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1.
Food Chem ; 303: 125351, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31466027

RESUMO

The ability of vegetables to inhibit methylmercury absorption was verified, with the aim of lowering the mercury level in cultured fish. Vegetable juice was obtained from 17 varieties of commercial vegetables. A test solution containing 1 µg/g methylmercury, 10% vegetable juice, and 90% physiological saline (v/v) was introduced into the intestinal tract of red sea bream, and the mercury absorption rate was measured. A significant inhibitory effect was observed for green pepper, burdock, and red shiso, mainly in the fraction with a molecular weight >3 kDa. Frozen storage for one month did not affect the inhibitory effect of green pepper; however, the inhibitory effect of frozen burdock and red shiso were destroyed after one week and one month, respectively. During one month of storage in frozen conditions, the inhibitory effect of green pepper was observed in fractions larger than 100 kDa. Molecular weight distribution of the effective fraction varied among the vegetables.


Assuntos
Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Absorção Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Mercúrio/metabolismo , Dourada , Animais , Mercúrio/química , Mercúrio/toxicidade , Alimentos Marinhos/análise
2.
Toxicol Lett ; 318: 86-91, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31669099

RESUMO

Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) have been used worldwide to treat gastrointestinal disorders. A recent study showed that long-term use of PPIs caused iron deficiency; however, it is unclear whether PPIs affect iron metabolism directly. We investigated the effect of PPIs on the peptide hepcidin, an important iron regulatory hormone. First, we used the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System database and analyzed the influence of PPIs. We found that PPIs, as well as H2 blockers, increased the odds ratio of iron-deficient anemia. Next, HepG2 cells were used to examine the action of PPIs and H2 blockers on hepcidin. PPIs augmented hepcidin expression, while H2 blockers did not. In fact, the PPI omeprazole increased hepcidin secretion, and omeprazole-induced hepcidin upregulation was inhibited by gene silencing or the pharmacological inhibition of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor. In mouse experiments, omeprazole also increased hepatic hepcidin mRNA expression and blood hepcidin levels. In mice treated with omeprazole, protein levels of duodenal and splenic ferroportin decreased. Taken together, PPIs directly affect iron metabolism by suppressing iron absorption through the inhibition of duodenal ferroportin via hepcidin upregulation. These findings provide a new insight into the molecular mechanism of PPI-induced iron deficiency.


Assuntos
Anemia Ferropriva/induzido quimicamente , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/metabolismo , Duodeno/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepcidinas/metabolismo , Absorção Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Ferro/sangue , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/toxicidade , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/metabolismo , Anemia Ferropriva/sangue , Anemia Ferropriva/fisiopatologia , Animais , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/genética , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/metabolismo , Duodeno/metabolismo , Duodeno/fisiopatologia , Células Hep G2 , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Antagonistas dos Receptores Histamínicos H2/toxicidade , Humanos , Ferro/deficiência , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/genética
3.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1141: 361-405, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31571170

RESUMO

Oral drug administration is the most favorable route of drug administration in the clinic. Intestinal transporters have been shown to play a significant role in the rate and extent of drug absorption of some, but not all, drug molecules. Due to the heterogeneous expression of multiple transporters along the intestine, the preferential absorption sites for drugs may vary significantly. In this chapter, we aim to summarize the current research on the expression, localization, function, and regulation of human intestinal transporters implicated in altering the absorption of low to medium molecular weight drug molecules. The role played by bile acid transport proteins (e.g., ASBT and OST-α/ß) is included in the discussion. The synergistic action of intestinal drug metabolism and transport is also discussed. Despite the complicated regulatory factors, the biopharmaceutics drug disposition classification system (BDDCS) put forward by Wu and Benet may help us better predict the effect of transporters on drug absorption. The drug-induced toxicity in the intestine, which may result from drug-drug interaction, gut microbiota, and bile salt toxicity, is also discussed.


