referenda format. In Experiment 1, 65% of participants (n = 430) said they would support a ban on tie stalls. The probability of supporting a ban increased as the duration of time that cows were tethered increased. In Experiment 2, information about possible economic consequences was included. Relatively fewer (55%) participants (n = 372) indicated they would support a ban. Supporters of a ban were willing to pay an average dairy product price premium of 68% to see the ban enacted. Indirect measures of support indicated socially desirable responding was greater in Experiment 2 where the economic impacts of voting behavior were made explicit. In both studies, women and liberals were more likely to support a ban. The majority of participants in Experiment 1 (51%) and Experiment 2 (57%) said they had never heard or read anything about tie stalls before participating in our survey. We conclude that current knowledge of the use of tie stalls is low, but if this situation were to change there may be considerable public concern about the use of this housing method.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Bem-Estar do Animal/normas , Indústria de Laticínios , Abrigo para Animais/legislação & jurisprudência , Abrigo para Animais/normas , Opinião Pública , Adulto , Animais , Bovinos , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
11.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 16: 100289, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31027594

RESUMO

In Nigeria, helminths have over the last decades been established as important parasite of poultry including pigeons. However, the prevalence of these parasites of pigeons in Kano State is yet to be established. The prevalence of helminth parasites of domestic pigeon (Columba livia domestica) in Kano State, Nigeria was investigated in this study. The differences in the prevalence of infection between the pigeons examined on the basis of sex of the pigeon and season of the year were analyzed statistically using the students' "t" -test. The intestinal contents of 144 pigeons were examined for gastrointestinal helminths between February and April representing the dry season and between June and August for the wet season. Pigeons were grouped according to Squabs (chicks) (0-4 weeks), Squeakers (Juveniles) (5-8 weeks) and Youngsters (Adults) (9 weeks onwards). Intestinal parasites found include Cestodes: Raillietina tetragona, 20 (13.80%), R. echinobothrida, 11 (7.64%), Amoebotaenia cuneata, 5 (3.47%), Hymenolopis contaniana, 10 (6.95%), Davainea proglottina, 1(0.69%) and Ornithostrongylus quadriatus 1(0.69%). Nematodes: Capillaria obsignata, 10(6.95%) and Ascaridia columbae, 9(6.25%). Forty-two (29.16%) of the birds had mild infection, 17 (11.81%) had moderate infection, 9 (6.25%) and 2(1.39%) had heavy and severe infection, respectively. The prevalence was higher during the wet season (36.65%) than during the dry season (27.97%). Of all the age groups, only Youngsters, 34 (23.61%) were infected with intestinal helminths. However, there were statistically significant differences between the age, sex and seasons in this study (P < 0.005). Pigeons raised on semi-intensive had the highest rate of infection (37.50%) and those raised on intensive management had the lowest rate of infection (9.03%). A number of measures are recommended for the control of these helminthic parasites.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Columbidae/parasitologia , Helmintíase Animal/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Distribuição por Idade , Ração Animal/classificação , Ração Animal/estatística & dados numéricos , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Animais , Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Infecções por Cestoides/epidemiologia , Infecções por Cestoides/veterinária , Métodos de Alimentação/veterinária , Feminino , Abrigo para Animais/normas , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Masculino , Infecções por Nematoides/epidemiologia , Infecções por Nematoides/veterinária , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Razão de Chances , Prevalência , Estações do Ano , Distribuição por Sexo
12.
Genes Brain Behav ; 18(7): e12564, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30848040

RESUMO

Individually ventilated caging (IVC) systems for rodents are increasingly common in laboratory animal facilities. However, the impact of such substantial change in housing conditions on animal physiology and behavior is still debated. Most importantly, there arise the questions regarding reproducibility and comparison of previous or new phenotypes between the IVC and open cages. The present study was set up for detailed and systematic comparison of behavioral phenotypes in male and female mice of three widely used inbred strains (C57BL/6JRccHsd, DBA/2JRccHsd, 129S2/SvHSd) after being kept in two housing environments (IVC and open cages) for 6 weeks (since 4 weeks of age) before behavioral testing. The tests addressed exploratory, anxiety-like and stress-related behavior (light-dark box, open field, forced swim test, stress-induced hyperthermia), social approach and species-specific behavior (nest building, marble burying). In all tests, large and expected strain differences were found. Somewhat surprisingly, the most striking effect of environment was found for basal body temperature and weight loss after one night of single housing in respective cages. In addition, the performance in light-dark box and open field was affected by environment. Several parameters in different tests showed significant interaction between housing and genetic background. In summary, the IVC housing did not invalidate the well-known differences between the mouse strains which have been established by previous studies. However, within the strains the results can be influenced by sex and housing system depending on the behavioral tasks applied. The bottom-line is that the environmental conditions should be described explicitly in all publications.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal , Abrigo para Animais/normas , Fenótipo , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Ventilação/normas
13.
Zoo Biol ; 38(3): 248-257, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30864161

