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1.
Parasite ; 26: 49, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31432778

RESUMO

This experimental study aimed to determine the efficacy of Afoxolaner (NexGard®) to prevent Babesia rossi transmission by Haemaphysalis elliptica ticks on dogs. The study included three groups of seven dogs each. Groups 1 and 2 remained untreated, whereas group 3 dogs received NexGard® on Day 0. All dogs were infested by 50 Haemaphysalis elliptica adult ticks: Group 1 on Day 2, Group 2 on Day 28 and Group 3 on Days 2 and 28. The ticks were originally nymphs having fed on B. rossi infected donor dogs. Their infection rate, assessed by PCR, was 12.8% at Day 2 and 6% at Day 28. On Days 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49 and 56, and in case of suspicion of babesiosis, blood samples were collected for blood smears, PCR and ELISA. The B. rossi infection rate in the untreated group 1 was 100% (6/6, as one dog was inadvertently treated on Day 15 and removed from statistical analysis). The infection rate was 57.1% (4/7) in group 2, and 0% (0/7) in the afoxolaner treated group 3 at all time-points until the end of the study on Day 56. After tick removal and count 144 h after each infestation, the control groups had an arithmetic mean of ticks of 23.8 (group 1) and 26.8 (group 2). No tick was recovered from any treated dogs. This study demonstrated that NexGard® protected dogs against infection by B. rossi for at least 28 days.


Assuntos
Acaricidas/administração & dosagem , Babesiose/prevenção & controle , Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Isoxazóis/administração & dosagem , Naftalenos/administração & dosagem , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Administração Oral , Animais , Babesia/genética , Babesiose/sangue , Babesiose/transmissão , Doenças do Cão/sangue , Cães/parasitologia , Feminino , Masculino , Infestações por Carrapato/parasitologia , Infestações por Carrapato/prevenção & controle , Resultado do Tratamento
2.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 345, 2019 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31300011

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The poultry red mite (PRM), Dermanyssus gallinae, is one of the most economically deleterious threats to laying-hen industry worldwide. Macrocyclic lactones (MLs) have been widely used in control of mites in mammals, but the effects of MLs on PRMs are not well studied. The main objective of the present study was to systematically evaluate the effects of three MLs, i.e. eprinomectin (EPR), moxidectin (MOX) or ivermectin (IVM), on PRMs fed on chicks following oral administration. METHODS: Chicks in treatment groups were orally administrated with EPR, MOX or IVM at a dose of 5.0 mg/kg bodyweight. Chicks in the control group received the carrier solvent without drug. Chicks in each cage were then infested with 200 starved adult D. gallinae. After infestation and feeding for 12 h, engorged mites were collected to evaluate the acaricidal efficacy of the MLs, and its impacts on the reproduction and blood-meal digestion of D. gallinae. RESULTS: MOX, IVM and EPR demonstrated higher acaricidal efficacies post-treatment compared with the control, i.e. 45.60% for MOX, 71.32% for IVM and 100% for EPR on Day 10. MLs did not have significant effects on the blood-meal ingestion of PRMs, but significantly slowed down blood digestion (P < 0.0001). The oviposition rate, egg hatching rate and fecundity of PRMs in treatment groups were remarkably reduced. Among the three MLs, EPR exhibited the highest performance against PRMs, with an oviposition rate of 1.04%, fecundity of 0.33 eggs per mite and a zero egg hatching rate in EPR treated groups. CONCLUSIONS: EPR, MOX or IVM administrated orally to chicks increased the mortality of D. gallinae, significantly slowed down their blood-meal digestion and significantly reduced their reproductive capability which included the oviposition rate, fecundity and egg hatching rate. The present study highlights the potential of MLs in the control of PRMs.


Assuntos
Acaricidas/uso terapêutico , Fertilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Macrocíclicos/uso terapêutico , Infestações por Ácaros/veterinária , Ácaros/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/tratamento farmacológico , Acaricidas/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Animais , Galinhas/parasitologia , Feminino , Lactonas/farmacologia , Compostos Macrocíclicos/administração & dosagem , Infestações por Ácaros/tratamento farmacológico , Ácaros/fisiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia
3.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 185, 2019 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31029149

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The southern cattle fever tick (SCFT), Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, remains endemic in Puerto Rico. Systematic treatment programmes greatly reduced and even eradicated temporarily this tick from the island. However, a systemic treatment programme that includes integrated management practices for livestock against SCFT remains to be established in the island. We describe a spatially-explicit, individual-based model that simulates climate-livestock-SCFT-landscape interactions. This model was developed as an investigative tool to aid in a research project on integrated management of the SCFT that took place in Puerto Rico between 2014 and 2017. We used the model to assess the efficacy of tick suppression and probability of tick elimination when applying safer acaricides at 3-week intervals to different proportions of a herd of non-lactating dairy cattle. RESULTS: Probabilities of eliminating host-seeking larvae from the simulated system decreased from ≈ 1 to ≈ 0 as the percentage of cattle treated decreased from 65 to 45, with elimination probabilities ≈ 1 at higher treatment percentages and ≈ 0 at lower treatment percentages. For treatment percentages between 65% and 45%, a more rapid decline in elimination probabilities was predicted by the version of the model that produced higher densities of host-seeking larvae. Number of weeks after the first acaricide application to elimination of host-seeking larvae was variable among replicate simulations within treatment percentages, with within-treatment variation increasing markedly at treatment percentages ≤ 65. Number of weeks after first application to elimination generally varied between 30 and 40 weeks for those treatment percentages with elimination probabilities ≈ 1. CONCLUSIONS: Explicit simulation of the spatial and temporal dynamics of off-host (host-seeking) larvae in response to control methods should be an essential element of research that involves the evaluation of integrated SCFT management programmes. This approach could provide the basis to evaluate novel control technologies and to develop protocols for their cost-effective use with other treatment methods.


