Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 14.177
Filtrar
1.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 20(1): 600, 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33028237

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this national survey was to explore pregnant women's perceptions of COVID-19 and their healthcare experiences. METHODS: Through patient and public involvement, a questionnaire was developed and advertised via the BBC website, Twitter and other online media during May 2020. The findings were analysed by qualitative thematic analysis. Women who are currently pregnant, or who have delivered during the COVID-19 pandemic were invited to partake in a national online survey. RESULTS: One thousand four hundred fifty-one participants replied to the online questionnaire. Participants provided significant insight into the perceived barriers to seeking healthcare during this pandemic. These include 'not wanting to bother anyone', 'lack of wider support from allied healthcare workers' and the influence of the media. Other concerns included the use of virtual clinics antenatally and their acceptability to patients, the presence of birthing partners, and the way in which information is communicated about rapidly changing and evolving services. The influence of the media has also had a significant impact on the way women perceive hospital care in light of COVID-19 and for some, this has shaped whether they would seek help. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first ever reported study in the United Kingdom to explore pregnant women's perceptions of COVID-19 and their subsequent healthcare experiences. It has also provided insight into perceived barriers into seeking care as well as maternal concerns antenatally, intrapartum and postpartum.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Gestantes/psicologia , Percepção Social , Adulto , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/psicologia , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Inquéritos e Questionários , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
2.
Cien Saude Colet ; 25(9): 3567-3571, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32876259

RESUMO

On February 3, 2020, the Brazilian Ministry of Health declared a state of emergency in public health of national relevance due to the pandemic caused by the new coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. As a result, IBGE postponed the 2020 Demographic Census and started to formulate a COVID-19 PNAD. The survey included a total sample of 349 thousand people in about 200 thousand households. Of the total Brazilian resident population, the IBGE estimated in May/2020 that 24.0 million (11.4%) had at least one of the flu-like syndrome symptoms. Of this contingent, 20.2 million (84.3% of all symptomatic patients) did not seek health care. The innovations brought to health surveillance and the IBGE's pioneering spirit show that it is possible, in a continental country that has been experiencing several local epidemics at different times in its territory, that other countries also develop similar household surveys, with weekly data collection (referred to epidemiological weeks) by telephone in an innovative and timely manner. The COVID-19 PNAD also brought new technology to the Institute, reviving its role as an external evaluator of the Unified Health System (SUS).


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Vigilância em Saúde Pública/métodos , Saúde Pública , Inquéritos e Questionários , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Tecnologia Biomédica , Brasil , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos , Pandemias , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia
3.
BMC Pediatr ; 20(1): 427, 2020 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32894080

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted healthcare systems worldwide. In addition to the direct impact of the virus on patient morbidity and mortality, the effect of lockdown strategies on health and healthcare utilization have become apparent. Little is known on the effect of the pandemic on pediatric and adolescent medicine. We examined the impact of the pandemic on pediatric emergency healthcare utilization. METHODS: We conducted a monocentric, retrospective analysis of n = 5,424 pediatric emergency department visits between January 1st and April 19th of 2019 and 2020, and compared healthcare utilization during the pandemic in 2020 to the same period in 2019. RESULTS: In the four weeks after lockdown in Germany began, we observed a massive drop of 63.8% in pediatric emergency healthcare utilization (mean daily visits 26.8 ± SEM 1.5 in 2019 vs. 9.7 ± SEM 1 in 2020, p < 0.005). This drop in cases occurred for both communicable and non-communicable diseases. A larger proportion of patients under one year old (daily mean of 16.6% ±SEM 1.4 in 2019 vs. 23.1% ±SEM 1.7 in 2020, p < 0.01) and of cases requiring hospitalisation (mean of 13.9% ±SEM 1.6 in 2019 vs. 26.6% ±SEM 3.3 in 2020, p < 0.001) occurred during the pandemic. During the analysed time periods, few intensive care admissions and no fatalities occurred. CONCLUSIONS: Our data illustrate a significant decrease in pediatric emergency department visits during the COVID-19 pandemic. Public outreach is needed to encourage parents and guardians to seek medical attention for pediatric emergencies in spite of the pandemic.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/tendências , Utilização de Instalações e Serviços/tendências , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/tendências , Pandemias , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
4.
J Pregnancy ; 2020: 4318197, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32908704

