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1.
J Acoust Soc Am ; 148(6): 3663, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33379881

RESUMO

With the COVID-19 pandemic, the wearing of face masks covering mouth and nose has become ubiquitous all around the world. This study investigates the impact of typical face masks on voice radiation. To analyze the transmission loss caused by masks and the influence of masks on directivity, this study measured the full-spherical voice directivity of a dummy head with a mouth simulator covered with six masks of different types, i.e., medical masks, filtering facepiece respirator masks, and cloth face coverings. The results show a significant frequency-dependent transmission loss, which varies depending on the mask, especially above 2 kHz. Furthermore, the two facepiece respirator masks also significantly affect speech directivity, as determined by the directivity index (DI). Compared to the measurements without a mask, the DI deviates by up to 7 dB at frequencies above 3 kHz. For all other masks, the deviations are below 2 dB in all third-octave frequency bands.


Assuntos
/prevenção & controle , Máscaras , Acústica da Fala , Inteligibilidade da Fala , Voz , Humanos
2.
J Acoust Soc Am ; 148(6): 3562, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33379897

RESUMO

Wearing face masks (alongside physical distancing) provides some protection against infection from COVID-19. Face masks can also change how people communicate and subsequently affect speech signal quality. This study investigated how three common face mask types (N95, surgical, and cloth) affected acoustic analysis of speech and perceived intelligibility in healthy subjects. Acoustic measures of timing, frequency, perturbation, and power spectral density were measured. Speech intelligibility and word and sentence accuracy were also examined using the Assessment of Intelligibility of Dysarthric Speech. Mask type impacted the power distribution in frequencies above 3 kHz for the N95 mask, and above 5 kHz in surgical and cloth masks. Measures of timing and spectral tilt mainly differed with N95 mask use. Cepstral and harmonics to noise ratios remained unchanged across mask type. No differences were observed across conditions for word or sentence intelligibility measures; however, accuracy of word and sentence translations were affected by all masks. Data presented in this study show that face masks change the speech signal, but some specific acoustic features remain largely unaffected (e.g., measures of voice quality) irrespective of mask type. Outcomes have bearing on how future speech studies are run when personal protective equipment is worn.


Assuntos
/prevenção & controle , Máscaras/efeitos adversos , Acústica da Fala , Inteligibilidade da Fala , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Qualidade da Voz , Adulto Jovem
3.
J Laryngol Otol ; 134(12): 1085-1093, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33308327

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate voice intensity as the primary outcome measurement when treating unilateral vocal fold paralysis patients. METHODS: This prospective observational study comprised 34 newly diagnosed unilateral vocal fold paralysis patients undergoing surgical interventions: injection laryngoplasty or medialisation thyroplasty. Voice assessments, including maximum vocal intensity and other acoustic parameters, were performed at baseline and at one and three months post-intervention. Maximum vocal intensity was also repeated within two weeks before any surgical interventions were performed. The results were compared between different time points and between the two intervention groups. RESULTS: Maximum vocal intensity showed high internal consistency. Statistically significant improvements were seen in maximum vocal intensity, Voice Handicap Index-10 and other acoustic analyses at one and three months post-intervention. A significant moderate negative correlation was demonstrated between maximum vocal intensity and Voice Handicap Index-10, shimmer and jitter. There were no significant differences in voice outcomes between injection laryngoplasty and medialisation thyroplasty patients at any time point. CONCLUSION: Maximum vocal intensity can be applied as a treatment outcome measure in unilateral vocal fold paralysis patients; it can demonstrate the effectiveness of treatment and moderately correlates with self-reported outcome measures.


Assuntos
Laringoplastia/métodos , Paralisia das Pregas Vocais/cirurgia , Qualidade da Voz/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Injeções , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Período Pós-Operatório , Estudos Prospectivos , Acústica da Fala , Paralisia das Pregas Vocais/diagnóstico
4.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 86(6): 748-762, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1142601

