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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(31): e16628, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374030

RESUMO

To investigate the differences in bone mineral density between patients with liver cirrhosis and healthy control, and to analyze the risk factors of hepatic osteoporosis in patients with HBV related liver cirrhosis.A total of 189 patients with liver cirrhosis and 207 health controls were enrolled. The bone mineral density of lumbar spine and femoral neck was examined by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. -2.0

Assuntos
Hepatite B/complicações , Cirrose Hepática/epidemiologia , Cirrose Hepática/etiologia , Osteoporose/epidemiologia , Absorciometria de Fóton , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Peso Corporal , Densidade Óssea , Doenças Ósseas Metabólicas/epidemiologia , Fibrose , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais
2.
JAMA ; 322(8): 736-745, 2019 08 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31454046

RESUMO

Importance: Few studies have assessed the effects of daily vitamin D doses at or above the tolerable upper intake level for 12 months or greater, yet 3% of US adults report vitamin D intakes of at least 4000 IU per day. Objective: To assess the dose-dependent effect of vitamin D supplementation on volumetric bone mineral density (BMD) and strength. Design, Setting, and Participants: Three-year, double-blind, randomized clinical trial conducted in a single center in Calgary, Canada, from August 2013 to December 2017, including 311 community-dwelling healthy adults without osteoporosis, aged 55 to 70 years, with baseline levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) of 30 to 125 nmol/L. Interventions: Daily doses of vitamin D3 for 3 years at 400 IU (n = 109), 4000 IU (n = 100), or 10 000 IU (n = 102). Calcium supplementation was provided to participants with dietary intake of less than 1200 mg per day. Main Outcomes and Measures: Co-primary outcomes were total volumetric BMD at radius and tibia, assessed with high resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography, and bone strength (failure load) at radius and tibia estimated by finite element analysis. Results: Of 311 participants who were randomized (53% men; mean [SD] age, 62.2 [4.2] years), 287 (92%) completed the study. Baseline, 3-month, and 3-year levels of 25(OH)D were 76.3, 76.7, and 77.4 nmol/L for the 400-IU group; 81.3, 115.3, and 132.2 for the 4000-IU group; and 78.4, 188.0, and 144.4 for the 10 000-IU group. There were significant group × time interactions for volumetric BMD. At trial end, radial volumetric BMD was lower for the 4000 IU group (-3.9 mg HA/cm3 [95% CI, -6.5 to -1.3]) and 10 000 IU group (-7.5 mg HA/cm3 [95% CI, -10.1 to -5.0]) compared with the 400 IU group with mean percent change in volumetric BMD of -1.2% (400 IU group), -2.4% (4000 IU group), and -3.5% (10 000 IU group). Tibial volumetric BMD differences from the 400 IU group were -1.8 mg HA/cm3 (95% CI, -3.7 to 0.1) in the 4000 IU group and -4.1 mg HA/cm3 in the 10 000 IU group (95% CI, -6.0 to -2.2), with mean percent change values of -0.4% (400 IU), -1.0% (4000 IU), and -1.7% (10 000 IU). There were no significant differences for changes in failure load (radius, P = .06; tibia, P = .12). Conclusions and Relevance: Among healthy adults, treatment with vitamin D for 3 years at a dose of 4000 IU per day or 10 000 IU per day, compared with 400 IU per day, resulted in statistically significant lower radial BMD; tibial BMD was significantly lower only with the 10 000 IU per day dose. There were no significant differences in bone strength at either the radius or tibia. These findings do not support a benefit of high-dose vitamin D supplementation for bone health; further research would be needed to determine whether it is harmful. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01900860.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Colecalciferol/administração & dosagem , Suplementos Nutricionais , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem , Absorciometria de Fóton , Administração Oral , Idoso , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Análise de Elementos Finitos , Resistência à Flexão , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Rádio (Anatomia)/anatomia & histologia , Rádio (Anatomia)/diagnóstico por imagem , Tíbia/anatomia & histologia , Tíbia/diagnóstico por imagem , Falha de Tratamento , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Vitamina D/sangue
3.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 50(2): 375-382, 2019 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31260203

RESUMO

Musculoskeletal problems are one of the top five causes of disease in elephants. However, recent blood chemistry analysis is the only routine protocol for bone mineral status evaluation, with no assessment method currently available for the direct measurement of elephant bone mineral density (BMD). This work applied the the dual-energy X-ray technique (DXA) technique for bone density assessment. The elephant's tail was chosen for the analysis to avoid the radiation harm. Twelve live Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) comprising eight males and four females with ages in the range of 4-77 yr were investigated. The BMD was calculated based on radiographic images acquired using the DXA technique carried out at 40 kVp 2 mAs and 50 kVp 2 mAs. Blood serum analysis of total calcium (Ca), phosphorus (Phos) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) content was conducted in parallel with the physical examination to correlate age and BMD. Analyses produced an overall mean BMD value in the range of 0.54-1.39 g/cm2, with that of the males higher than that of the females. The BMD was found to be negatively correlated with age, Ca, and Phos, but not with ALP. In summary, the BMD analysis of an elephant's tail might be used with blood serum Ca and Phos to predict the overall bone mineral status of the animal.


