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1.
PLoS Biol ; 18(9): e3000860, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32960891

RESUMO

Engagement with scientific manuscripts is frequently facilitated by Twitter and other social media platforms. As such, the demographics of a paper's social media audience provide a wealth of information about how scholarly research is transmitted, consumed, and interpreted by online communities. By paying attention to public perceptions of their publications, scientists can learn whether their research is stimulating positive scholarly and public thought. They can also become aware of potentially negative patterns of interest from groups that misinterpret their work in harmful ways, either willfully or unintentionally, and devise strategies for altering their messaging to mitigate these impacts. In this study, we collected 331,696 Twitter posts referencing 1,800 highly tweeted bioRxiv preprints and leveraged topic modeling to infer the characteristics of various communities engaging with each preprint on Twitter. We agnostically learned the characteristics of these audience sectors from keywords each user's followers provide in their Twitter biographies. We estimate that 96% of the preprints analyzed are dominated by academic audiences on Twitter, suggesting that social media attention does not always correspond to greater public exposure. We further demonstrate how our audience segmentation method can quantify the level of interest from nonspecialist audience sectors such as mental health advocates, dog lovers, video game developers, vegans, bitcoin investors, conspiracy theorists, journalists, religious groups, and political constituencies. Surprisingly, we also found that 10% of the preprints analyzed have sizable (>5%) audience sectors that are associated with right-wing white nationalist communities. Although none of these preprints appear to intentionally espouse any right-wing extremist messages, cases exist in which extremist appropriation comprises more than 50% of the tweets referencing a given preprint. These results present unique opportunities for improving and contextualizing the public discourse surrounding scientific research.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados como Assunto , Publicações , Ciência , Mudança Social , Mídias Sociais , Academias e Institutos/organização & administração , Academias e Institutos/normas , Academias e Institutos/estatística & dados numéricos , Acesso à Informação , Bases de Dados como Assunto/organização & administração , Bases de Dados como Assunto/normas , Bases de Dados como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Processamento Eletrônico de Dados/organização & administração , Processamento Eletrônico de Dados/normas , Processamento Eletrônico de Dados/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Competência em Informação , Internet/organização & administração , Internet/normas , Internet/estatística & dados numéricos , Ativismo Político , Publicações/classificação , Publicações/normas , Publicações/estatística & dados numéricos , Publicações/provisão & distribução , Ciência/organização & administração , Ciência/normas , Ciência/estatística & dados numéricos , Mídias Sociais/organização & administração , Mídias Sociais/normas , Mídias Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos
4.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 68(8): 1540-1544, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32709770

RESUMO

Purpose: To evaluate the effect of COVID-19 pandemic and national lockdown on patient care at a tertiary-care ophthalmology institute. Methods: Records of all the patients who presented from March 25th to May 3rd, 2020 were scanned to evaluate the details regarding the presenting complaints, diagnosis, advised treatment and surgical interventions. Results: The number of outpatient department visits, retinal laser procedures, intravitreal injections and cataract surgeries during this lockdown decreased by 96.5%, 96.5%, 98.7% and 99.7% respectively compared from the corresponding time last year. Around 38.8% patients could be triaged as non-emergency cases based on history alone while 59.5% patients could be triaged as non-emergency cases after examination. Only eighty-four patients opted for video-consultation from April 15th to May 3rd, 2020. Nine patients presented with perforated corneal ulcer, but could not undergo penetrating keratoplasty due to the lack to available donor corneal tissue. One of these patients had to undergo evisceration due to disease progression. Two patients with open globe injury presented late after trauma and had to undergo enucleation. Around 9% patients could not undergo the advised urgent procedure due to logistical issues related to the lockdown. Conclusion: A significant number of patients could not get adequate treatment during the lockdown period. Hospitals need to build capacity to cater to the expected patient surge post-COVID-19-era, especially those requiring immediate in-person attention. A large number of patients can be classified as non-emergency cases. These patients need to be encouraged to follow-up via video-consultation to carve adequate in-person time for the high-risk patients.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Oftalmopatias/terapia , Oftalmologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Assistência ao Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Quarentena , Academias e Institutos/organização & administração , Academias e Institutos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Hospitais Especializados/organização & administração , Hospitais Especializados/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oftalmologia/organização & administração , Estudos Retrospectivos , Centros de Atenção Terciária/estatística & dados numéricos
5.
Metas enferm ; 23(6): 27-32, jul. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-194596