RESUMO

Abstract Introduction: The voice of individuals with hearing impairment has been widely described, and can be compromised in all levels of the phonatory system. Objective: To develop and validate an instrument for evaluating the voice of this population. Methods: The instrument underwent the validation steps suggested by the Scientific Advisory Committee of the Medical Outcomes Trust. The study sample consisted of seventy-eight Brazilian people with cochlear implants (experimental group) and 78 individuals with normal hearing (control group), divided in groups by age range — children from 3 to 5 years; children from 6 to 10 years and adults from 18 to 46 years. The study sample participated in a voice recording of the sustained vowel /a/, connected speech and spontaneous conversation, in which three voice specialists rated using the proposed instrument. It consists of visual-analog scales of suprasegmental aspects, respiratory-phonatory coordination, resonance, phonation, additional parameters and general vocal perception. Results: Evaluation by an expert committee and a pilot test established content validity. Reliability measures showed excellent test-retest reproducibility for the majority of the parameters. Analysis with the ROC curve showed that perceptual evaluation with the sustained vowel did not strongly differentiate individuals with cochlear implants from those with normal hearing, and the parameter "speech rate" did not differentiate the groups at all. For the connected speech and spontaneous conversation, the majority of the parameters differentiated the experimental group from the control group with an area under the curve ≥0.7. The cutoff values with maximum specificity and sensitivity were 30.5 for mild, 49.0 for moderate and 69.5 for intense deviation. Conclusions: The protocol for the evaluation of voice in subjects with hearing impairment, PEV-SHI, is a reliable and useful tool for assessing the particularities of the voice of individuals with hearing impairment treated with cochlear implants and can be used in research and clinical settings to standardize evaluation and facilitate information exchange among services.


Resumo Introdução: A voz de indivíduos com deficiência auditiva tem sido amplamente descrita e pode estar comprometida em todos os níveis do sistema fonatório. Objetivo: Desenvolver e validar uma ferramenta para avaliar a voz dessa população. Método: A ferramenta foi submetida às etapas de validação sugeridas pelo Scientific Advisory Committee of the Medical Outcomes Trust. A amostra do estudo foi composta por 78 indivíduos brasileiros com implantes cocleares (grupo experimental) e 78 indivíduos com audição normal (grupo controle) divididos em grupos por faixa etária - crianças de 3 a 5 anos; crianças de 6 a 10 anos e adultos de 18 a 46 anos. Os participantes do estudo realizaram uma gravação de voz da vogal /a/ sustentada, fala encadeada e conversa espontânea, que foi avaliada por três especialistas em voz com o instrumento proposto. Este instrumento consistem em escalas visuais analógicas dos aspectos suprassegmentares da voz, coordenação pneumofonoarticulatória, ressoância, fonação, parâmetro adicional e impressão geral da qualidade vocal. Resultados: A avaliação por um comitê de especialistas e um teste-piloto estabeleceram a validade de conteúdo. Medidas de confiabilidade mostraram excelente reprodutibilidade teste-reteste para a maioria dos parâmetros. A análise com a curva ROC mostrou que a avaliação perceptivo-auditiva com a vogal sustentada não diferenciou significantemente os indivíduos com implante coclear daqueles com audição normal e o parâmetro "velocidade de fala" não diferenciou os grupos. Para a fala encadeada e conversa espontânea, a maioria dos parâmetros diferenciou o grupo experimental do grupo controle, com uma área sob a curva ≥ 0,7. Os valores de corte com máxima especificidade e sensibilidade foram 30,5 para desvio discreto, 49,0 para desvio moderado e 69,5 para desvio intenso. Conclusões: O protocolo de avaliação de voz do deficiente auditivo é uma ferramenta confiável e útil para avaliar as particularidades da voz de indivíduos com deficiência auditiva e implante coclear e pode ser utilizada em pesquisas e contextos clínicos para padronizar a avaliação e facilitar a troca de informações entre os serviços.


Assuntos
Humanos , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem , Percepção da Fala , Perda Auditiva/diagnóstico , Acústica da Fala , Medida da Produção da Fala , Qualidade da Voz , Brasil , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
5.
J Acoust Soc Am ; 148(4): 2322, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33138475

RESUMO

Respiratory droplets emitted during speech can transmit oral bacteria and infectious viruses to others, including COVID-19. Loud speech can generate significantly higher numbers of potentially infectious respiratory droplets. This study assessed the effect of speech volume on respiratory emission of oral bacteria as an indicator of potential pathogen transmission risk. Loud speech (average 83 dBA, peak 94 dBA) caused significantly higher emission of oral bacteria (p = 0.004 compared to no speech) within 1 ft from the speaker. N99 respirators and simple cloth masks both significantly reduced emission of oral bacteria. This study demonstrates that loud speech without face coverings increases emission of respiratory droplets that carry oral bacteria and may also carry other pathogens such as COVID-19.