Assuntos
Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos , Absorção Intestinal , Intestinos , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Interações de Medicamentos , Humanos , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Preparações Farmacêuticas/metabolismo
4.
Eur J Pharm Biopharm ; 145: 76-84, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31639417

RESUMO

Oral drug delivery is a preferred administration route due to its low cost, high patient compliance and fewer adverse events compared to intravenous administration. However, many pharmaceuticals suffer from poor solubility and low oral bioavailability. One major factor that contributes to low bioavailability are efflux transporters which prevent drug absorption through intestinal epithelial cells. P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and Breast Cancer Resistance Protein (BCRP) are two important efflux transporters in the intestine functioning to prevent toxic materials from entering systemic circulation. However, due to its broad substrate specificity, P-gp limits the absorption of many therapeutics, including chemotherapeutics and antibacterial agents. Methods to inhibit P-gp with competitive inhibitors have not been clinically successful. Here, we show that micron scale devices (microdevices) made from a commonly used biomaterial, polyethylene glycol (PEG), inhibit P-gp through a biosimilar mucus in Caco-2 cells and that transporter function is restored when the microdevices are removed. Microdevices were shown to inhibit P-gp mediated transport of calcein AM, doxorubicin, and rhodamine 123 (R123) and BCRP mediated transport of BODIPY-FL-prazosin. When in contact with Caco-2 cells, microdevices decrease the cell surface amount of P-gp without affecting the passive transport. Moreover, there was an increase in mucosal to serosal transport of R123 with microdevices in an ex-vivo mouse model and increased absorption in vivo. This biomaterial-based approach to inhibit efflux transporters can be applied to a range of drug delivery systems and allows for a nonpharmacologic method to increase intestinal drug absorption while limiting toxic effects.


Assuntos
Transporte Biológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Hidrogéis/farmacologia , Membro 1 da Subfamília B de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Membro 2 da Subfamília G de Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Animais , Disponibilidade Biológica , Compostos de Boro/metabolismo , Células CACO-2 , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Absorção Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Polietilenoglicóis/química , Prazosina/análogos & derivados , Prazosina/metabolismo , Rodamina 123/metabolismo , Solubilidade/efeitos dos fármacos
5.
Pharm Res ; 36(12): 164, 2019 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31637544

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To describe a stepwise approach to evaluate the pH effect for a weakly basic drug by in vitro, in vivo and in silico techniques and identify a viable mitigation strategy that addresses the risk. METHODS: Clinical studies included assessment of the pH effect with famotidine. In vitro dissolution was evaluated in various biorelevant media and in a pH-shift test. PK studies in dogs were conducted under pentagastrin or famotidine pre-treatment and GastroPlus was employed to model human and dog PK data and simulate the performance in human. RESULTS: Clinical data indicated considerable pH dependent absorption of the drug when dosed in the presence of H2-antagonists. In vitro dissolution and in vivo dog data confirmed that the observed pH effect was due to reduced dissolution rate and lower solubility at increased gastric and intestinal pH. A salt form was identified to overcome the effect by providing fast dissolution and prolonged supersaturation. GastroPlus simulations predicted a mitigation of the pH effect by the salt. CONCLUSIONS: The drug exhibited a strong pH-effect in humans. The in vitro, in vivo and modeling approach provides a systematic workflow to evaluate the risk of a new drug and identify a strategy able to mitigate the risk.


Assuntos
Antiulcerosos/farmacocinética , Simulação por Computador , Composição de Medicamentos/métodos , Famotidina/farmacocinética , Absorção Intestinal , Modelos Biológicos , Administração Oral , Animais , Antiulcerosos/administração & dosagem , Disponibilidade Biológica , Cães , Famotidina/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Masculino
6.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 14: 7743-7758, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31571874