RESUMO

Background: The maternity continuum of care is the continuity of maternal healthcare services that a woman uses, which includes antenatal care (ANC 4+), skill birth attendant (SBA), and postnatal care (PNC) within 48 hours of delivery. It is one of the essential strategies for reducing maternal and newborn mortality. This study aimed to assess the factors associated with the completion of a continuum of maternal healthcare services among mothers who gave birth in the past five years. Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted from May 01 to June 29, 2019, among 565 randomly selected mothers who gave birth in five years before the study in primary healthcare project implementation districts of north Gondar zone, Amhara National Regional State, Ethiopia. Bivariable and multivariable logistic regression analysis were computed, and in the multivariable logistic regression analysis, adjusted odds ratio (AOR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) and a p value of less than 0.05 were used to identify the associated factors with completion of the continuum of maternal healthcare services. Results: The study revealed that the overall completion of the continuum of maternal healthcare services was 21.60% (95% CI: 18.20, 24.90). Women who were able to read and write (AOR: 2.70, 95% CI: 1.22, 6.04), using car/motorcycle as a means of transportation to get the health facility (AOR: 5.59, 95% CI: 2.29, 9.50), travel time less than an hour to get the health facility (AOR: 4.98, 95% CI: 2.97, 8.38), being satisfied with the service delivery (AOR: 1.89, 95% CI: 1.15, 3.11), and getting health education on maternal healthcare services in the last 6 months (AOR: 2.77, 95% CI: 1.52, 5.05) were factors associated with the completion of the continuum of maternal healthcare services. Conclusions: The completion of the continuum of maternal healthcare services was relatively low, indicating that women were not getting the likely health benefit from the present health services. Therefore, interventions should focus on increasing women's awareness, improving the availability of services at nearby health facilities, and improving service delivery by considering women's preferences and needs to increase their satisfaction are essential to increase the completion of maternal healthcare services.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Serviços de Saúde Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Adolescente , Adulto , Conscientização , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Educação em Saúde , Instalações de Saúde , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Satisfação do Paciente , Cuidado Pós-Natal , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Adulto Jovem
6.
J Pregnancy ; 2020: 7019676, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32953177

RESUMO

Background: Ethiopia still suffers high levels of neonatal and maternal mortality, so the maternity continuum of care is a continuous framework for the delivery of maternal care from pregnancy to the postnatal period. Skilled care during pregnancy, childbirth, and the postpartum period is an important intervention in reducing maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. But in Ethiopia, there are limited studies on the completion of the maternity continuum of care, so this study will help to suggest interventions in order to reduce the dropout of the maternity continuum of care. Objective: To assess the completion of the maternity continuum of care and factors associated with it among mothers who gave birth in the last one year in Enemay District, Northwest Ethiopia. Method and Materials. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted from February 25 to March 10, 2019, on 651 women who gave birth in the last one year. The data were collected by a face-to-face interview through pretested and structured questionnaires. Binary logistic regression was used to identify predictors of the completion of the maternity continuum of care. Variables with a P value < 0.05 in multivariable analysis were declared as statistically significant associated factors. Results: This study revealed that about 45% (95% CI: 40.9%, 48.8%) of respondents completed the continuum of care. Women with secondary education (AOR = 6, 95% CI: 2.26, 16.6), women whose occupation is farming (AOR = 0.18, 95%, CI: 0.1, 0.32), women who have autonomy in health care decision (AOR = 4, 95% CI: 2.26, 7.2), women who have exposure to media (AOR = 1.97, 95% CI: 1.2, 3.27), women with wanted pregnancies (AOR = 3.33, 95% CI: 1.87, 5.9), para five and above women (AOR = 2.85, 95% CI: 1.28, 6.3), and women whose husbands are employed (AOR = 4.97, 95% CI: 1.16, 21.2) were significantly associated with the completion of the maternity continuum of care. Conclusions and Recommendation. This study showed that less than half of the participants had achieved the continuum of care and education level, and both respondents and their husband's occupation, parity, autonomy in health care decision, exposure to the mass media, and wantedness of pregnancy were associated with the completion of the maternity continuum of care; therefore, working on enhancing the capacity of women's autonomy in health care and decision-making and preventing unintended pregnancy helps to improve the completion of the maternity continuum of care.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde , Serviços de Saúde Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Mães , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Tomada de Decisões , Escolaridade , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Meios de Comunicação de Massa , Autonomia Pessoal , Gravidez , Gravidez não Planejada , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(31): e21553, 2020 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756212