Assuntos
Microbiologia do Ar , Bactérias/patogenicidade , Infecções Bacterianas/transmissão , Exposição por Inalação , Boca/microbiologia , Respiração , Acústica da Fala , Aerossóis , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Exposição por Inalação/prevenção & controle , Máscaras , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Dispositivos de Proteção Respiratória
6.
Codas ; 32(5): e2019022, 2020.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33053081

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Analyze the measures of the fundamental frequency, electroglotographic jitter, contact quotient and periodicity of the electroglotographic waves of the singers in habitual voice. METHOD: A cross-sectional observational study, which selected individuals from singing schools in the central region of the municipality of Belo Horizonte. The sample was non-probabilistic, for convenience consisted of 60 singers aged between 18 and 55 years, 30 males and 30 females. For the electroglotographic record collection, the Kay Pentax ™ CSL program, model 6103, the Electroglotographic module was used. The participants were placed in a seated position, and after cleaning the skin of the neck with 70% alcohol, two electrodes were placed on the wings of the thyroid cartilage at the level of the vocal folds. Subsequently, the participants were instructed to emit the vowel/a/sustained in a habitual way. The measurements of the fundamental frequency (f0), contact quotient (QC), electroglotographic jitter and periodicity of the electroglotographic wave were analyzed. The data were statistically analyzed using Minitab 17. RESULTS: The parameters analyzed were statistically significant. The fundamental frequency (f0) was higher in females (226.91Hz) when compared to males (166.54Hz). The measure of contact quotient and periodicity was also higher in women (40.46% and 15.51% respectively) when compared to men (27.45% and 7.82, respectively). The jitter parameter was higher in men when compared to women. CONCLUSION: Women presented higher values in the fundamental frequency (f0), contact quotient (QC) and periodicity of the wave compared to men. The men presented the jitter value higher than that of the women.


Assuntos
Canto , Voz , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Acústica da Fala , Qualidade da Voz , Adulto Jovem
7.
Codas ; 32(4): e20190135, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32813819

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the ability that in tune and out of tune individuals have to identify normal and deviated voice qualities and to compare it with their performance in auditory processing tests and perceptual judgment. METHOD: The study investigated 15 in tune and 15 out of tune individuals. Participants were matched for age and sex, were amateur choir singers, had normal hearing thresholds and normal vocal quality. All individuals underwent Pitch-matching scanning to be classified as in or out of tune. Next, they performed the Pitch Pattern Sequence (PPS) and the Duration Pattern Sequence (DPS) tests and the perceptual judgment of 36 voices plus 20% of repetition for reliability analysis. RESULTS: The out of tune individuals had worse performance in the PPS and DPS for both ears (p=0.002 RE; p=0.001 LE; p=0.009 DPS); no difference was observed in the perceptual judgment and the reliability (p=0.153). However, participants with normal PPS and DPS had better performance in the perceptual judgment and better reliability (p=0.033). Thus, individuals with disorders in temporal auditory processing skills have greater difficulty in the perceptual judgment and have lower intra-rater reliability, despite being in or out of tune. CONCLUSION: It can be observed that voice tone is not required to guarantee good perceptual judgment. However, temporal patterns and intra-rater reliability are essential to perceptually assess normal and altered voice qualities. Therefore, auditory training should be included in programs that aim to develop voice perceptual judgment abilities.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Percepção Auditiva/fisiopatologia , Transtornos da Percepção Auditiva/psicologia , Julgamento , Acústica da Fala , Qualidade da Voz , Percepção Auditiva , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Audição , Testes Auditivos , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
8.
J Appl Oral Sci ; 28: e20200052, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32813841

RESUMO

The pursuit for quality of life urged a better understanding of aspects involved in ageing to minimize its consequences. Although many studies investigated older adults' voice, aspects affecting this population voice-related quality of life have not yet been explored. Objective To investigate how aerodynamics and vocal aspects are associated with voice-related quality of life in older adults. Methodology fifty-six older adults aged 60 years or above - 39 women and 17 men - were evaluated. The following procedures were performed: application of the Voice-Related Quality of Life (V-RQOL) protocol; vocal assessment, including auditory-perceptual and acoustic analysis, from which we obtained fundamental frequency (F 0 ), standard deviation of fundamental frequency (SDF 0 ), shimmer, amplitude perturbation quotient (APQ), jitter, pitch period perturbation quotient (PPQ), and harmonics to noise ratio (HNR); aerodynamic assessment using a spirometer; and maximum phonation time (MPT) for /a/, /s/, /z/ and number counting. Results older adults tend to present high V-RQOL scores. Among women, roughness, APQ, and HNR parameters were negatively correlated with V-RQOL, whereas F 0 was positively. We found no correlation between spirometry measurements and V-RQOL. MPT for /a/, /z/, and number counting was positively correlated with V-RQOL solely among men. Conclusion Vocal roughness and acoustic parameters have a negative impact on the quality of life of older women. Respiratory aspects related to the available air support for speaking affected the most the voice-related quality of life of older men.