RESUMO

El Grupo de Investigación en Cuidados (GIC) del Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria San Carlos (IdISSC) se creó en el año 2011, dando respuesta a la oportunidad que se dio por parte de las autoridades de investigación sanitaria de crear un grupo independiente de investigación para formar parte del instituto desde sus inicios, lo cual fue aprovechado de manera estratégica desde la Dirección de Enfermería del Hospital Clínico San Carlos (HCSC) de Madrid, creando dos grupos emergentes, uno de Investigación en Cuidados y otro de Investigación en Fisioterapia. El Grupo de Investigación en Cuidados está integrado por 41 personas del ámbito docente, gestor y asistencial del Hospital Clínico San Carlos y de la Universidad Complutense de Madrid (UCM), mayoritariamente. Sus tres líneas de investigación tienen interés en el entorno asistencial de hospitalización, quirúrgico y ambulatorio, denominándose "Seguridad del paciente y profesional", cuyo objetivo es "identificar mejores prácticas, optimizar y/o mejorar el cuidado que permitan minimizar riesgos, tanto en el paciente como en el profesional"; línea de "Educación terapéutica", cuyo fin es "investigar cuáles son las mejores prácticas que aseguren adherencia a tratamientos y resultados en salud" y la línea de "Evaluación y desarrollo de producto sanitario", que tiene el propósito de "optimizar y/o mejorar el uso y diseño de productos sanitarios, encaminados a disminuir la morbilidad iatrogénica". Actualmente el GIC está plenamente integrado en el IdISSC como grupo independiente emergente, y está presente en los órganos de decisión del instituto, teniendo como objetivo inmediato convertirse en grupo consolidado


The Healthcare Research Group (HRG) of the Institute of Health Research San Carlos (IdISSC) was created in 2011, as an answer to the opportunity granted by health research authorities to create an independent research group as part of the institute from the start, which was taken strategically from the Nursing Management of the Hospital Clínico San Carlos (HCSC) of Madrid, creating two emergent groups, one for Healthcare Research and another for Research on Physiotherapy. The Healthcare Research Group is formed mainly by 41 persons from the teaching, management and care settings of the Hospital Clínico San Carlos and the Universidad Complutense of Madrid (UCM). Their three lines of research are of interest for the healthcare hospitalization, surgery and outpatient settings; one is called "Patient and Professional Safety", and its objective is "to identify the best practices, to optimize and/or improve care in order to minimize risks, both for patients and professionals", there is a "Therapeutic Education" line, with the aim to "research about the best practices that will ensure treatment adherence and health outcomes", and the "Healthcare Product Evaluation and Development" line, with the aim to "optimize and/or improve the use and design of healthcare products, in order to reduce iatrogenic mortality". Currently the HRG is completely integrated in the IdISSC as an emergent independent group, with presence in the decision-making boards of the institute, and with the immediate objective of becoming a consolidated group


Assuntos
Humanos , Pesquisa Biomédica/organização & administração , Pesquisa em Enfermagem/organização & administração , Segurança do Paciente/normas , Educação em Saúde/organização & administração , Academias e Institutos/organização & administração , Academias e Institutos/normas , Indicadores de Produção Científica
13.
Orthop Clin North Am ; 51(2): 177-188, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32138856

RESUMO

There exists an unmet need for locally relevant and sustainable orthopedic research in low- and middle-income countries. Partnerships between high-income countries and low- and middle-income countries can bridge gaps in resources, knowledge, infrastructure, and skill. This article presents a select list of models for high-income countries/low- and middle-income countries research partnerships including academic partnerships, international research consortia, professional society-associated working groups, and nongovernmental organization partnerships. Models that produce research with lasting legacy are those that promote mutually beneficial partnerships over individual gains.


Assuntos
Academias e Institutos/organização & administração , Pesquisa Biomédica/organização & administração , Países em Desenvolvimento , Ortopedia/organização & administração , Pesquisa Biomédica/economia , Países em Desenvolvimento/economia , Saúde Global , Relações Interinstitucionais , América do Norte , Organizações/economia , Organizações/organização & administração , Ortopedia/economia , Pobreza
18.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0228261, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31978119

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Strengthening research capacity in low-and-middle-income countries is essential to drive socioeconomic development and to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals. Understanding strengths and weaknesses in institutions' research capacity can guide effective targeting of investments and resources. This study assessed the capacity of institutions undertaking research in natural science topics in Africa to identify priority capacity gaps for future investment. METHODS: Assessments were conducted in eight African institutions that were partners in a UK-Africa programme to strengthen research capacity in renewable energy, soil-related science, and water and sanitation. Assessments involved eighty-six interviews and three focus group discussions to identify institutions' research capacity strengths and gaps against an evidence-informed benchmark. Use of the same interview guides and data collection processes across all institutions meant that findings could be compared. RESULTS: Common research capacity gaps were: lack of, or poorly maintained, equipment; unreliable, slow procurement systems; insufficient opportunities for developing the skills of research support staff such as administrators and technicians; dysfunctional institutional email communication systems; insufficient focus on the development of 'soft' researcher skills such as ethics, academic writing and, in non-Anglophone countries, English language. Programme strengths were the South-South and South-North partnerships for sharing and cascading expertise and resources, joint writing of proposals and publications, and improved individual and institutional visibility. CONCLUSION: There were many similarities in research capacity gaps irrespective of the institutions' natural sciences research focus, and these were similar to those reported in the health sector. Common capacity needs are improving the skills of technicians and administrators to support research activities, soft skills training for researchers, and more effective pan-institutional e-communication systems. These could be strategic investment targets for the joint efforts of national governments and international organisations that fund programmes for strengthening research capacity in low- and middle-income countries.


