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3.
Sports Health ; 12(2): 189-199, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32023171

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Cannabis use has increased, in large part due to decriminalization. Despite this increase in usage, it remains unclear what proportion of athletes use cannabis and what effect it has on athletic performance and recovery. OBJECTIVE: To systematically review cannabis use among athletes, including epidemiology, effect on performance and recovery, and regulations for use in sport. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, MEDLINE, and EMBASE databases were queried from database inception through November 15, 2018. A hand search of policies, official documents, and media reports was performed for relevant information. STUDY SELECTION: All studies related to cannabis use in athletes, including impact on athletic performance or recovery, were included. STUDY DESIGN: Systematic review. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level 4. DATA EXTRACTION: Demographic and descriptive data of included studies relating to epidemiology of cannabis use in athletes were extracted and presented in weighted means or percentages where applicable. RESULTS: Overall, 37 studies were included, of which the majority were cross-sectional studies of elite and university athletes. Among 11 studies reporting use among athletes (n = 46,202), approximately 23.4% of respondents reported using cannabis in the past 12 months. Two studies found a negative impact on performance, while another 2 studies found no impact. There was no literature on the influence of cannabis on athletic recovery. Across athletic organizations and leagues, there is considerable variability in acceptable thresholds for urine tetrahydrocannabinol levels (>15 to 150 ng/mL) and penalties for athletes found to be above these accepted thresholds. CONCLUSION: Overall, these results suggest that approximately 1 in 4 athletes report using cannabis within the past year. Based on the available evidence, cannabis does not appear to positively affect performance, but the literature surrounding this is generally poor. Given the variability in regulation across different sport types and competition levels, as well as the growing number of states legalizing recreational cannabis use, there is a need to improve our understanding of the effects of cannabis use on the athlete and perhaps adopt a clearer and overarching policy for the use of cannabis by athletes in all sports and at all levels.


Assuntos
Abuso de Maconha/epidemiologia , Fumar Maconha/epidemiologia , Esportes/estatística & dados numéricos , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Dronabinol/urina , Humanos , Política Organizacional , Esportes/legislação & jurisprudência , Detecção do Abuso de Substâncias
4.
Aten. prim. (Barc., Ed. impr.) ; 52(1): 47-53, ene. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-185983

RESUMO

El Proyecto ÉVICT (Evictproject.org), a raíz del aumento de consumo de cannabis en población juvenil española, ha estudiado su asociación con el tabaco, concluyendo que el consumo conjunto de tabaco y cannabis: tiene una influencia en el proceso de aprender a fumar, pues el inicio puede ser conjunto y con influencia bidireccional; tiene una influencia en el desarrollo de dependencia pues su interacción es relevante para el desarrollo de este trastorno, y tiene una influencia en la toxicidad, pues probablemente, el fumar tabaco y cannabis genera mayores problemas que fumar solo una de las 2. Y, por tanto, el equipo EVICT emite unas consideraciones en prevención: diferenciar uso medicinal y recreativo; comunicar que fumar cannabis no es terapéutico ni inocuo, y puede ayudar a generar dependencia de nicotina o, menos frecuentemente, al propio cannabis. Consideraciones en abordaje y tratamiento: en personas que consumen tabaco/cannabis debemos plantear como primera opción el cese de las 2 sustancias. Consideraciones en reducción de daños: a quienes solo consumen productos de tabaco/cannabis, los programas serían más aplicables a aquella cuyo consumo se considere más problemático


EVICT project has noted the increase in cannabis use in the Spanish youth population, and has studied its association with tobacco, concluding that: It has an influence in the learning to smoke process: The beginning can be combined and with bi-directional influence. It has an influence on dependence the development of dependence. Their interaction is relevant in the development of dependence. It has an influence on toxicity: Smoking tobacco and cannabis generates greater problems than smoking tobacco alone. And, therefore, the EVICT team issues some considerations: Prevention considerations. Differentiate between therapeutic and recreational use. Smoking cannabis is not therapeutic nor innocuous, and can affect the development of nicotine dependence, or, less frequently, cannabis dependence. Approach and treatment considerations. In A first option of cessation of both must be proposed in people who consume tobacco and cannabis Harm Reduction. To those that only consume tobacco/cannabis: Harm Reduction programs should be more applicable to those in whom consumption is considered more problematic