Assuntos
Acústica da Fala , Qualidade da Voz , Acústica , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Qualidade de Vida
9.
Codas ; 32(4): e20180227, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756851

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To compare the acoustic and perceptual-auditory results of the hearing impaired children and adolescents with hearing pairs and to correlate these results with parents' reports regarding speech auditory perception. METHOD: The participants were divided into two groups: Group I, 20 hearing-impaired children and adolescents and Group II, 20 children and adolescents with normal hearing. Acoustic analysis of the vowel /a/ and perceptual-auditory assessment of the vowel /a/ and speech were performed. The speech auditory perception of the GI was assessed using the Infant-Toddler Meaningful Auditory Integration Scale and the Meaningful Auditory Integration Scale with adaptation for adolescent participants. The acoustic and perceptual-auditory voice results of the GI and GII were compared and these results were correlated with the performance in the auditory perception of the GI group. RESULTS: The groups I and II presented similar results, differing statistically in the long-term frequency variation (vF0) and the long-term amplitude variation (vAm) parameters of the vowel /a/ and speech resonance parameter. It was found a negative correlation between auditory perception performance with jitter, vF0 and general degree of vowel /a/. CONCLUSION: The vocal quality in GI was similar to their hearing peers in almost all the vocal parameters that were analyzed. The auditory perception influenced jitter, vF0 and general degree of voice parameters, in which hearing-impaired children and adolescents who presented higher scores for auditory perception were also able to keep a more controlled vocal emission.


Assuntos
Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Pessoas com Deficiência Auditiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Acústica da Fala , Percepção da Fala , Voz , Adolescente , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Fala
10.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(29): 16920-16927, 2020 07 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32632010

RESUMO

Visual speech facilitates auditory speech perception, but the visual cues responsible for these benefits and the information they provide remain unclear. Low-level models emphasize basic temporal cues provided by mouth movements, but these impoverished signals may not fully account for the richness of auditory information provided by visual speech. High-level models posit interactions among abstract categorical (i.e., phonemes/visemes) or amodal (e.g., articulatory) speech representations, but require lossy remapping of speech signals onto abstracted representations. Because visible articulators shape the spectral content of speech, we hypothesized that the perceptual system might exploit natural correlations between midlevel visual (oral deformations) and auditory speech features (frequency modulations) to extract detailed spectrotemporal information from visual speech without employing high-level abstractions. Consistent with this hypothesis, we found that the time-frequency dynamics of oral resonances (formants) could be predicted with unexpectedly high precision from the changing shape of the mouth during speech. When isolated from other speech cues, speech-based shape deformations improved perceptual sensitivity for corresponding frequency modulations, suggesting that listeners could exploit this cross-modal correspondence to facilitate perception. To test whether this type of correspondence could improve speech comprehension, we selectively degraded the spectral or temporal dimensions of auditory sentence spectrograms to assess how well visual speech facilitated comprehension under each degradation condition. Visual speech produced drastically larger enhancements during spectral degradation, suggesting a condition-specific facilitation effect driven by cross-modal recovery of auditory speech spectra. The perceptual system may therefore use audiovisual correlations rooted in oral acoustics to extract detailed spectrotemporal information from visual speech.


Assuntos
Acústica da Fala , Percepção da Fala , Percepção Visual , Adulto , Sinais (Psicologia) , Feminino , Humanos , Lábio/fisiologia , Masculino , Fonética
11.
Surgery ; 168(4): 578-585, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32605836

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Iatrogenic unilateral vocal fold paralysis caused by thyroid surgery induces profound physical and psychosocial distress in patients. The natural course of functional recovery over time differs substantially across subjects, but the mechanisms underlying this difference remain unclear. In this study, we examined whether the anatomic site of the lesion affected the trajectory of recovery. METHODS: In this prospective case series study in a single medical center, patients with thyroid surgery-related unilateral vocal fold paralysis were evaluated using quantitative laryngeal electromyography, videolaryngostroboscopy, voice acoustic analysis, the Voice Outcome Survey, and the Short Form-36 quality-of-life questionnaire. Patients with and without superior laryngeal nerve injuries were compared. RESULTS: Forty-two patients were recruited, among whom 15 and 27 were assigned to the with and without superior laryngeal nerve injury groups, respectively. Compared with the group without superior laryngeal nerve injury, the group with superior laryngeal nerve injury group demonstrated less improvement in the recruitment of vocal fold adductors, and the group also had more severe impairment of vocal fold vibration, maximum phonation time, jitter, shimmer, and harmony-to-noise ratio at the first evaluation. This difference was also found in the glottal gap and maximum phonation time 12 months after the injury. CONCLUSION: Among patients with thyroid surgery-related unilateral vocal fold paralysis, superior laryngeal nerve injury induces a distinctively different recovery trajectory compared with those without superior laryngeal nerve injury characterized by less reinnervation of vocal fold adductors and worse presentation in terms of the glottal gap and maximum phonation time. This study emphasizes the importance of superior laryngeal nerve function and its preservation in thyroid surgery.


