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1.
Parasitol Res ; 120(11): 3673-3680, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34626236

RESUMO

Search to a new alternative to control bovine ticks (Rhipicephalus microplus), the present study aimed to evaluate the acaricidal activity of organo-modified siloxane alone and in association with different commercial products or with piperonyl butoxide (BPO). Engorged females were subjected to an in vitro immersion test and 10 groups were used: control, 0.5% siloxane, 1% siloxane, 2% siloxane, 0.5% siloxane + 5% BPO, 1% siloxane + 5% BPO, 2% siloxane + 5% BPO, commercial product, 0.5% siloxane + commercial product, and 1% siloxane + commercial product. After immersion, engorged females were incubated for 14 days for oviposition and hatchability tests. Another immersion test was performed with 5% siloxane and 2.5% siloxane + 10% BPO to evaluate the histopathological changes. Then, engorged females were incubated for 0, 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72, 84, 96, 120, 144, and 168 h and immersed in 10% formaldehyde for later analyses. The unassociated siloxane showed an acaricide efficacy of 93.88% at 2% concentration, and when associated with 5% BPO, it reached 100% efficacy at all tested concentrations. The tested commercial products showed enhanced efficacy when associated with siloxane. Histopathological analysis showed cell changes in both treatments and total cell disintegration after 120 h in the 5% siloxane group and after 96 h in the 2.5% siloxane + 10% BPO group. Therefore, siloxane alone or in combination is an alternative against R. microplus, and siloxane enhances the efficacy of available commercial products.


Assuntos
Acaricidas , Doenças dos Bovinos , Rhipicephalus , Infestações por Carrapato , Acaricidas/farmacologia , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino , Larva , Siloxanas
2.
Parasitol Res ; 120(11): 3653-3661, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34561751

RESUMO

Although different evaluations on the efficacy of the strategic control against Rhipicephalus microplus have been performed, the effects of successive applications of these schemes on the abundance of cattle ticks have not been evaluated. The aim of this work was to analyse the long-term effect of strategic applications of chemical acaricides on the R. microplus infestation in cattle in a subtropical area. These schemes are based on the application of three annual treatments between late winter and late spring. Additionally, a trial to evaluate the efficacy of the strategic control by deferring the first treatment from late winter to spring and the third treatment from late spring to summer was also carried out. The efficacy of the strategic control applied on 3 consecutive years was significant. The tick infestation in the treated group always remained at low levels, because mean number of ticks was almost never higher than 20. Regarding the trial where the third application of acaricide was deferred from spring to summer, and the first one from late winter to spring, the differences between treated and control group were significant in all post-treatment counts. The results of this study add evidence that support the sustainability of the strategic control in subtropical areas where the population dynamics of R. microplus is characterized by a well-marked seasonal pattern. Three relevant aspects were determined: (i) the feasibility and efficacy of successive applications of the strategic control in consecutive years; (ii) the time window to start the sequence of treatments is from late winter to mid-spring; (iii) it is achievable deferring the last treatment from late spring to summer if the tick infestation levels on cattle are low enough to allow it.


Assuntos
Acaricidas , Doenças dos Bovinos , Rhipicephalus , Infestações por Carrapato , Acaricidas/farmacologia , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Estações do Ano , Controle de Ácaros e Carrapatos , Infestações por Carrapato/tratamento farmacológico , Infestações por Carrapato/prevenção & controle , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária
3.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 30(3): e009221, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495124

RESUMO

This study aimed to chemically characterize the essential oils (EOs) of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (cinnamon) and Eremanthus erythropappus (candeia) and evaluate their acaricidal activity, together with that of their major compounds and cinnamyl acetate derivative, against Rhipicephalus microplus. Essential oil compounds were identified through gas chromatography. The larval packet test (LPT) at concentrations ranging from 0.31 to 10.0 mg/mL and the adult immersion test (AIT) at concentrations between 2.5 and 60.0 mg/mL were performed. (E)-cinnamaldehyde and α-bisabolol were the major compounds in cinnamon (86.93%) and candeia (78.41%) EOs, respectively. In the LPT, the EOs of cinnamon and candeia and the compounds (E)-cinnamaldehyde, α-bisabolol and cinnamyl acetate resulted in 100% mortality at concentrations of 2.5, 2.5, 5.0, 10.0 and 10.0 mg/mL respectively. In the AIT, percentage control values > 95% were observed for cinnamon and candeia EOs, (E)-cinnamaldehyde and α-bisabolol at the concentrations of 5.0, 60.0, 20.0, and 20.0 mg/mL, respectively, whereas cinnamyl acetate showed low activity. We conclude that EOs and their compounds showed high acaricidal activity, whereas the acetylated derivative of (E)-cinnamaldehyde presented less acaricidal activity on R. microplus engorged females.