RESUMO

Purpose: Peptide drugs have been used in therapy various diseases. However, the poor bioavailability of peptide drugs for oral administration has limited their clinical applications, on account of the acidic environment and digestive enzymes inside the human gastrointestinal tract. To enhance stability in the human gastrointestinal tract, bioavailability, and targeted drug delivery of peptide drugs through oral administration, a vitamin B12-modified amphiphilic sodium alginate derivative (CSAD-VB12) was synthesized. Materials and methods: A vitamin B12-modified amphiphilic sodium alginate derivative (CSAD-VB12) was synthesized via the N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide active method at room temperature, and then characterized using FTIR and 1H NMR spectroscopy. Insulin was used as a model peptide drug and the insulin-loaded CSAD-VB12 (CSAD-VB12/insulin) nanoparticles with negative zeta potentials were prepared in PBS (pH=7.4). Scanning electron microscopy was used to observe CSAD-VB12/insulin as spherical nanoparticles. The CSAD-VB12 derivatives and CSAD-VB12/insulin nanoparticles displayed nontoxicity towards the human colon adenocarcinoma (Caco-2) cells by CCK-8 test. Caco-2 cell model was used to measure the apparent permeability (Papp) of insulin, CSAD/insulin and CSAD-VB12/insulin. Furthermore, confocal was used to confirm the endocytosis of intestinal enterocytes. Type 1 diabetes mice were used to evaluate the intestinal absorption and retention effect of test nanoparticles. Results: They were observed as spherical nanoparticles in the size of 30-50 nm. The CSAD-VB12 derivatives and CSAD-VB12/insulin nanoparticles displayed nontoxicity towards the human colon adenocarcinoma (Caco-2) cells. Comparing with insulin and the CSAD/insulin nanoparticles, the CSAD-VB12/insulin nanoparticles exhibited higher permeation ability through intestinal enterocytes in the Caco-2 cell model. Oral administration of the CSAD-VB12/insulin nanoparticles to Type 1 diabetic mice yields higher intestinal retention effect, targeted absorption, and outstanding efficacy. Conclusion: CSAD-VB12 derivatives enhance the small intestinal absorption efficacy and retention of peptide by oral administration, which indicated that it could be a promising candidate for oral peptide delivery in the prospective clinical application.


Assuntos
Alginatos/química , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Peptídeos/administração & dosagem , Preparações Farmacêuticas/administração & dosagem , Vitamina B 12/química , Administração Oral , Alginatos/síntese química , Animais , Células CACO-2 , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Permeabilidade da Membrana Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Endocitose/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Insulina/administração & dosagem , Insulina/farmacologia , Insulina/uso terapêutico , Absorção Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Nanopartículas/química , Nanopartículas/ultraestrutura , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Peptídeos/uso terapêutico , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Vitamina B 12/síntese química
7.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(15): 3170-3177, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602869

RESUMO

The intestinal absorption characteristics of ten iridoid glycosides and phenolic acids in the Pterocephali Herba were evaluated via rat intestinal valgus model. The intestinal sac fluids at different time after administration of high,medium and low concentrations of Pterocephali Herba extract were collected and ten chemical components in fluid samples were detected by UPLC-PDA. Accumulative absorbed doses( Q) and absorption rate constants( Ka) of ten chemical constituents were calculated,while proportions between Pterocephali Herba extract and intestinal absorption liquid were compared. The results showed that the intestinal absorption of 10 chemical components was linear absorption( R2>0. 9) at different concentrations,which accorded with the zero-order absorption rate. The absorption rate constant was related to the concentration of the drug and the intestinal site,which indicated that intestinal adsorption mechanism of the components were passive diffusion and active transport. Proportions of chemical constituents in intestinal sac fluid were different from those in Pterocephali Herba extract. Therefore,those ten chemical components in Pterocephali Herba extract can be absorbed in whole intestine. Everted intestinal sac model can be used to evaluate intestinal absorption characteristics of ingredients in Pterocephali Herba extract effectively.


Assuntos
Caprifoliaceae/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacocinética , Absorção Intestinal , Extratos Vegetais/farmacocinética , Animais , Intestinos , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
8.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(17): 3645-3652, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602936

RESUMO

Single-pass intestinal perfusion( SPIP) is the common carrier of biopharmaceutics classification system( BCS) to study compound permeability. With the application and deepening study of BCS in the field of traditional Chinese medicine( TCM),SPIP model is becoming more and more common to study the intestinal absorption of TCM ingredients. Based on the limitations of the SPIP model in some researches on TCM permeability,it was speculated in this study that aglycone may be more suitable than the glycoside to study the intestinal absorption problem by using SPIP model. Furthermore,applicability of aglycone components was analyzed and evaluated. In this study,with quercetin,daidzein,formononetin,genistein and glycyrrhetinic acid used as research objects,the quantitative study of SPIP was used to evaluate the intestinal permeability of these aglycones and to predict the effective permeability coefficient( Peff) and absorption fraction( Fa) in human body. By combining studies comparison and analysis on multiple permeability research methods and prediction of human body absorption of aglycones in physiological-based pharmacokinetic models,this paper can further illustrate that the SPIP model is a good tool for studying the permeability of aglycones and predicting human absorption,which can provide data foundation and theoretical reference for researches on SPIP technique and BCS in intestinal absorption of TCM ingredients.


