Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 41.889
Filtrar
1.
J Glob Health ; 9(2): 020413, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31448114

RESUMO

Background: Past studies have demonstrated how single non-communicable diseases (NCDs) affect health care utilisation and quality of life (QoL), but not how different NCD combinations interact to affect these. Our study aims to investigate the prevalence of NCD dyad and triad combinations, and the implications of different NCD dyad combinations on health care utilisation and QoL. Methods: Our study utilised cross-sectional data from the WHO SAGE study to examine the most prevalent NCD combinations in six large middle-income countries (MICs). Subjects were mostly aged 50 years and above, with a smaller proportion aged 18 to 49 years. Multivariable linear regression was applied to investigate which NCD dyads increased or decreased health care utilisation and QoL, compared with subjects with only one NCD. Results: The study included 41 557 subjects. Most prevalent NCD combinations differed by subgroups, including age, gender, income, and residence (urban vs rural). Diabetes, stroke, and depression had the largest effect on increasing mean number of outpatient visits, increasing mean number of hospitalisation days, and decreasing mean QoL scores, respectively. Out of the 36 NCD dyads in our study, thirteen, four, and five dyad combinations were associated with higher or lower mean number of outpatient visits, mean number of hospitalisations, or mean QoL scores, respectively, compared with treating separate patients with one NCD each. Dyads of depression were associated with fewer mean outpatient visits, more hospitalisations, and lower mean QoL scores, compared to patients with one NCD. Dyads of hypertension and diabetes were also associated with a reduced mean number of outpatient visits. Conclusions: Certain NCD combinations increase or decrease health care utilisation and QoL substantially more than treating separate patients with one NCD each. Health systems should consider the needs of patients with different multimorbidity patterns to effectively respond to the demands on health care utilisation and to mitigate adverse effects on QoL.


Assuntos
Países em Desenvolvimento , Multimorbidade/tendências , Doenças não Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Qualidade de Vida , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Gana/epidemiologia , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , México/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Federação Russa/epidemiologia , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(33): e16808, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31415394

RESUMO

Evidence-based studies have revealed outcomes in patients with chronic kidney disease that differed depending on the design of care delivery. This study compared the effects of 3 types of nephrology care: multidisciplinary care (MDC), nephrology care, and non-nephrology care. We studied their effects on the risks of requiring dialysis and the differences between these methods had on long-term medical resource utilization and costs.We conducted a retrospective cohort study involving patients with an estimated glomerular filtration rate of (eGFR) ≤45 mL/min/1.73 m from 2005 to 2007. Patients were divided into MDC, non-MDC, and non-nephrology referral groups. Between-group differences with regard to the risk of requiring dialysis and annual medical utilization and costs were evaluated using a 5-year follow-up period.In total, 661 patients were included. After other covariates and the competing risk of death were taken into account, we observed a significant (56%) reduction in the incidence of dialysis in both the MDC and non-MDC groups relative to the non-nephrology referral group. Costs were markedly lower in the MDC group relative to the other groups (average savings: US$ 830 per year; 95% confidence interval: 367-1295; P < .001).For patients without nephrology referrals, MDC can substantially reduce their risk of developing end-stage renal disease and lower their medical costs. We therefore strongly advocate that all patients with an eGFR of ≤45 mL/min/1.73 m should be referred to a nephrologist and receive MDC.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde/economia , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Nefrologia/economia , Diálise Renal/economia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/economia , Idoso , Assistência à Saúde/métodos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nefrologia/métodos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente/economia , Encaminhamento e Consulta/economia , Estudos Retrospectivos
4.
J Glob Health ; 9(1): 010809, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31275569