Assuntos
Traumatismos do Nervo Laríngeo/etiologia , Traumatismos do Nervo Laríngeo/fisiopatologia , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Tireoidectomia/efeitos adversos , Paralisia das Pregas Vocais/etiologia , Paralisia das Pregas Vocais/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Eletromiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Ácido Hialurônico/administração & dosagem , Traumatismos do Nervo Laríngeo/terapia , Laringoplastia/métodos , Laringoscopia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/fisiopatologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade de Vida , Acústica da Fala , Estroboscopia , Paralisia das Pregas Vocais/terapia
12.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234553, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32555620

RESUMO

This study investigated the developmental paths in the use of audiovisual information for the perception of emotions and phonemes by Japanese speakers. Children aged 5 to 12 years and adults aged 30 to 39 years engaged in an emotion perception task in which speakers expressed their emotions through their faces and voices, and a phoneme perception task using phonemic information in speakers' lip movements and speech sounds. Results indicated that Japanese children's judgement of emotions by using auditory information increased with increasing age, whereas the use of audiovisual information for judging phonemes remained constant with increasing age. Moreover, adults were affected by visual information more than children. We discuss whether these differences in developmental patterns are due to differential integration processes for information indicative of emotions and phonemes, as well as possible cultural / linguistic reasons for these differences.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Emoções , Fonética , Percepção da Fala , Percepção Visual , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Julgamento , Leitura Labial , Percepção Sonora , Masculino , Acústica da Fala
13.
Am J Otolaryngol ; 41(4): 102455, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32475619

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are no reliable outcome predictors for functional dysphonia (FD) patients. OBJECTIVES: To investigate if any clinical or phoniatric characteristics could identify FD patients at risk of negative outcome after speech therapy. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the results of 78 FD patients treated with the proprioceptive elastic method. Before and one-month after therapy, patients underwent endoscopy, acoustic analysis with Multi-Dimensional Voice Program, and Voice Handicap Index-10 questionnaire (VHI-10). Negative outcome was the persistence of VHI-10 ≥ 13. RESULTS: 26 FD patients had negative outcome (i.e. VHI-10 ≥ 13) after speech therapy. At univariate analysis, clinical variables (i.e. sex, age, comorbidities, dysphonia duration, and professional voice use) were not associated with the outcome. Elevated Jitter% (Jitt; p = 0.03), Shimmer% (Shim; statistical trend, p = 0.06), and Noise to Harmonics Ratio (statistical trend, p = 0.06) were found in patients with poor results. At multivariate analysis, higher Jitt was an independent negative prognostic factor (p = 0.02), while a statically trend was identified for Shim (p = 0.06). A panel of Jitt >1.5 and Shim >5.1 showed an acceptable discriminatory power (AUC [ROC] = 0.76) according to Hosmer and Lemeshow scale. CONCLUSION: A panel of two acoustic analysis parameters could help in identifying FD patients at risk of speech therapy failure. Further studies in these patients are needed to evaluate the most efficient treatment protocol.


Assuntos
Disfonia/diagnóstico , Disfonia/reabilitação , Fonação , Acústica da Fala , Medida da Produção da Fala/métodos , Fonoterapia/métodos , Falha de Tratamento , Qualidade da Voz , Voz , Adulto , Disfonia/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Risco
14.
Rev. neurol. (Ed. impr.) ; 70(11): 393-405, 1 jun., 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-191899

RESUMO

OBJETIVO: Revisar de manera exhaustiva la bibliografía referente a la evaluación instrumental cuantitativa de la voz en pacientes con enfermedad de Parkinson (EP) y realizar un metaanálisis para definir las principales características de los trastornos de la voz en la EP. Pacientes y métodos. Búsquedas bibliográficas con las palabras clave «Parkinson» y «voice» en PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library y Web of Science. Los principales criterios de aceptación fueron: EP con confirmación clínica y medición instrumentada de los parámetros de la voz mediante análisis acústico. RESULTADOS: Catorce publicaciones cumplieron los criterios de aceptación y se incluyeron en el metaanálisis. De los datos incorporados al metaanálisis, se dedujo que varios parámetros vocales, como el jitter, el shimmer y la variación de la frecuencia fundamental, presentan variaciones significativas en los pacientes con EP frente a los controles sanos. Se hallaron variaciones significativas de la frecuencia fundamental y de su desviación estándar, del tiempo máximo de fonación y de la razón armónicos-ruido, si bien con una alta heterogeneidad entre los estudios. En cambio, no se observaron variaciones sustanciales de la razón ruido-armónicos, en el índice s/z ni en la variación de la amplitud. CONCLUSIÓN: El análisis acústico de la voz por medio de un sistema electrónico permite detectar los cambios de los parámetros vocales de cara a predecir el empeoramiento de la enfermedad y elegir una intervención específica. Entre dichos parámetros, el jitter y el shimmer aumentaron significativamente en los pacientes con EP