Assuntos
Biofarmácia , Absorção Intestinal , Humanos , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Perfusão , Permeabilidade
9.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(17): 3653-3661, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602937

RESUMO

For the effects of multi-component environment on the solubility and permeability of single components,and the problems of biopharmaceutical attribute classification of single components in the compound prescriptions environment,baicalein was used as the research object in this study to investigate the biopharmaceutic attributes of single-component and their traditional Chinese medicine( TCM) biopharmaceutic attributes in the multi-component environment of Gegen Qilian Decoction. Shaking flask method,intrinsic dissolution rate test and HPLC were used to determine solubility of baicalein. Markers specified by FDA were utilized as permeable boundary reference materials to verify the applicability of the single-pass intestinal perfusion method( SPIP),and the quantitative research on the permeability of baicalein was also conducted. It is concluded that baicalein could be categorized as BCS-Ⅱ drug based on its low solubility and high intestinal permeability values,and it may be categorized into CMMBCS-I in the multi-component environment of Gegen Qilian Decoction due to its poor solubility but enhanced solubility and permeability in compound environment. This study could provide verification ideas for clinical determination of the best human oral dose of baicalein,and provide the data basis for the study of biopharmaceutics classification system of Chinese materia medica( CMMBCS).


Assuntos
Biofarmácia/classificação , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Flavanonas/química , Materia Medica/classificação , Humanos , Absorção Intestinal , Permeabilidade , Solubilidade
10.
Toxicol Lett ; 316: 109-118, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31472180

RESUMO

Lithocholic acid (LCA) is both a secondary bile acid and a vitamin D receptor (VDR) ligand. The VDR is activated by 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D3 and plays an important role in maintaining integrity of the intestinal mucosal barrier. LCA can also substitute for vitamin D to carry out the in vivo functions of vitamin D. However, it is unclear whether activation of the VDR by LCA affects mucosal barrier function. In the present study, we researched the protective effect of LCA on tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α)-induced intestinal epithelial barrier dysfunction in Caco-2 cells of the human epithelial intestinal adenocarcinoma cell line. Caco-2 cell monolayers were pretreated with LCA and then exposed to 100 ng/mL TNF-α. The results showed that LCA alleviated the decrease in transepithelial electrical resistance and the increase in FITC-Dextran flux induced by TNF-α. LCA ameliorated the TNF-α-induced decrease in protein expression and distribution of ZO-1, E-cadherin, Occludin, and Claudin-1, which are tight junction markers. Additionally, the LCA treatment effectively counteracted TNF-α-mediated downregulation of silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1), nuclear factor erythroid2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), and heme oxygenase-1, which are related to oxidative stress. Increases in NF-κB p-p65 and p-IκB-α induced by TNF-α were significantly inhibited by LCA. Considering all these, the present study indicates that LCA has a significant protective effect on TNF-α-induced injury of intestinal barrier function through the VDR and suggests that suppressing NF-κB signaling and activating the SIRT1/Nrf2 pathway might be one of the mechanisms underlying the protective effect of LCA.