RESUMO

Background: Mozambique has one of the highest under-5 mortality rates in the world. Community health workers (CHWs) are deployed to increase access to care; in Mozambique they are known as agentes polivalentes elementares (APEs). This study aimed to investigate child deaths in an area served by APEs by analysing the causes, care seeking patterns, and the influence of social capital. Methods: Caregivers of children under-5 who died in 2015 in Inhambane province, Mozambique, were interviewed using Verbal Autopsy/Social Autopsy (VA/SA) tools with a social capital module. VA data were analysed using the WHO InterVA analytical tool to determine cause of death. SA was analysed using the INDEPTH SA framework for illnesses lasting no more than three weeks. Social capital scores were calculated. Results: 117 child deaths were reported; VA/SA was conducted for 115. Eighty-five had died from an acute illness lasting no more than three weeks, which in most cases could have been treated at community level; 50.6% died from malaria, 11.8% from HIV/AIDS, and 9.4% for each of diarrhoea and acute respiratory infections. In 35.3% the caregiver only noticed that the child was sick when symptoms of very severe illness developed. One in four children were never taken outside the home before dying. Sixteen children were first taken to an APE; of these 7 had signs of very severe illness. Caregivers who waited to seek care until the illness was very severe had a lower social capital score. The mean travel time to go to the APE was 2hrs 50min, which was not different from any other provider. Most received treatment from the APE, 3 were referred. The majority went to another provider after the APE; most to a health centre. Conclusions: The leading causes of death in children under-5 can be detected, treated or referred by APEs. Major care seeking delays took place in the home, largely due to lack of early disease recognition and late decision-making. Low social capital, distance to APEs and to referral facilities likely contribute to these delays. Increasing caregiver illness awareness is urgently needed, as well as stronger referral linkages. A review of the geographical coverage and scope of work of APEs should be conducted.


Assuntos
Causas de Morte/tendências , Mortalidade da Criança/tendências , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/organização & administração , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Mortalidade Infantil/tendências , Pré-Escolar , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Moçambique/epidemiologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Capital Social , Tempo para o Tratamento/estatística & dados numéricos
5.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 262: 324-327, 2019 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31349333

RESUMO

This study aims at assessing the relationship between social determinants of health (SDH) and dental care utilization compliance in a student dental clinic. Electronic dental records (EDR) were queried based on visit codes and evaluated using descriptive and inferential statistics, and binary logistic regression. Overall, characteristics of 16,474 visits were analyzed to identify potential predictors of appointment compliance. Factors affecting compliance with treatment plans prescribed at comprehensive care visits were identified in a cohort of 6,105 patients. Determinants of compliance with a comprehensive care visit following triage visits were analyzed in a cohort of 5491 patients. Results indicated that certain patient characteristics were associated with either increased or decreased compliance with dental care utilization. We concluded that EDR can be instrumental in identifying patterns of care utilization and determinants of patient compliance based on SDH.


Assuntos
Big Data , Assistência Odontológica , Clínicas Odontológicas , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Cooperação do Paciente , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Estudantes
6.
Pan Afr Med J ; 32: 188, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31312300

RESUMO

Introduction: This study explored the differences on the level of medical care required by camp and non-camp resident patients during utilisation of the health services in Mae La refugee camp, Tak province, Thailand during the years 2006 and 2007. Methods: Data were extracted from camp registers and the Health Information System used during the years 2006 and 2007 and statistical analysis was performed. Results: The analysis showed that during 2006 and 2007 non-camp resident patients, coming from Thailand as well as Myanmar, who sought care in the outpatient department (OPD) of the camp required at a significantly higher proportion admission to the inpatient department (IPD) or referral to the district hospital compared to camp resident patients. Although there was a statistically significant increased mortality of the non-camp resident patients admitted in the IPD compared to camp resident patients, there was no significant difference in mortality among these two groups when the referrals to the district hospital were analysed. Conclusion: Non-camp resident patients tended to need a more advanced level of medical care compared to camp resident patients. Provided that this it is further validated, the above observed pattern might be potentially useful as an indirect indicator of unaddressed health needs of populations surrounding a refugee camp.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Campos de Refugiados/estatística & dados numéricos , Refugiados/estatística & dados numéricos , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Tailândia
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(28): e16169, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31305399