Assuntos
Acaricidas/administração & dosagem , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Simulação por Computador , Rhipicephalus , Infestações por Carrapato/prevenção & controle , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Acaricidas/economia , Animais , Vetores Artrópodes , Bovinos/parasitologia , Clima , Indústria de Laticínios , Feminino , Lactação , Larva , Gado/parasitologia , Porto Rico , Análise Espacial , Processos Estocásticos , Infestações por Carrapato/economia
4.
Vet Parasitol ; 270 Suppl 1: S12-S18, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30914264

RESUMO

The efficacy of a single application of a new topical formulation containing selamectin plus sarolaner (Revolution® Plus / Stronghold® Plus, Zoetis) was evaluated against fleas and ticks infesting cats enrolled as veterinary patients in two field studies conducted in Japan and against Haemaphysalis longicornis ticks on cats in a laboratory study. In the laboratory study, sixteen cats were ranked based on pre-treatment tick counts and allocated randomly to treatment on Day 0 with either selamectin plus sarolaner or placebo. Cats were infested with adult H. longicornis on Days -2, 5, 12, 19, 26 and 33. Efficacy relative to placebo was based on live attached tick counts conducted 48 h after treatment and subsequent re-infestations. Selamectin plus sarolaner reduced live, attached H. longicornis counts by 96.4% within 48 h of treatment, and by ≥91.7% within 48 h of weekly re-infestation for 35 days, based on arithmetic means. In the field studies, 67 client-owned cats harboring six or more live fleas and 63 cats harboring four or more live attached ticks were enrolled to evaluate selamectin plus sarolaner for efficacy and safety compared with a registered product. Cats were allocated randomly to treatment with selamectin plus sarolaner or fipronil plus (S)-methoprene based on order of presentation. Treatment was administered once on Day 0 and efficacy was assessed by parasite counts conducted on Days 14 and 30 compared to the pre-treatment count. In the flea field study, live flea counts on Days 14 and 30 were reduced by 99.5% and 99.9% in the selamectin plus sarolaner group, and by 97.6% and 98.6% in the fipronil plus (S)-methoprene group, based on least squares mean percentage reductions. Clinical signs typically associated with flea allergy dermatitis improved following treatment. In the tick field study, live tick counts on Days 14 and 30 were reduced by 97.5% and 97.7% in the selamectin plus sarolaner group, and by 91.5% and 93.4% in the fipronil plus (S)-methoprene group, based on least squares mean percentage reductions. Selamectin plus sarolaner was determined to be non-inferior to fipronil plus (S)-methoprene in both field studies. There were no treatment-related adverse events in any study. A single topical dose of Revolution® Plus / Stronghold® Plus providing a minimum dosage of 6.0 mg/kg selamectin and 1.0 mg/kg sarolaner was confirmed to be effective against H. longicornis ticks on cats for one month and safe and effective in the treatment of fleas and ticks on cats enrolled as veterinary patients in Japan.


Assuntos
Azetidinas/administração & dosagem , Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Infestações por Pulgas/veterinária , Ivermectina/análogos & derivados , Compostos de Espiro/administração & dosagem , Controle de Ácaros e Carrapatos , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Acaricidas/administração & dosagem , Administração Tópica , Animais , Doenças do Gato/prevenção & controle , Gatos , Composição de Medicamentos/veterinária , Feminino , Infestações por Pulgas/tratamento farmacológico , Infestações por Pulgas/prevenção & controle , Inseticidas/administração & dosagem , Ivermectina/administração & dosagem , Japão , Masculino , Metoprene/administração & dosagem , Pirazóis/administração & dosagem , Distribuição Aleatória , Sifonápteros/efeitos dos fármacos , Infestações por Carrapato/tratamento farmacológico , Infestações por Carrapato/prevenção & controle , Carrapatos/efeitos dos fármacos , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Vet Dermatol ; 30(3): 267-e81, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30895701

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sarcoptic mange in free-ranging raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) caused by Sarcoptes scabiei is a widespread zoonotic disease that causes severe skin lesions with significant morbidity and mortality. Fluralaner is a member of the isoxazoline chemical class and is an acaricide and insecticide widely used in flea, tick and mite infections of dogs (Canis lupus familiaris). OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical efficacy of orally administered fluralaner in free-ranging raccoon dogs naturally infected with sarcoptic mange. ANIMALS: Six raccoon dogs rescued at the Seoul Wildlife Center between November 2017 and April 2018. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Raccoon dogs were treated with a single dose of a chewable fluralaner tablet. Clinical lesion scoring and superficial skin scraping were performed weekly for three weeks to assess treatment efficacy; the general health was assessed daily to monitor response and observe any adverse drug reactions. RESULTS: Within seven days of treatment, a marked reduction in skin lesions was observed and mites were no longer present in skin scrapings. There was no evidence of re-infestation and no additional drug administration was required. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: Although this was a nonrandomized, uncontrolled study of a small number of animals, it demonstrated that fluralaner may be suitable for treating sarcoptic mange in raccoon dogs.