Assuntos
Humanos , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fumantes , Tabagismo/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Abuso de Maconha/epidemiologia , Codependência Psicológica , Tabagismo/prevenção & controle , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar/legislação & jurisprudência
6.
Spine (Phila Pa 1976) ; 45(2): 124-133, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31851144

RESUMO

STUDY DESIGN: Serial cross-sectional study utilizing the National Inpatient Sample (NIS) 2005 to 2014. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the trends of opioid-use disorders among hospitalized patients with spinal conditions and treatment and to identify its contributing factors. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: The opioid is widely used in chronic spinal conditions, and misuse of prescriptions is the main culprit of the opioid crisis. Cannabis, the most commonly utilized illicit drug, has recently been substituted for opioid despite increasing cannabis-use emergency room visits. There is limited information on opioid-use disorders, the association with cannabis, and other contributing factors. METHODS: We analyzed the 2005 to 2014 NIS data that identified opioid-use disorders among hospitalized patients with cervical and lumbar spinal conditions and treatment using the International Classification of Disease, Ninth Revision-Clinical Modification codes for opioid abuse, dependence, poisoning, and cervical and lumbar spinal diseases and procedures. The compound annual growth rate (CAGR) was used to quantify trends of opioid-use disorders among hospitalized patients. Multilevel and multivariable regression analyses were performed to determine their contributing factors. RESULTS: The number of hospitalizations with spinal conditions and treatment increased from 2005 to 2011, then decreased between 2011 and 2014 with an overall decrease in length of stay, resulting in the CAGR of -1.60% (P < .001). Almost 3% (2.93%, n = 557,423) of hospitalized patients with spinal conditions and treatment were diagnosed as opioid-use disorders and its CAGR was 6.47% (P < .0001). Opioid-use disorders were associated with cannabis-use disorders (odds ratio 1.714), substance use, mental health condition, younger age, white race, male sex, higher household income, and public insurance or uninsured. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that opioid-use disorders are increasing among hospitalized patients with spinal conditions and treatment and associated with several demographic, and socioeconomic factors, including cannabis-use disorders. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 3.


Assuntos
Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Pacientes Internados/estatística & dados numéricos , Abuso de Maconha/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , Doenças da Coluna Vertebral/terapia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Vértebras Cervicais , Estudos Transversais , Bases de Dados Factuais , Diagnóstico Duplo (Psiquiatria) , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Hospitalização/tendências , Humanos , Renda , Seguro Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Vértebras Lombares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
8.
S Afr Med J ; 109(12): 971-977, 2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31865961

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alcohol, tobacco and unregulated substance use contributes to the global burden of disease. Admission to hospital provides an opportunity to screen patients for substance use and offer interventions. OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence and nature of substance use and treatment as well as interest in harm reduction among inpatients from four hospitals in the City of Tshwane, South Africa. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, sociodemographic and substance use data were collected from 401 patients using the World Health Organization's Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test. Demographic characteristics were analysed using descriptive statistics. Bivariate and multivariate analyses of moderate- to high-risk tobacco and unregulated substance use in relation to demographic characteristics were also done. RESULTS: Most patients were South African (88%) and black African (79%), over half were female (57%), and they were relatively young (median age 38 years). Most (82%) lived in formal housing. Over half (56%) had completed high school, and 33% were formally employed. Bivariate analysis found substance use-related admission to be higher where scores for tobacco and unregulated substance use were moderate to high (13% v. 0.3%, p<0.05). A notably higher (p<0.1) proportion of participants with no/low tobacco and unregulated substance use had completed high school, were employed and were cohabiting/married compared with those with moderate to high scores. Across the hospitals, 32% (129/401) of the participants had moderate- to high-risk use of at least one substance: tobacco (28%, 111/401), alcohol (10%, 40/401), cannabis (7%, 28/401), opioids (2%, 9/401) and sedatives (2%, 9/401). Of these 129 participants, 10% had accessed professional help, many (67%, 78/129) wanted to learn more about harm reduction, and most (84%, 108/129) said that they were willing to participate in a community-based harm reduction programme. Multivariate analysis found moderate- to high-risk tobacco and unregulated substance use to be positively associated with male sex (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 7.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.9 - 21.5), age <38 years (aOR 3.3, 95% CI 1.2 - 8.9), moderate- to high-risk alcohol use (aOR 3.1, 95% CI 1.1 - 8.4; p=0.027) and being admitted to Tshwane District Hospital (aOR 3.6, 95% CI 1.1 - 12.2). It was negatively associated with employment (aOR 0.2, 95% CI 0.1 - 0.6). CONCLUSIONS: Moderate- to high-risk substance use is an undetected, unattended comorbidity in the hospital setting in Tshwane, particularly among young, single, unemployed men. Clinicians should identify and respond to this need. Further research is required on the implementation of in-hospital substance use screening and treatment interventions.