Assuntos
Absorciometria de Fóton/veterinária , Densidade Óssea/fisiologia , Elefantes/anatomia & histologia , Cauda/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Elefantes/fisiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Cauda/diagnóstico por imagem
4.
Cancer Radiother ; 23(5): 408-415, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31331841

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Radiotherapy is a treatment method performed using ionizing radiation on cancer patients either alone or with surgery and/or chemotherapy. Although modern radiotherapy techniques provide a significant advantage in protecting healthy tissues, it is inevitable that normal tissues are also located in the areas targeted by radiations. In this study, we aimed to examine the bone mineral density changes in bone structures commonly included in the irradiated area such as, L5 vertebra, sacrum, and femur heads, in patients who have received pelvic radiotherapy; and the relationship between these changes with radiation dose. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients included in the study had been previously diagnosed with rectal cancer, which were operated or not. Preoperative or postoperative pelvic radiotherapy was planned for all patients. In terms of convenience when comparing with future scans, all densitometry and CT scans were performed with the same devices. Fifteen patients were included in the study. In order to determine the dose of radiation each identified area had taken after radiotherapy, the sacrum, L5 vertebra, bilateral femoral heads, and L1 regions were contoured in the CT scans in which treatment planning was done. Sagittal cross-sectional images were taken advantage of while these regions were being contoured. RESULTS: Bone mineral density was evaluated with CT and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry before and after the treatment. The regions that have theoretically been exposed to irradiation, such as L5, sacrum, left to right femur were found to have significant difference in terms of bone density. According to CT evaluation, there was a significant decrease in bone intensity of L5, sacrum, left and right femurs. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry assessment revealed that the whole of the left femoral head, left femur neck and Ward's region were significantly affected by radiotherapy. However, there was no significant difference in the sacrum and L5 vertebra before and after radiotherapy. CONCLUSION: More accurate results could be achieved if the same study was conducted on a larger patient population, with a longer follow-up period. When the reduction in bone density is at maximum or a cure is likely in a long-term period, bone mineral density could be determined by measurements performed at regular intervals.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea , Cabeça do Fêmur/efeitos da radiação , Vértebras Lombares/efeitos da radiação , Órgãos em Risco/efeitos da radiação , Radioterapia Conformacional/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Retais/radioterapia , Sacro/efeitos da radiação , Absorciometria de Fóton , Adulto , Idoso , Doenças Ósseas Metabólicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Ósseas Metabólicas/etiologia , Terapia Combinada , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Cabeça do Fêmur/diagnóstico por imagem , Cabeça do Fêmur/patologia , Seguimentos , Humanos , Vértebras Lombares/diagnóstico por imagem , Vértebras Lombares/patologia , Masculino , Órgãos em Risco/diagnóstico por imagem , Órgãos em Risco/patologia , Neoplasias Retais/cirurgia , Sacro/diagnóstico por imagem , Sacro/patologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(27): e16096, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31277108

RESUMO

Osteoporosis (OP) is a disease characterized by decreased bone mineral density (BMD) and an increased risk of osteoporotic fractures. Nutritional factors (including glucose and fats lipids), have been implicated in OP.We hypothesized that the levels of blood glucose and lipids could be biomarkers for predicting the risk of OP. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated the potential relationship between BMD and levels of blood glucose and lipids via a community-based study in China.This was a community-based cross-section analysis, and a total of 8584 cases were investigated. The BMD of the left calcaneus was measured using an ultrasonic bone densitometer. The levels of blood glucose (fasting blood glucose [FBG], 2-h blood glucose [2hBG], and glycosylated hemoglobin [HbAlc]), and lipids (triglyceride [TG], total cholesterol [TC], low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C], and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-C]) were measured and analyzed.In our study population, the levels of FBG, 2hBG, HbAlc, TC, LDL-C and HDL-C were higher in the OP group than in the low bone density and the normal bone density groups, while the levels of HbAlc, TC, and LDL-C in the low bone density group were higher than those in the normal bone density group. In males, the level of blood LDL-C in the low bone density group was higher than that in the normal bone density group. In postmenopausal subjects, the levels of FBG, 2hBG and HbA1C were higher than those in the normal bone density groups, and the level of HbA1C in the low bone density group was higher than that in the normal bone density group. Pearson linear trend analysis demonstrated that BMD was positively associated with TC and LDL-C in males and negatively associated with FBG, 2hBG and HbA1C in postmenopausal females. Moreover, logistic analysis showed that BMD was correlated with TC in premenopausal females and HbA1C in postmenopausal females.OP is generally associated with abnormal levels of blood glucose and/or lipids; nevertheless, the relationship between OP and abnormal levels of blood glucose and/or lipids is complicate and different subpopulations may have different susceptibilities. Therefore, further detailed studies are warranted.


Assuntos
Glicemia/análise , Densidade Óssea/fisiologia , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Osteoporose/sangue , Absorciometria de Fóton , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Calcâneo/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Curva ROC , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
Pan Afr Med J ; 32: 169, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31303938

RESUMO

A 61-year old female patient who was referred to the endocrine clinic for evaluation of an elevated alkaline phosphatase. She was originally referred to gastroenterology (GI), however no GI causes of elevated alkaline phosphatase was found. Upon fractionation, it was noted that she had elevation in bone specific alkaline phosphatase. Past history was significant for hypertension, atrial fibrillation and menopause 6 years ago. She was also noted to have multiple drug allergies manifesting as urticaria and flushing. Review of the past records revealed a persistently elevated alkaline phosphatase over the last two years. She had no history of falls or fractures. Computed tomography (CT) abdomen done to rule out biliary pathology, revealed osteosclerotic and osteolytic lesion in the pelvis concerning neoplastic disease. Bone marrow biopsy however, was negative for cancer but consistent with systemic mastocytosis (SM). Dual Energy X-ray absorbimetery (DEXA) scan revealed osteoporosis Serum tryptase levels were elevated; further genetic analysis showed a positive CKIT D816 mutation. She was started on bisphosphonates (initially alendronate and then ibandronate). Upon follow up at two years she had not experienced any fractures and her bone mineral density also had improved significantly.


Assuntos
Fosfatase Alcalina/metabolismo , Mastocitose Sistêmica/diagnóstico , Osteoporose/etiologia , Absorciometria de Fóton/métodos , Densidade Óssea , Difosfonatos/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Mastocitose Sistêmica/complicações , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoporose/diagnóstico , Osteoporose/tratamento farmacológico
7.
Zhongguo Gu Shang ; 32(6): 535-538, 2019 Jun 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31277537

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study and compare the clinical effects of Rehmannia Decoction and alendronate sodium for the treatment of primary osteoporosis. METHODS: From January 2016 to December 2017, 72 patients with primary osteoporosis who took Dihuang Decoction(DHD) orally and alendronate regularly for more than one year were randomly divided into 2 groups:experimental group and control group. The experimental group consisted of 14 males and 22 females, with an average age of(63.97±3.70) years old. The patients in the experimental group took Chinese medicine DHD, one dose each time, one time in the morning and one time in the evening, twice a week. The control group consisted of 16 males and 20 females with an average age of(63.36±3.07) years old. Patients in the control group were given alendronate 70 mg orally once a week. The basic treatment for osteoporosis remained unchanged in both groups(600 mg of calcium carbonate D3 and 0.5 µg of calcitriol capsules were taken daily). Bone mineral density (BMD) of femoral neck and lumbar vertebrae was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry before and after treatment for one year. The levels of serum collagen type I C-terminal peptide (beta-CTX) and serum osteoclast (SOST) were measured before and after treatment for two groups. RESULTS: The age, bone mineral density, SOST and beta-CTX baseline values between the two groups before and after anti-osteoporosis treatment were compared. The difference was not statistically significant(P>0.05). Compared with the two groups, the BMD of femoral neck and lumbar vertebrae were increased after 1 year of anti-osteoporosis treatment. The differences were statistically significant (P<0.001). The value of serum beta-CTX was significantly lower than before. The t values were 52.002 and 50.071 respectively. The value of serum SOST was increased than that before treatment. The t values were -29.242 and -30.807 respectively. The differences were statistically significant (P<0.001). BMD of the femoral neck and lumbar spine was compared between the two groups after treatment. The P values were 0.294 and 0.478 respectively. The difference was not statistically significant (P>0.05). The serum beta-CTX values were compared between the two groups after treatment. The P value was 0.908. The serum SOST values were compared between the two groups after treatment. The P value was 0.888. The difference was not statistically significant (P>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: In this study, traditional Chinese medicine DHD is used to treat osteoporosis. It is found that DHD and alendronate have a good effect. The DHD can be used as a choice of Chinese medicine in the treatment of primary osteoporosis.


Assuntos
Alendronato/uso terapêutico , Conservadores da Densidade Óssea/uso terapêutico , Osteoporose , Absorciometria de Fóton , Idoso , Densidade Óssea , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoporose/tratamento farmacológico
8.
Gene ; 710: 202-209, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31163192

RESUMO

Estrogen regulates bone homeostasis and has a cardio-protective effect. Its physiological functions are mediated through receptors (ER) whose expression can be regulated by presence or absence of polymorphisms. However, the association between ER polymorphisms and BMD as well as lipids are inconsistent. The aim of the study was to investigate whether polymorphisms in ESR are associated with bone mineral density (BMD) and lipids in a cohort of Indian women. We studied PvuII, XbaI polymorphisms in ESR1 and AluI, RsaI polymorphisms in ESR2 genes and their association with bone mineral density (BMD) and lipids in premenopausal (n = 293, mean age: 33.01 ±â€¯5.23 years) and postmenopausal (n = 145, mean age: 56.91 ±â€¯7.1 years) women from Northeast India. AluI and RsaI polymorphisms in ESR2 gene were associated with BMD in postmenopausal women. Logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, BMI, tobacco and alcohol consumption revealed that xx genotype in XbaI polymorphism is associated with osteopenia at spine (OR = 3.3, 95% CI = 1.067-10.204) in postmenopausal women suggesting that allele X is protective (OR = 0.419, 95% CI = 0.177-0.991). Genotype aa in AluI polymorphism, seemed to be protective (OR = 0.092 for osteopenia; OR = 0.152 for osteoporosis) at spine whereas A allele was associated with osteopenia at femur (OR = 2.123, 95% CI = 1.079-4.166) in postmenopausal women. Allele r of RsaI polymorphism, was associated with osteoporosis at spine (OR = 3.222, 95% CI = 1.302-7.96). Thus, AIuI polymorphism of ESR2 gene was associated with spinal and femoral BMD whereas RsaI only with spinal BMD in postmenopausal women and ESR genotypes were not associated with lipids.


Assuntos
Doenças Ósseas Metabólicas/genética , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/genética , Receptor beta de Estrogênio/genética , Lipídeos/análise , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Pós-Menopausa/genética , Pré-Menopausa/genética , Absorciometria de Fóton , Adulto , Densidade Óssea , Doenças Ósseas Metabólicas/metabolismo , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Fêmur/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Índia , Modelos Logísticos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Coluna Vertebral/diagnóstico por imagem
9.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 17(3): eAO4419, 2019 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31166483

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare tissue composition, total and regional bone mineral content and bone mineral density, static hand grip and knee joint isokinetic strength between amateur soccer players and Control Group. METHODS: Cross-sectional study. Air displacement plethysmography was used to estimate body volume and, in turn, density. Body composition, bone mineral content and bone mineral density were assessed for the whole body and at standardized regions using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Static grip strength was assessed with an adjustable dynamometer, and peak torque derived from isokinetic strength dynamometer (concentric muscular knee actions at 60°/s). Magnitude of the differences between groups was examined using d-Cohen. RESULTS: Compared to healthy active adults, soccer players showed larger values of whole body bone mineral content (+651g; d=1.60; p<0.01). In addition, differences between groups were large for whole body bone mineral density (d=1.20 to 1.90; p<0.01): lumbar spine, i.e. L1-L4 (+19.4%), upper limbs (+8.6%) and lower limbs (+16.8%). Soccer players attained larger mean values in strength test given by static hand grip protocol (+5.6kg, d=0.99; p<0.01). CONCLUSION: Soccer adequately regulates body composition and is associated better bone health parameters (bone mineral content and density at whole-body and at particular sites exposed to mechanical loadings).


Assuntos
Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Densidade Óssea/fisiologia , Articulação do Joelho/fisiologia , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Futebol/fisiologia , Absorciometria de Fóton , Adolescente , Adulto , Atletas , Estudos Transversais , Força da Mão/fisiologia , Humanos , Extremidade Inferior/fisiologia , Masculino , Dinamômetro de Força Muscular , Pletismografia/métodos , Valores de Referência , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Extremidade Superior/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
Endocr Pract ; 25(9): 869-876, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31170364

RESUMO

Objective: Bone density loss and increased risk for osteoporosis are of concern in Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) patients. Routinely performed positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) scans could be informative in assessing bone mineral density (BMD). Methods: This retrospective study included 80 adults with newly diagnosed HL treated with standard first-line chemotherapy regimens. PET-CT scans performed at diagnosis (PET-CT1), at the end of chemotherapy (PET-CT2), and at follow-up after remission (PET-CT3) were used to assess BMD changes by measuring lumbar vertebrae CT attenuation. A CT attenuation threshold of 160 Hounsfield units was used to define abnormal BMD. Results: Following chemotherapy, comparison of PET-CT2 with PET-CT1 revealed a mean (standard deviation) 14.2% (10.4%) BMD reduction (P<.001). On PET-CT3 performed at 14.6 (3.25) months after the last course of chemotherapy, a slight improvement (4.6% [10.4%]) in comparison to PET-CT2 was noted. Twelve patients (15%) converted from normal baseline BMD on PET-CT1 to abnormal BMD after chemotherapy on PET-CT2. Age, baseline BMD, and steroid cumulative dose were associated with BMD decline and risk for abnormal BMD after chemotherapy. No clinical fractures were reported, and only one rib fracture was incidentally captured (1.25%). Conclusion: HL patients treated with common first-line chemotherapies demonstrate a significant decline in bone density on routine PET-CT scans. Opportunistic use of PET-CT scan has the potential to detect HL patients at high risk for developing osteoporosis and to guide clinicians regarding monitoring and intervention. Abbreviations: BMD = bone mineral density; CT = computed tomography; DXA = dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry; HL = Hodgkin lymphoma; HU = Hounsfield units; L = lumbarvertebra; PET-CT = positron emission tomography-computed tomography; T = thoracic vertebra.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea , Doença de Hodgkin , Absorciometria de Fóton , Doença de Hodgkin/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Vértebras Lombares , Tomografia Computadorizada com Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Estudos Retrospectivos
11.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2408, 2019 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31160598

RESUMO

The gut microbiome has been linked to host obesity; however, sex-specific associations between microbiome and fat distribution are not well understood. Here we show sex-specific microbiome signatures contributing to obesity despite both sexes having similar gut microbiome characteristics, including overall abundance and diversity. Our comparisons of the taxa associated with the android fat ratio in men and women found that there is no widespread species-level overlap. We did observe overlap between the sexes at the genus and family levels in the gut microbiome, such as Holdemanella and Gemmiger; however, they had opposite correlations with fat distribution in men and women. Our findings support a role for fat distribution in sex-specific relationships with the composition of the microbiome. Our results suggest that studies of the gut microbiome and abdominal obesity-related disease outcomes should account for sex-specific differences.


Assuntos
Distribuição da Gordura Corporal , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Absorciometria de Fóton , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Fatores Sexuais
12.
Clin Interv Aging ; 14: 987-996, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31213785

RESUMO

Background: Sarcopenia is typically defined as the loss of muscle mass, strength and low physical performance with aging. Ultrasound is a safe and easy method for evaluating muscle mass and quality by muscle thickness (MT) and pennation angle (PA), respectively. Although the positive correlations between MT and muscle mass and handgrip strength were observed, the relationship between MT, PA and physical performance remains unclear. Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the correlation of aforementioned ultrasound parameters with muscle mass, muscle strength and physical performance and explore the utility of ultrasound in predicting sarcopenia. Patients and methods: A total of 265 elderly Chinese community dwellers were included. MT of both forearm and lower leg as well as PA of gastrocnemius was assessed by ultrasound. Muscle mass was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Muscle strength was measured by a Jamar hand dynamometer. Physical performance was assessed by the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB). Results: Anterior radial MT in men and regional MTs except posterior fibula in women were negatively correlated with the age. No significant correlation was observed between PA and the age in both genders. Posterior tibial MT and posterior fibula MT were positively correlated with the relative appendicular skeletal muscle mass in men and women, respectively. Anterior ulnar MT was positively correlated with grip strength in both genders. Moreover, gastrocnemius medialis PA showed a positive association with gait speed and SPPB in women but not in men. Conclusion: A combination of posterior fibula MT, anterior ulnar MT and gastrocnemius medialis PA measured by muscle ultrasound is helpful for the assessment of sarcopenia in Chinese elderly women. In addition, a combination of posterior tibial MT and anterior ulnar MT measured by muscle ultrasound is helpful for the assessment of sarcopenia in Chinese elderly men.


Assuntos
Força da Mão , Força Muscular , Músculo Esquelético , Sarcopenia , Absorciometria de Fóton/métodos , Idoso , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Vida Independente/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Músculo Esquelético/diagnóstico por imagem , Músculo Esquelético/patologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiopatologia , Sarcopenia/diagnóstico , Sarcopenia/epidemiologia , Sarcopenia/fisiopatologia , Ultrassonografia/métodos
13.
Arch Endocrinol Metab ; 63(4): 358-368, 2019 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31038591

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To establish percentile curves for measures and indices of body composition by age and sex and compare them with data from other ethnic groups. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Cross-sectional, population-based study with adults aged 20-59 years (n = 689). Percentile curves adjusted by a third degree polynomial function were constructed for skeletal mass index (SMI), fat mass index, body fat, and load-capacity metabolic indices (LCMI) based on dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). RESULTS: SMIweight and SMIBMI showed decline from the third decade of life in both sexes, whereas SMIheight was not able to identify lean mass loss over the ages studied. There was a slight drop at the end of the fifth decade (50-59 years) in men. Among Americans and Chinese, the 50th percentile curve of SMIheight showed an earlier decline. The estimates of adiposity and LCMI curves peaked between 40-49 years and Americans and Chinese maintained an upward curve throughout adulthood. CONCLUSION: The data and curves showed that the SMI adjusted for BMI and body weight were more adequate in detecting the decline of lean mass in adults due to aging. In contrast, SMIheight had a positive correlation with age and its curve increased throughout the evaluated age groups. The results contribute to the evaluation to the nutritional status of adults and to the prevention and treatment of outcomes related to adiposity and deficit lean mass.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Absorciometria de Fóton/métodos , Adiposidade/fisiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Estatura/fisiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Gráficos de Crescimento , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Estado Nutricional , Valores de Referência , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Strength Cond Res ; 33(7): 1737-1744, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31136545

RESUMO

Dinyer, TK, Byrd, MT, Garver, MJ, Rickard, AJ, Miller, WM, Burns, S, Clasey, JL, and Bergstrom, HC. Low-load vs. high-load resistance training to failure on one repetition maximum strength and body composition in untrained women. J Strength Cond Res 33(7): 1737-1744, 2019-This study examined the effects of resistance training (RT) to failure at low and high loads on one repetition maximum (1RM) strength and body composition (bone- and fat-free mass [BFFM] and percent body fat [%BF]) in untrained women. Twenty-three untrained women (age: 21.2 ± 2.2 years; height: 167.1 ± 5.7 cm; body mass: 62.3 ± 16.2 kg) completed a 12-week RT to failure intervention at a low (30% 1RM) (n = 11) or high (80% 1RM) (n = 12) load. On weeks 1, 5, and 12, subjects completed 1RM testing for 4 different exercises (leg extension [LE], seated military press [SMP], leg curl [LC], and lat pull down [LPD]) and a dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scan to assess body composition. During weeks 2-4 and 6-7, the subjects completed 2 sets to failure for each exercise. During weeks 8-11, the subjects completed 3 sets to failure for each exercise. The 1RM strength increased from week 1 to week 5 (LE: 18 ± 16%; SMP: 9 ± 11%; LC: 12 ± 22%; LPD: 13 ± 9%), week 1 to week 12 (LE: 32 ± 24%; SMP: 17 ± 14%; LC: 23 ± 26%; LPD: 25 ± 13%), and week 5 to week 12 (LE: 11 ± 9%; SMP: 7 ± 9%; LC: 10 ± 7%; LPD: 11 ± 11%) in each exercise, with no significant differences between groups. There were no significant changes in BFFM (p = 0.241) or %BF (p = 0.740) for either group. Resistance training to failure at 30% 1RM and 80% 1RM resulted in similar increases in 1RM strength, but no change in BFFM or %BF. Untrained women can increase 1RM strength during RT at low and high loads, if repetitions are taken to failure.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos , Absorciometria de Fóton , Feminino , Humanos , Adulto Jovem
15.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2054, 2019 05 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31053729

RESUMO

Bone area is one measure of bone size that is easily derived from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans. In a GWA study of DXA bone area of the hip and lumbar spine (N ≥ 28,954), we find thirteen independent association signals at twelve loci that replicate in samples of European and East Asian descent (N = 13,608 - 21,277). Eight DXA area loci associate with osteoarthritis, including rs143384 in GDF5 and a missense variant in COL11A1 (rs3753841). The strongest DXA area association is with rs11614913[T] in the microRNA MIR196A2 gene that associates with lumbar spine area (P = 2.3 × 10-42, ß = -0.090) and confers risk of hip fracture (P = 1.0 × 10-8, OR = 1.11). We demonstrate that the risk allele is less efficient in repressing miR-196a-5p target genes. We also show that the DXA area measure contributes to the risk of hip fracture independent of bone density.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea/genética , Fraturas do Quadril/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Osteoartrite/genética , Absorciometria de Fóton , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alelos , Estatura/genética , Osso e Ossos/diagnóstico por imagem , Osso e Ossos/fisiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Colágeno Tipo XI/genética , Feminino , Seguimentos , Loci Gênicos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Fator 5 de Diferenciação de Crescimento/genética , Fraturas do Quadril/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoartrite/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
16.
Unfallchirurg ; 122(8): 654-661, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31053924

RESUMO

Despite today's good diagnostic and therapeutic options for osteoporosis, the number of unidentified cases is very high and therapy is therefore usually inadequate. Frequently, the diagnosis of osteoporosis is made only after the occurrence of a fracture. The reason for this, apart from the costs incurred as well as the additional radiation exposure of the diagnostics, is certainly the limited availability of dual energy X­ray absorptiometry (DEXA) as well as quantitative computed tomography (q-CT). In search of an alternative technique, Hounsfield units (HU) of the clinical CT examination proved to be ground-breaking: the results of previous investigations demonstrated a reliable correlation between the T values of the DEXA measurement and the HU of the same vertebral body. Due to the widespread use of clinical CT scans of the thorax and the abdomen for a variety of indications, it is expected that the number of unidentified cases of osteoporosis can be significantly reduced-without additional costs and radiation exposure associated with osteoporosis screening. In addition to osteoporosis diagnostics, the calculated HU may also provide better preoperative planning as well as predicting the further course of the disease. Thus, the risk for vertebral body fractures, screw loosening and cage sintering after ventral fusion operations can be sufficiently predicted. In this way, preoperative modifications to the surgical procedure can be made to reduce the risk of implant failure.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea , Osteoporose/diagnóstico por imagem , Fraturas por Osteoporose/diagnóstico por imagem , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Coluna Vertebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Absorciometria de Fóton/métodos , Humanos , Osteoporose/fisiopatologia , Fraturas por Osteoporose/fisiopatologia , Fraturas por Osteoporose/cirurgia , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral/fisiopatologia , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral/cirurgia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos
17.
Adv Clin Exp Med ; 28(7): 955-960, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30929318

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A common feature in the etiology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and osteoporosis is a complex genetic background. Moreover, it has been shown that some of the susceptibility loci overlap for both diseases. One of the genes that may be involved in the pathogenesis of IBD as well as decreased bone mass is the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the association of the TaqI polymorphism (rs731236, c.1056T >C) in the VDR gene with serum vitamin D concentration and bone mineral density (BMD) in patients with IBD. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 172 IBD patients (85 with Crohn's disease (CD) and 87 with ulcerative colitis (UC)) and 39 healthy controls were enrolled in the study. Polymorphism was determined with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). Bone mineral density was measured at the lumbar spine (L2-L4) and the femoral neck (FN) using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D were determined using electrochemiluminescence binding assay (ECLIA). RESULTS: Our studies revealed that serum vitamin D concentration in IBD patients was not lowered in comparison with healthy controls. Patients with CD presented more advanced osteopenia and osteoporosis. Individuals with UC carrying the TaqI tt genotype of VDR gene showed significantly higher FN BMD than carriers of TT and Tt genotypes (p = 0.02). Moreover, tt genotype was present with higher frequency in UC patients than in controls and CD patients (23% vs 7.7% and 16.5%, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The tt genotype may have a protective effect on BMD in UC patients.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea/genética , Doenças Ósseas Metabólicas/etiologia , Colo do Fêmur/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/complicações , Vértebras Lombares/diagnóstico por imagem , Receptores de Calcitriol/genética , Vitamina D/sangue , Absorciometria de Fóton , Doenças Ósseas Metabólicas/sangue , Doenças Ósseas Metabólicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Colite Ulcerativa/sangue , Colite Ulcerativa/complicações , Colite Ulcerativa/genética , Doença de Crohn/sangue , Doença de Crohn/complicações , Doença de Crohn/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/sangue , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Polimorfismo Genético , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição , Vitamina D/genética
18.
J Strength Cond Res ; 33(6): 1474-1479, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30985525

RESUMO

Currier, BS, Harty, PS, Zabriskie, HA, Stecker, RA, Moon, JM, Jagim, AR, and Kerksick, CM. Fat-free mass index in a diverse sample of male collegiate athletes. J Strength Cond Res 33(6): 1474-1479, 2019-Fat-free mass index (FFMI) is a body composition metric that has been used to assess relative muscularity in athletes. Fat-free mass index is calculated by dividing FFM by height squared, although further height corrections through linear regression may be needed in taller individuals. This study reported height-adjusted FFMI (FFMIAdj) data in 209 male collegiate athletes from 10 sports (baseball, cross country, football, golf, ice hockey, weightlifting, rugby, swimming, track and field, and water polo) and the FFMIAdj natural upper limit for sports with sufficient sample size. The body composition of all subjects (mean ± SD; age: 20.7 ± 1.9 years, height: 182.9 ± 6.7 cm, body mass: 90.8 ± 16.8 kg, and percent body fat: 15.6 ± 5.3) was measured using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Linear regression was used to adjust for height, and the FFMIAdj natural upper limit was determined by calculating the 97.5th percentile of all values. One-way analyses of variance with Games-Howell post hoc comparisons were used to determine between-sport differences. A paired-samples t-test revealed a significant difference (p < 0.001) between unadjusted and adjusted mean FFMI values. The overall mean FFMIAdj was 22.8 ± 2.8 kg·m. Significant between-sport differences (p < 0.001) in FFMIAdj were identified. Average FFMIAdj was highest in football athletes (24.28 ± 2.39 kg·m) and lowest in water polo athletes (20.68 ± 3.56 kg·m). The FFMIAdj upper limit was calculated for all athletes (28.32 kg·m), rugby (29.1 kg·m), and baseball (25.5 kg·m). This study reported FFMIAdj values in a diverse cohort of male collegiate athletes, providing data for the first time in several sports. These values can be used to guide nutritional and exercise interventions, predict athletic performance, and provide coaches with standardized information regarding the potential for further FFM accretion in male athletes.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal , Músculo Esquelético , Esportes , Absorciometria de Fóton , Adiposidade , Adolescente , Desempenho Atlético , Beisebol , Estatura , Índice de Massa Corporal , Futebol Americano , Golfe , Hóquei , Humanos , Masculino , Natação , Atletismo , Universidades , Levantamento de Peso , Adulto Jovem
19.
Maturitas ; 123: 37-39, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31027675

RESUMO

UK national guidelines recommend that older people at risk of falling should have their fracture risk assessed and acted upon. People with cognitive impairment are more likely to sustain a fracture than their cognitively intact peers. We assessed the fracture risk of 79 memory clinic attendees and compared their actual management with guidelines. Despite reporting 57 falls in the last year, only 36% of those who would be recommended antiresportive treatment were prescribed it and a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA)scan was performed in only 13% where it would be recommended. These findings highlight an important deficit in fracture risk assessment which should inform future interventions.


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas/estatística & dados numéricos , Conservadores da Densidade Óssea/uso terapêutico , Disfunção Cognitiva/complicações , Osteoporose/diagnóstico por imagem , Fraturas por Osteoporose/prevenção & controle , Absorciometria de Fóton , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Densidade Óssea , Feminino , Fraturas Ósseas/prevenção & controle , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Humanos , Masculino , Memória , Osteoporose/complicações , Osteoporose/tratamento farmacológico , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Medição de Risco , Reino Unido
20.
J Anim Sci ; 97(6): 2493-2504, 2019 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30976794

RESUMO

This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of sequential feeding technique in two genetic lines (GL; Line A [cross having a greater proportion of Pietrain] and Line B [cross having a lower proportion of Pietrain]) of growing-finishing pigs reared under daily cyclic high ambient temperature conditions. Seventy-eight castrated male pigs (22 ± 2.5 kg BW) were housed in a single group and were allocated to one of the three feeding programs: control (CON, 24 h control diet), high-fat/low-crude protein (HF/LP, 24 h high-fat/low-crude protein diet), and sequential feeding (SEQ, control diet from 1800 to 1000 h and HF/LP diet from 1001 to 1759 h). Cyclic high ambient temperature was induced by exposing the pigs to 22ºC ambient temperature from 1800 to 1000 h (time-period 22ºC, TP22) and to 30ºC from 1001 to 1759 h (TP30). The experimental period lasted 84 days and was divided into 3 growth phases, growing 1 (from day 0 to 20), growing 2 (from day 21 to 48) and finishing (from day 49 to 83). Feed intake was recorded in real time using an automatic feeder system. Pigs were weighed at the beginning and end of each experimental phase. Animal body composition was measured through dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry on days 0, 35, and 70. The ambient temperature averaged 22.3 ± 0.4ºC during TP22 and 30.2 ± 0.5ºC during TP30, characterizing the condition of daily ambient temperature variation that which pigs are usually exposed in tropical climate areas. During growing phase 1, the feeding programs had negligible effects on pig performance (P > 0.05), whereas during growing phase 2, ADG was greater in SEQ than in CON pigs (7%; P = 0.04). During the finishing phase, HF/LP pigs had greater ADFI (+ 10%) and ADG (+ 8%) than CON pigs. Lean mass and gain did not differ among feeding programs (P > 0.05). Overall, fat mass and gain were similar between SEQ and HF/LP pigs (P > 0.05), and both were greater than those of CON pigs (P < 0.05). On the basis of pig performance per phase, the supply of high-fat/low-crude protein diets (SEQ and HF/LP feeding) improved the performance of pigs under daily cyclic high ambient temperature. However, the use of these techniques resulted in fatter carcasses and in higher energy cost of gain. Finally, pigs with greater proportion of Pietrain genes had decreased growth performance in our experimental conditions.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Dieta Hiperlipídica/veterinária , Dieta com Restrição de Proteínas/veterinária , Métodos de Alimentação , Suínos/fisiologia , Absorciometria de Fóton/veterinária , Adaptação Fisiológica , Animais , Composição Corporal , Genótipo , Masculino , Suínos/genética , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Temperatura Ambiente
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