Assuntos
Acaricidas/uso terapêutico , Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Isoxazóis/uso terapêutico , Sarcoptes scabiei/efeitos dos fármacos , Escabiose/veterinária , Acaricidas/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Animais , Feminino , Isoxazóis/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Cães Guaxinins/parasitologia , Escabiose/tratamento farmacológico , Pele/patologia , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 139, 2019 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30902104

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An imidacloprid/flumethrin collar (Seresto®) was previously shown to prevent infection with Babesia canis, transmitted by Dermacentor reticulatus, in dogs for up to 1 month after application. The present study evaluated the prevention of transmission throughout the claimed efficacy period of 8 months. METHODS: Eight animals each were randomly included in groups 1 (negative control) and 2 (Seresto® collar), respectively. Animals in group 2 received the Seresto® collar on Day 0. Tick challenges were performed monthly from the 2nd to the 8th month. Assessment criteria included in situ tick counts 48 hours post-challenge, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses and immunofluorescence assays (IFA). Whenever dogs were diagnosed with babesiosis they were "rescue-treated", excluded and replaced. Consequently, 24 replacement animals were introduced at various time points throughout the study in the control group; thus data for a total of 32 dogs were available in the latter group at study termination. RESULTS: Acaricidal efficacy for in situ counts was 93% on Day 30, and ranged from 97 to 100% thereafter. No B. canis specific DNA or antibodies were detected in any Seresto®-treated dog at any time. Babesia canis-specific DNA and antibodies were detected in 2-6 of 8 control dogs after each challenge, confirming the validity of the challenge model. CONCLUSIONS: The Seresto® collar was highly effective against challenges with D. reticulatus ticks for up to 8 months. The high sustained acaricidal efficacy over this period prevented transmission of B. canis, thus fully protecting dogs against infection in this experimental infestation model.


Assuntos
Acaricidas/administração & dosagem , Babesiose/prevenção & controle , Dermacentor/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/instrumentação , Neonicotinoides/administração & dosagem , Nitrocompostos/administração & dosagem , Piretrinas/administração & dosagem , Infestações por Carrapato/tratamento farmacológico , Acaricidas/uso terapêutico , Animais , Vetores Aracnídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Vetores Aracnídeos/parasitologia , Babesia/genética , Babesia/imunologia , Babesiose/transmissão , Dermacentor/parasitologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Doenças do Cão/transmissão , Cães , Feminino , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória , Infestações por Carrapato/parasitologia
7.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 28, 2019 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30651107

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cats can be infested with several ectoparasite species, especially Ctenocephalides felis and Otodectes cynotis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a single topical application of fluralaner against C. felis and O. cynotis natural infestation in stray (study 1) and owned (study 2) cats in central and southern Italy. RESULTS: The number of live fleas found on each cat on Day 0 ranged from 1 to more than 30 (arithmetic mean live flea count = 11.9 in study 1; 14.6 in study 2) while no live fleas were found on days 7 and 84 post topical application of fluralaner. The number of live mites found on each cat on Day 0 ranged from 1 to 42 (arithmetic mean live mite count = 6.4 in study 1; 8.9 in study 2) while no live mites were found on days 7 and 84 post topical application of fluralaner. CONCLUSIONS: Topical fluralaner completely eliminated fleas and ear mites from infested cats and was 100% effective against both parasites up to 84 days after treatment.


Assuntos
Acaricidas , Ctenocephalides , Infestações por Pulgas/veterinária , Isoxazóis , Infestações por Ácaros/veterinária , Acaricidas/administração & dosagem , Administração Tópica , Animais , Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Gatos , Feminino , Infestações por Pulgas/tratamento farmacológico , Isoxazóis/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Infestações por Ácaros/tratamento farmacológico
8.
Vet Parasitol ; 270 Suppl 1: S19-S25, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30470637

RESUMO

The efficacy of a single topical application of a combination product containing selamectin and sarolaner (selamectin/sarolaner; Revolution® Plus/Stronghold® Plus) was evaluated in seven laboratory studies against Ixodes scapularis (three studies), Dermacentor variabilis (two studies), or Amblyomma maculatum (two studies). In each study, cats were randomly allocated to treatment groups based on pre-treatment host-suitability tick counts. On Days -2, 5, 12, 19, 26 and 33, the cats were infested with unfed adult ticks. On Day 0, cats were treated with either a placebo (vehicle control) or with the spot-on solution at the minimum dose of 6.0 mg selamectin and 1.0 mg sarolaner/kg bodyweight. In one study with I. scapularis and one with D. variabilis an additional group of cats was treated with selamectin alone (Revolution®, Zoetis) at 6.0 mg/kg bodyweight. Tick counts were conducted after treatment and after each weekly re-infestation and efficacy determined relative to placebo-treated animals. There were no treatment-related adverse reactions in any of the studies. Geometric mean live tick counts were significantly (P < 0.05) lower in the selamectin/sarolaner-treated groups compared to the geometric mean tick counts in the placebo-treated groups at all time-points in all studies. For all species, a single topical administration of the selamectin/sarolaner combination resulted in>90% efficacy against existing infestations based on geometric means. Efficacy against weekly re-infestations was >90% based on geometric means for at least 5 weeks for I. scapularis and D. variabilis, and for at least 4 weeks against A. maculatum. Selamectin alone had no efficacy against I. scapularis, where counts on selamectin-treated cats were not significantly different from placebo at all time points (P > 0.05), and for D. variabilis, counts were not significantly different from placebo at 2, 3 and 5 weeks after treatment (P > 0.05) and efficacy was never greater than 85%. Thus, the activity of the sarolaner against three common tick species found on cats in the US is complementary to the existing broad-spectrum parasite control of selamectin. The inclusion of sarolaner with selamectin in a combination product (Revolution® Plus/Stronghold® Plus) provides for the treatment of existing tick infestations and gives at least one month of control against re-infestation following a single topical application.