Assuntos
Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Absorção Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Litocólico/farmacologia , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Receptores de Calcitriol/agonistas , Sirtuína 1/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/toxicidade , Células CACO-2 , Citoproteção , Impedância Elétrica , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/patologia , Humanos , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , Permeabilidade , Receptores de Calcitriol/genética , Receptores de Calcitriol/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Junções Íntimas/metabolismo , Junções Íntimas/efeitos dos fármacos , Junções Íntimas/metabolismo , Junções Íntimas/patologia
11.
Horiz. méd. (Impresa) ; 19(3): 40-48, Set. 2019. ilus, graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, LIPECS | ID: biblio-1022378

RESUMO

Objetivo: Evaluar el potencial antihiperglicémico de la infusión de Gentianella gilgiana (Reimers) Fabris ex J.S. Pringle en la absorción intestinal de glucosa in vitro en Rattus norvegicus cepa Holtzman con diabetes inducida químicamente. Materiales y métodos: Estudio de tipo experimental y analítico. Se realizó el tamizaje fitoquímico de la planta. Para el estudio in vitro se utilizaron veinte ratas albinas machos, a las que se les indujo diabetes utilizando aloxano monohidratado (Sigma-Aldrich, Saint Louis, MO, EE. UU.) en dosis de 120 mg/kg p.c, vía intraperitoneal, y luego fueron distribuidas al azar en dos grupos de diez ratas albinas cada uno. Luego de diez días fueron sacrificados para extraerles un segmento intestinal con la técnica del saco intestinal evertido, y medir el transporte y absorción de glucosa. En el grupo control (intestinos evertidos incubados en solución Krebs-Henseleit glucosado) y en el grupo experimental (intestinos incubados en solución Krebs Henseleit glucosado más la infusión de Gentianella gilgiana al 10% p/v), se tomaron muestras basales de los líquidos de incubación, luego otras muestras a los 15, 30, 45 y 60 minutos para cuantificar la glucosa de los compartimentos mucoso y seroso mediante el método enzimático de la glucosa oxidasa. Resultados: Se evidenciaron menores concentraciones de glucosa absorbida en compartimento seroso intestinal del grupo experimental (G. gilgiana) con diferencia estadísticamente significativa respecto al control (p< 0,05). Conclusiones: La infusión de Gentianella gilgiana (Reimers) Fabris ex J.S. Pringle presenta potencial antihiperglicémico significativo que disminuye la absorción intestinal de glucosa in vitro en ratas albinas diabéticas.


Objective: To evaluate the antihyperglycemic potential of the Gentianella gilgiana (Reimers) Fabris ex J.S. Pringle infusion for in vitro intestinal glucose absorption in Rattus norvegicus of the Holtzman strain with chemically-induced diabetes. Materials and methods: The study had an experimental and analytical design. A phytochemical screening of the whole plant was carried out. For the in vitro study, twenty male albino rats were induced with diabetes using alloxan monohydrate (Sigma-Aldrich, Saint Louis, MO, USA) at a dose of 120 mg/kg bw administered by intraperitoneal route, and then randomly distributed into two groups of ten albino rats each. After ten days, they were sacrificed to extract an intestinal segment using the everted intestinal sac technique, and measure the glucose transport and absorption. In the control group (everted intestines incubated in Krebs-Henseleit solution containing glucose) and the experimental group (intestines incubated in Krebs-Henseleit solution containing glucose plus the Gentianella gilgiana (Reimers) Fabris ex J.S. Pringle infusion at 10% w/v), basal samples of fluids were taken from incubation, and then other samples were taken at 15, 30, 45 and 60 minutes to quantify the glucose from the mucous and serous compartments using the glucose oxidase enzymatic method. Results: Lower concentrations of absorbed glucose were observed in the intestinal serous compartment of the experimental group (G. gilgiana) with a statistically significant difference compared to the control group (p <0.05). Conclusions: The Gentianella gilgiana (Reimers) Fabris ex J.S. Pringle infusion exhibits a significant antihyperglycemic potential by decreasing the in vitro intestinal glucose absorption in diabetic albino rats.


Assuntos
Ratos , Hiperglicemia , Gentianella , Diabetes Mellitus , Absorção Intestinal
12.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(37): 10432-10447, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31466447