Assuntos
Redução do Dano , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Alcoolismo/prevenção & controle , Estudos Transversais , Escolaridade , Emprego , Feminino , Hospitais Públicos , Humanos , Masculino , Abuso de Maconha/epidemiologia , Abuso de Maconha/prevenção & controle , Estado Civil , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/prevenção & controle , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Admissão do Paciente , Prevalência , Fatores Sexuais , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Tabagismo/epidemiologia , Tabagismo/prevenção & controle
9.
Actas Esp Psiquiatr ; 47(6): 218-28, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31869422

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Personality disorders (PD) and substance use disorders (SUD) have a high prevalence and an important health and socioeconomic impact so, it is interesting to study the relationship between them. The objectives of the study are: to compare the prevalence of SUD between patients with and without diagnosis of PD, to analyze if any PD is related to the SUD, and if a specific PD is associated with a specific SUD. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Cross-sectional study in 837 patients from centers of attention to drug addiction and mental health in Madrid, Spain. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) and the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4+ (PDQ4+) are used to detect mental disorder and PD, respectively. RESULTS: SUD is significantly higher in antisocial PD (p<0.01); sedative (p<0.01) and alcohol (p<0.05) use disorder in borderline PD; cocaine (p<0.05) and alcohol (p<0.01) use disorder in paranoid PD; and alcohol use disorder in histrionic PD (p<0.01). The SUD for cocaine is lower in obsessive- compulsive PD (p<0.05) and depressive PD (p<0.01). There is a positive correlation between the number of PD of a subject and the number of SUD that it presents. The risk of an alcohol [OR of 1,08 CI (1,01-1,16)] or sedatives [OR of 1,08 CI (1,001-1,17)] use disorders increases if an individual presents more than one type of PD. CONCLUSIONS: There is not differences of SUD prevalence between PD and not PD groups. We found an association between SUD and PD of cluster B (antisocial, borderline and histrionic) and also with paranoid PD. The SUD are more common among man with the exception of sedatives.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Personalidade/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Adulto , Alcoolismo/diagnóstico , Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/diagnóstico , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Cocaína/diagnóstico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Cocaína/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/epidemiologia , Diagnóstico Duplo (Psiquiatria) , Feminino , Transtorno da Personalidade Histriônica/diagnóstico , Transtorno da Personalidade Histriônica/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Abuso de Maconha/diagnóstico , Abuso de Maconha/epidemiologia , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/diagnóstico , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/diagnóstico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , Transtorno da Personalidade Paranoide/diagnóstico , Transtorno da Personalidade Paranoide/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Personalidade/diagnóstico , Prevalência , Espanha/epidemiologia , Centros de Tratamento de Abuso de Substâncias/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/diagnóstico
10.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(50): 1153-1157, 2019 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31856145

RESUMO

In the United States, driving while impaired is illegal. Nonetheless, an estimated 10,511 alcohol-impaired driving deaths occurred in 2018.* The contribution of marijuana and other illicit drugs to these and other impaired driving deaths remains unknown. Data from the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) indicated that in the United States during 2014, 12.4% of all persons aged 16-25 years reported driving under the influence of alcohol, and 3.2% reported driving under the influence of marijuana (1). The impairing effects of alcohol are well established, but less is known about the effects of illicit substances or other psychoactive drugs (e.g., marijuana, cocaine, methamphetamines, and opioids, including heroin). This report provides the most recent national estimates of self-reported driving under the influence of marijuana and illicit drugs among persons aged ≥16 years, using 2018 public-use data from NSDUH. Prevalences of driving under the influence of marijuana and illicit drugs other than marijuana were assessed for persons aged ≥16 years by age group, sex, and race/ethnicity. During 2018, 12 million (4.7%) U.S. residents reported driving under the influence of marijuana in the past 12 months; 2.3 million (0.9%) reported driving under the influence of illicit drugs other than marijuana. Driving under the influence was more prevalent among males and among persons aged 16-34 years. Effective measures that deter driving under the influence of drugs are limited (2). Development, evaluation, and further implementation of strategies to prevent alcohol-impaired,† drug-impaired, and polysubstance-impaired driving, coupled with standardized testing of impaired drivers and drivers involved in fatal crashes, could advance understanding of drug- and polysubstance-impaired driving and support prevention efforts.


Assuntos
Dirigir sob a Influência/estatística & dados numéricos , Drogas Ilícitas , Abuso de Maconha/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(47): e17739, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31764772

RESUMO

To examine trends and contributing factors of opioid, heroin, and cannabis-associated emergency department (ED) visits in Nevada.The 2009 to 2017 Nevada State ED database (n = 7,950,554 ED visits) were used. Use of opioid, heroin, and cannabis, respectively, was identified by the International Classification of Diseases, 9th & 10th Revisions. Three multivariable models, one for each of the 3 dependent variables, were conducted. Independent variables included year, insurance status, race/ethnicity, use of other substance, and mental health conditions.The number of individuals with opioid, heroin, cannabis-associated ED visits increased 3%, 10%, and 23% annually from 2009 to 2015, particularly among 21 to 29 age group, females, and African Americans. Use of other substance (odds ratio [OR] = 3.91; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.84, 3.99; reference - no use of other substance), mental health conditions (OR = 2.48; 95% CI = 2.43, 2.53; reference - without mental health conditions), Medicaid (OR = 1.41; 95% CI = 1.38, 1.44; reference - non-Medicaid), Medicare (OR = 1.44; 95% CI = 1.39, 1.49; reference - non-Medicare) and uninsured patients (OR = 1.52; 95% CI = 1.49, 1.56; reference - insured) were predictors of all three substance-associated ED visits.With a steady increase in trends of opioid, heroin, and cannabis-associated ED visits in recent years, the main contributing factors include patient sociodemographic factors, mental health conditions, and use of other substances.


Assuntos
Emergências/epidemiologia , Dependência de Heroína/epidemiologia , Abuso de Maconha/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nevada/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
12.
Niger Postgrad Med J ; 26(4): 211-215, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31621660

RESUMO

Introduction: Recent evidence suggests that rates of drug use and abuse in Nigeria exceed the global average. There is a strong treatment demand for psychoactive drug use disorders in Nigeria; however, it is not known whether available treatment facilities are attending to the array of treatment needs. This audit compares the pattern of presentations at a tertiary facility with a community-based survey. Methods: A review of cases (n = 212) seen at a regional drug treatment facility over a 4-year period, using local data retrieved from the Nigerian Epidemiological Network of Drug Use (NENDU) and comparison with data from the recently published national drug use survey. Results: Nine out of ten clients seen were male (93.4%). About half (49.5%) of the clients used psychoactive substances for the first time between ages 10 and 19 years. Cannabis was the primary drug of use overall and also among males, while females were more likely to present with opiate abuse. Over half had a co-occurring physical or mental disorder, and a minority had received testing for hepatitis C in the past 12 months. Conclusion: Although patterns of drug abuse presentations were consistent with findings from a national community-based survey, there was an under-representation of females in treatment. Implications for policy development and practice are discussed.


Assuntos
/efeitos adversos , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Pacientes/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Alcoolismo/reabilitação , Criança , Comorbidade/tendências , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hospitais Psiquiátricos , Humanos , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Tempo de Internação/tendências , Masculino , Abuso de Maconha/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/reabilitação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Pacientes/psicologia , Fatores de Risco , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
13.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 55(10)2019 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31554263

RESUMO

Background and objectives: Drug misuse among young people has become a major worldwide health concern. The present study analyzes substance misuse and its social and personal consequences in young university students. Materials and Methods: Screening of alcohol misuse was based on the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT), while screening of substance-related risks and problems was performed with the Car, Relax, Alone, Forget, Friends, Trouble (CRAFFT) score. Results: The population was composed of nursing students at the University of Valencia (Valencia, Spain) (n = 185). More than 50% of the surveyed students reported alcohol intake based on the CRAFFT scale; 31.4% were classified as having "risky alcohol use", and 19.5% met the criterion for hazardous drinking based on the AUDIT score. In turn, 34.1% of the sample reported marijuana/hashish intake based on the CRAFFT scale. A gender effect was only observed for marijuana/hashish use, which was significantly (p < 0.001) higher in male students. No other gender differences were observed. In the logistic regression analysis, only age was identified as a protective factor for obtaining a reduced risk score with both the AUDIT and the CRAFFT. Among the social and personal consequences of drug misuse, the inability to "stop drinking once you have started" or the inability to "remember what happened while consuming" was significantly associated with an increased frequency of alcohol consumption (OR 20.93, p < 0.0001 and OR 13.68, p < 0.05, respectively). Conclusions: Our findings are consistent with emerging social concerns about drug misuse in the university population, including nursing students as future healthcare professionals.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Uso da Maconha/epidemiologia , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Abuso de Maconha/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Sexuais , Espanha/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31443148

RESUMO

The prevalence of illicit drug misuse, including cannabis, in Croatian touristic regions is alarming. This study aimed to identify the prevalence of cannabis consumption (CC), to identify associations between sociodemographic and sport factors and CC, and to evaluate the predictors of CC initiation in adolescents residing in touristic regions. This study enrolled 644 adolescents from two touristic regions in Croatia (Split-Dalmatia and Dubrovnik-Neretva County) who were tested at baseline (16 years of age) and follow-up (18 years of age). The study instrument consisted of questions focused on predictors (age, gender (male, female), place of residence (urban or rural environment), familial social status, and different sport-related factors) and CC outcome. The results indicated a high prevalence of cannabis consumption (>30% of adolescents consumed cannabis), with a higher prevalence in males, and adolescents from rural communities. The prevalence of CC increased by 10% during the study period, with no significant differences between genders in trajectories of changes. Quitting sports was a risk factor for CC at baseline and follow-up. Better sport competitive results (odds ratio (OR): 0.80, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.65-0.96) and familial social status (socioeconomic status: OR: 0.66, 95% CI: 0.39-0.91; maternal education: OR: 0.65, 95% CI: 0.48-0.88) were associated with lower likelihood of CC at baseline. The adolescents who reported better sport competitive results were at increased risk for initiation of CC during the course of the study (OR: 1.40, 95% CI: 1.03-2.01). The protective effects of sports at baseline were most likely related to various factors that prevent the consumption of substances in youth athletes (i.e., commitment to results, adult supervision); with the end of active participation, adolescent athletes are at high risk for CC initiation.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/efeitos dos fármacos , Usuários de Drogas/psicologia , Usuários de Drogas/estatística & dados numéricos , Abuso de Maconha/epidemiologia , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Croácia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Classe Social
15.
Pediatrics ; 144(3)2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31451609

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cannabis concentrates, which are cannabis plant extracts that contain high concentrations of Δ-9-tetrahydrocannbinol (THC), have become increasingly popular among adults in the United States. However, no studies have reported on the prevalence or correlates of cannabis concentrate use in adolescents, who, as a group, are thought to be particularly vulnerable to the harms of THC. METHODS: Participants are a racially and ethnically diverse group of 47 142 8th-, 10th-, and 12th-grade students recruited from 245 schools across Arizona in 2018. Participants reported on their lifetime and past-month marijuana and cannabis concentrate use, other substance use, and risk and protective factors for substance use problems spanning multiple life domains (ie, individual, peer, family, school, and community). RESULTS: Thirty-three percent of all 8th-, 10th-, and 12th-graders reported lifetime cannabis use, and 24% reported lifetime concentrate use. Seventy-two percent of all lifetime cannabis users had used concentrates. Relative to adolescent cannabis users who had not used concentrates, adolescent concentrate users were more likely to use other substances and to experience more risk factors, and fewer protective factors, for substance use problems across numerous life domains. CONCLUSIONS: Most adolescent cannabis users have used concentrates. Based on their risk and protective factor profile, adolescent concentrate users are at higher risk for substance use problems than adolescent cannabis users who do not use concentrates. Findings raise concerns about high-risk adolescents' exposure to high-THC cannabis.


Assuntos
Dronabinol , Abuso de Maconha/epidemiologia , Fumar Maconha/epidemiologia , Extratos Vegetais , Adolescente , Arizona/epidemiologia , Humanos , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Autorrelato , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia
16.
Yakugaku Zasshi ; 139(5): 693-697, 2019.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31061337

RESUMO

The number of persons arrested in Japan for drug-related offenses in 2016 increased from the previous year. Especially, cannabis offenses have increased since 2014, with more than 2000 persons arrested in 2015. As a feature of the year 2017, we analyzed many cannabis concentrates, called "Cannabis wax", in the process of analyzing cannabis in the Narcotics Control Department. "Cannabis wax" refers to concentrates of the hallucinogenic component of cannabis, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Increasingly, cannabis wax containing 50 times higher THC than general dry cannabis has been confiscated. More than 2300 compounds are currently regulated as new psychoactive substances in Japan. In a recent trend, there is an increasing number of cases in which a wide range of regulated substances have been seized and confiscated, ranging from those that have been abused for a long time, to those that are newly regulated. Many structural isomers are present among these, and we are constantly developing techniques for the rapid and accurate analysis of these compounds.


Assuntos
Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Dronabinol/análise , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Cromatografia , Humanos , Isomerismo , Japão/epidemiologia , Abuso de Maconha/epidemiologia , Abuso de Maconha/prevenção & controle , Espectrometria de Massas , Entorpecentes/análise , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/prevenção & controle
17.
Eur Addict Res ; 25(4): 198-206, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31117072

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In police officers, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with alcohol use disorder (AUD), but we lack data on the association between PTSD and other substance-related and addictive disorders. OBJECTIVES: We assessed whether PTSD could be a risk factor for different substance-related and addictive disorders in police officers, including alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, and gambling. METHOD: This cross-sectional study included all police officers admitted consecutively for alcohol to an inpatient ward dedicated to police officers (Le Courbat rehabilitation center, France; n= 133). Each patient completed self-administered questionnaires that assessed lifetime exposure to potentially traumatic events (Life Event Checklist for DSM-5), PTSD severity and diagnosis (PTSD Checklist for DSM-5), AUD severity (Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test [AUDIT]), tobacco dependence (Fagerström test for Nicotine Dependence), cannabis dependence (Cannabis Abuse Screening test), and gambling disorder (Canadian Problem Gambling Index). RESULTS: Mean AUDIT score was 23.7 ± 8.0; 66.2% had an AUDIT score ≥20. Our sample comprised a high prevalence for PTSD (38.3%) and for substance-related and addictive disorders: tobacco dependence (68.4%), cannabis dependence (3.8%), and pathological gambling (3%). Patients with PTSD experienced higher lifetime exposure to traumatic experiences: physical assault, severe human suffering, sudden accidental death of another person, and other types of stressful events/experiences. In multiple linear regressions adjusted for age, sex, and marital status, PTSD was a significant predictor of the severity of AUD and tobacco use disorder, but not of the severity of cannabis use disorder nor gambling disorder. CONCLUSIONS: PTSD is common in police officers hospitalized for alcohol and associated with a higher severity of some addictive disorders (alcohol/tobacco). PTSD and its comorbid addictive disorders should be systematically screened and treated in this population.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo/diagnóstico , Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Polícia/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , Tabagismo/diagnóstico , Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Alcoolismo/reabilitação , Canadá/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Abuso de Maconha/diagnóstico , Abuso de Maconha/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polícia/psicologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tabagismo/epidemiologia
18.
Rev Med Chil ; 147(2): 206-211, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31095169

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is concern about the cognitive consequences of marijuana consumption. AIM: To assess the influence of current and past marijuana use and frequency on verbal learning and memory in a sample of adults aged 21 years old. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Marijuana use was assessed using a clinician administered interview in 654 participants (56% females), who reported frequency of use, age of first use and whether its use led to problems in their lives. The CogState International Shopping List was administered to assess learning and memory. RESULTS: Seventy percent reported ever using marijuana, 46% consuming during the past year and 27% during the past 30 days. The latter scored significantly lower on delayed recall. Current and frequent use were significantly associated with lower accuracy in verbal learning and memory. CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort of adults aged 21 years old, marijuana use was prevalent and related to worse verbal memory.