RESUMO

We aim to examine temporal trends of orthopedic operations and opioid-related hospital stays among seniors in the nation and states of Oregon and Washington where marijuana legalization was accepted earlier than any others.As aging society advances in the United States (U.S.), orthopedic operations and opioid-related hospital stays among seniors increase in the nation.A serial cross-sectional cohort study using the healthcare cost and utilization project fast stats from 2006 through 2015 measured annual rate per 100,000 populations of orthopedic operations by age groups (45-64 vs 65 and older) as well as annual rate per 100,000 populations of opioid-related hospital stays among 65 and older in the nation, Oregon and Washington states from 2008 through 2017. Orthopedic operations (knee arthroplasty, total or partial hip replacement, spinal fusion or laminectomy) and opioid-related hospital stays were measured. The compound annual growth rate (CAGR) was used to quantify temporal trends of orthopedic operations by age groups as well as opioid-related hospital stays and was tested by Rao-Scott correction of χ for categorical variables.The CAGR (4.06%) of orthopedic operations among age 65 and older increased (P < .001) unlike the unchanged rate among age 45 to 64. The CAGRs of opioid-related hospital stays among age 65 and older were upward trends among seniors in general (6.79%) and in Oregon (10.32%) and Washington (15.48%) in particular (all P < .001).Orthopedic operations and opioid-related hospital stays among seniors increased over time in the U.S. Marijuana legalization might have played a role of gateway drug to opioid among seniors.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Controle de Medicamentos e Entorpecentes , Artropatias/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Hospitalização/tendências , Humanos , Artropatias/economia , Artropatias/cirurgia , Uso da Maconha/legislação & jurisprudência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oregon , Procedimentos Ortopédicos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Estudos Retrospectivos , Washington
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(28): e16465, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31305480

RESUMO

Actinic keratoses (AKs) are precancerous epidermal lesions that develop on sensitive, frequently sun-exposed skin surfaces. There are very little data regarding AK prevalance. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of AK and related conditions among patients in a dermatology outpatient clinic.Patients attending our dermatology outpatient clinic between January 1, 2015 and December 31, 2017 were evaluated retrospectively usingan automated system. A total of 54,786 patients aged ≥30 years attending the dermatology outpatient clinic were included in the study. We identified 1375 patients diagnosed with AK.In our study, the AK prevalence was 0.01% for patients between 30 and 39 years of age, 0.45% for patients between 40 and 49 years of age, 1.77% for patients between 50 and 59 years of age, 4.61% for patients between 60 and 69 years of age, 9.38% for patients between 70 and 79 years of age, and 14.57% for patients ≥80 years. AK prevalence was 2.50% among patients of all ages.The exposure to sunlight is excessive due to the geographical location of our country. Due to the tendency of AKs to convert to malignancies, the identification of patients at high risk for AK development and the identification of high-risk anatomical regions are important to establish the basis of effective screening programs to support public health.


Assuntos
Ceratose Actínica/epidemiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Assistência Ambulatorial , Dermatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Ceratose Actínica/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Reconhecimento Automatizado de Padrão , Prevalência , Exposição à Radiação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Pigmentação da Pele , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem
9.
Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao ; 41(3): 331-337, 2019 Jun 30.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31282326

RESUMO

Objective To investigate the health care-seeking behaviors of Mosuo and Pumi people.Methods The subjects were enrolled by using the multi-stage stratified random sampling method and surveyed by the self-designed questionnaire.Results To tally 1669 subjects including 1121 Mosuo people and 548 Pumi people completed the survey.When Mosuo and Pumi people suffer from ailments,they preferred to buy drugs in drugstores(47.3% for Mosuo and 46.9% for Pumi),followed by visiting a local township hospital(27.0% for Mosuo and 24.3% for Pumi).When they suffered from severe diseases,they preferred to visit the county/city/state hospital(93.4% for Mosuo and 91.1% for Pumi).The mental disease were mainly treated in the county/city/state hospitals(49.3% for Mosuo and 52.7% for Pumi);notably,39.3% of the Mosuo respondents and 31.5% of the Pumi respondents skipped this question.Conclusion Health education,including awareness-raising activities on mental health,should be enhanced in Mosuo and Pumi people to further improve their health care-seeking behaviors.