AIM: To systematically review all the literature, focusing on instrumental quantitative assessment of voice in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD). Furthermore, a meta-analysis was performed to identify the main characteristics of voice disturbances in PD. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Literature searches with the keywords «Parkinson» and «voice» were conducted in PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library and Web of Science. Main inclusion criteria were: clinically confirmed PD and instrumented measurement of voice parameters with acoustic analysis of voice. RESULTS: Fourteen publications met the inclusion criteria and were included in the meta-analysis. The data within the meta-analysis revealed that several voice parameters including jitter, shimmer and fundamental frequency variation presented significant variations between patients with EP and healthy controls. Significant variations of fundamental frequency, maximum phonation time, harmonic to noise ratio, standard deviation of fundamental frequency were observed, but with a high heterogeneity between the studies. On the other hand, significant variations of noise to harmonic ratio, s/z ratio, variation of amplitude were not observed. CONCLUSION: Acoustic analysis of voice, using an electronic system, allows the identification of changes in voice parameters for predicting the worsening of disease and for targeting specific intervention. Among the voice parameters, jitter and shimmer significantly increased in patients with PD


Assuntos
Humanos , Doença de Parkinson/fisiopatologia , Doença de Parkinson/complicações , Distúrbios da Fala/etiologia , Distúrbios da Fala/fisiopatologia , Acústica da Fala
15.
Rev. logop. foniatr. audiol. (Ed. impr.) ; 40(2): 67-76, abr.-jun. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-193699

RESUMO

ANTECEDENTES Y OBJETIVO: Investigaciones recientes señalan que el análisis acústico de la voz es una herramienta valiosa tanto para la evaluación objetiva del deterioro cognitivo como para la monitorización de la progresión de la enfermedad. El objetivo de este estudio es determinar si el análisis automático de la voz es también útil en el diagnóstico del deterioro cognitivo. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS: Se trata de un estudio descriptivo correlacional transversal en el que se hace una comparativa entre un grupo experimental compuesto por 10 participantes con deterioro cognitivo y un grupo control con 10 participantes asintomáticos. Se recogieron grabaciones de voz de ambos grupos mientras realizaban 4 tareas cognitivas: conteo hacia atrás (desde el 305 hasta el 285), descripción de una lámina y 2 tareas de fluidez verbal (fonológica y semántica). Las muestras de voz fueron analizadas acústicamente para extraer de ellas variables predictoras del estado cognitivo del sujeto. RESULTADOS: Los resultados muestran que las variables acústicas analizadas son eficaces para la detección precoz del deterioro cognitivo, al lograr una tasa de clasificación del 100% al predecir el estado cognitivo de los sujetos de la muestra. Parece que las tareas de fluidez verbal presentan mayor eficacia que las de conteo hacia atrás y descripción de una imagen. CONCLUSIONES: A la luz de los resultados encontrados consideramos que el análisis automático de la voz podría ser una herramienta de evaluación objetiva adicional para mayores con deterioro cognitivo. Se discuten las implicaciones de los resultados encontrados


BACKGROUND AND AIM: Recent research has shown that acoustic voice analysis is a valuable tool for both the objective assessment of cognitive impairment and the monitoring of disease progression. The aim of this study is to determine whether automatic voice analysis is also useful for diagnosis of cognitive impairment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a descriptive cross-sectional correlational study in which a comparison is made between an experimental group composed of 10 participants with cognitive impairment and a control group with 10 healthy participants. Voice recordings were collected from both groups while they performed 4 tasks: counting backwards (from 305 to 285), description of an image and two tasks of verbal fluency (phonological and semantic). The voice samples were later acoustically analyzed to extract from them variables predictive of the cognitive state of the subject. RESULTS: The results show that the acoustic variables are effective for early detection of cognitive impairment, achieving a classification rate of 100% when predicting the cognitive status of the subjects in our sample. From the results it is clear that verbal fluency tasks are more effective than counting backwards and describing an image. CONCLUSIONS: In light of our results, we consider that automatic voice analysis could be an additional objective assessment tool for elderly people with cognitive impairment. The implications of the results found are discussed


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Transtornos Cognitivos/diagnóstico , Acústica da Fala , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais
16.
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 14(2): 205-212, June 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1090676