Assuntos
Acaricidas , Óleos Voláteis , Rhipicephalus , Acaricidas/farmacologia , Animais , Cinamatos , Cinnamomum zeylanicum , Larva , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia
4.
J Insect Sci ; 21(5)2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34536080

RESUMO

Varroa destructor is among the greatest biological threats to western honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) health worldwide. Beekeepers routinely use chemical treatments to control this parasite, though overuse and mismanagement of these treatments have led to widespread resistance in Varroa populations. Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is an ecologically based, sustainable approach to pest management that relies on a combination of control tactics that minimize environmental impacts. Herein, we provide an in-depth review of the components of IPM in a Varroa control context. These include determining economic thresholds for the mite, identification of and monitoring for Varroa, prevention strategies, and risk conscious treatments. Furthermore, we provide a detailed review of cultural, mechanical, biological, and chemical control strategies, both longstanding and emerging, used against Varroa globally. For each control type, we describe all available treatments, their efficacies against Varroa as described in the primary scientific literature, and the obstacles to their adoption. Unfortunately, reliable IPM protocols do not exist for Varroa due to the complex biology of the mite and strong reliance on chemical control by beekeepers. To encourage beekeeper adoption, a successful IPM approach to Varroa control in managed colonies must be an improvement over conventional control methods and include cost-effective treatments that can be employed readily by beekeepers. It is our intention to provide the most thorough review of Varroa control options available, ultimately framing our discussion within the context of IPM. We hope this article is a call-to-arms against the most damaging pest managed honey bee colonies face worldwide.


Assuntos
Criação de Abelhas/métodos , Abelhas/parasitologia , Controle de Pragas/métodos , Varroidae , Acaricidas/farmacologia , Animais , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Infestações por Ácaros/tratamento farmacológico , Infestações por Ácaros/prevenção & controle , Infestações por Ácaros/veterinária , Varroidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Varroidae/parasitologia , Varroidae/patogenicidade
5.
Vet Parasitol ; 299: 109584, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34583144

RESUMO

Rhipicephalus microplus is an important cattle tick, and resistant strains to synthetic compounds have been widespread. The combined effects of different essential oil compounds enhance biological activity and reduce selection for the development of target organism resistance. Essential oils of two different genotypes of each of Lippia sidoides and Lippia gracilis and their main components, the isomers thymol and carvacrol, have acted as acaricides against R. microplus. Little is known about the effects of the essential oils of L. sidoides and L. gracilis and thymol and carvacrol on the morphophysiology of R. microplus ovaries. This study aimed to identify the morphological changes in the ovaries of R. microplus females treated with essential oils from two different genotypes of each of L. sidoides (102 and 103) and L. gracilis (106 and 201) and the terpenes thymol and carvacrol through histological techniques. The LC50 and LC75 of essential oils and thymol and carvacrol were used for Adult Immersion Test (AIT) with groups of five fully engorged females of R. microplus. A negative control (DMSO 3% solution) was performed. Seven days after the AIT, the ticks were dissected to collect ovaries and their histologic analysis. Only the group treated with the essential oil of L. gracilis genotype 106 at the LC50 had no change compared with the control. The other groups showed the following changes in oocytes I to V: vacuolation, chorion deformation, disorganization of yolk granules, and irregularities at the cell periphery, causing incomplete process of vitellogenesis. Thus, the essential oils tested in this study may be potent products for the control of cattle ticks and thereby preventing further life cycles.


Assuntos
Acaricidas , Ixodidae , Lippia , Óleos Voláteis , Rhipicephalus , Acaricidas/farmacologia , Animais , Larva , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Vitelogênese
6.
Ticks Tick Borne Dis ; 12(6): 101818, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34537543

RESUMO

Rhipicephalus microplus is posing a serious threat to productive animal husbandry. Excessive use of synthetic chemicals in tick management has led to the development of resistant tick populations. Characterization of resistance to deltamethrin, cypermethrin, coumaphos and ivermectin in ticks is necessary to develop a suitable and sustainable control strategy. Based on adult immersion test and larval packet test, the resistance ratios (RR50) for adults and larvae of R. microplus populations from two Indian states ranged from 3.8 to 19.4 and 1.35-25.0 against deltamethrin, 0.061-26.3 and 0.22-19.2 against cypermethrin, and 0.2-9.5 and 0.01-3.1 against coumaphos, respectively, were recorded. Moreover, the RR50 for adults ranged from 0.212 to 3.87 against ivermectin. The RR50 for different acaricides was significantly (p<0.01) correlated with esterases, Glutathione S-transferase and monooxygenase activity. A point mutation at the 190th position of the domain II S4-5 linker region of the sodium channel gene in synthetic pyrethroids (SP) resistant populations was also detected. An antitick natural formulation prepared from the plant Azeratum conyzoides and containing two major compounds, Precocene-I (7­methoxy-2, 2-dimethyl 2H-chromene) and Precocene II (6, 7-dimethoxy-2, 2-dimethyl- 3-chromene), was developed and tested against the resistant ticks. The LC50 values of the natural formulation against the resistant populations were in the range of 4.31-5.33% irrespective of their RR50 values. Multi-acaricide resistant populations of R. microplus are established in India and the A. conyzoides based natural formulation can be used for its management.