Assuntos
Pesquisadores/psicologia , Pesquisa , Academias e Institutos/economia , Academias e Institutos/organização & administração , África , Fortalecimento Institucional , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto
19.
Ophthalmology ; 127(5): 689-695, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31899031

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To review the literature on the efficacy and safety of bioengineered acellular dermal matrix (BADM) grafts for lower eyelid retraction repair. METHODS: A literature search was conducted in the PubMed database initially in January 2018 and updated in July 2019 to identify all studies in the English language literature on the use of BADM grafts in eyelid reconstruction. The searches yielded 193 citations, and 15 of the 34 articles selected for full review met all inclusion criteria for this assessment. A panel methodologist then assigned a level of evidence rating for each study. Two of the 15 studies included were rated level II and 13 were rated level III. RESULTS: The definition of success varied, but lower eyelid position improvement using lower lid margin-to-pupillary reflex distance was the most common outcome measure. Other end points were the amount of lagophthalmos, cosmesis, exposure, reoperation, or complications, as well as prosthesis retention in anophthalmic socket cases. The surgeon-reported success rate of these outcomes ranged from 75% to 100%. Minor complications included cyst formation, infection, chemosis, pyogenic granuloma, and corneal abrasion. No serious complications such as blindness, anaphylactic reaction, or terminal disease transmission occurred. Of the 526 implants included for assessment in these disparate studies, 27 cases (5%) required reoperation. CONCLUSIONS: No level I evidence was available, and the existing level II and level III studies have variable primary end points, study design limitations, and only short-term follow-up data. The current literature suggests that BADM grafts represent an implantation option for lower eyelid retraction repair. Short-term results are favorable, and the materials used may fill an important gap in care for patients for whom no acceptable alternatives exist, but long-term safety and efficacy remain unknown.


Assuntos
Derme Acelular , Doenças Palpebrais/cirurgia , Oftalmologia/organização & administração , Transplante de Pele , Avaliação da Tecnologia Biomédica , Academias e Institutos/organização & administração , Bioengenharia , Blefaroplastia/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos
20.
Health Res Policy Syst ; 18(1): 6, 2020 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31959198

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Public research funding agencies and research organisations are increasingly accountable for the wider impacts of the research they support. While research impact assessment (RIA) frameworks and tools exist, little is known and shared of how these organisations implement RIA activities in practice. METHODS: We conducted a review of academic literature to search for research organisations' published experiences of RIAs. We followed this with semi-structured interviews from a convenience sample (n = 7) of representatives of four research organisations deploying strategies to support and assess research impact. RESULTS: We found only five studies reporting empirical evidence on how research organisations put RIA principles into practice. From our interviews, we observed a disconnect between published RIA frameworks and tools, and the realities of organisational practices, which tended not to be reported. We observed varying maturity and readiness with respect to organisations' structural set ups for conducting RIAs, particularly relating to leadership, skills for evaluation and automating RIA data collection. Key processes for RIA included efforts to engage researcher communities to articulate and plan for impact, using a diversity of methods, frameworks and indicators, and supporting a learning approach. We observed outcomes of RIAs as having supported a dialogue to orient research to impact, underpinned shared learning from analyses of research, and provided evidence of the value of research in different domains and to different audiences. CONCLUSIONS: Putting RIA principles and frameworks into practice is still in early stages for research organisations. We recommend that organisations (1) get set up by considering upfront the resources, time and leadership required to embed impact strategies throughout the organisation and wider research 'ecosystem', and develop methodical approaches to assessing impact; (2) work together by engaging researcher communities and wider stakeholders as a core part of impact pathway planning and subsequent assessment; and (3) recognise the benefits that RIA can bring about as a means to improve mutual understanding of the research process between different actors with an interest in research.


Assuntos
Academias e Institutos/organização & administração , Apoio à Pesquisa como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Academias e Institutos/normas , Participação da Comunidade , Humanos , Liderança
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