RESUMO

Mapudungun is a language used by Mapuche people in some regions of Chile and Argentina. The aim of this study was to describe the vowel phonemes with regard to the articulatory parameters (position of the tongue with respect to the palate and jaw opening) and acoustic parameters (f0, F1, F2 and F3) in Mapudungun speakers in the Region of La Araucanía. The vocalic phonemes of Mapudungun are six, where the first five are similar to those used in Spanish (/a e i o u/), to which is added a sixth vowel (/ɨ/) with its vocalic allophones (/ɨ/) and [Ә]. Three Mapudungun speakers were evaluated. The tongue movements were collected by Electromagnetic Articulography 3D and the data were processed with MATLAB and PRAAT software. It was possible to describe the trajectory of each third of the tongue during the production of the vowels. It was observed that the sixth vowel /Ә/ had minimal jaw opening during its pronunciation. In addition, the characteristic of /Ә/ as an unrounded mid-central vowel was corroborated. In this study, the tongue of mapudungun speakers was in a more posterior position than the found in other studies.


El Mapudungun es un lenguaje utilizado por los mapuches en algunas regiones de Chile y Argentina. El objetivo de este estudio fue describir los fonemas vocálicos respecto a los parámetros articulatorios (posición de la lengua respecto al paladar y apertura mandibular) y los parámetros acústicos (f0, F1, F2 y F3) en hablantes de Mapudungun en la Región de La Araucanía, los fonemas vocálicos de Mapudungun son seis, donde los primeros cinco son similares a los utilizados en español (/a e i o u /), a los que se agrega una sexta vocal (/ɨ/) con sus alófonos vocálicos [ɨ] y [Ә]. Se evaluaron tres hablantes de Mapudungun. Los movimientos de la lengua fueron registrados por Articulografía Electromagnética 3D y los datos fueron procesados con el software MATLAB y PRAAT. Fue posible describir la trayectoria de cada tercio de la lengua durante la producción de las vocales. Se observó que la sexta vocal /Ә/ tenía una apertura mínima de la mandíbula durante su pronunciación. Además, se corroboró la característica de /Ә/ como vocal central media no redondeada. En este estudio, la lengua de los hablantes de mapudungun estaba en una posición más posterior que la encontrada en otros estudios.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Medida da Produção da Fala/instrumentação , Língua/fisiologia , Fonética , Índios Sul-Americanos , Arcada Osseodentária/fisiologia , Acústica da Fala , Projetos Piloto , Fenômenos Eletromagnéticos
17.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232514, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32384088

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate if, regardless of language background (tonal or non-tonal), musicians may show stronger CP than non-musicians; To examine if native speakers of English (English or non-tonal musicians henceforth) or Mandarin Chinese (Mandarin or tonal musicians henceforth) can better accommodate multiple functions of the same acoustic cue and if musicians' sensitivity to pitch of lexical tones comes at the cost of slower processing. METHOD: English and Mandarin Musicians and non-musicians performed a categorical identification and a discrimination task on rising and falling continua of fundamental frequency on two vowels with 9 duration values. RESULTS: Non-tonal musicians exhibited significantly stronger categorical perception of pitch contour than non-tonal non-musicians. However, tonal musicians did not consistently perceive the two types of pitch directions more categorically than tonal non-musicians. Both tonal and non-tonal musicians also benefited more from increasing stimulus duration in processing pitch changes than non-musicians and they generally require less time for pitch processing. Musicians were also more sensitive to intrinsic F0 in pitch perception and differences of pitch types. CONCLUSION: The effect of musical training strengthens categorical perception more consistently in non-tonal speakers than tonal speakers. Overall, musicians benefit more from increased stimulus duration, due perhaps to their greater sensitivity to temporal information, thus allowing them to be better at forming a more robust auditory representation and matching sounds to internalized memory templates. Musicians also attended more to acoustic details such as intrinsic F0 and pitch types in pitch processing, and yet, overall, their categorization of pitch was not compromised by traces of these acoustic details from their auditory short-term working memory. These findings may lead to a better understanding of pitch perception deficits in special populations, particularly among individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD).