Assuntos
Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , China , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31297549

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Currently, there are 1.7 million people living with dementia (PwD) in Germany. This number is expected to double within the next decades. Estimates of the total societal economic burden of dementia are currently missing. OBJECTIVES: The aim was to estimate the current and future total cost and excess cost of dementia from a public payer and societal perspective. METHODS: Studies demonstrating the healthcare resource utilization of PwD in Germany were identified. Utilization data were aggregated using the sample size of different studies as a weight. Annual per capita costs of PwD and excess cost of dementia were calculated using standardized unit costs. Current and future costs were calculated based on published prevalence and population forecasts. RESULTS: PwD living at home had lower costs from a payer perspective compared to those who are institutionalized, but higher total societal cost due to the higher informal care time. The total cost for PwD from a payer perspective was 34 billion € in 2016. These costs could reach 90 billion € by 2060. The excess cost of dementia was 18 billion € in 2016 and is estimated to become 49 billion € by 2060 from a payer perspective, representing 54% of the total cost of PwD and up to 15% of the total costs associated with the elderly population. The total societal cost was 73 billion € in 2016 and is estimated to become 194 billion € by 2060. The excess cost of dementia was 54 billion € in 2016 and is estimated to become 145 billion € by 2060, representing 74% of the total societal cost of PwD and 36% of the total societal cost of the elderly. CONCLUSION: Dementia diseases represent a tremendous social and economic burden. Without a cure, supporting caregivers and implementing interventions that delay the functional and cognitive decline will be crucial to relieving the increasing costs.


Assuntos
Cuidadores/economia , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Demência/economia , Demência/psicologia , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento , Cuidadores/estatística & dados numéricos , Alemanha , Humanos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Alocação de Recursos
11.
Epidemiol Health ; 41: e2019031, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31319656

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Vaccinations for infectious diseases are opposed despite their achievement, and this opposition has recently been revealed in Korea. However, research in Korea has not been vigorous. The authors studied why some Korean parents hesitate to vaccinate their children by applying the health belief model. METHODS: Parents who hesitate to vaccinate and parents who do not were surveyed in alternative education preschools and elementary schools. They were classified into four types of hesitancy and statistically compared. RESULTS: Among the 129 subjects, 43 vaccinated without hesitancy, 20 vaccinated on time with hesitancy, 32 vaccinated with a deliberate delay of one month or longer, and 34 did not vaccinate. Vaccination increased with an increase in the awareness that severe outcomes can occur when unvaccinated. Concerns about adverse reactions from vaccinations or direct/indirect experiences affected refusal. Furthermore, perceptions of the lack of meaningfulness of vaccinations, distrust of policy and safety management, influence of leaders or activists in joined organizations, and experts of Korean traditional or alternative medicine affected refusal. Explanations by doctors, text messages and mails from institutions, and concerns about disadvantages caused by not complying with government policies increased vaccination. CONCLUSIONS: The reasons for vaccine hesitancy and acceptance were similar to the results of international research. Health authorities and professionals should communicate sufficiently and appropriately with hesitant parents and find ways to rationally resolve social conflicts. However, this sample was small and there is little Korean research, so more in-depth and diverse researchs are needed.


Assuntos
Pais/psicologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Vacinação/psicologia , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Psicológicos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , República da Coreia , Recusa do Paciente ao Tratamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos
12.
Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop ; 155(6): 826-831, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31153503