Assuntos
Acaricidas/farmacologia , Ageratum/química , Rhipicephalus/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Cumafos/farmacologia , Resistência a Medicamentos , Feminino , Índia , Ivermectina/farmacologia , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Masculino , Nitrilas/farmacologia , Piretrinas/farmacologia , Rhipicephalus/crescimento & desenvolvimento
7.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(5): 460, 2021 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34542704

RESUMO

The chemical-based tick management method is gradually losing its clutch due to the establishment of resistant ticks. For development of region-specific tick management strategies, the present study was aimed to evaluate the comparative resistance profile of Rhipicephalus microplus isolates collected from seven districts of Uttar Pradesh, a northern state of India. Comparative analysis of the dose-response data using adult immersion test (AIT) against coumaphos, malathion, deltamethrin, ivermectin, and fipronil revealed that all the isolates were resistant to discriminating concentration of deltamethrin having LC50 of 295.12-436.52 ppm with a resistance ratio of 22.02-32.58. An emerging low level of ivermectin resistance (resistance ratio, RR50 = 1.03-2.26) with LC50 in the range of 22.39-48.98 ppm was found across the isolates. The coumaphos was highly effective against all except Amethi (AMT) isolate. Similarly, malathion was efficacious against most of the isolates except Pratapgarh (PRT) and Sultanpur (SUL) isolates showing LC50 of 5128.61 and 5623.41 ppm, respectively. All the isolates were responsive to fipronil. Comparative detoxifying enzymes profiles revealed a significant correlation between the increased activity of esterase and deltamethrin resistance. The GST activity was 51.2% correlated with RR50 of malathion while esterase activity was significantly correlated (68.9%) with RR50 of coumaphos. No correlation between the ivermectin resistance and enzyme activity was established. Multiple sequence analysis of S4-5 linker region of the sodium channel gene of all the isolates revealed a point mutation at 190th position (C190A) which is associated with deltamethrin resistance. The possible tick management strategies in this part of the country are discussed.


Assuntos
Acaricidas , Piretrinas , Rhipicephalus , Acaricidas/farmacologia , Animais , Cumafos , Índia , Resistência a Inseticidas , Ivermectina/farmacologia , Malation/farmacologia , Nitrilas , Pirazóis , Piretrinas/farmacologia
8.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(4): 431, 2021 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34368904

RESUMO

The larval packet test (LPT) was used to investigate resistance in Rhipicephalus appendiculatus ticks to the amidine (amitraz) and organophosphate (chlorfenvinphos) chemical acaricides in different farming systems in Mashonaland West Province in Zimbabwe. The study results showed emerging resistance (ER) to amitraz in small-scale and commercial farming systems. The tick populations in communal farming systems were susceptible to both acaricides. A similar trend was observed for chlorfenvinphos, where ER was observed in the small-scale farming systems compared to communal and commercial farms. Furthermore, resistance ratios (RR) were higher for amitraz as compared to chlorfenvinphos. This study suggests that management practices, acaricide formulations, applications on cattle, intensity, and frequency of use could be pre-disposing factors for the emerging resistance towards amitraz observed in R. appendiculatus ticks found in small-scale and commercial farming systems. Amitraz is the most common and frequently used acaricides in all farming systems, and hence, resistance is developing much faster than organophosphates. There is a need to investigate further acaricide use and management practices in Zimbabwe's cattle farming systems to develop practical strategies for prevention and management of tick acaricide resistance.


Assuntos
Acaricidas , Doenças dos Bovinos , Rhipicephalus , Infestações por Carrapato , Acaricidas/farmacologia , Agricultura , Animais , Bovinos , Fazendas , Infestações por Carrapato/epidemiologia , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Zimbábue
9.
Vet Parasitol ; 298: 109507, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34388421