Assuntos
Acaricidas/administração & dosagem , Azetidinas/administração & dosagem , Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Ivermectina/análogos & derivados , Compostos de Espiro/administração & dosagem , Controle de Ácaros e Carrapatos , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Animais , Gatos , Composição de Medicamentos/veterinária , Feminino , Ivermectina/administração & dosagem , Ixodidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Infestações por Carrapato/tratamento farmacológico , Estados Unidos
10.
Vet Parasitol ; 270 Suppl 1: S26-S30, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30563718

RESUMO

The speed of kill of a novel, topical product containing selamectin in combination with sarolaner (selamectin/sarolaner; Revolution® Plus/Stronghold® Plus) was evaluated against Ixodes scapularis ticks on cats. Sixteen cats were randomly allocated to a treatment group and treated topically on Day 0 with either placebo (vehicle control) or 6 mg/kg selamectin plus 1 mg/kg sarolaner. Cats were infested with approximately 50 unfed viable adult I. scapularis ticks on Days -2, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35. Efficacy was assessed at 4, 8, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h after treatment on Day 0 and at 4, 8, 12 and 24 h after post-treatment re-infestations. There were no adverse reactions to the topical treatment with selamectin/sarolaner. Placebo-treated cats maintained tick infestations throughout the study. Treatment with selamectin/sarolaner significantly reduced tick counts within 12 h (P < 0.0001) and resulted in 100% efficacy by 24 h. For subsequent re-infestations, live tick counts were significantly reduced by 12 h after infestation on Day 7 (P = 0.0120) and by 24 h for Days 14-35 (P < 0.0001). At 24 h after the post-treatment re-infestations, efficacy based on geometric (arithmetic) means was ≥96.1% (94.5%) through Day 21, 75.3% (67.7%) on Day 28 and 66.4% (56.4%) on Day 35. Thus, a single topical dose of Revolution® Plus/Stronghold® Plus at the recommended minimum dose started killing ticks within 12-24 hours after treatment and re-infestations for up to 5 weeks. High acaricidal efficacy (≥90% reduction in tick burden) was achieved within 24 h after treatment and subsequent re-infestations for at least three weeks.


Assuntos
Acaricidas/administração & dosagem , Azetidinas/administração & dosagem , Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Ivermectina/análogos & derivados , Ixodes/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos de Espiro/administração & dosagem , Controle de Ácaros e Carrapatos , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Administração Tópica , Animais , Gatos , Composição de Medicamentos/veterinária , Feminino , Ivermectina/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Infestações por Carrapato/tratamento farmacológico , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Vet Parasitol ; 270 Suppl 1: S3-S11, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30579753

RESUMO

Two randomised, single-masked, multi-center field studies were conducted in the United States in cats presented as veterinary patients. The first study evaluated the efficacy and safety of a topically applied formulation of selamectin plus sarolaner (Revolution® Plus/Stronghold® Plus, Zoetis) against natural flea infestations; the second study evaluated its efficacy against natural ear mite infestations. The product was administered topically by the cats' owners at the dose range provided in the market product of 6.0-12.0 mg selamectin and 1.0-2.0 mg sarolaner per kg bodyweight. Imidacloprid plus moxidectin (Advantage® Multi for Cats, Bayer) was used as a positive control in both studies at the label dosage. In the flea study, treatments were administered on Days 0, 30, and 60. Efficacy was calculated based on the mean percent reduction of live flea counts on Days 30, 60, and 90 relative to the pre-treatment count. In the ear mite study, a single treatment was applied on Day 0 and efficacy was determined on Days 14 and 30 based on the presence or absence of ear mites. In both studies, patients were randomly allocated to treatments in the ratio of 2:1, selamectin plus sarolaner: imidacloprid plus moxidectin. In the two studies, 405 cats received treatment with selamectin plus sarolaner; of these, 256 cats received three monthly treatments in the flea study. There were no serious adverse reactions to treatment with selamectin plus sarolaner; health issues noted were typical of the normal ailments or minor traumatic injuries expected in the general cat population and were similar in both treatment groups. Efficacy against fleas based on geometric (arithmetic) means was 97.2% (95.9%), 99.5% (99.4%), and 99.8% (99.8%) in the selamectin plus sarolaner group and was 79.7% (70.5%), 91.4% (77.3%), and 95.5% (87.4%) in the imidacloprid plus moxidectin group on Days 30, 60, and 90, respectively. Flea counts for the selamectin plus sarolaner group were significantly lower than the counts for the imidacloprid plus moxidectin group at all time-points after treatment administration on Day 0 (P < 0.001). Treatment reduced the clinical signs of flea allergy dermatitis (alopecia, dermatitis/pyodermatitis, erythema, pruritus, scaling, and papules) in affected cats by 86.7%-100% in the selamectin plus sarolaner group and by 66.7%-100% in the imidacloprid plus moxidectin group. In the ear mite study, a single application of selamectin plus sarolaner resulted in the clearance of mites from 87.5% of cats within 14 days and 94.4% of cats within 30 days of treatment. The respective percentages of mite-free cats in the imidacloprid plus moxidectin group were 64.0% and 72.0%. There were significantly more cats with no mites noted in the selamectin plus sarolaner group than in the imidacloprid plus moxidectin group on Day 14 and Day 30 (P ≤ 0.018). Selamectin plus sarolaner (Revolution® Plus/Stronghold® Plus) administered topically at monthly intervals for three months was well tolerated and highly effective for the treatment and prevention of natural infestations of fleas on cats presented as veterinary patients. Clinical signs of flea allergy dermatitis improved in affected cats following treatment administration. A single topical treatment was also safe and highly effective for the treatment of ear mite infestations in naturally infested cats.


Assuntos
Acaricidas/administração & dosagem , Azetidinas/administração & dosagem , Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Infestações por Pulgas/veterinária , Inseticidas/administração & dosagem , Ivermectina/análogos & derivados , Infestações por Ácaros/veterinária , Compostos de Espiro/administração & dosagem , Administração Tópica , Animais , Doenças do Gato/prevenção & controle , Gatos , Composição de Medicamentos/veterinária , Feminino , Infestações por Pulgas/tratamento farmacológico , Infestações por Pulgas/prevenção & controle , Ivermectina/administração & dosagem , Macrolídeos/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Infestações por Ácaros/tratamento farmacológico , Infestações por Ácaros/prevenção & controle , Ácaros/efeitos dos fármacos , Neonicotinoides/administração & dosagem , Nitrocompostos/administração & dosagem , Distribuição Aleatória , Sifonápteros/efeitos dos fármacos
12.
Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. (Online) ; 56(3): e157595, out. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1046823

RESUMO

Tick infestation causes major problems in cattle. Tick parasitism accounts for significant economic losses in many beef and dairy herds in the vast majority of the states in the Brazilian territory including the State of Santa Catarina in the southern region of the country. Tick resistance to several active principles occurs due to a number of factors including the indiscriminate, injudicious and inadequate use of tick insecticides. Considering the great importance of fighting off tick infestations in cattle, we evaluated the efficiency of 8 different topical active principles against the ixodid tick R. microplus and identified the main factors that contribute to the development of ticks that are resistant to acaricides in the farms and bovine herds studied. For such purpose, R. microplus telegionae were collected in 39 farms locates in different municipalities of the West of Santa Catarina, south Brazil. At the time of sample collection, information about the management, the history of the acar used in the herd, the number of annual applications of these pesticides, the frequency of acaricide rotation, and the frequency of technical monitoring for strategic tick control were retrieved. We collected this data in order determine contributing factors to the development resistant R. microplus populations. For the sensitivity profile of these ticks to a number of different acaricides tested, 10 engorged females for each principle and a control were used. The results of our study show that most associations between pyrethroids and organophosphates had an efficiency between 96.6% and 100% in the control of R. microplus except for the combination of Alfacipermetrine 15%, Ethion 16%, and Chlorpyrifos 8.5% that had 93.4% of efficiency. Among the chemicals not associated with any other type of compound, Amitraz 12.5% ​​was effective in 98.3% of the cases. In contrast, Cypermethrin 15% had an efficiency in only 25.8% of the farms/herds analyzed. Based on the results of the present study, we may infer that the methods of control and management used by producers may be related to the low indexes of resistance to topical acaricides in the different populations of ticks in the study area.


A infestação por carrapatos em bovinos gera grandes problemas, sendo esse parasito responsável por elevados prejuízos econômicos em diversos rebanhos de produção de corte e também de leite na maioria das regiões brasileiras, inclusive em Santa Catarina. A resistência dos carrapatos frente aos diversos princípios ativos pode ser decorrente de fatores como o uso indiscriminado de carrapaticidas, bem como a inadequada forma de aplicação dos mesmos. Tendo em vista a grande importância em combater essas infestações, buscou-se avaliar a eficiência de oito diferentes princípios ativos de contato contra o carrapato Rhipicephalus microplus, bem como identificar os principais fatores que possam contribuir com a seleção de carrapatos resistentes nas propriedades avaliadas. Para isso, teleóginas de R. microplus foram coletadas em 39 propriedades de diferentes municípios do Oeste de Santa Catarina. No momento da coleta também foram obtidas informações referentes ao sistema de manejo dos animais, histórico dos carrapaticidas utilizados, número de aplicações anuais, frequência de rodízios de acaricidas, e frequência de acompanhamento técnico para controle estratégico, com a finalidade de evidenciar os diferentes fatores que possam estar contribuindo para o surgimento de eventual resistência das populações do R. microplus. A avaliação de suscetibilidade foi realizada através da técnica de biocarrapaticidograma, utilizando 10 teleóginas ingurgitadas para cada princípio e mais o controle. Dentre os principais resultados obtidos, a maioria das associações entre piretróides e organofosforados demonstraram ter eficiência entre 96,6% e 100%, com exceção da associação de Alfacipermetrina 15%, Ethion 16% e Clorpirifós 8,5% com 93,4% de eficiência. Dentre as bases químicas sem nenhum tipo de associação o Amitraz 12,5% demonstrou ser eficaz em 98,3%, em contrapartida a Cipermetrina 15% teve eficiência em apenas 25,8% das propriedades analisadas. A partir dos resultados obtidos, pode se afirmar que as formas de controle e manejo adotados pelos produtores podem estar relacionadas com os baixos índices de resistência aos carrapaticidas de contato, nas diferentes populações de carrapato na região do estudo.


Assuntos
Fatores R , Rhipicephalus/imunologia , Acaricidas/administração & dosagem
13.
Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. (Online) ; 56(2): [e157595], ago. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1025110

RESUMO

Tick infestation causes major problems in cattle. Tick parasitism accounts for significant economic losses in many beef and dairy herds in the vast majority of the states in the Brazilian territory including the State of Santa Catarina in the southern region of the country. Tick resistance to several active principles occurs due to a number of factors including the indiscriminate, injudicious and inadequate use of tick insecticides. Considering the great importance of fighting off tick infestations in cattle, we evaluated the efficiency of 8 different topical active principles against the ixodid tick R. microplus and identified the main factors that contribute to the development of ticks that are resistant to acaricides in the farms and bovine herds studied. For such purpose, R. microplus telegionae were collected in 39 farms locates in different municipalities of the West of Santa Catarina, south Brazil. At the time of sample collection, information about the management, the history of the acar used in the herd, the number of annual applications of these pesticides, the frequency of acaricide rotation, and the frequency of technical monitoring for strategic tick control were retrieved. We collected this data in order determine contributing factors to the development resistant R. microplus populations. For the sensitivity profile of these ticks to a number of different acaricides tested, 10 engorged females for each principle and a control were used. The results of our study show that most associations between pyrethroids and organophosphates had an efficiency between 96.6% and 100% in the control of R. microplus except for the combination of Alfacipermetrine 15%, Ethion 16%, and Chlorpyrifos 8.5% that had 93.4% of efficiency. Among the chemicals not associated with any other type of compound, Amitraz 12.5% ​​was effective in 98.3% of the cases. In contrast, Cypermethrin 15% had an efficiency in only 25.8% of the farms/herds analyzed. Based on the results of the present study, we may infer that the methods of control and management used by producers may be related to the low indexes of resistance to topical acaricides in the different populations of ticks in the study area.(AU)


A infestação por carrapatos em bovinos gera grandes problemas, sendo esse parasito responsável por elevados prejuízos econômicos em diversos rebanhos de produção de corte e também de leite na maioria das regiões brasileiras, inclusive em Santa Catarina. A resistência dos carrapatos frente aos diversos princípios ativos pode ser decorrente de fatores como o uso indiscriminado de carrapaticidas, bem como a inadequada forma de aplicação dos mesmos. Tendo em vista a grande importância em combater essas infestações, buscou-se avaliar a eficiência de oito diferentes princípios ativos de contato contra o carrapato Rhipicephalus microplus, bem como identificar os principais fatores que possam contribuir com a seleção de carrapatos resistentes nas propriedades avaliadas. Para isso, teleóginas de R. microplus foram coletadas em 39 propriedades de diferentes municípios do Oeste de Santa Catarina. No momento da coleta também foram obtidas informações referentes ao sistema de manejo dos animais, histórico dos carrapaticidas utilizados, número de aplicações anuais, frequência de rodízios de acaricidas, e frequência de acompanhamento técnico para controle estratégico, com a finalidade de evidenciar os diferentes fatores que possam estar contribuindo para o surgimento de eventual resistência das populações do R. microplus. A avaliação de suscetibilidade foi realizada através da técnica de biocarrapaticidograma, utilizando 10 teleóginas ingurgitadas para cada princípio e mais o controle. Dentre os principais resultados obtidos, a maioria das associações entre piretróides e organofosforados demonstraram ter eficiência entre 96,6% e 100%, com exceção da associação de Alfacipermetrina 15%, Ethion 16% e Clorpirifós 8,5% com 93,4% de eficiência. Dentre as bases químicas sem nenhum tipo de associação o Amitraz 12,5% demonstrou ser eficaz em 98,3%, em contrapartida a Cipermetrina 15% teve eficiência em apenas 25,8% das propriedades analisadas. A partir dos resultados obtidos, pode se afirmar que as formas de controle e manejo adotados pelos produtores podem estar relacionadas com os baixos índices de resistência aos carrapaticidas de contato, nas diferentes populações de carrapato na região do estudo.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Bovinos , Bovinos/parasitologia , Rhipicephalus , Acaricidas/administração & dosagem , Acaricidas/química
14.
Parasite ; 25: 63, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30516132

RESUMO

The efficacy of NexGard® and NexGard Spectra® against sarcoptic mange in dogs was evaluated in a clinical field study. Skin scrapings from dogs presenting signs suggestive of sarcoptic mange were examined to confirm infestation. A total of 106 dogs were screened at eight sites in Portugal and Germany. In all, 80 dogs that had demonstrated ≥5 live Sarcoptes mites in five skin scrapings were enrolled, scored for specific clinical signs (pruritus; papules and crusts; alopecia), and allocated at random to receive either NexGard® or NexGard Spectra® twice, one month apart per label instructions. To determine efficacy, live Sarcoptes mites in five skin scrapings per dog were counted, and clinical signs were scored one month and two months after first treatment and compared to pre-treatment (baseline) values. Based on compliance, 65 dogs were determined to be evaluable cases at the end of the study. The efficacy, in terms of reduction of geometric mean live Sarcoptes mite counts, was 98.9% and 99.7% for NexGard®-treated (n = 38) and 99.6% and 100% for NexGard Spectra®-treated dogs (n = 27) at one month and two months after treatment initiation (p < 0.001, both treatments). Both treatments resulted in a significant improvement in pruritus, papules and crusts, and alopecia one month and two months after treatment initiation (p = 0.0001, both treatments). In conclusion, this field study confirms that both NexGard® and NexGard Spectra® administered twice one month apart provide an effective and safe treatment against sarcoptic mange in dogs.


Assuntos
Acaricidas/uso terapêutico , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Isoxazóis/uso terapêutico , Macrolídeos/uso terapêutico , Naftalenos/uso terapêutico , Escabiose/veterinária , Acaricidas/administração & dosagem , Acaricidas/efeitos adversos , Animais , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Isoxazóis/administração & dosagem , Isoxazóis/efeitos adversos , Macrolídeos/administração & dosagem , Macrolídeos/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Naftalenos/administração & dosagem , Naftalenos/efeitos adversos , Portugal/epidemiologia , Distribuição Aleatória , Escabiose/tratamento farmacológico , Escabiose/epidemiologia , Escabiose/parasitologia , Comprimidos/administração & dosagem , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Vet Parasitol ; 263: 23-26, 2018 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30389020

RESUMO

The leaf latex of Aloe yavellana Reynolds is traditionally used for the treatment of various illnesses of humans and domestic animals in Ethiopia. In the present study, the latex and two major compounds isolated from it, namely, aloin A/B and microdontin A/B were assessed for their larvicidal activity against Amblyomma variegatum tick larvae using a larval packet test (LPT). The LC50 and LC99 of the latex were found to be 35.82 ± 2.27 and 83.48 ± 3.95 mg/ml, respectively. Although microdontin A/B showed better larvicidal activity (LC50 = 89.40 ± 4.45 mg/ml) than aloin A/B (LC50 = 257.69 ± 6.31 mg/ml), neither of the isolated compounds was as active as the latex suggesting that the compounds acted synergistically or minor compounds with potent larvicidal activity may exist in the latex. The results confirmed that the leaf latex of A. yavellana and its isolated compounds could have the potential to be used as larvicidal against A. variegatum ticks.


Assuntos
Acaricidas/administração & dosagem , Aloe/química , Ixodidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Látex/administração & dosagem , Folhas de Planta/química , Acaricidas/química , Acaricidas/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Bovinos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Emodina/análogos & derivados , Emodina/farmacologia , Humanos , Ixodidae/fisiologia , Látex/química , Látex/isolamento & purificação
16.
Vet Parasitol ; 263: 5-9, 2018 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30389024

RESUMO

Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is one of the most important ectoparasites in cattle breeding worldwide, causing direct and indirect losses to animals and producers. Chemical acaricides are utilized in the control of cattle tick and the increase in the development of resistance by ectoparasites makes new alternative necessary. Therefore, research studies have been carried out using bioactive molecules that are quickly degraded and that reduce poisoning to appliers and non-target organisms, environmental contamination and development of resistance. Thus, this study aimed to isolate piperovatine from the roots of Piper corcovadensis, a native species to Brazil, and to evaluate the larvicidal activity against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus by larval packet test and in ex situ in an open environment. Piperovatine was isolated by classical column chromatography, and identified by 1H and 13C NMR. The lethal concentration (LC) of piperovatine that killed 50% (LC50) and 99% (LC99) of the larvae was determined by Probit analysis. The results indicated LC50 5.17 and LC99 25.41 µg/mL. LC99 was tested in ex situ in an open environment, and an efficiency of 96.63% was found, indicating that piperovatine kept the larvicidal action determined in in vitro test and in open environment. Therefore, this study shows new perspectives to develop products that can be applied in natural conditions to control this ectoparasite.


Assuntos
Acaricidas/administração & dosagem , Ectoparasitoses/veterinária , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Sórbico/análogos & derivados , Acaricidas/química , Acaricidas/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Produtos Biológicos/administração & dosagem , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Descoberta de Drogas , Ectoparasitoses/tratamento farmacológico , Ectoparasitoses/epidemiologia , Feminino , Piper/anatomia & histologia , Piper/química , Ácido Sórbico/administração & dosagem , Ácido Sórbico/química , Ácido Sórbico/isolamento & purificação , Controle de Ácaros e Carrapatos/métodos , Infestações por Carrapato/tratamento farmacológico , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Carrapatos/efeitos dos fármacos , Carrapatos/fisiologia
17.
Parasit Vectors ; 11(1): 597, 2018 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30454033

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fluralaner provides efficacy against feline ectoparasites following topical administration. Moxidectin is routinely used to treat gastrointestinal nematode infections and prevent heartworm disease caused by Dirofilaria immitis. Praziquantel is routinely used to treat feline tapeworm infections. The safety of a fluralaner plus moxidectin combination topical solution (Bravecto™ Plus, MSD Animal Health) was assessed when administered concurrently with a commercially available praziquantel topical solution (Droncit™ Spot-on, Bayer Animal Health GmbH). The highest dose rates in clinical use were tested. RESULTS: Concurrent topical administration of a fluralaner plus moxidectin and a praziquantel product did not result in adverse findings. One out of ten cats receiving praziquantel only (control group), and two out of ten cats receiving fluralaner plus moxidectin and praziquantel (treatment group) had dandruff-like flakes in their coat at the application site. Two out of the ten control cats and three cats out of the ten treatment group cats had very small amounts of unidentified material (minute crusts or crumbs) at the application site which was only visible during close inspection. CONCLUSIONS: The concurrent treatment of cats with fluralaner plus moxidectin and praziquantel at the maximum dose in clinical use was well tolerated.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/administração & dosagem , Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Inseticidas/administração & dosagem , Isoxazóis/administração & dosagem , Macrolídeos/administração & dosagem , Praziquantel/administração & dosagem , Acaricidas/administração & dosagem , Acaricidas/efeitos adversos , Administração Tópica , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/efeitos adversos , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Doenças do Gato/prevenção & controle , Gatos , Dirofilariose/tratamento farmacológico , Dirofilariose/prevenção & controle , Quimioterapia Combinada/métodos , Quimioterapia Combinada/estatística & dados numéricos , Quimioterapia Combinada/veterinária , Ectoparasitoses/tratamento farmacológico , Ectoparasitoses/prevenção & controle , Ectoparasitoses/veterinária , Feminino , Inseticidas/efeitos adversos , Inseticidas/uso terapêutico , Isoxazóis/efeitos adversos , Isoxazóis/uso terapêutico , Macrolídeos/efeitos adversos , Macrolídeos/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Infecções por Nematoides/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Nematoides/prevenção & controle , Praziquantel/efeitos adversos , Praziquantel/uso terapêutico , Distribuição Aleatória , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Prev Vet Med ; 159: 143-152, 2018 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30314777

RESUMO

The presence of Varroa destructor in colonies of Apis mellifera is explained by the interaction among a number of factors including beekeeping practices and surrounding environment features. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relative impact of environment geographical region and beekeeping management on Varroa infestation levels throughout a year. A monitoring study was carried out during 2015 in north-central regions from Argentina, consisting of three sampling dates: 1) autumn survey before autumn acaricide treatment; 2) autumn survey after autumn acaricide treatment and 3) spring survey. During these visits, we collected samples for Varroa mites and Nosema sp. presence assessment and information concerning the apiary management practices during each period. Both regional location and beekeeping practices impact on V. destructor infestation level during the course of the year, but relative importance depend partially on the time of year when this was observed. Varroa infestation level is driven simultaneously by a wide-range of environmental factors (regional effect) and honeybee population dynamics. Additionally, colony life histories are also strongly affected by the management practices employed by beekeepers, especially regarding the Varroa mites control and the supplementary feeding. Complexity involving multiple factors interaction in socio-ecological systems like beekeeping is discussed.


Assuntos
Acaricidas/administração & dosagem , Criação de Abelhas , Abelhas/parasitologia , Varroidae/fisiologia , Animais , Argentina , Estações do Ano , Clima Tropical
19.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 25(34): 34730-34739, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30324372

RESUMO

In this study, honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) were exposed to LD05 and LD50 doses of five commonly used acaricides for controlling the parasitic mite, Varroa destructor. LD50 values at 48 h post-treatment showed that tau-fluvalinate was the most toxic, followed by amitraz, coumaphos, thymol, and formic acid. However, the hazard ratios, which estimate the hive risk level based on a ratio of a standard dose of acaricide per hive to the LD50 of the acaricide, revealed that tau-fluvalinate was the most hazardous followed by formic acid, coumaphos, amitraz, and thymol. The expression of the honey bee acetylcholinesterase gene increased after treatment with the LD05 and LD50 acaricide doses and could distinguish three patterns in the timing and level of increased expression between acaricides: one for amitraz, one for tau-fluvalinate and formic acid, and one for coumaphos and thymol. Conversely, changes in cytochrome P450 gene expression could also be detected in response to all five acaricides, but there were no significant differences between them. Changes in vitellogenin gene expression could only detect the effects of tau-fluvalinate, amitraz, or coumaphos treatment, which were not significantly different from each other. Among the acaricides tested, coumaphos, amitraz, and thymol appear to be the safest acaricides based on their hazard ratios, and a good marker to detect differences between the effects of sub-lethal doses of acaricides is monitoring changes in acetylcholinesterase gene expression.


Assuntos
Acaricidas/toxicidade , Abelhas/efeitos dos fármacos , Abelhas/genética , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Inativação Metabólica/efeitos dos fármacos , Acaricidas/administração & dosagem , Animais , Abelhas/parasitologia , Cumafos/administração & dosagem , Cumafos/toxicidade , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/genética , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Formiatos/administração & dosagem , Formiatos/toxicidade , Inativação Metabólica/genética , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Dose Letal Mediana , Nitrilos/administração & dosagem , Nitrilos/toxicidade , Piretrinas/administração & dosagem , Piretrinas/toxicidade , Timol , Toluidinas/administração & dosagem , Toluidinas/toxicidade , Varroidae/patogenicidade
20.
Parasit Vectors ; 11(1): 537, 2018 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30285898

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The ixodid tick Amblyomma cajennense (sensu lato) complex, widespread throughout South and Central America, is also present in Mexico, Texas and Florida. As a vector of Rickettsia rickettsii, and potentially of other pathogens, infestations with A. cajennense present a substantial health risk to humans, dogs and other mammals. Oral administration of lotilaner flavored chewable tablets (CredelioTM, Elanco) to dogs was previously shown to rapidly provide killing activity of infesting ticks. This study investigated lotilaner's efficacy against A. cajennense (s.l.). METHODS: Twenty purpose-bred Beagles (10 male and 10 female) were ranked by Day -5 burdens of nymphal A. cajennense (s.l.) and randomized to either treatment with lotilaner or to a sham-treated control group. On Day 0, dogs were fed within approximately 30 min prior to oral lotilaner administration at as close as possible to 20 mg/kg, the minimum dose rate. For efficacy assessments, tick counts were completed 48 h post-treatment or 48 h after experimental challenge infestations with 200 nymphal A. cajennense (s.l.) on Days -7, -2, 7, 14, 21 and 28. RESULTS: Tick infestations in the control group dogs ranged from a low of 43 to 95, with the average infestation remaining above 25% at each assessment, thereby meeting the requirement for efficacy comparison with the treated group. Lotilaner efficacy was 100% within 48 h post-treatment, and at nine days post-treatment. Efficacy was greater than 99% at all subsequent assessments through Day 30. No treatment-related adverse events were observed. CONCLUSION: The results demonstrate that lotilaner, administered orally to dogs at a minimum dose of 20 mg/kg is well tolerated, provides rapid reduction of existing A. cajennense (s.l.) tick infestations, and provides sustained residual protection for at least 30 days against subsequent infestation by A. cajennense (s.l.).


Assuntos
Acaricidas/farmacologia , Acaricidas/uso terapêutico , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Ixodidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Controle de Ácaros e Carrapatos/métodos , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Acaricidas/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Animais , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Feminino , Masculino , Ninfa/efeitos dos fármacos , Infestações por Carrapato/tratamento farmacológico , Infestações por Carrapato/parasitologia , Resultado do Tratamento
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