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: "Upstream" decisions by patients are important in determining whether they seek orthodontic care for their children and for themselves and whether they seek care from general dentists or from orthodontists. Classic marketing theory suggests that purchase decisions naturally progress through a sequence beginning with awareness and proceeding to information, emotional preferences, and final purchase commitment. METHODS: A survey was used to assess patient demographics and care history, motives for seeking care for themselves and their children, perceived barriers to care, trust in various sources of information, and preference for treatment by a general dentist or by an orthodontist. Three hundred fifty-two responses were received from patients in all states in the United Sates attending their general dentists. RESULTS: Care for children was most often initiated in response to a suggestion from the family dentist, and traditional treatment with braces was expected. Adults were slightly more likely to make a decision for care themselves and for appearance reasons, often with "invisible" braces. Cost was the principal barrier to seeking care for either functional or appearance reasons. More personal and individualized sources of information, such as the family dentist or referral to a specialist were strongly more influential, with indirect sources, such as dentist Web pages or advertisements, being least influential. There was a preference for care by orthodontists compared with general dentists for functional reasons and when complications were anticipated. Orthodontists were seen as being better at identifying complications, managing complications, and delivering reliable results. Orthodontic care provided by general dentists was favored for convenience and based on established relationships. Patients with more education, higher incomes, and more preventive oral habits preferred treatment by orthodontists. Although it was expected that orthodontists would charge more, income and cost were not factors among those considering treatment. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that orthodontists should focus on educating potential patients about the functional health features of treatment for malocclusions, especially for children. Furthermore, orthodontists would benefit from working with general dentists, given their role as gatekeepers in the sequential process of reaching an upstream decision about seeking orthodontic care.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões , Ortodontia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Adulto , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Motivação , Estados Unidos
13.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(6): 643-647, 2019 Jun 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31238612

RESUMO

Objective: To analyze the epidemiological characteristics, trend and related factors of tuberculosis patients that delayed for care, in Wuhan from 2008 to 2017. Methods: Data regarding tuberculosis (TB) patients was collected from the tuberculosis management information system (TMIS), a part of the China information system for disease control and prevention from 2008 to 2017. A total of 64 208 tuberculosis patients, aged 0 to 95 years were included for the analysis. Unconditional logistic regression method was used to estimate those factors that associated with this study. Results: Days of delay among TB patients appeared as M=10 (P(25)-P(75): 3-28) day, in Wuhan, 2008-2017. The prevalence of the delay was 52.5% (33 703/64 208), presenting a downward trend from 2008 to 2017 (trend χ(2)=10.64, P<0.001), but the proportions of women and ≥65 year-olds were gradually increasing. Results from the multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that factors as: patients living far away from the city vs. near the city (OR=1.29, 95%CI: 1.25-1.35), and age above 45 years vs. younger than 25 years (the age 45-64 years group vs. aged less than 25 years group, OR=1.22, 95%CI: 1.15-1.29; the age 65 or above group vs. aged less than 25 years group, the OR=1.30, 95%CI: 1.22-1.39) were under higher risk on the delay of seeking care. Occupation, way of case-finding and classification of tuberculosis patients also appeared as influencing factors on this issue. Conclusions: Prevalence on the delay of care was 52.5% among tuberculosis patients in Wuhan, 2008-2017, but with an annual decrease. Attention should be paid to female, wrinkly or elderly tuberculosis patients regarding the delay of care on TB, in Wuhan.


Assuntos
Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Diagnóstico Tardio , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Tuberculose Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/etnologia , Prevalência , Distribuição por Sexo , Tuberculose Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/microbiologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
Cent Eur J Public Health ; 27(2): 127-130, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31241287

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In the Austrian population approximately 350,000-400,000 cases and 1,000-1,200 deaths are observed during an average epidemic, which puts influenza-related deaths on top of the list of vaccine-preventable cases of death. In face of extensive vaccination recommendations, the current vaccination rate of the general population of about 6% is one of the lowest worldwide. The objective of this study was to provide an update regarding the use of influenza vaccination in Austria over the period 1982-2015. METHODS: This paper presents data on influenza vaccine use in Austria displayed by the number of distributed doses per 1,000 population over a period of 33 years. Further data was collected from representative population-based telephone surveys. RESULTS: Austria has always been among the countries with a low number of distributed doses of influenza vaccine. The highest number ever was reached in 2006 with 142 doses/1,000. From 2007 onwards, a steady decrease happened to 62 doses/1,000 in the 2015/16 season, which corresponds to the level of the mid-nineties. CONCLUSION: Despite the fact that Austria is a country with comprehensive recommendations for influenza vaccination, this vaccination continues to be misjudged by the Austrian population and many areas of the medical system. From a public health point of view, this situation is not acceptable. Efforts must be increased to attain a much higher vaccination rate, e.g. the importance of the healthcare workers' influence must be recognized, the options of social marketing have to be utilized and studies on the main barriers in Austria are urgently needed.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Vacinas contra Influenza/administração & dosagem , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Áustria/epidemiologia , Pessoal de Saúde , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia
15.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 8(1): 44, 2019 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31182164