RESUMO

The current study assayed the toxicity of Laurus nobilis essential oil and crude extracts obtained using solvents of increasing polarity (cyclohexane, acetone and ethanol), on two ectoparasites of veterinary importance, i.e., Hyalomma scupense and Dermanyssus gallinae. The major components detected in bay laurel essential oil were dominated by 1.8-cineole (46.56 %), α-terpinenyl acetate (13.99 %), sabinene (7.69), α-pinene (5.75), linalool (5.50), methyleugenol (5.36 %) and ß-pinene (3.97). The highest total phenolic and flavonoids contents were present in the ethalonic extract of L. nobilis leaves at an amount of 152.88 mg gallic acid equivalents per gram of dry weight (GAE/g DW) and 21.77 mg quercetin equivalent per gram of dry weight (QE/g DW), respectively. In vitro acaricidal effects of essensial oil and crude extract of L. nobilis against H. scupense were ascertained by adult immersion test of engorged females (AIT) and larval packet test (LPT) compared with a reference drug amitraz. The essential oil exhibited strong acaricidal activity against tick engorged female and inhibition of hatching eggs. After 24 h of exposure, at the highest tested concentration (100 mg/mL) essential oil induced 90.67 % mortality of H. scupense larvae (LC50 = 10.69 mg/mL). Otherwise, essential oil exhibited high acaricidal activity compared to extracts, and among the extract, the ethanolic extract revealed the highest acaricidal efficacy (81.27 % female mortality). Results from mite contact toxicity showed that essential oil and extracts from L. nobilis were toxic to D. gallinae. Bay essential oil was both more toxic to mites, and faster in exerting this toxicity than other tested crude extracts. L. nobilis essential oil concentration leaded to enhance mortality of D. gallinae reaching the highest (100 %) mortality at 12 h with a concentration of 320 mg/mL. While, ethanolic extract acheived this rate after 24 h of exposure at same concentration. Cyclohexanic extract showed weak acaricidal activity.


Assuntos
Artrópodes , Laurus , Óleos Voláteis , Extratos Vegetais , Acaricidas/farmacologia , Animais , Artrópodes/efeitos dos fármacos , Laurus/química , Gado/parasitologia , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , Tunísia
10.
Ticks Tick Borne Dis ; 12(6): 101791, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34329928

RESUMO

The multi-host tick, Hyalomma anatolicum is a widely distributed vector of many pathogens of veterinary and public health importance. Ivermectin (IVM), as an alternative to control pyrethroid-resistant ticks, has been used extensively for the past 4-6 years in tropical and sub-tropical countries including India resulting in declining tick control efficacy. The present study used adult immersion test (AIT) to examine the resistance status of H. anatolicum collected from three districts in the Indian state of Gujarat against ivermectin. Probit analysis was used for calculation of concentration-mortality regressions; concentrations required for 50% mortality (LC50) and 95% mortality (LC95), along with confidence intervals; slope of mortality; % inhibition of oviposition; and discriminating concentration (DC). The calculated LC50 and LC95 estimates were utilized to determine resistance ratios (RR50, RR95) and the resistance levels (RL) of the field ticks compared to the susceptible population. The DC (2 x LC95) for IVM was calculated as 84.48 ppm, using susceptible H. anatolicum ticks (KHD). Lower estimates of the coefficient of non-determination (1-R2) for AIT ranged from 0.06 to 0.27, and the range of RR50 and RR95 values against IVM was estimated to be from 1.43 to 52.06 and 1.14 to 71.99, respectively, which indicated a varying degree of resistance among the field tick populations. Based on RR50 values, tick populations from Danta and Palanpur showed resistance level IV and II, respectively. Another four populations (Vadgam, Kankrej, Saraswati and Sidhpur) were classified as having level I resistance status against IVM. To our knowledge, this is the first report of ivermectin resistance in H. anatolicum from Gujarat, India.


Assuntos
Acaricidas/farmacologia , Resistência a Medicamentos , Ivermectina/farmacologia , Ixodidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Feminino , Índia , Mortalidade
11.
Pest Manag Sci ; 77(11): 5149-5157, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34255424

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pyflubumide and cyenopyrafen are respiratory complex II (complex II) inhibitors. Previous quantitative trait locus analyses suggested associations of I260V and S56L in complex II subunit B (B-I260V) and subunit C (C-S56L) with pyflubumide and cyenopyrafen resistance, respectively, in Tetranychus urticae. However, although resistant strains had been selected separately by these acaricides, all strains were homozygous for both B-I260V and C-S56L. Hence, the effects of each mutation on resistance development remain unclear. RESULTS: We established strains homozygous for B-I260V with C-S56 (B-I260V_I260V/C-S56_S56) and for C-S56L with B-I260 (B-I260_I260/C-S56L_S56L). High resistance levels (LC50 > 1000 mg L-1 ) to pyflubumide and cyenopyrafen was not conferred by B-I260V or C-S56L alone. Next, we prepared intermixed strains by crossing B-I260V_I260V/C-S56_S56 and B-I260_I260/C-S56L_S56L. Selection of the intermixed strains by either acaricide caused very high resistance levels (LC50 ≥ 10 000 mg L-1 ) to both acaricides and fixed both mutations. Allele-selected recoupling of the mutations without acaricide selection also conferred very high resistance levels to both acaricides in the intermixed strains. Unlike these, B-I260V or C-S56L alone conferred very high and high resistance levels to cyflumetofen, respectively. CONCLUSION: We conclude that the effect of individual mutations characteristically varies among complex II inhibitors. Moreover, very high resistance levels to pyflubumide and cyenopyrafen is conferred by the co-occurrence of B-I260V and C-S56L mutations, which alone have limited effects on resistance level.


Assuntos
Acaricidas , Tetranychidae , Acaricidas/farmacologia , Acrilonitrila/análogos & derivados , Animais , Complexo II de Transporte de Elétrons , Mutação , Pirazóis , Tetranychidae/genética
12.
Vet Parasitol ; 296: 109508, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34218174

RESUMO

The objective of the study was to evaluate the acaricidal activity of Citrus limetta seed oil (CLO) for controlling the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus. C. limetta seeds were collected as a waste product from different juice corners. CLO was obtained after extraction of seeds on soxhlet apparatus using n-hexane as solvent. It was characterized through Gas Chromatography-High Resolution Mass Spectroscopy (GC-HRMS) to determine the presence of active constituents. In vitro bioassays were performed using adult immersion test (AIT) and larval packet test (LPT). In vivo acaricidal efficacy of CLO was performed on red Sahiwal calves using ear bag method. Clinical safety of CLO was evaluated by observing haematological parameters and skin irritancy assay. Results of GC-HRMS showed that mainly fatty acids such as linoleic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, palmitic acid, and linolenic acid were present in the CLO. CLO in the concentration of 125 mg/mL (CLO8) exhibited 100 % mortality in both AIT and LPT. CLO significantly (p < 0.001) reduced the number of ticks from 35 to 5.05 and 3.24 on 144 h after treatment with CLO7 and CLO8, respectively. CLO was found clinically safe without producing erythema and edema on skin. Haematological parameters such as haemoglobin (11.48 g/100 mL), total leucocytes count (4.32 106/cumm), total erythrocytes count (6.80 106/cumm), and packed cell volume (34.39 %) were normal and controlled. CLO may be used as effective and safe drug therapy for controlling R. microplus ticks.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Citrus , Óleos Vegetais , Rhipicephalus , Infestações por Carrapato , Acaricidas/química , Acaricidas/farmacologia , Acaricidas/uso terapêutico , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Citrus/química , Larva , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Óleos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Rhipicephalus/efeitos dos fármacos , Sementes/química , Infestações por Carrapato/tratamento farmacológico , Infestações por Carrapato/prevenção & controle , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária
13.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 176: 104873, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34119218

RESUMO

GSTs (Glutathione S-transferases) are known to catalyze the nucleophilic attack of the sulfhydryl group of reduced glutathione (GSH) on electrophilic centers of xenobiotic compounds, including insecticides and acaricides. Genome analyses of the polyphagous spider mite herbivore Tetranychus urticae (two-spotted spider mite) revealed the presence of a set of 32 genes that code for secreted proteins belonging to the GST family of enzymes. To better understand the role of these proteins in T. urticae, we have functionally characterized TuGSTd01. Moreover, we have modeled the structure of the enzyme in apo form, as well as in the form with bound inhibitor. We demonstrated that this protein is a glutathione S-transferase that can conjugate glutathione to 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB). We have tested TuGSTd01 activity with a range of potential substrates such as cinnamic acid, cumene hydroperoxide, and allyl isothiocyanate; however, the enzyme was unable to process these compounds. Using mutagenesis, we showed that putative active site variants S11A, E66A, S67A, and R68A mutants, which were residues predicted to interact directly with GSH, have no measurable activity, and these residues are required for the enzymatic activity of TuGSTd01. There are several reports that associate some T. urticae acaricide resistance with increased activity of GSTs . However, we found that TuGSTd01 is not able to detoxify abamectin; in fact, the acaricide inhibits the enzyme with Ki = 101 µM. Therefore, we suggest that the increased GST activity observed in abamectin resistant T. urticae field populations is a part of the compensatory feedback loop. In this case, the increased production of GSTs and relatively high concentration of GSH in cells allow GSTs to maintain physiological functions despite the presence of the acaricide.


Assuntos
Acaricidas , Tetranychidae , Acaricidas/farmacologia , Animais , Glutationa Transferase/genética , Ivermectina/análogos & derivados , Tetranychidae/genética
14.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 30(2): e002221, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34076049

RESUMO

This study reports the action of essential oils (EO) from five plants on the activity of native and recombinant acetylcholinesterases (AChE) from Rhipicephalus microplus. Enzyme activity of native susceptible AChE extract (S.AChE), native resistant AChE extract (R.AChE), and recombinant enzyme (rBmAChE1) was determined. An acetylcholinesterase inhibition test was used to verify the effect of the EO on enzyme activity. EO from Eucalyptus globulus, Citrus aurantifolia, Citrus aurantium var.dulcis inhibited the activity of S.AChE and R.AChE. Oils from the two Citrus species inhibited S.AChE and R.AChE in a similar way while showing greater inhibition on R.AChE. The oil from E. globulus inhibited native AChE, but no difference was observed between the S.AChE and R.AChE; however, 71% inhibition for the rBmAChE1 was recorded. Mentha piperita oil also inhibited S.AChE and R.AChE, but there was significant inhibition at the highest concentration tested. Cymbopogon winterianus oil did not inhibit AChE. Further studies are warranted with the oils from the two Citrus species that inhibited R.AChE because of the problem with R. microplus resistant to organophosphates, which target AChE. C. winterianus oil can be used against R. microplus populations that are resistant to organophosphates because its acaricidal properties act by mechanism(s) other than AChE inhibition.


Assuntos
Acaricidas , Inibidores da Colinesterase/farmacologia , Cymbopogon , Óleos Voláteis , Rhipicephalus/enzimologia , Acaricidas/farmacologia , Acetilcolinesterase , Animais , Larva , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia
15.
Ticks Tick Borne Dis ; 12(5): 101747, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34102575

RESUMO

The resistance of Rhipicephalus microplus to acaricides is a serious control problem, so its early diagnosis by a molecular technique is important. This study aims to develop a multiplex allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the para-sodium channel gene and in the GABA-Cl gene, associated with pyrethroids (cypermethrin and flumethrin) and fipronil resistance, respectively. We used 22 tick field isolates from farms with tick control problems (sampling convenience). These farms are located in departments of northern Uruguay. Three mutations in the sodium channel gene (Domain II S4-5: C190A and G215T; domain III S6: T2134A) and one in the GABA-Cl gene (A286S/L: CG856CC/TG) were studied. Mutations G215T and T213A were not detected. In all field isolates, the resistant allele (R) for C190A mutation (knockdown resistance, kdr) was detected, mainly in heterozygous individuals (SR) (11.1% to 86.7%). The highest incidence of the kdr mutant allele occurred in the Tacuarembó tick field isolates, where on 7 out of 10 farms >30% of individuals were SR and on one farm > 30% of individuals were RR. The next highest was Artigas (half of farms had>30% SR individuals and a quarter had >30% RR individuals). The resistance to dieldrin locus (rdl) mutation (CG856CC/TG) was absent in five field isolates. The highest incidenceof the mutant allele was observed in ticks from farms in Rivera (all farms had SR in >30% of individuals and two farms had RR in >12.5 and >16.7% of individuals) followed by farms in Tacuarembó (3 of 10 farms had >30% SR and 2 with >30% RR). Less than half of the farms had rdl in homozygous individuals. No significant association was observed between phenotypic bioassays and the rdl resistance allele. Several field isolates were phenotypically susceptible to the presence of the rdl allele. Several causes are possible (bioassay sensitivity, discriminating concentration). Individuals with simultaneous kdr and rdl mutations were present in 17 field isolates, and their frequency varied between 0.06% and 60%. Genotypic analysis shows that tick resistance to both acaricides, especially pyrethroids, is a serious problem. It is important to monitor the resistance using molecular techniques to plan efficient control measures. This is the first report describing kdr and rdl detection in R. microplus in Uruguay.


Assuntos
Resistência a Inseticidas/genética , Rhipicephalus/genética , Canais de Sódio/genética , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/genética , Acaricidas/farmacologia , Animais , Mutação , Patologia Molecular/métodos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Pirazóis/farmacologia , Piretrinas/farmacologia , Rhipicephalus/efeitos dos fármacos , Infestações por Carrapato/epidemiologia , Uruguai/epidemiologia
16.
Ticks Tick Borne Dis ; 12(5): 101760, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34130147

RESUMO

Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (s.l.), commonly known as brown dog tick, is a widely distributed tick species that is substantially important for human and veterinary medicine. Therefore, it is the target of different control methods. Carvacrol and its semisynthetic derivative, acetylcarvacrol, are promising chemical compounds for alternative tick control. Thus, this study aimed to compare the repellent activities of carvacrol and acetylcarvacrol at different concentrations and drying times. Additionally, morphological alterations found in salivary glands were evaluated through histological techniques after exposure to acetylcarvacrol. The impact of the morphological changes on the development and survival of acini/cells in salivary glands was measured by a semiquantitative analysis. The repellent action of both compounds did not differ when evaluated at different concentrations, although acetylcarvacrol increased its effects as the concentration raised. Regarding the different drying times, acetylcarvacrol maintained its effects after 3 hours of exposure, while the efficacy of carvacrol decreased during this time period. Salivary glands of unfed R. sanguineus s.l. females showed dose-dependent alterations in the size and shape of acini as well as cytoplasmic vacuolization. Loss of the acinar cell limit, rupture of secretory granules and nuclear changes in the cells were also observed in the treated groups. Thus, our results demonstrated the potential of acetylcarvacrol to act as repellent against R. sanguineus s.l. Additionally, the morphological alterations found in salivary glands may interfere with the feeding process of ticks, which contributes to mitigate infestation by this species.


Assuntos
Cimenos/farmacologia , Ixodidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Glândulas Salivares/efeitos dos fármacos , Acaricidas/farmacologia , Animais , Cães , Repelentes de Insetos/farmacologia , Rhipicephalus sanguineus/efeitos dos fármacos , Glândulas Salivares/patologia , Controle de Ácaros e Carrapatos/métodos , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária
17.
Ticks Tick Borne Dis ; 12(5): 101756, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34134062

RESUMO

Herein we review the epidemiology of ticks and tick-borne diseases (TTBDs), their impact on livestock health and on the economy, control and associated challenges in Uganda. Ticks are leading vectors of economically important pathogens and are widespread in Uganda due to suitable climatic conditions. Besides the physical injury inflicted on the animal host, ticks transmit a number of pathogens that can cause morbidity and mortality of livestock if untreated, resulting in economic losses. Uganda suffers an aggregated annual loss (direct and indirect) of over USD 1.1 billion in the TTBDs complex. East Coast fever (ECF) caused by a protozoan haemoparasite, Theileria parva, is the most prevalent and economically important tick-borne disease (TBD) in Uganda and its vector, the brown ear tick (Rhipicephalus appendiculatus) widely distributed. Other prevalent TBDs in Uganda include anaplasmosis, babesiosis and heartwater. We highlight the role of agro-ecological zones (AEZs) and livestock management system in the distribution of TTBDs, citing warm and humid lowlands as being ideal habitats for ticks and endemic for TBDs. Control of TTBDs is a matter of great importance as far as animal health is concerned in Uganda. Indigenous cattle, which make up over 90% of the national herd are known to be more tolerant to TTBDs and most farms rely on endemic stability to TBDs for control. However, exotic cattle breeds are more capital intensive than indigenous breeds, but the increasing adoption of tick-susceptible exotic cattle breeds (especially dairy) in western and central Uganda demands intensive use of acaricides for tick control and prevention of TBDs. Such acaricide pressure has unfortunately led to selection of acaricide-resistant tick populations and the consequent acaricide resistance observed in the field. Vaccination against ECF, selective breeding for tick resistance and integrated tick control approaches that limit tick exposure, could be adopted to interrupt spread of acaricide resistance. We recommend increasing monitoring and surveillance for TTBDs and for emerging acaricide resistance, improved extension services and sensitization of farmers on tick control measures, appropriate acaricide use and the development and implementation of vaccines for the control of TTBDs as more sustainable and effective interventions. A tick control policy should be developed, taking into account variations of agro-ecological zones, farm circumstances and indigenous technical knowledge, and this should be incorporated into the overall animal health program.


Assuntos
Acaricidas/farmacologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/epidemiologia , Anaplasmose/epidemiologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários , Babesiose/epidemiologia , Bovinos , Fazendeiros , Vacinas Protozoárias , Rhipicephalus/parasitologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Theileria parva/isolamento & purificação , Theileriose/epidemiologia , Controle de Ácaros e Carrapatos , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Uganda/epidemiologia
18.
Ticks Tick Borne Dis ; 12(5): 101757, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34147920

RESUMO

The prevention of tick-borne diseases is a major challenge for livestock production globally. Tick control strategies include the use of acaricides, but the prescribed strategies do not achieve the desired results in several countries, including Kenya. To better understand how tick treatment practices, contribute to reported tick treatment failures, we assessed livestock owners' acaricide procurement, level of knowledge about acaricides and tick resistance, and how they apply acaricides. We also assessed the quality of the commonly available acaricides. We focused on three livestock systems in Laikipia County, Kenya: two private ranches; one community ranch whose members communally graze their cattle and acquire and apply acaricides; and individual livestock owners in two pastoral communities who individually graze their cattle and acquire and apply acaricides. Through interviews and focus group discussions we assessed; access to acaricides, livestock owners' knowledge, and acaricide use practices; interview data were triangulated with participant observations (n = 107). We analysed nine commonly used acaricides to determine the active ingredient concentration and we determined the concentration of active ingredients in acaricide dilutions collected on farms. All livestock owners had access to and used chemical acaricides for tick control, predominantly amitraz-based. Private ranchers bought one amitraz-based acaricide in bulk directly from the manufacturer, while all other livestock owners bought from agrovet shops. The livestock owners acquired knowledge about acaricides from their own experiences and through experience-based recommendations from peers, but not from the technical information provided by the manufacturers and agrovet shops. All pastoral livestock frequently changed acaricide brand and active ingredient class. A large majority of pastoralists (86%) mixed acaricide brands within and across active ingredient classes; a smaller majority (56%) mixed acaricides with crop pesticides and insecticides. Our lab tests confirmed the content description on the labels bought from agrovet shops. However, on-farm acaricide dilutions from all three livestock systems deviated from the level recommended for effective treatment. If too diluted, the acaricide does not kill ticks, promoting resistance development. If too concentrated, this increases environmental contamination and raises public health concerns. Livestock owners lack a technical understanding of the functioning of acaricides, compromising their use and effectiveness. The widely adopted mixing of acaricides with insecticides and pesticides raises serious health concerns.


Assuntos
Acaricidas , Fazendas , Controle de Ácaros e Carrapatos/métodos , Acaricidas/efeitos adversos , Acaricidas/farmacologia , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Poluição Ambiental , Fazendeiros , Humanos , Resistência a Inseticidas , Inseticidas/efeitos adversos , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Ixodidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Quênia , Saúde Pública , Piretrinas/farmacologia , Rhipicephalus/efeitos dos fármacos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Infestações por Carrapato/prevenção & controle , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Toluidinas/farmacologia
19.
Parasit Vectors ; 14(1): 330, 2021 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34158107

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The tick Haemaphysalis longicornis (Neumann) is a well-known vector of numerous pathogens of veterinary and medical importance. Various control strategies, including the use of synthetic pesticides, have been developed to control this tick species. However, demand for effective and safe alternative pesticides is increasing due to the adverse effects associated with the intensive and injudicious use of synthetic pesticides, which include undesirable effects on non-target species and environmental pollution. Hence, the acaricidal activity of the extract and the essential oil of Cinnamomum cassia (Chinese cinnamon) and their major components, and the underlying mechanisms of this activity, were evaluated against unfed larvae and nymphs of H. longicornis. METHODS: The components of the extract and essential oil of C. cassia were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and their larvicidal and nymphicidal activity were evaluated using the larval and nymphal packet test. The underlying detoxification mechanism was elucidated by targeting in vivo esterase and monooxygenase activity, and the toxicological effect was assessed on non-target Tenebrio molitor and Harmonia axyridis by topical application in open Petri dishes. RESULTS: (E)-cinnamaldehyde was the predominant component of the extract (50.79%) and essential oil (89.95%). The 50% lethal concentration (LC50) for larvae and nymphs treated with the extract was 11.56 and 49.18 mg/mL, respectively. The essential oil, (E)-cinnamaldehyde and fenvalerate exhibited acaricidal activity, with LC50 values of 3.81, 3.15, and 0.14 mg/mL, respectively, against the larvae, and 21.31, 16.93, and 1.89 mg/mL, respectively, against the nymphs. (E)-cinnamaldehyde significantly increased esterase and monooxygenase activity in both larvae and nymphs. Unlike fenvalerate, C. cassia essential oil and (E)-cinnamaldehyde did not cause mortality of T. molitor or H. axyridis adults. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that C. cassia essential oil and (E)-cinnamaldehyde have the potential to be developed into botanical-based larvicidal and nymphicidal agents for tick control.


Assuntos
Acaricidas/farmacologia , Acroleína/análogos & derivados , Cinnamomum aromaticum/química , Ixodidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Acaricidas/química , Acroleína/análise , Acroleína/farmacologia , Animais , Feminino , Ixodidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Masculino , Óleos Voláteis/química , Extratos Vegetais/química
20.
Vet Parasitol ; 296: 109498, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34139615

RESUMO

In our previous studies, we found that as the active gradients of Adonis coerulea, cardenolides and cardiac glycosides presented toxicity against mites by inhibiting Na+-K+-ATPase. In this paper, after evaluating the acaricidal activity of the commercial cardiac aglycones/glycosides, serials of novel strophanthidin derivatives were designed and synthesized with an efficient and simple route under mild conditions, and their toxicity against mites, the cytotoxicity and inhibitory effect on Na+-K+-ATP enzyme in PC12 cells were investigated. Results showed among of all compounds, including 9 commercial agent and 32 synthesized strophanthidin derivatives, QXG-1 presented the strongest toxicity against mites with the LC50 value of 320.0 µg/mL. C-19 group of strophanthidin substituted with glycinemethylester would increase the toxicity against mites, and the hydroxyl group at C-5 play the vital role in terms of the toxicity. At the given concentration, QXG-1 displayed the safety against PC12 (10.0 µg/mL) in vitro and mice (3.2 mg/kg) in acute toxicity test, and strong inhibitory effect on Na+-K+-ATPase. It could be used as a promising acaricidal agent. This study lays the foundation to develop of QXG-1 as a relatively safe and alternative acaricidal agent.


Assuntos
Acaricidas , Psoroptidae , Estrofantidina , Acaricidas/farmacologia , Adenosina Trifosfatases/metabolismo , Adonis/química , Animais , Ativação Enzimática/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Camundongos , Psoroptidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Estrofantidina/farmacologia
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