RESUMO

Maintaining the capacity for sustained flight in captivity is a key goal for the management of threatened fruit bats. We developed quantifiable descriptions of flight complexity and used them to assess the suitability of an enclosure for two species of fruit bat of differing size, the large Livingstone's fruit bat, Pteropus livingstonii, and the smaller Rodrigues fruit bat, Pteropus rodricensis, in a two-part study. In Phase 1, Rodrigues fruit bats flew more often than Livingstone's fruit bats and although the majority of flights in both species were linear, Rodrigues fruit bats were more likely to display complex flight paths involving turns, while flights by Livingstone's fruit bats were more likely to end in a crash-landing than Rodrigues fruit bat flights. The enclosure may therefore not have been large enough for Livingstone's fruit bats to display a full range of flight behavior over longer distances. In Phase 2, juvenile Livingstone's fruit bats ( < 3 years old) flew more than twice as often as younger adults (3-10 years old) did. Older adult Livingstone's fruit bats over the age of 10 years were not observed to fly. We could not separate out the effects of age, weight and environment during development as these factors were strongly correlated in our study; future work in this area will be very important in understanding the factors that affect flight in captive bats, and how it can be encouraged by appropriate enclosure design.


Assuntos
Quirópteros/fisiologia , Voo Animal/fisiologia , Fatores Etários , Animais , Animais de Zoológico/fisiologia , Peso Corporal , Feminino , Abrigo para Animais/normas , Masculino
15.
PLoS One ; 14(2): e0212417, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30768620

RESUMO

Sixty barrows (Body Weight-BW- range: 23.9-160 kg) were allotted to two experimental groups (6 pens of 5 pigs each): the control group was kept at a space allowance of 1m2/head; the second group was kept at 1.3m2/head. Behaviour, growth parameters, carcass and meat quality were assessed, as well as fat and cured ham quality. Results showed that pigs raised at 1.3m2/head spent more time laying (particularly in lateral recumbency, P<0.01 and P<0.001, respectively) compared to pigs kept at lower space allowance. They also reduced the aimless exploration of the slatted pen floor (P<0.001) and increased overall expression of other, mainly active, behaviors (e.g., drinking, walking and standing, P<0.01). Pigs raised at 1.3m2/head showed higher final BW (P = 0.02), more favourable Average Daily Gain (ADG) and gain-to-Feed ratio (G:F) both during the last period of the trial (P<0.05 for both parameters) and over the entire trial (P = 0.01 for both parameters). No significant difference was observed between groups for carcass traits and the main meat quality attributes. Subcutaneous fat from green hams had higher α-linolenic acid content (P<0.01) in the group reared at greater space allowance. Green hams from this group lost less weight at trimming (P<0.01) and the resulting cured hams received better sensory evaluations (P<0.05). No difference was observed in fatty acid composition and unsaturation levels of the subcutaneous fat from cured hams. Our data suggest that heavy pigs intended for Parma ham would benefit from the adoption of higher individual floor space allowances, both in terms of animal welfare (increased possibility to rest) and of productive parameters, without having any detrimental effect on the suitability of the thighs for dry-curing or on the quality of the final product.


Assuntos
Bem-Estar do Animal , Abrigo para Animais , Carne , Sus scrofa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Peso Corporal , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Abrigo para Animais/normas , Itália , Masculino , Carne/normas
16.
Meat Sci ; 152: 38-40, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30802816

RESUMO

To achieve efficient production of guinea pigs for meat, it is essential to determine the most suitable housing system. A total of 220 guinea pigs were maintained in either wire cages (n = 11, 10 animals per cage) or floor pens (n = 11, 10 animals per pen) containing a deep litter of woodchips, both housing systems having the same dimensions (2 × 1 × 0.4 m). Growth traits, food intake and feed conversion ratio were recorded weekly and expressed as the difference between the two groups. After 77 days, the animals were slaughtered, and carcass traits were evaluated. Growth performance and carcass trait parameters, as well as mortality and behavior trends, were not affected by the housing system type. Nonetheless, the use of wire cages is recommended for raising guinea pigs since water, urine and feces pass through the wire floor, resulting in cleaner animals.


Assuntos
Cobaias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Abrigo para Animais/normas , Carne/análise , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Feminino , Cobaias/fisiologia , Masculino
17.
Vet Rec ; 184(4): 114-115, 2019 01 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30683782

RESUMO

New research finds that if snakes are allowed the space to stretch out, many will do so. Kathryn Clark explains.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/normas , Bem-Estar do Animal/normas , Abrigo para Animais/normas , Serpentes , Animais
18.
Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract ; 35(1): 29-45, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30686464

RESUMO

This article offers general calf barn design recommendations to optimize calf health gleaned from clinical and research experience in a Midwestern US climate. Barn components that are discussed include sizing the barn, ventilating the facility, and providing a clean, deeply bedded, dry area for the calf. In addition, considerations for maximizing labor efficiency and reducing the spread of disease by caregivers are discussed.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos , Bovinos/fisiologia , Abrigo para Animais/normas , Animais , Feminino
19.
J Anim Sci ; 97(3): 1143-1157, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30668710

RESUMO

The present study aimed at testing the feasibility and on-farm test-retest reliability of the Welfare Quality Assessment protocol for pigs applied to sows and piglets. The study was conducted on 13 farms in Northern Germany, which were visited 5 times by the same observer, and included 2 experimental setups: first, the complete Welfare Quality Assessment protocol for sows and piglets was applied to the farms. Second, additional assessments in the gestation unit considered all sows. The complete protocol assessments were used to evaluate the feasibility of the protocol. Furthermore, the data were analyzed with regard to on-farm test-retest reliability. The present publication focuses on the Welfare Quality principles good feeding, good housing, and good health, which are based on individual indicators (IN). The second experimental setup was utilized to verify the test-retest reliability of IN in the gestation unit with an increased number of animals under assessment. The test-retest reliability was calculated using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (RS), intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), smallest detectable change (SDC), and limits of agreement (LoA). Farm visit 1 (F1; day 0) was set as a reference and compared with farm visits 2 to 5 (F2 to 5; day 3, week 7, month 5, month 10). The IN of the above-named Welfare Quality principles achieved mostly acceptable test-retest reliability (e.g., wounds on the body F1 to F4: RS 0.34 to 0.57, ICC 0.40 to 0.41, SDC 0.02 to 0.12, LoA [-0.03; 0.02] to [-0.09; 0.14]) in terms of the on-farm test-retest reliability. Poor test-retest reliability was detected for body condition score concerning the principle good feeding, for bursitis and panting in sows and for huddling and panting in piglets within the principle good housing, and finally for vulva lesions, metritis, and local infections in sows and for scouring and lameness in piglets in the principle good health. Variations among the farm visits, which resulted in poor test-retest reliability, may be explained by seasonal effects (panting), moving animals (bursitis, lameness, huddling), rare occurrences of diseases (metritis, local infections, scouring), and differently conditioned sow groups (body condition score). The second experimental setup confirmed the results for IN in the gestation unit. Thus, the reported test-retest reliability determines the Welfare Quality Assessment protocol for sows and piglets to be a reliable approach to assess welfare in sows and piglets.


Assuntos
Bem-Estar do Animal/normas , Abrigo para Animais/normas , Suínos/fisiologia , Animais , Fazendas , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Alemanha , Controle de Qualidade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
20.
J Therm Biol ; 79: 149-154, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30612675

RESUMO

Mouse vivaria are typically maintained at an ambient temperature (Ta) of 20-26 °C which is comfortable for human researchers. However, as this Ta is well below the mouse thermoneutral zone (TNZ) of 30-32 °C, typical vivarium temperatures result in cold stress for mice. Recently, a cage has been developed that provides variable cage floor heating, allowing mice to behaviorally regulate body temperature through thermotaxis. A hand warmer provides supplemental heat, elevating cage floor surface temperature for 13 + hours up to 30 °C. This provides a heated surface for the entirety of the light phase. Here, we test the ability of these local heat sources to remove physiological signs of cold stress in mice housed at room temperature by analyzing heart rate (HR), activity, and body temperature in three experimental conditions: 23 °C, 23 °C + heated surface, or 30 °C. The location of C57Bl/6 J mice within the cage was recorded using an infrared camera. In the presence of supplemental heat at a Ta of 23 °C, mice resided atop of the area of the heated surface 85 ±â€¯3% of the 12-h light phase, as compared to 7 ±â€¯2% in the absence of supplemental heat. Further, addition of supplemental heat lowered light phase HR and activity to that seen at a Ta of 30 °C. These results indicate that provision of a local heat source is successful in reducing cold-induced tachycardia in mice housed at typical vivarium temperatures without increasing the ambient temperature of the entire laboratory and subjecting researchers to heat stress.


Assuntos
Temperatura Baixa/efeitos adversos , Calefação/instrumentação , Abrigo para Animais/normas , Estresse Fisiológico , Taquicardia/prevenção & controle , Animais , Calefação/métodos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Taquicardia/etiologia , Taquicardia/terapia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA