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1.
BMC Geriatr ; 22(1): 929, 2022 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36460947

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of elder abuse has only rarely been investigated in Sweden and never in a hospital setting. Therefore, the aims of this study were to: 1) Estimate the prevalence of elder abuse and life-course victimization among hospitalized older adults in Sweden, 2) Explore factors associated with elder abuse in the same sample, and 3) Explore the associations between life-course victimization and mental ill-health. METHODS: The study was conducted at a university hospital in Sweden. Adults over the age of 65 years admitted to a medical or geriatric acute care ward during spring 2018 were consecutively recruited. The participant rate was 44% (n = 135/306). Participants were assessed via a face-to-face interview about their experiences of elder abuse and abuse earlier in life. Mental ill-health was measured using a self-administered depression assessment (Patient Health Questionnaire-9), along with information about medications and diagnoses retrieved from medical records. RESULTS: Altogether, 40.7% (n = 55) of the participants reported some form of abusive experience during their life course. The prevalence of elder abuse was 17.8% (n = 24), and 58% (n = 14) of elder abuse victims also reported victimization earlier in life. Being abused before the age of 65 was the only background factor associated with elder abuse (OR = 5.4; 95% CI 1.9-15.7). Reporting abusive experiences both before and after the age of 65 was associated with current anti-depressant medication (OR = 6.6; 95% CI 1.1-39.2), a PHQ-9 result of 10 or more (OR = 10.4; 95% CI 2.1-51.0), and nine or more symptom diagnoses (OR = 4.0, 95% CI 1.0-16.1). Being abused only before or after the age of 65 was not significantly associated with any mental ill-health outcome measure. CONCLUSIONS: Elder abuse and victimization earlier in life are highly prevalent among hospitalized older patients, and our findings underline the importance of a life-course perspective both in research on elder abuse and in clinical practice. Identifying and caring for older adults who have been subjected to abuse should be a priority in health care.


Assuntos
Vítimas de Crime , Abuso de Idosos , Idoso , Humanos , Prevalência , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Suécia/epidemiologia , Hospitais Universitários
2.
Rev Esc Enferm USP ; 56: e20220115, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36490228

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to map assessment tools for elder abuse and determine the psychometric properties of each one. METHOD: scoping review developed according to recommendations of the JBI Institute Reviewer's Manual in databases and gray literature. RESULTS: seventeen tools were identified for measuring situations of elder abuse. They were categorized into 1) Tools for assessment of risk for abuse, and 2) Tools for identification of abuse. According to risk for abuse, Vulnerability to Abuse Screening Scale was the most prevalent in the literature, with factorial analysis acceptable through four domains, and good internal reliability (0,74). Therefore, Assessment Tool for Domestic Elder Abuse comprises the assessment of six types of elder abuse; however, the study shows psychometric limitation since the internal structure was not evaluated by validity evidences. CONCLUSION: seventeen tools to determine the occurrence or risk for elder abuse were identified with different psychometric properties. We recommend the use of more than one of the tools identified for an appropriate measurement of elder abuse situations given the complexity of the phenomenon and the lack of a single instrument that contemplates all its consequences and forms of expression.


Assuntos
Abuso de Idosos , Humanos , Idoso , Abuso de Idosos/diagnóstico , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Psicometria
3.
BMC Geriatr ; 22(1): 978, 2022 12 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36536315

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: One in six older adults living in communities experience abuse and neglect. Elder abuse has serious consequences for individuals, families, and society, including mortality, physical and psychological morbidities, and increased care requirements. Timely and effective interventions for elder abuse should therefore be a priority. This study used a qualitative focus group approach to address the following questions: What are the essential elements of elder abuse interventions? What can be done to improve current interventions? METHOD: The 32 participants in this focus group study included social workers, medical social workers, and nurses from seven organizations who shared their knowledge and insights. All sessions were conducted online, audio-recorded, and transcribed verbatim. Three researchers with backgrounds in social work and psychology independently coded the transcripts and agreed on the themes emerging from the focus groups. RESULTS: Based on the experiences of frontline helping professionals in Hong Kong, we highlighted the key factors for effective elder abuse intervention: 1) identification and assessment; 2) essential skills and attitudes; 3) elements of effective interventions; 4) collaborative efforts across disciplines and agencies; and 5) raising awareness among professionals and the public. CONCLUSIONS: Training can equip frontline professionals with the necessary skills to identify elder abuse cases and to assess the risk of abuse. Effective interventions should not only address clients' safety and need for tangible support but also respect their autonomy and privacy. A client-centered, strength-based approach that involves supportive peers and addresses the complex family relationships involved can be useful. Interventions should also involve cross-discipline and cross-agency collaboration.


Assuntos
Abuso de Idosos , Humanos , Idoso , Grupos Focais , Abuso de Idosos/psicologia , Hong Kong , Serviço Social , Assistentes Sociais/psicologia
4.
BMC Geriatr ; 22(1): 852, 2022 11 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36371161

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Elder abuse is a serious issue with a global prevalence of 15.7% in the community setting. Persons with dementia are at higher risk of elder abuse than the older population in general. With a high and increasing prevalence of dementia this issue cannot be neglected. Hence, the aims of this study were 1) to describe the proportion of abusive episodes among home-dwelling persons with dementia and their informal caregivers, and 2) to explore differences between informal caregivers who have reported committing and not committing abusive acts. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among informal caregivers of home-dwelling persons with dementia in Norway from May to December 2021 with a total of 549 participants. RESULTS: Two-thirds of informal caregivers had committed at least one abusive episode toward the person with dementia in the past year (63.5% psychological abuse, 9.4% physical abuse, 3.9% financial abuse, 2.4% sexual abuse, 6.5% neglect). One-third of informal caregivers had experienced aggression from the person with dementia (33.9% psychological abuse, 7.8% physical abuse, 1.1% financial abuse, 1.4% sexual abuse). Tests for independence showed that the risk of abusive episodes from informal caregivers toward persons with dementia was higher when the informal caregiver was a spouse/partner of the person with dementia and if they experienced aggression from the person with dementia. CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrate that a majority of informal caregivers commit some form of abusive episodes, and episodes that fall within the scope of psychological abuse are most frequent. This study expands knowledge about elder abuse among home-dwelling persons with dementia. Increased understanding of the dynamics of abuse is essential to be able to reduce risk and prevent abuse.


Assuntos
Demência , Abuso de Idosos , Humanos , Idoso , Cuidadores/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Demência/diagnóstico , Demência/epidemiologia , Demência/psicologia , Abuso de Idosos/psicologia , Noruega/epidemiologia
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36430103

RESUMO

This study sought to clarify the characteristics and trends of physical elder abuse and the status of collaboration between forensic medicine departments and related institutions in Japan. Questionnaires were sent to 82 forensic medicine departments and 2857 institutions randomly selected from hospitals, municipalities and public community general support centers. The survey period was February to June 2021, including an extension period for collection. Responses from 675 facilities were analyzed. The most common finding in cases of physical elder abuse at forensic medicine departments was subcutaneous hemorrhage on the head (85.7%), with mixed old and new injuries most commonly observed in the lower limbs (70%). There were few cases in which there was collaboration between forensic medicine departments and other institutions. Among the issues identified, there is a need to provide related institutions with information obtained in forensic medicine departments. A new collaboration system is needed to achieve this.


Assuntos
Abuso de Idosos , Humanos , Idoso , Japão , Medicina Legal , Abuso Físico , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
J Prev Med Public Health ; 55(5): 436-443, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36229906

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Previous studies have reported that self-neglect, which may be a sign of elder abuse, can result in suicide among older adults. The signs of self-neglect and its impact on the risk of suicide may differ by gender. Thus, this study explored the association between self-neglect and suicide risk in older Korean adults and examined the potential moderating effect of gender on this relationship. METHODS: Data were collected from 356 Korean adults aged 65 or older through an online survey. Multiple regression analysis was used to test the research hypothesis. First, the associations between 4 sub-dimensions of self-neglect (i.e., daily life management issues, personal hygiene issues, financial management issues, and relational issues) and suicidal ideation were examined. Then, the moderating effect of gender on these relationships was investigated by including interaction terms. RESULTS: Self-neglect was significantly associated with suicidal ideation in older adults. Aspects of self-neglect related to daily life management and relational factors were key predictors of suicidal ideation. Gender significantly moderated the effect of the relational dimension of self-neglect on suicidal ideation. The relational dimension of self-neglect was more strongly associated with suicidal ideation in older women than in older men. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest the importance of screening older adults with signs of self-neglect for suicide risk. Special attention should be paid to older women who experience relational issues as a high-risk group for suicidal ideation. Public programs and support systems should be established to improve daily life management and promote social relationships among older adults.


Assuntos
Abuso de Idosos , Autonegligência , Suicídio , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , República da Coreia , Fatores de Risco , Ideação Suicida
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36141438

RESUMO

Older adults suffering from mistreatment are especially vulnerable to adverse health outcomes. The current study examined the associations of elder mistreatment (single- and multi-type mistreatment) with depression or suicidal ideation in a Korean representative sample. The data were derived from the 2017 National Survey of Living Conditions and Welfare Needs of Korean Older Persons (unweighted n = 10,059 and weighted n = 10,055). Descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed. In the weighted population, 9.8% of older adults had mistreatment experiences. Results indicated that single- and multi-type mistreatment experiences were associated with increased risks of depression (OR = 1.93, 95% CI = [1.61, 2.32] and OR = 3.51, 95% CI = [2.52, 4.87], respectively), after adjusting for the confounding factors (socio-demographic, health-related, and social relation characteristics). Experiences of single- and multi-type mistreatment were also associated with suicidal ideation (OR = 2.48, 95% CI = [1.97, 3.12] and OR = 3.19, 95% CI = [2.25, 4.51], respectively), even after adjusting for the above confounding factors and depression. Similar results were found in sensitivity analyses using unweighted data. The current findings expanded our knowledge of the associations of mistreatment with depression and suicidal ideation in later life.


Assuntos
Abuso de Idosos , Ideação Suicida , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Humanos , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
14.
BMC Med Educ ; 22(1): 597, 2022 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35922855

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Elder abuse is prevalent and associated with ill-health. However, health care providers often lack education about elder abuse and older patients' victimization often remains unknown to them. In this pilot study we performed initial testing of an educational model aiming at improving health care providers' preparedness to care for older adults subjected to abuse, or more specifically their self-reported propensity to ask older patients questions about abuse and perceived ability to manage the response. METHODS: The educational model consisted of a full training day about elder abuse, including theory, group discussions and forum theatre. Forum theatre is an interactive form of drama in which participants are not only observers, but rather spect-actors, urged to participate in the scene. They are thereby given the opportunity to discuss and practise difficult health care encounters. Medical interns (intervention group n = 16, control group n = 14) in Sweden participated in the study and a mixed method convergent parallel design was used. Quantitative data was collected at baseline and 6 months post-intervention using a questionnaire (the REAGERA-P). Qualitative interviews were conducted with four of the participants in the intervention group and data was analysed using qualitative content analysis. RESULTS: The reported frequency of asking older patients questions about abuse increased in the intervention group (p = 0.047), but not the control group (p = 0.38) post-intervention. Potential mediators for the improvement were an increased awareness of elder abuse and higher self-efficacy for asking questions about elder abuse. Participants also reported a higher perceived ability to manage cases of elder abuse, even though uncertainties concerning how to provide the best possible care remained. The qualitative interviews indicated that learning from each other in group discussions and forum theatre likely was an important contributor to the positive results. CONCLUSION: This pilot test indicated that the educational model may be effective in improving health care providers' preparedness to care for older adults subjected to abuse. However, uncertainties about how to handle elder abuse cases remained post-intervention. In a future full-scale test of the model more focus needs to be put on how to manage cases of elder abuse.


Assuntos
Abuso de Idosos , Idoso , Abuso de Idosos/prevenção & controle , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Projetos Piloto , Autoeficácia , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
BMC Geriatr ; 22(1): 715, 2022 08 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36038844

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Older patients are more vulnerable and prone to abuse and neglect in hospitals and acute care settings. The present study aimed to develop and assess the psychometric properties of a questionnaire for screening abuse in hospitalized older adults. METHODS: This study was conducted from October 2017 to September 2019 using the exploratory sequential mixed-methods research design. The participants were selected among those admitted to various wards of six teaching hospitals affiliated with Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran. In the qualitative phase of the study, using the inductive content analysis method, the concept of abuse in hospitalized older adults was extracted through individual in-depth semi-structured interviews with 16 older patients and 11 family caregivers. Based on qualitative findings and a review of existing literature, an initial version of the questionnaire was developed. In the quantitative phase of the study, the psychometric properties (face, content, construct, and convergent validity; internal consistency and stability) of the questionnaire were examined. RESULTS: Based on qualitative findings and literature review, a pool of 154 candidate items was defined. These items were reduced to 37 after initial refinement, qualitative and quantitative face and content validity, and item analysis. The outcome of principal component analysis further reduced the number of items to 27, which were grouped into 5 components, namely "Shortcomings in management and care facility", "Neglect of professional commitments", "Physical and psychological abuse", "Protracted treatment process", and "Invasion of privacy". The explained variance of these 5 components was 50.09% of the overall variability of the questionnaire. The convergent validity of the questionnaire was acceptable (P < 0.00, r = - 0.44). Cronbach's alpha coefficient and intraclass correlation coefficient for the entire questionnaire were 0.89 and 0.92, respectively; indicating high reliability and stability of the questionnaire. CONCLUSION: The hospitalized elder abuse questionnaire (HEAQ) has acceptable psychometric properties. It is recommended to use HEAQ to screen for suspected cases of abuse of hospitalized older adults.


Assuntos
Abuso de Idosos , Idoso , Cuidadores , Abuso de Idosos/diagnóstico , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Psicometria/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36011668

RESUMO

Elder abuse is a pressing problem that demands social attention in South Korea. This study aims to examine the characteristics of older adults and their family perpetrators that may influence the perceived severity of abuse by older adults using a nationally representative sample among older Koreans. We analyzed 952 community-dwelling older Koreans from a population-based survey of the Survey of Elderly Care and Welfare Need. The analytic sample of this study consisted of older adults who self-reported having been emotionally, physically, and financially abused or neglected by their family members or other primary caregivers. We used multinomial logistic regression models to predict perceived change in severity of abuse. Results showed that the abuse type and duration of abuse were significantly associated with the perceived change in the severity of abuse. Older victims' age, being female, and being married were also associated with greater risk for increased severity of abuse relative to no change, while older adults' better health status was associated with lower risk for increased severity of abuse. The findings of this study can help social work professionals identify older adults with heightened risk of abuse and protect the human rights of the most vulnerable aging population.


Assuntos
Abuso de Idosos , Idoso , Abuso de Idosos/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Vida Independente , Masculino , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Autorrelato , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Lancet Healthy Longev ; 3(8): e531-e539, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36004206

RESUMO

Background: Globally, 1 in 6 people aged 60 years and older experience elder abuse in the community annually, with potentially severe physical and mental health, financial, and social consequences. Yet, elder abuse remains a low global priority. We aimed to identify the factors accounting for the low global political priority of elder abuse. Methods: We systematically searched relevant peer-reviewed literature and organisational reports in multiple databases and interviewed 26 key informants in the field of elder abuse. We used policy frameworks developed by previous research into the determinants of the priority of global health issues, and a qualitative methodology to thematically analyse the literature and interviews through triangulation of the data. Findings: The main factors identified were related to the nature of the issue (the inherent complexity of elder abuse, pervasive ageism, insufficient awareness and doubts about prevalence estimates, and the intractability of the issue), the policy environment (the restricted ability in the field of elder abuse to capitalise on policy windows and processes), and the capabilities of the proponents of prevention of elder abuse (disagreements over the nature of the problem and solutions, challenges in individual and organisational leadership, and an absence of alliances with other issues). Interpretation: Around 25 years ago, elder abuse started to register on the global agenda. Since then, the global priority for prevention of elder abuse has barely increased. This study identifies several inter-related factors that account for the issue's low priority and opportunities for overcoming these challenges. Chief among these opportunities is the UN Decade of Healthy Ageing 2021-2030, a unique 10-year-long policy window to increase the political priority of the prevention of elder abuse. Funding: World Health Organization.


Assuntos
Abuso de Idosos , Idoso , Saúde Global , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Formulação de Políticas , Prevalência
18.
J Elder Abuse Negl ; 34(4): 259-279, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36000157

RESUMO

Elder abuse is a serious social problem in South Korea. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence and identify risk factors of elder abuse during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. By using the 2020 Living Profiles of Older People Survey in Seoul Metropolitan City and considering sociodemographic, health-related, social support, and isolation factors as independent variables, a logistic regression model was established. Among 3,106 samples, the overall rate of elder abuse was 8.5%, with emotional abuse being the most frequent. Social isolation (OR = 1.47, p = .018) and recognition of abuse (OR = 0.90, p = .003) were associated with having experienced abuse. Seniors with a greater number of diseases, higher levels of dependency, depressive symptoms, and/or cognitive impairments were more likely to suffer abuse, as were those who smoked or drank alcohol. To prevent elder abuse by social isolation during and after COVID-19, more active health promotion programs and healthy aging policies should be implemented.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Abuso de Idosos , Idoso , Humanos , Vida Independente , Prevalência , República da Coreia , Fatores de Risco
19.
J Elder Abuse Negl ; 34(4): 280-301, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36000164

RESUMO

Elder abuse and neglect (EAN) are serious health and human rights issues. Less is known about EAN in refugee communities. University researchers and leaders of a refugee services nonprofit partnered to conduct an exploratory community engaged study on EAN risks in two refugee communities in North Carolina. A convenience sample of 17 Nepali-speaking Bhutanese and 13 Congolese self-identified older adults filled short surveys and participated in Focus Group Discussions (FGDs). Descriptive survey findings showed EAN risk, isolation, economic insecurity, and family dependency, more among Congolese. FGDs yielded no reports of EAN, but showed dependence on family, and difficulties with language, transportation, and economic insecurity in both groups. These factors indicate individual and contextual vulnerabilities for EAN in these communities. An EAN awareness event was conducted for participants by a family violence nonprofit. Refugee older adults need culturally appropriate coordinated services including EAN information, English classes, job skills, income, and transportation.


Assuntos
Abuso de Idosos , Refugiados , Idoso , Butão , Grupos Focais , Humanos , North Carolina
20.
BMC Geriatr ; 22(1): 689, 2022 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35987616

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has exacerbated circumstances that place older adults at higher risk for abuse, neglect, and exploitation. Identifying characteristics of elder abuse during COVID-19 is critically important. This study characterized and compared elder abuse patterns across two time periods, a one-year period during the pandemic, and a corresponding one-year period prior to the start of the pandemic. METHODS: Contacts (including social media contacts, and email; all referred to as "calls" for expediency) made to the National Center on Elder Abuse (NCEA) resource line were examined for differences in types of reported elder abuse and characteristics of alleged perpetrators prior to the pandemic (Time 1; March 16, 2018 to March 15, 2019) and during the pandemic (Time 2; March 16, 2020 to March 15, 2021). Calls were examined for whether or not abuse was reported, the types of reported elder abuse, including financial, physical, sexual, emotional, and neglect, and characteristics of callers, victims, and alleged perpetrators. Chi-square tests of independence compared frequencies of elder abuse characteristics between time periods. RESULTS: In Time 1, 1401 calls were received, of which 795 calls (56.7%) described abuse. In Time 2, 1009 calls were received, of which 550 calls (54.5%) described abuse. The difference between time periods in frequency of abuse to non-abuse calls was not significant ([Formula: see text]). Time periods also did not significantly differ with regard to caller, victim, and perpetrator characteristics. Greater rates of physical abuse ([Formula: see text] and emotional abuse ([Formula: see text] were reported during Time 2 after adjustment for multiple comparisons. An increased frequency of multiple forms of abuse was also found in Time 2 compared to Time 1 ([Formula: see text]. CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest differences in specific elder abuse subtypes and frequency of co-occurrence between subtypes between time periods, pointing to a potential increase in the severity of elder abuse during COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Abuso de Idosos , Idoso , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Abuso de Idosos/diagnóstico , Abuso de Idosos/psicologia , Humanos , Pandemias , Fatores de Risco
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