Assuntos
Idioma , Música/psicologia , Nível de Percepção Sonora/fisiologia , Estimulação Acústica , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Hong Kong , Humanos , Masculino , Nível de Discriminação Sonora/fisiologia , Acústica da Fala , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
18.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232431, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32365066

RESUMO

This study examined how trustworthiness impressions depend on vocal expressive and person characteristics and how their dependence may be explained by acoustical profiles. Sentences spoken in a range of emotional and conversational expressions by 20 speakers differing in age and sex were presented to 80 age and sex matched listeners who rated speaker trustworthiness. Positive speaker valence but not arousal consistently predicted greater perceived trustworthiness. Additionally, voices from younger as compared with older and female as compared with male speakers were judged more trustworthy. Acoustic analysis highlighted several parameters as relevant for being perceived as trustworthy (i.e., accelerated tempo, low harmonic-to-noise ratio, more shimmer, low fundamental frequency, more jitter, large intensity range) and showed that effects partially overlapped with those for perceived speaker affect, age, but not sex. Specifically, a fast speech rate and a lower harmonic-to-noise ratio differentiated trustworthy from untrustworthy, positive from negative, and younger from older voices. Male and female voices differed in other ways. Together, these results show that a speaker's expressive as well as person characteristics shape trustworthiness impressions and that their effect likely results from a combination of low-level perceptual and higher-order conceptual processes.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/psicologia , Ira , Confiança , Voz , Estimulação Acústica , Adulto , Afeto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psicoacústica , Fatores Sexuais , Singapura , Acústica da Fala , Percepção da Fala , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Appl Oral Sci ; 28: e20190399, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32348443

RESUMO

Objectives To evaluate the acoustic properties of the /s/ sound in individuals with different occlusion types and to investigate relationships between these properties and cephalometric measurements. Methodology Sixty patients were divided into three groups based on malocclusion. Group 1 included 20 patients (mean age: 14.85±2.01 years) with Class I skeletal and dental relationships. Group 2 included 20 patients (mean age: 13.49±1.78 years) with Class II skeletal and dental relationships. Group 3 included 20 patients (mean age: 12.46±2.62 years) with Class III skeletal and dental relationships. Cephalometric tracings were obtained from cephalometric radiographs. All included patients were native speakers of Turkish. The /s/ sound was selected for center of gravity analysis. Correlations between cephalometric values and acoustic parameters were also investigated. Results The center of gravity of the /s/ sound had the lowest value in Group 2 (p<0.05). For the /s/ sound in Group 3, moderate positive correlations were found between center of gravity and Sella-Nasion to Gonion-Gnathion angle (p<0.05, r=0.444) Lower incisor to Nasion-B point (p<0.023, r=0.505), and Lower incisor to Nasion-B point angle (p<0.034; r=0.476). No correlation was found in other cephalometric measurements. Conclusions The /s/ sound was affected by malocclusion due to the changing place of articulation. Therefore, referral to an orthodontist for malocclusion treatment especially patients with class III in the early period is suggested for producing acoustically ideal sound.


Assuntos
Cefalometria , Má Oclusão/fisiopatologia , Acústica da Fala , Distúrbios da Fala/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Má Oclusão/complicações , Má Oclusão/diagnóstico por imagem , Mandíbula/anatomia & histologia , Mandíbula/fisiopatologia , Maxila/anatomia & histologia , Maxila/fisiopatologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Radiografia , Valores de Referência , Distúrbios da Fala/diagnóstico por imagem , Distúrbios da Fala/etiologia , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Língua/anatomia & histologia , Língua/fisiopatologia , Turquia
20.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 16(4): e1007755, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32267836

RESUMO

Analyzing the rhythm of animals' acoustic signals is of interest to a growing number of researchers: evolutionary biologists want to disentangle how these structures evolved and what patterns can be found, and ecologists and conservation biologists aim to discriminate cryptic species on the basis of parameters of acoustic signals such as temporal structures. Temporal structures are also relevant for research on vocal production learning, a part of which is for the animal to learn a temporal structure. These structures, in other words, these rhythms, are the topic of this paper. How can they be investigated in a meaningful, comparable and universal way? Several approaches exist. Here we used five methods to compare their suitability and interpretability for different questions and datasets and test how they support the reproducibility of results and bypass biases. Three very different datasets with regards to recording situation, length and context were analyzed: two social vocalizations of Neotropical bats (multisyllabic, medium long isolation calls of Saccopteryx bilineata, and monosyllabic, very short isolation calls of Carollia perspicillata) and click trains of sperm whales, Physeter macrocephalus. Techniques to be compared included Fourier analysis with a newly developed goodness-of-fit value, a generate-and-test approach where data was overlaid with varying artificial beats, and the analysis of inter-onset-intervals and calculations of a normalized Pairwise Variability Index (nPVI). We discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the methods and we also show suggestions on how to best visualize rhythm analysis results. Furthermore, we developed a decision tree that will enable researchers to select a suitable and comparable method on the basis of their data.


Assuntos
Biologia Computacional/métodos , Acústica da Fala , Vocalização Animal/classificação , Acústica , Comunicação Animal , Animais , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Vocalização Animal/fisiologia
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