RESUMO

A composite nanogel was developed for cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (C3G) delivery by combining Maillard reaction and heat gelation. The starting materials utilized were ovalbumin, dextran, and pectin. C3G-loaded nanogel was spherical with a diameter of ∼185 nm, which was maintained over a wide range of pH and NaCl concentrations. The composite nanogel enhanced the chemical stability of C3G under accelerated degradation models and a simulated gastrointestinal tract. Clathrin-mediated, caveolae-mediated, and macropinocytosis-related endocytosis contributed to the higher cellular uptake of nano-C3G than that of free-C3G. The apparent permeability coefficients of C3G increased 2.16 times after nanoencapsulation. The transcytosis of the C3G-bearing nanogel occurred primarily through the clathrin-related pathway and macropinocytosis and followed the "common recycling endosomes-endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi complex-basolateral plasma membrane" route. Moreover, nano-C3G was more efficient in restoring the viability of cells and activities of endogenous antioxidant enzymes than free-C3G in oxidative models, which may be attributed to the former's high cellular absorption.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/química , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Glucosídeos/química , Glucosídeos/metabolismo , Células CACO-2 , Composição de Medicamentos , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Géis/química , Géis/metabolismo , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Absorção Intestinal , Modelos Biológicos , Nanopartículas/química , Nanopartículas/metabolismo , Tamanho da Partícula
13.
Life Sci ; 234: 116778, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31430454

RESUMO

AIMS: To clarify the role of the gut-brain axis in depression. MAIN METHODS: We used the iTRAQ technique to identify differential proteins in the intestine of the rat model of chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS)-induced depression. Significant differential proteins were subjected to Gene Ontology (GO) functional annotations and KEGG pathway enrichment analysis. Key proteins were validated at the mRNA and protein levels. The levels of cytokines in the intestine, serum and hypothalamus were examined by ELISA. HPLC-UV was used to detect the levels of amino acids. KEY FINDINGS: In the rat intestine, 349 differential proteins (209 downregulated, 140 upregulated) were identified. GO analysis indicated that "protein complex assembly" was the first-ranked biological process. SNARE complex components, including SNAP23, VAMP3 and VAMP8, were increased at the mRNA levels, while only VAMP3 and VAMP8 were also upregulated at the protein level. TNFα, IL6 and IL1ß were upregulated in the CUMS rat intestine, while TNFα was decreased in the serum and hypothalamus. IL1ß was decreased in the serum. "Protein digestion and absorption" was the most significantly enriched KEGG pathway, involving 5 differential proteins: SLC9A3, ANPEP, LAT1, ASCT2 and B0AT1. Glutamine, glycine and aspartic acid were perturbed in the CUMS rat intestine. SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings suggest that CUMS enhances the adaptive immune response in the intestine through ER-phagosome pathway mediated by SNARE complex and disturb absorption of amino acids. It advances our understanding of the role of gut-brain axis in depression and provides a potential therapeutic target for the disease.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/análise , Citocinas/análise , Depressão/patologia , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Intestinos/patologia , Proteínas SNARE/análise , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Animais , Citocinas/genética , Depressão/etiologia , Depressão/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Absorção Intestinal , Masculino , Proteômica , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Proteínas SNARE/genética , Estresse Psicológico/complicações
14.
Eur J Pharm Biopharm ; 143: 98-105, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31425857

RESUMO

Oral delivery of peptides is challenging due to their low uptake through the small intestinal epithelium. Tight junctions, connecting the enterocytes, impede permeability, often necessitating the use of permeation enhancers in the formulation. Loading of peptide and permeation enhancer into micro-scale devices, such as microcontainers, can potentially confine the effective absorptive area through unidirectional release and thereby enhance absorption. This concept is investigated by in vitro permeation studies of insulin across Caco-2 cell and Caco-2/HT29-MTX-E12 co-culture monolayers mimicking the intestinal absorption barrier. The importance of proximity between the microcontainers and the barrier is assessed, by keeping the amounts of insulin and sodium caprate fixed throughout all experiments, while collectively orienting the unidirectional release towards the cell monolayers. Increasing the distance is observed to have a negative effect on insulin permeation matching a one-phase exponential decay function, while no difference in insulin transport is observed between Caco-2 and co-culture monolayers. Although there are no signs of cytotoxicity caused by the microcontainer material, reversible cell deterioration, as a consequence of high local concentrations of sodium caprate, becomes evident upon qualitative assessment of the cell monolayers. These results both suggest a potential of increasing oral bioavailability of peptides by the use of microcontainers, while simultaneously visualising the ability of regaining monolayer integrity upon local permeation enhancer induced toxicity.


Assuntos
Insulina/administração & dosagem , Insulina/química , Permeabilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Administração Oral , Disponibilidade Biológica , Transporte Biológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Células CACO-2 , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Técnicas de Cocultura/métodos , Humanos , Absorção Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Peptídeos/administração & dosagem , Peptídeos/química , Junções Íntimas/metabolismo
15.
Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol ; 15(9): 697-703, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382802

RESUMO

Background: D-chiro-inositol (DCI) and glucose transporter inhibitors may inhibit myo-inositol (MI) transporters, and the aim is to clinically evaluate their effect on MI absorption. Research design and methods: Fasting 18 healthy volunteers received orally 6000 mg MI, 6000 mg MI with 1000 mg DCI, and 6000 mg MI with SelectSIEVE® Apple PCQ and Sorbitol, Maltodextrin and Sucralose (PCQ-SMS), in three different phases with a washout period of 7 days. At each phase, blood samples were collected before administration, and every 60 minutes until 540 minutes after administration. MI plasma levels (µmol/L) were quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry; maximum plasma concentration (Cmax), time to reach it (Tmax), and the area under the time-concentration curve of MI (AUC 0-540) were evaluated. Results: The Cmax of MI alone (Tmax = 180min) was 1.29-fold higher than those of MI with DCI (Tmax = 180min) (p < 0.001) and 1.69-fold higher than those of MI with PCQ-SMS (Tmax = 240min) (p < 0.001). The AUC 0-540 was reduced by 19.09% in MI plus DCI (p = 0.0118) and by 31.8% in MI plus PCQ-SMS (p < 0.001) as compared to MI alone. Conclusions: DCI, glucose transporter inhibitors and sugars, such as sorbitol and maltodextrin, seem to inhibit MI absorption, decreasing MI plasma concentration as compared to MI alone.


Assuntos
Proteínas Facilitadoras de Transporte de Glucose/antagonistas & inibidores , Inositol/administração & dosagem , Absorção Intestinal , Adulto , Área Sob a Curva , Transporte Biológico , Interações de Medicamentos , Feminino , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Inositol/farmacocinética , Masculino , Polissacarídeos/administração & dosagem , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Sorbitol/administração & dosagem , Sorbitol/farmacologia , Sacarose/administração & dosagem , Sacarose/análogos & derivados , Sacarose/farmacologia , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Clin Pathol ; 72(11): 741-747, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31467040

RESUMO

Phosphate in both inorganic and organic form is essential for several functions in the body. Plasma phosphate level is maintained by a complex interaction between intestinal absorption, renal tubular reabsorption, and the transcellular movement of phosphate between intracellular fluid and bone storage pools. This homeostasis is regulated by several hormones, principally the parathyroid hormone, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and fibroblast growth factor 23. Abnormalities in phosphate regulation can lead to serious and fatal complications. In this review phosphate homeostasis and the aetiology, pathophysiology, clinical features, investigation and management of hypophosphataemia and hyperphosphataemia will be discussed.


Assuntos
Osso e Ossos/metabolismo , Hiperfosfatemia/sangue , Hipofosfatemia/sangue , Absorção Intestinal , Fosfatos/sangue , Reabsorção Renal , Animais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Osso e Ossos/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/sangue , Homeostase , Humanos , Hiperfosfatemia/diagnóstico , Hiperfosfatemia/fisiopatologia , Hiperfosfatemia/terapia , Hipofosfatemia/diagnóstico , Hipofosfatemia/fisiopatologia , Hipofosfatemia/terapia , Hormônio Paratireóideo/sangue , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Vitamina D/sangue
17.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(11): 2373-2378, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31359666

RESUMO

The intestinal absorption properties of four main effective components(gallic acid, ocinolglucoside, ethyl gallate and penta-O-galloyl-ß-D-glucose) in Rhus chinensis extracts were investigated by in situ single-pass intestinal perfusion model in rats. The liquid accumulation of perfusion was corrected by gravimetry. The HPLC method was established to determine the concentration of the four effective components in the intestinal perfusion. It showed significant differences(P<0.05) in absorption rate constant(K_a) and effective permeability(P_(eff)) among the three concentrations of components, and the absorption of the four effective components in different intestinal segments was saturated at high concentrations. At the same concentration, there were significant differences in K_a and P_(eff) of the four components in each intestinal segment(P<0.05). The order of K_a and P_(eff) of the four components in the intestine was penta-O-galloyl-ß-D-glucose>ethyl gallate>gallic acid>ocinolglucoside, with significant differences between them(P<0.05). In conclusion, gallic acid, orpheolglucoside, ethyl gallate and pentacyl-glucose could be absorbed in the whole intestine. Their absorption rate and permeation ability were related to the intestinal section and the perfusate concentration. These results indicated potential active transport or facilitated diffusion in the intestinal transport process of the four effective components.


Assuntos
Hidroxibenzoatos/metabolismo , Absorção Intestinal , Rhus/química , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Perfusão , Compostos Fitoquímicos/metabolismo , Ratos
18.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(10): 2163-2170, 2019 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31355576

RESUMO

To study the compatibility rule of Simao Yongan Decoction,the rat single pass intestinal perfusion model in situ was used in this study. On the basis of early research,the five kinds of anti-inflammatory active ingredients,i.e. chlorogenic acid,liquiritin,hyperoside,angoroside C and isochlorogenic acid C in Simao Yongan Decoction were selected as research objects. The contents of the above five actives compounds with various compatibility combinations and in different intestinal segment perfusates were determined by using the method of ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry( UPLC-MSn). The kinetic parameters of intestinal absorption of the five anti-inflammatory active ingredients were calculated,which could be used to evaluate the intestinal absorption of each component in different combinations. The results showed that the absorption parameters of liquiritin in ileum were highest in Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma single herb,while the absorption parameters of other four components in ileum and duodenum were highest in the compatible combinations. Among them,the absorption parameters of chlorogenic acid in ileum and duodenum were highest in the whole prescription compatibility; ischlorogenic acid C showed higher absorption levels in the whole prescription and the herb compatibility of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos-Scrophulariae Radix-Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma. However,the absorption levels of hyperoside and angoroside C in different compatibilities were quite different in ileum and duodenum. In this study,the intestinal absorption of five anti-inflammatory active ingredients in Simiao Yongan Decoction with different compatibility combinations was investigated,revealing that the absorption of active ingredients varied with the different compatibility combinations and different intestinal segments. At the same time,the above research also indicated that the absorption of active ingredients could be obviously promoted by the compatibility of compound prescriptions,laying a foundation for the research on the compatibility rule of Simiao Yongan Detection from the biological point of view.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacocinética , Absorção Intestinal , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacocinética , Animais , Intestinos , Ratos
20.
Food Chem ; 300: 125232, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31352286

RESUMO

The mechanisms of main tomato carotenes (phytoene, phytofluene, lycopene and ß-carotene) intestinal absorption are still only partly understood. We thus compared carotene bioavailability in mice after gavage with carotene-rich oil-in-water emulsions. We also determined each carotene absorption profile along the duodenal-ileal axis of the intestine to identify their respective absorption sites and compared these profiles with the gene expression sites of their identified transporters, i.e. SR-BI and CD36. Our data show that phytofluene presented a significantly higher bioavailability compared to lycopene and ß-carotene (areas under the curve of 0.76 ±â€¯0.09 vs. 0.30 ±â€¯0.05, 0.09 ±â€¯0.05 and 0.08 ±â€¯0.01 µmol/L·h for phytofluene, phytoene, lycopene and ß-carotene, respectively). ß-Carotene was mostly converted in the proximal and median intestine. Phytoene and phytofluene accumulation tended to be more important in the distal intestine, which did not correlate with the proximal expression of both Scarb1 and CD36. Overall, these results highlight the high bioavailability of phytofluene.


Assuntos
Carotenoides/farmacocinética , Absorção Intestinal , Licopeno/farmacocinética , beta Caroteno/farmacocinética , Animais , Disponibilidade Biológica , Antígenos CD36/genética , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Lycopersicon esculentum/química , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Período Pós-Prandial , Receptores Depuradores Classe B/genética
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