Assuntos
Canabinoides/farmacologia , Uso da Maconha/epidemiologia , Memória/efeitos dos fármacos , Rememoração Mental/efeitos dos fármacos , Aprendizagem Verbal/efeitos dos fármacos , Chile/epidemiologia , Transtornos Cognitivos/complicações , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Abuso de Maconha/epidemiologia , Abuso de Maconha/etiologia , Uso da Maconha/efeitos adversos , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
19.
Psychopharmacology (Berl) ; 236(9): 2677-2685, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30968175

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Synthetic cannabinoids (SCs) are a class of new psychoactive substances that have been rapidly evolving around the world throughout recent years. Many different synthetic cannabinoid analogues are on the consumer market and sold under misleading names, like "spice" or "incense." A limited number of studies have reported serious health effects associated with SC use. In this study, we compared clinical and subclinical psychopathological symptoms associated with SC use and natural cannabis (NC) use. METHODS: A convenience sample of 367 NC and SC users was recruited online, including four validated psychometric questionnaires: The Drug Use Disorders Identification Test (DUDIT), Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), Altman Mania Scale (Altman), and Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI). The two groups were compared with analysis of variance (ANOVA) and covariance (ANCOVA), chi2 tests, and logistic regression when appropriate. RESULTS: The SC user group did not differ in age from the NC user group (27.7 years), but contained less females (21% and 30%, respectively). SC users scored higher than NC users on all used psychometric measures, indicating a higher likelihood of drug abuse, sleep problems, (hypo)manic symptoms, and the nine dimensions comprising the BSI, somatization, obsessive-compulsive behavior, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, hostility, phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation, and psychoticism. Odds ratios (95% CI) for the SC user group vs NC user group were, respectively, drug dependence 3.56 (1.77-7.16), (severe) insomnia 5.01 (2.10-11.92), (hypo-)mania 5.18 (2.04-13.14), and BSI psychopathology 5.21 (2.96-9.17). DISCUSSION: This study shows that SC use is associated with increased mental health symptomatology compared to NC use.


Assuntos
Canabinoides/efeitos adversos , Abuso de Maconha/epidemiologia , Abuso de Maconha/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Medicamentos Sintéticos/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Canabinoides/administração & dosagem , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fumar Maconha/epidemiologia , Fumar Maconha/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/induzido quimicamente , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psicopatologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Medicamentos Sintéticos/administração & dosagem , Adulto Jovem
20.
Rev Epidemiol Sante Publique ; 67(3): 175-180, 2019 May.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30954323

RESUMO

AIM: Cannabis use, as well as the prevalence of cannabis use disorder, are not known among the population attending general practices in France. We wanted to describe the characteristics of current cannabis users, estimate cannabis use disorder and self-rating of cannabis dependence, and describe medical conditions associated with cannabis use in a general practice in Paris. METHODS: An anonymous questionnaire was proposed to every patient aged 18-65 in a general practice during three months from June to August 2014. Cannabis use in the last six months was recorded and cannabis use disorder was assessed according to three different means: answering yes to the question: do you feel like you are dependent on cannabis? or answering yes to the question: do you smoke cannabis in the first 5minutes after awakening? or CUDIT score≥8 points. RESULTS: Two hundred and fifty-eight questionnaires were analyzed. Cannabis use in the past six months was found in 54 subjects (21%). Subjective feeling of cannabis dependence was endorsed by 18 subjects (6.9%). Cannabis use in the first 5minutes after awakening was found in five subjects (1.9%) and 23 (8.9%) had a CUDIT score≥8 points. Cannabis smokers had more often addictive and psychiatric associated medical conditions. CONCLUSION: General practitioners could ask about cannabis use and self-rated cannabis use disorder because it is frequent and patients with cannabis use disorder deserve specific care.


Assuntos
Medicina de Família e Comunidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Abuso de Maconha/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Usuários de Drogas/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
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