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) prevalence is closely associated with poverty in China, and poor patients face more barriers to treatment. Using an insurance-based approach, the China-Gates TB program Phase II was implemented between 2012 and 2014 in three cities in China to improve access to TB care and reduce the financial burden on patients, particularly among the poor. This study aims to assess the program effects on service use, and its equity impact across different income groups. METHODS: Data from 788 and 775 patients at baseline and final evaluation were available for analysis respectively. Inpatient and outpatient service utilization, treatment adherence, and patient satisfaction were assessed before and after the program, across different income groups (extreme poverty, moderate poverty and non-poverty), and in various program cities, using descriptive statistics and multi-variate regression models. Key stakeholder interviews were conducted to qualitatively evaluate program implementation and impacts. RESULTS: After program implementation, the hospital admission rate increased more for the extreme poverty group (48.5 to 70.7%) and moderate poverty group (45.0 to 68.1%), compared to the non-poverty group (52.9 to 64.3%). The largest increase in the number of outpatient visits was also for the extreme poverty group (4.6 to 5.7). The proportion of patients with good medication adherence increased by 15 percentage points in the extreme poverty group and by ten percentage points in the other groups. Satisfaction rates were high in all groups. Qualitative feedback from stakeholders also suggested that increased reimbursement rates, easier reimbursement procedures, and allowance improved patients' service utilization. Implementation of case-based payment made service provision more compliant to clinical pathways. CONCLUSION: Patients in extreme or moderate poverty benefited more from the program compared to a non-poverty group, indicating improved equity in TB service access. The pro-poor design of the program provides important lessons to other TB programs in China and other countries to better address TB care for the poor.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde/economia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/economia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Satisfação do Paciente , Tuberculose/economia , Tuberculose/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Antituberculosos/economia , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , China , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hospitalização/economia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Reembolso de Seguro de Saúde , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Adesão à Medicação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Satisfação do Paciente/economia , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico
16.
Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi ; 54(5): 312-317, 2019 May 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31154712

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the acceptance of HPV self-sampling mode in cervical cancer screening population and explore its feasibility. Methods: From March 5 to 15, 2018, researchers investigated women who participated in cervical cancer screening organized by Beijing Shunyi Women's and Children's Hospital in the form of questionnaires. Questionnaires were conducted on their acceptance status and the factors that affect the self-sampling experience. The specific contents of the questionnaires were as follows: (1) the experience of using self-sampling included operability, comfortable, sample time-consuming, bleeding or not after sampling; (2) psychological changes after self-sampling, including the willingness to accept self-sampling again, the worrying problems during self-sampling process. According to whether or not have operating video guidance, the self-sampling experience and psychological changes after self-sampling were compared. Results: (1) There were 1 375 women participated in the questionnaire survey, and 86.55% (1 190/1 375) of them thought the self-sampling was convenient, 78.40% (1 078/1 375) thought it was not uncomfortable, 88.58% (1 218/1 375) thought the sampling time was fast (less than 5 minutes), 94.04% (1 293/1 375) self-sampling without bleeding; and 83.27% (1 145/1 375) were willing to self-sampling for cervical cancer screening again, 85.82% (1 180/1 375) were afraid of inaccurate sampling. (2) Among the 1 375 women, 1 202 were in the video guidance group and 173 were in the non-guidance group. The self-sampling experience of women in video guidance group was better than those of non-guidance group in operability, comfortable, sampling time-consuming and bleeding after sampling. The proportion of women who willing to self-sampling again was higher than that of non-guidance group (86.69% vs 59.54%, respectively). The proportion of women who worried operating incorrectly was lower than that of non-guidance group (11.23% vs 32.37%, respectively). The differences were significant (all P<0.05). Conclusions: Self-sampling for HPV testing in cervical cancer screening is easy to operate and has little discomfort complaint. It is feasible in cervical cancer screening. Operational video guidance during the screening process could effectively improve the women's experience and willingness to self-sampling again in the future.


Assuntos
Programas de Rastreamento , Papillomaviridae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Papillomavirus/diagnóstico , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Adulto , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Autocuidado , Manejo de Espécimes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Esfregaço Vaginal
17.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 361, 2019 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31174523

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To improve the efficiency of the use of medical resources, China has implemented medical alliances (MAs) to implement a hierarchical diagnosis and treatment system. The willingness to undertake a first visit to primary care institutions (PCIs) is an important indicator of the effect of this system. Beijing has also built MAs since 2013, but to date, there have been few studies on the first visit to PCIs in Beijing. The purpose of this study is to analyze patients' willingness to make their first visit to PCIs and its influencing factors to provide references for the realization of a hierarchical diagnosis and treatment system. METHODS: Two relatively different districts with large differences in resources in Beijing, D and F, were selected, and a self-reported questionnaire and convenience sampling method were applied. A cross-sectional survey was administered to 1221 patients of MAs. The chi-square test and binary logistic regression were used to analyze the influencing factors of patients' willingness to undertake a first visit to a PCI. RESULTS: Fewer patients in District D received medical alliance services (44.42%) than those in District F (59.25%), but patients in District D had a higher degree of satisfaction with the services they received (72.04%) than those in District F (28.96%). Patients in District D had a higher willingness to undertake a first visit (64.00%) than those in District F (58.18%). Patients of an older age, low medical expenses, participation in urban employees' basic medical insurance, a high understanding of MAs and high satisfaction with medical services were indicators of being more willing to choose primary care institutions for their first visit. CONCLUSIONS: The different medical resources and MA constructions in the two districts have resulted in a difference between the two districts in terms of the willingness of individuals to make their first visit to PCIs. Strengthening the service capabilities of PCIs remains a priority. The government should propose solutions to solve the problems encountered in practice and actively promote the realization of MAs and hierarchical diagnosis and treatment.


Assuntos
Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Pequim/epidemiologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 365, 2019 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31182079

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Elder people aged ≥45 years often have more healthcare needs than the younger. But the Chinese elderly are less likely to see a doctor when ill. In this article, this phenomenon is abbreviated as "not see a doctor". This study aimed to describe the reason distribution of"not see a doctor" among the Chinese elderly. Specifically,we examined the reasons why"not see a doctor" happened to the Chinese elderly with different characteristics. METHODS: In order to explore the associations between various predisposing, enabling and need factors and "not see a doctor" in China, this cross-sectional study used the data from the 2015 wave 4 of the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS). Using multivariate analyses, associations between "not see a doctor" and factors were accessed. Models were estimated using a binary model with negative log-log link function (cases versus controls) and multinomial logit analysis (reasons for "not see a doctor"). RESULTS: Adjusted by individual weight, the analysis included 16,277 people aged ≥45 years, of whom 11% reported "not see a doctor". Overall, those with older age, other marital status (except married) and poorer health status were more likely to report "not see a doctor". No significant associations were found between income and "not see a doctor". The majority of cases report "no need" as the reason for their "not see a doctor". Except reason "no need", factor associated with the healthcare system-cost-accounted for the most case of "not see a doctor". Those without health insurance are more likely not to see a doctor due to affordability issues. CONCLUSIONS: This quantitative study suggests that "not see a doctor" is more likely to happen due to age and marital status issues, especially affordability issues. For China, it is important to enforce the policy of reducing of healthcare fees and increasing health insurance coverage.


Assuntos
Gastos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Saúde para Idosos/estatística & dados numéricos , Seguro Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Idoso , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos
19.
Spine (Phila Pa 1976) ; 44(13): 908-914, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31205166

RESUMO

STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) health domains can effectively estimate health utility index values for patients presenting for spine surgery. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Stable estimates of health utility are required to determine cost-effectiveness of spine surgery. There are no established methods to estimate health utility using PROMIS. METHODS: We enrolled 439 patients with spine disease (mean age, 54 ±â€Š18 yrs) presenting for surgery and assessed their health using the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-12, version 2 (SF-12v2) and PROMIS domains. Standard health utility values were estimated from the SF-12v2. Participants were randomly assigned to derivation or validation cohort. In the derivation cohort, health utility values were estimated as a function of PROMIS domains using regression models. Model fit statistics determined the most parsimonious health utility estimation equation (HEE). In the validation cohort, values were calculated using the HEE. Estimated health utility values were correlated with SF-12v2-derived health utility values. RESULTS: Mean preoperative health utility was 0.492 ±â€Š0.008 and was similar between the two cohorts. All PROMIS health domains were significantly associated with health utility except Anxiety (P = 0.830) and Sleep Disturbance (P = 0.818). The final HEE was:Health Utility (est) = 0.70742 - 0.00471 × Pain + 0.00647 × Physical function - 0.00316 × Fatigue - 0.00214 × Depression + 0.00317 × Satisfaction with Participation in Social Roles.The estimation model accounted for 74% of observed variation in health utility. In the validation sample, mean health utility was 0.5033 ±â€Š0.1684 and estimated health utility was 0.4966 ±â€Š0.1342 (P = 0.401). These measures were strongly correlated (rho = 0.834). CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that PROMIS provides a reasonable estimate of health utility in adults presenting for lumbar or cervical spine surgery. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 1.


Assuntos
Avaliação de Resultados (Cuidados de Saúde)/métodos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Doenças da Coluna Vertebral/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dor/diagnóstico , Dor/epidemiologia , Dor/cirurgia , Medição da Dor/métodos , Estudos Prospectivos , Doenças da Coluna Vertebral/diagnóstico , Doenças da Coluna Vertebral/epidemiologia
20.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 703, 2019 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31174505

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In an effort to complement the current chemotherapy based schistosomiasis control interventions in Shinyanga district, community knowledge, perceptions and water contact practices were qualitatively assessed using focus group discussions and semi structured interviews involving 271 participants in one S. haematobium prevalent community of Ikingwamanoti village, Shinyanga district, Northwestern, Tanzania. METHODS: In October, 2016 we conducted 29 parent semi structured interviews and 16 focus group discussions with a total of 168 parent informants. Adult participants were conveniently selected from three sub-villages of Butini, Miyu, and Bomani of Ikingwamanoti village, Shinyanga district. In March, 2017, a total of 103 children informants participated in 10 focus group discussions and 20 semi structured interviews, administered to children from standard four, five, six and seven attending Ikingwamanoti Primary School. Note taking and digital recorders were used to collect narrative data for thematic analysis of emergent themes. RESULTS: Among participants, 75% parents and 50% children considered urinary schistosomiasis as a low priority health problem. Of the informants, 70% children and 48.3% parents had misconceptions about the cause, modes of transmission and control of schistosomiasis demonstrating gaps in their biomedical knowledge of the disease. Assessment of treatment seeking behavior for urinary schistosomiasis revealed a combination of traditional and modern health care sectors. However, modern medicines were considered effective in the treatment of urinary schistosomiasis. Lack of alternative sources of water for domestic and recreational activities and unhygienic water use habits exposed community members to high risk of acquiring urinary schistosomiasis. CONCLUSION: Use of Schistosoma haematobium contaminated water sources for daily domestic and recreational use facilitated contraction of urinary schistosomiasis among community members in Shinyanga district. People's perceptions of urinary schistosomiasis as a less priority health problem promoted persistence of the disease. Future efforts to control urinary schistosomiasis should take into account integrated approaches combining water, sanitation and hygiene, health education, alternative sources of clean and safe water to facilitate behavior change.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Higiene , Pais/psicologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Schistosoma haematobium , Esquistossomose Urinária/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Masculino , Percepção , Prevalência , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Saneamento , Esquistossomose Urinária/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose Urinária/transmissão , Tanzânia/epidemiologia , Água
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA