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1.
Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr ; 88(6): 374-378, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32557465

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Organised child sexual abuse is characterised by commercial exploitation of children and adolescents by networking perpetrator groups. Ritual abuse is further characterised by ideological frameworks (e.g., cults). METHODS: Forty-one confidential hearings and written reports, gathered by the German Independent Inquiry into Child Sexual Abuse from individuals as well as contemporary witnesses subjected to organised and ritual abuse (ORA) were analysed by means of a quantitative content analysis. RESULTS: Right-wing extremist, Satanist and religious ideologies were most frequently described. The perpetrators were, next to unknown offenders, mostly described as fathers, and in half of the reports, besides also mothers of the victims. Dissociative identity disorders resulting from such traumatic violence present a challenge to psychosocial and psychiatric professionals. DISCUSSION: It is necessary to educate professionals in psychosocial care settings about ORA and the psychological consequences of extreme violence.


Assuntos
Abuso Sexual na Infância/psicologia , Abuso Sexual na Infância/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Comportamento Ritualístico , Criança , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Violência/psicologia , Violência/estatística & dados numéricos
2.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232932, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32413063

RESUMO

Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) has been shown to predict the coupling of depression and inflammation in adulthood. Trust within intimate relationships, a core element in marital relations, has been shown to predict positive physical and mental health outcomes, but the mediating role of trust in partners in the association between CSA and inflammation in adulthood requires further study. The present study aimed to examine the impact of CSA on inflammatory biomarkers (IL-6 and IL-1ß) in adults with depression and the mediating role of trust. A cross-sectional survey data set of adults presenting with mood and sleep disturbance was used in the analysis. CSA demonstrated a significant negative correlation with IL-6 level (r = -0.28, p<0. 01) in adults with clinically significant depression, while trust showed a significant positive correlation with IL-6 level (r = 0.36, p < .01). Sobel test and bootstrapping revealed a significant mediating role for trust between CSA and IL-6 level. CSA and trust in partners were revealed to have significant associations with IL-6 level in adulthood. Counterintuitively, the directions of association were not those expected. Trust played a mediating role between CSA and adulthood levels of IL-6. Plausible explanations for these counterintuitive findings are discussed.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes Adultos de Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Interleucina-6/imunologia , Confiança/psicologia , Adulto , Criança , Abuso Sexual na Infância/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/imunologia , Interleucina-1beta/análise , Interleucina-1beta/sangue , Interleucina-6/análise , Interleucina-6/sangue , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Casamento/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(17): e19776, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32332620

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are the most common mental disorders of women suffered from childhood sexual abuse histories. It has been widely recognized that depression and PTSD may decrease patients' quality of life. The objective of this study is conducted to explore the effects of psychotherapy for depressed or PTSD women with childhood sexual abuse history. METHODS: We searched the PubMed and Cochrane Library from inception to June 30, 2019. The search strategy is (sexual assault OR sexual crime OR sexual abuse) AND (depression OR PTSD) AND (treatment OR intervention OR psychotherapy) with no restriction on language. Two authors independently selected the studies, assessed the quality of the included studies, and extracted data. RESULTS: Nine randomized control trials with 761 participants met the inclusion criteria. There were 340 participants in the psychotherapy group and 421 participants in the control group (usual treatment or waiting list). Compared to usual care, improvements were significantly greater in the psychotherapy group. The Beck depression inventory score for depression diagnosis of the psychotherapy group is lower from 4.27 to 8.96 (P < .05) than the control group. The client assessment protocols for PTSD, the diagnosis is also lower from 12.4 to 13.71 than the control group (P < .05). CONCLUSION: The results suggested that psychotherapy is effective in reducing depressed or PTSD women with childhood sexual abuse. Further large-scale high-quality randomized controlled trials with long-term follow-up are warranted for confirming this finding.


Assuntos
Abuso Sexual na Infância/psicologia , Depressão/terapia , Psicoterapia/normas , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/terapia , Adulto , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Criança , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Psicoterapia/métodos , Psicoterapia/tendências , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia
5.
Psychiatr Hung ; 35(2): 111-125, 2020.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32191217

RESUMO

In the review I discuss the historical, social aspects of childhood and adolescent sexual abuse of males and the factors influencing trauma research and obstructing its exploration. In the light of the literature, I present the prevalence and the characteristics of the abuse, the risk factors, the short and long-term effects of sexual trauma and the consequential psychiatric disorders.


Assuntos
Abuso Sexual na Infância/estatística & dados numéricos , Trauma Psicológico/epidemiologia , Criança , Abuso Sexual na Infância/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Trauma Psicológico/psicologia
6.
Pediatr Clin North Am ; 67(2): 413-423, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32122569

RESUMO

Human trafficking is a pervasive public health problem that affects children of all ages. Health care clinicians can play a unique role in identifying and intervening for trafficking victims through acknowledging biases, understanding the risk factors and red flags, and implementing a trauma-informed care approach in their clinics and institutions. It is through collaboration, education, and research that health care clinicians can work to recognize and respond to this crime perpetrated against the youngest and most vulnerable patients.


Assuntos
Abuso Sexual na Infância , Tráfico de Pessoas , Programas de Rastreamento , Pediatras , Papel do Médico , Experiências Adversas da Infância , Criança , Vítimas de Crime , Humanos , Estados Unidos
7.
Am J Nurs ; 120(2): 12, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31977399

RESUMO

But diagnostic inconsistencies raise questions about the data.


Assuntos
Abuso Sexual na Infância , Adolescente , Criança , Família , Hospitalização , Humanos
8.
J Forensic Nurs ; 16(1): 16-21, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31567656

RESUMO

The nonavalent human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccination prophylactically contributes to the prevention of nine types of HPV-associated oral and genital cancers. HPV vaccination rates remain lower than the national Healthy People 2020 goal of 80%. Victims of pediatric sexual abuse are at a higher risk for acquiring and developing HPV-related outcomes. Current research supports vaccination after sexual abuse as soon as eligible and suggests utilizing multiple types of medical encounters to increase vaccination rates.An institutional-review-board-approved quality improvement project was developed to determine the impact of promoting and providing HPV vaccination during the medical encounter after pediatric sexual abuse in a child protection team (CPT) clinic. Twenty percent of the 111 total clinic patients evaluated in the preintervention period and 21% of the 99 patients evaluated in the postintervention period were HPV vaccine eligible, illustrating a significant opportunity for impact. During the intervention period, 62% of patients who were vaccine eligible and presented for their CPT clinic visit received HPV vaccine. Barriers to vaccination in the outpatient CPT clinic setting included high appointment no-show rates, high social and medical visit complexity, and absence of an appropriate consenting caretaker. Implications for forensic nursing practice are discussed.


Assuntos
Abuso Sexual na Infância , Vítimas de Crime , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial , Cuidadores , Criança , Feminino , Enfermagem Forense , Humanos , Masculino , Pacientes não Comparecentes , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Melhoria de Qualidade
9.
Rev. enferm. UFPE on line ; 14: [1-7], 2020. ilus, tab
Artigo em Português | BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1096534

RESUMO

Objetivo: analisar o perfil das notificações de violência perpetrada contra crianças e adolescentes. Método: trata-se de um estudo quantitativo, descritivo, exploratório, retrospectivo, de 2014 a 2015, com 85 casos de violência perpetrada contra crianças e adolescentes. Utilizaram-se os dados provenientes do Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação. Obteve-se a análise dos perfis epidemiológicos por meio da estatística descritiva. Resultados: verificou-se que a violência foi prevalente em crianças com idades entre dez a 14 anos (36,47%), pardas (90,59%), do sexo feminino (83,53%), com Ensino Fundamental (60,60%) e que 98,82% não possuíam alguma deficiência ou transtorno. Revela-se que o tipo de violência mais comum foi a psicológica/moral (43,66%) e o meio de agressão prevalente foi a ameaça (51,92%) praticada na residência (75,29%) da vítima por amigos/conhecidos (47,06%) do sexo masculino (91,76%). Conclusão: evidenciou-se, um aumento no número de casos de violência contra as crianças e adolescentes pardas, do sexo feminino e com Ensino Fundamental, sendo que o tipo de violência mais comum foi a violência psicológica/moral por meio de ameaças praticadas por amigos/conhecidos na residência da vítima.(AU)


Objective: to analyze the profile of notifications of violence perpetrated against children and adolescents. Method: this is a quantitative, descriptive, exploratory, retrospective study, from 2014 to 2015, with 85 cases of violence perpetrated against children and adolescents. Data from the Notifiable Diseases Information System was used. Epidemiological profiles were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results: it was found that violence was prevalent in children aged ten to 14 years (36.47%), brown (90.59%), female (83.53%), with elementary school (60, 60%) and that 98.82% did not have any disability or disorder. It turns out that the most common type of violence was psychological / moral (43.66%) and the prevalent means of aggression was the threat (51.92%) practiced in the residence (75.29%) of the victim by friends / (47.06%) were male (91.76%). Conclusion: there was an increase in the number of cases of violence against brown children and adolescents, female and with elementary education, and the most common type of violence was psychological / moral violence through threats practiced by friends/ acquaintances at the victim's residence.(AU)


Objetivo: analizar el perfil de las notificaciones de violencia perpetrada contra niños y adolescentes. Método: es un estudio cuantitativo, descriptivo, exploratorio, retrospectivo, de 2014 a 2015, con 85 casos de violencia perpetrados contra niños y adolescentes. Se utilizaron datos del Sistema de Información de Agravios de Notificación. Los perfiles epidemiológicos se analizaron mediante estadística descriptiva. Resultados: se encontró que la violencia prevalecía en niños de 10 a 14 años (36.47%), marrones (90.59%), mujeres (83.53%), con educación primaria (60, 60%) y ese 98.82% no tenía ninguna discapacidad o trastorno. Resulta que el tipo de violencia más común fue psicológica / moral (43.66%) y el medio de agresión predominante fue la amenaza (51.92%) practicada en la residencia (75.29%) de la víctima por amigos /conocidos (47.06%) eran hombres (91.76%). Conclusión: hubo un aumento en el número de casos de violencia contra niños y adolescentes marrones, mujeres y con educación primaria, y el tipo más común de violencia fue la violencia psicológica / moral a través de amenazas practicadas por amigos. / conocidos en la residencia de la víctima.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adolescente , Abuso Sexual na Infância , Criança , Maus-Tratos Infantis , Saúde da Criança , Adolescente , Violência Doméstica , Notificação de Abuso , Saúde do Adolescente , Notificação , Exposição à Violência , Epidemiologia Descritiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sistemas de Informação em Saúde
10.
Br J Sports Med ; 54(1): 4-7, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31653778

RESUMO

Child maltreatment in sport is an undeniable problem. High-profile cases of sexual abuse of child athletes are obvious examples of child maltreatment in this context. Young athletes also face physical and psychological maltreatment, as well as neglect, although these types of child maltreatment are understudied in sport and receive less public attention. Little is known as to how to define physical and psychological maltreatment and neglect in sport and their diverse manifestations. The aim of this paper is to propose concrete manifestations of each type of child maltreatment in sport. We aim to help practitioners better understand and researchers better measure this problem.


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Esportes/psicologia , Adolescente , Criança , Maus-Tratos Infantis/prevenção & controle , Abuso Sexual na Infância/prevenção & controle , Abuso Sexual na Infância/psicologia , Humanos
11.
Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci ; 29: e78, 2019 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31839014

RESUMO

AIMS: Associations between childhood abuse and various psychotic illnesses in adulthood are commonly reported. We aim to examine associations between several reported childhood adverse events (sexual abuse, physical abuse, emotional abuse, neglect and interpersonal loss) among adults with diagnosed psychotic disorders and clinical and psychosocial outcomes. METHODS: Within a large epidemiological study, the 2010 Australian National Survey of Psychosis (Survey of High Impact Psychosis, SHIP), we used logistic regression to model childhood adverse events (any and specific types) on 18 clinical and psychosocial outcomes. RESULTS: Eighty percent of SHIP participants (1466/1825) reported experiencing adverse events in childhood (sexual abuse, other types of abuse and interpersonal loss). Participants reporting any form of childhood adversity had higher odds for 12/18 outcomes we examined. Significant associations were observed with all psychosocial outcomes (social dysfunction, victimisation, offending and homelessness within the previous 12 months, and definite psychosocial stressor within 12 months of illness onset), with the strongest association for homelessness (odds ratio (OR) = 2.82). Common across all adverse event types was an association with lifetime depression, anxiety and a definite psychosocial stressor within 12 months of illness onset. When adverse event types were non-hierarchically coded, sexual abuse was associated with 11/18 outcomes, other types of abuse 13/18 and, interpersonal loss occurring in the absence of other forms of abuse was associated with fewer of the clinical and psychosocial outcomes, 4/18. When adverse events types were coded hierarchically (to isolate the effect of interpersonal loss in the absence of abuse), interpersonal loss was associated with lower odds of self-reproach (OR = 0.70), negative syndrome (OR = 0.75) and victimisation (OR = 0.82). CONCLUSIONS: Adverse childhood experiences among people with psychosis are common, as are subsequent psychosocial stressors. Mental health professionals should routinely enquire about all types of adversities in this group and provide effective service responses. Childhood abuse, including sexual abuse, may contribute to subsequent adversity, poor psychosocial functioning and complex needs among people with psychosis. Longitudinal research to better understand these relationships is needed, as are studies which evaluate the effectiveness of preventative interventions in high-risk groups.


Assuntos
Adultos Sobreviventes de Eventos Adversos na Infância/psicologia , Abuso Sexual na Infância/psicologia , Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Transtornos Psicóticos/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Adultos Sobreviventes de Eventos Adversos na Infância/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Austrália/epidemiologia , Criança , Maus-Tratos Infantis/estatística & dados numéricos , Abuso Sexual na Infância/estatística & dados numéricos , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Transtornos Psicóticos/psicologia , Classe Social , Estresse Psicológico , Adulto Jovem
12.
N Z Med J ; 132(1507): 11-21, 2019 12 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31830013

RESUMO

AIMS: The increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity has become a key challenge for New Zealand. The purpose of the present study was to examine childhood risk factors for adult adiposity in a longitudinal birth cohort. METHODS: Data were gathered from the Christchurch Health and Development Study (CHDS), a birth cohort of 1,265 children born in Christchurch in 1977. Associations were examined between socio-demographic background, perinatal factors, infant and child characteristics, family functioning/child maltreatment and adiposity at ages 30 and 35 years. Adiposity was assessed using body mass index scores. RESULTS: At ages 30 and 35, approximately one-third of cohort members were overweight and one-fifth were obese. Generalised estimating equation models showed that statistically significant (p<.05) predictors of later adiposity and overweight/obesity were: male gender, being born into a single-parent family, having parents with larger body size, higher early infant growth, limited or no breastfeeding, lower levels of cognitive ability and exposure to severe sexual abuse. CONCLUSIONS: Overweight and obesity was associated with social and family background, biological endowment, cognitive ability and childhood adversity factors. These findings may assist in the development of structured adiposity intervention programmes in conjunction with established community organisations specialising in child and family health.


Assuntos
Adiposidade , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Pais , Adolescente , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Abuso Sexual na Infância , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Ganho de Peso
13.
J Child Adolesc Ment Health ; 31(3): 161-181, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31805838

RESUMO

Objective: Sexual assault peaks in adolescence, yet sequelae at this age are not well understood. This systematic review aimed to describe mental health outcomes following sexual assault in young people. Method: Two reviewers independently searched databases, screening publications from 1990 to 2018. Inclusion criteria included: longitudinal studies, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses with ≥50% participants aged ten to 24 years; baseline mental health assessment prior to/or <8 weeks post-assault with follow-up ≥ 3 months after the initial assessment.Results: 5 124 titles and abstracts were screened, with 583 papers examined in full. Ten studies met inclusion criteria (sample size 31 to 191). Five studies examined rates of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), reporting rates of up to 95% within one month and up to 60% at 12 months post-assault. Studies evaluating post-traumatic (n = 5) and anxiety (n = 3) symptom scores showed symptoms were highest in the immediate aftermath of the trauma, generally reducing over four to 12 months post-assault. Depressive symptomology appeared to vary between studies (n = 5). However, the majority showed symptoms decreasing over the same time period.Conclusions: Psychopathology is common following sexual assault in young people. Most studies observed reduced rates over time, but there is a paucity of longitudinal research. Psychopathology during the first year after sexual assault is an important treatment target to consider.


Assuntos
Abuso Sexual na Infância/psicologia , Estupro/psicologia , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Ansiedade/etiologia , Criança , Depressão/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/etiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
14.
Med. infant ; 26(4): 351-357, dic. 2019. ilus, Tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1047045

RESUMO

El maltrato infantojuvenil constituye un problema de salud pública, presenta consecuencias negativas en el adecuado desarrollo de los niños y adolescentes. Es consecuencia de una multiplicidad de factores individuales, sociales, psicológicos y culturales que puede incluso desembocar en la muerte del niño o adolescente. El objetivo fue realizar una descripción sociodemográfica e identificar posibles variables específicas de maltrato en la población que realizó alguna consulta al hospital y que fue derivada por el médico tratante al Consultorio Multidisciplinario de Protección Infantojuvenil (CMPIJ). Se trató de un estudio descriptivo, prospectivo de corte transversal, realizado entre julio de 2016 y mayo de 2017 en el Hospital de Pediatría Juan P. Garrahan. El criterio de inclusión fue la población que realizó alguna consulta al hospital, ya sea por sospecha de maltrato o por otros motivos y fue derivada por el médico tratante al CMPIJ. Se evaluaron 96 casos. el 67,7% de las sospechas fueron de abuso sexual infantil (ASI), el 22,9% de maltrato físico y el 9,4% de trastorno facticio aplicado a otro. En los casos de alta sospecha de ASI, el 75% de los pacientes eran de sexo femenino; en el 50% de los casos, el supuesto agresor era conviviente y el 50% de las madres refirió antecedentes de malos tratos en la infancia. En los casos de alta sospecha de maltrato físico, el 53% de los pacientes era de sexo masculino, en el 83,3% de los casos el supuesto agresor era conviviente y el 76,5% de las madres refirió antecedentes de malos tratos en infancia. Se concluye la importancia de contar con datos fidedignos en lo relativo al maltrato Infantojuvenil para permitir elaborar estrategias de prevención tanto a nivel asistencial como de Salud Pública (AU)


Child abuse is a public health problem with a negative impact on the adequate development of children and adolescents. It is a consequence of multiple individual, social, psychological, and cultural factors that may even result in the death of the child or adolescent. The aim of this study was to provide a sociodemographic description and to identify possible specific variables associated with abuse in the population that visited the hospital and was referred to the Multidisciplinary Child Protection Clinic (MDCPC). A prospective, descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted between July 2016 and May 2017 at Hospital de Pediatría Juan P. Garrahan. The inclusion criterion was the population that visited the hospital, either for suspicion of abuse or for other reasons, who were referred to the MDCPC by the treating physician. Overall, 96 cases were evaluated; 67.7% of the suspicions were of childhood sexual abuse (CSA), 22.9% for child battering, and 9.4% for Munchausen syndrome by proxy. Among the cases with a high level of suspicion of CSA, 75% were female; in 50% of the cases the supposed aggressor lived in the household, and 50% of the mothers reported a history of child abuse. In the cases of a high level of suspicion of child battering, 53% of the patients were male, in 83.3% of the cases the aggressor was living in the household, and 76.5% of the mothers reported a history child abuse. In conclusion, trustworthy data on child abuse are necessary to develop prevention strategies at both the care and public health levels (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adolescente , Abuso Sexual na Infância , Maus-Tratos Infantis , Síndrome de Munchausen Causada por Terceiro , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Estudos Transversais , Estudos Prospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
Revista Espaço para a Saúde ; 20(2): [43-54], dez.2019. tab, ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1046410

RESUMO

A violência sexual infantil configura-se como um fenômeno sociocultural, pautado em relações hierárquicas e desigualdades de gênero, étnico-raciais e geracionais. Nesta pesquisa, investigouse os determinantes da violência sexual infantil a partir dos casos notificados pelo SINAN no estado do Paraná entre 2011 e 2014, disponibilizados pelo DATASUS, por estudo descritivo, de base documental e abordagem quantitativa. No Paraná, totalizaram 2.446 casos no período. A Regional de Saúde com maior prevalência foi a de Foz do Iguaçu. Prevalece a faixa etária de 5 a 9 anos, meninas, raça negra e indígenas. Na tipologia, predominaram estupro e assédio sexual, por meio de força corporal. Os casos prevalentemente ocorreram na residência e o provável agressor era próximo da criança. Reconhecer os determinantes da violência sexual infantil é essencial para a implementação de ações de cuidado integral às vítimas.


Assuntos
Comportamento Social , Abuso Sexual na Infância
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31703331

RESUMO

Child sexual exploitation (CSE) is a major risk factor for acquiring human immunodeficiency virus/sexually transmitted infections (HIV/STI), violence and other health concerns, yet few studies have examined these associations in Russia until now. This study examines the prevalence of CSE (those entering the sex trade as a minor) among women in the sex trade in Russia and how exposures and behaviors related to violence and HIV/STI structural risks differ from those who entered the sex trade as an adult. Women in the sex trade (N = 896) in St. Petersburg and Orenburg, Russia were recruited via time-location sampling and completed structured surveys. Adjusted logistic regression analyses assessed associations between CSE victimization and HIV risk-related exposures. Of the 654 participants who provided their age at first sexual exploitation, 11% reported CSE prior to age 18. Those who reported CSE were more likely to be organized by others and to be prohibited from leaving a room or house and from using condoms; three-quarters experienced rape when trading sex; a third were involved in pornography before age 18 and they had less education if they entered the sex trade as a minor. In adjusted analyses, those entering the sex trade as a minor were significantly more likely than those entering the sex trade as an adult to report drug use prior to age 18 (AOR = 5.75, 95% CI = 2.53-13.09) to have ≥5 clients/day (past 12 months; AOR = 3.55, 95% CI = 1.56-8.08), to report receiving police assistance (AOR: 3.10, 95% CI = 1.26-7.54), and to have fewer experiences of police extortion (AOR = 0.35, 95% CI = 0.10-1.24). They were four times more likely to participate in pornography before the age of 18 (AOR = 4.08, 95% CI = 1.32, 12.60) and three times more likely to have been sexually abused as child (AOR = 2.93, 95% CI = 1.27, 7.54). Overall, entry as a minor was related to greater risk for victimization and an inability to protect oneself from STI/HIV.


Assuntos
Abuso Sexual na Infância/estatística & dados numéricos , Trabalho Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Preservativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Federação Russa , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Inquéritos e Questionários , Violência/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
18.
Res Dev Disabil ; 95: 103513, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31654947

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sexual abuse in individuals with average IQ or above is associated with a wide range of behavioural, psychological and body-related characteristics. It is unknown whether individuals with intellectual disability (ID) and a history of sexual abuse suffer from similar clinical characteristics. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the review is to provide an overview of the literature on the clinical characteristics of individuals with ID who have experienced sexual abuse. METHOD: PubMed, Embase, PsycInfo, CINAHL, Cochrane Library and Web of Sciences were searched for relevant publications using terms related to concepts of "intellectual disability" and "sexual abuse". Two independent reviewers screened and selected articles for inclusion in the study, resulting in seven studies. RESULTS: The studies mostly reported behavioural and psychological characteristics such as aggression, self-injury, or posttraumatic stress, anxiety or depressive symptoms associated with sexual abuse in individuals with ID. None mentioned body-related characteristics. CONCLUSIONS: Similar to individuals with average IQ or above, sexual abuse in individuals with ID is associated with a broad range of behavioural and psychological characteristics. Conduct disorders, self-injury, inappropriate sexualised talk and poor feelings of personal safety seem to be more indicative for the ID population. Anxiety, depression and PTSD are prevalent in individuals with and without ID who both have experienced sexual abuse. Whether individuals with ID experience body-related characteristics is unclear.


Assuntos
Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Deficiência Intelectual/psicologia , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/psicologia , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Agressão/psicologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Criança , Abuso Sexual na Infância/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Humanos
19.
West Afr J Med ; 36(3): 274-279, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31622491

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Despite increasing awareness, sexual abuse of children is still prevalent in the society. This is due to lack of unified description of what constitutes child sexual abuse. This study is aimed to highlight the pattern of sexual abuse among secondary school adolescents in Rivers State. METHODS: The study was a descriptive cross-sectional survey carried out among secondary school adolescents in Port Harcourt Metropolis in Rivers State in 2014. Multistage sampling was employed to recruit study participants. A semi structured pretested self-administered questionnaire was used to obtain necessary information on socio-demographic characteristics of participants and the pattern of sexual abuse. Discretion of information obtained was guaranteed. SPSS version 20 was used for analysis. Bivariate analysis was by Chi square test while test for association between two subgroups was by odd ratio, the level of significance was put at P < 0.05. RESULTS: 1298 adolescents participated in the study, 462 (35.6%) had experienced sexual abuse. The victims consists of 176(38.1%) males and 286 (61.9%) females. (c² =12.02, p = < 0.001). Gender was significantly associated with penetrative (p= 0.006, OR=1.74, CI=1.15 -2.64) and contact with no penetrative ( p=<0.001 , ROR= 2.42, CI= 0.26-0.64) forms of sexual abuse. Adult males were the major perpetrators with adolescents themselves constituting 33.1% of the perpetrators. 33% of the perpetrators were family acquaintances while family members and classmates constituted 20.6% and 22.7% of the perpetrators respectively, with house helps accounting for 18.0% and teachers 3.0 %. About fifty percent of the abuse occurred at the victim's residence. CONCLUSION: Sexual abuse of minors is prevalent in Port Harcourt. The perpetrators are mainly adult males known to the victims. Child perpetrators are not uncommon, with the victims experiencing various forms of sexual abuse. Interventional program designed to create awareness to the public on the enormity of sexual abuse of children is needed so as to arm guardians, parents and even the children on how to prevent such crime.


Assuntos
Abuso Sexual na Infância/estatística & dados numéricos , Menores de Idade , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Instituições Acadêmicas , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31635222

RESUMO

Child sexual abuse has become a significant public health concern in Vietnam in recent years, and the likelihood of being abused could be prevented by increasing the awareness of sexual abuse and self-protection skills among children. However, little is known about the perception and attitude of schoolchildren toward this issue in Vietnam. This study aimed to evaluate the knowledge and attitude of school-age children toward child sexual abuse and the risk factors affecting their knowledge and attitude. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 800 Vietnamese students from grades four to nine. Most of the respondents had insufficient knowledge of sexual abuse in children; teachers and strangers would not be perpetrators (57.9% and 74%); and schools and home were safe places (55.8% and 58.8%). Almost all participants disagreed with touching and non-touching actions, even from acquaintances (94.5% to 99.5%). Being female, older age, not living with family or relatives, and living in an urban setting were found to be positively associated with the right perception and attitude toward child sexual abuse. A sexuality education program should be officially applied at schools for children with the support of their parents to narrow the knowledge gap between different geographical locations and genders.


Assuntos
Abuso Sexual na Infância/estatística & dados numéricos , Maus-Tratos Infantis/estatística & dados numéricos , Educação Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Conscientização , Criança , Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Abuso Sexual na Infância/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Estudantes/psicologia , Vietnã/epidemiologia
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