RESUMO

In Taiwan, legal migrant workers and almost all citizens are covered under the National Health Insurance program. Work-related injuries and various traumatic events constitute 2 major reasons for seeking medical care among migrant workers. Therefore, we conducted this retrospective study to delineate the clinical features of migrant workers with trauma and determine differences in trauma management between migrant workers and citizens under the current medical care and insurance system.We retrospectively reviewed the data of all patients with trauma who were discharged from adult wards between January 1, 2015 and December 31, 2016. We identified 5854 citizens and 110 migrant workers during the chart review. Data related to the prehospital period, emergency department, hospital course, and prognosis were collected and compared between migrant workers and citizens.More than half of the traumatic events among migrant workers occurred at factory, farm, or mine locations (migrant workers vs all citizens: 57.3% vs 11.5%), whereas most traumatic events among citizens occurred at street and home or dormitory locations (street: migrant workers vs all citizens: 17.3% vs 52.5%; home or dormitory: migrant workers vs all citizens: 0.9% vs 14.3%). Compared with citizens, migrant workers had lower scores in injury severity scores and new injury severity scores, but higher scores in revised trauma score and trauma and injury severity scores. The hospital course and prognosis were similar between migrant workers and citizens.Compared with citizens, migrant workers had a higher incidence of work-related injury and sustained less severe injuries. Under the coverage of the current health care and insurance system in Taiwan, migrant workers with trauma and work-related injuries receive comparable medical care and prognoses to citizens.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Migrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Traumatismos Ocupacionais/epidemiologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
Curr Opin Ophthalmol ; 31(5): 427-434, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32740067

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The COVID-19 pandemic has posed an unprecedented challenge to the healthcare community. To reduce disease transmission, national regulatory agencies temporarily recommended curtailment of all nonurgent office visits and elective surgeries in March 2020, including vitreoretinal outpatient care in the USA. The effect of these guidelines on utilization of vitreoretinal care has not been explored to date. RECENT FINDINGS: Retinal outpatient visits, new patient visits, intravitreal antivascular endothelial growth factor injections and in-office multimodal retinal imaging has seen a significant decline in utilization in the early phase of the pandemic. Intravitreal injections were performed at a comparatively higher rate than office visits. Utilization appeared to steadily increase in April 2020. Telemedicine visits, enabled by new national legislation for all areas of medicine, have been adopted to a modest degree by the retina community. SUMMARY: In-office retinal care declined in response to the COVID-19 pandemic and national regulatory guidelines limiting nonurgent care. These trends in practice patterns and care utilization may be of interest to vitreoretinal providers and all ophthalmologists at large.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Retinianas , Corpo Vítreo/patologia , Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Bases de Dados Factuais , Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Doenças Retinianas/diagnóstico , Doenças Retinianas/terapia , Telemedicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
9.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(31): 1039-1043, 2020 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32759917

RESUMO

Within Zambia, a landlocked country in southern-central Africa, the highest prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is in Lusaka Province (population 3.2 million), where approximately 340,000 persons are estimated to be infected (1). The 2016 Zambia Population-based HIV Impact Assessment (ZAMPHIA) estimated the adult HIV prevalence in Lusaka Province to be 15.7%, with a 62.7% viral load suppression rate (HIV-1 RNA <1,000 copies/mL) (2). ZAMPHIA results highlighted remaining treatment gaps in Zambia overall and by subpopulation. In January 2018, Zambia launched the Lusaka Province HIV Treatment Surge (Surge project) to increase enrollment of persons with HIV infection onto antiretroviral therapy (ART). The Zambia Ministry of Health (MoH), CDC, and partners analyzed the U.S. President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) Monitoring and Evaluation Reporting data set to assess the effectiveness of the first 18 months of the Surge project (January 2018-June 2019). During this period, approximately 100,000 persons with positive test results for HIV began ART. These new ART clients were more likely to be persons aged 15-24 years. In addition, the number of persons with documented viral load suppression doubled from 66,109 to 134,046. Lessons learned from the Surge project, including collaborative leadership, efforts to improve facility-level performance, and innovative strategies to disseminate successful practices, could increase HIV treatment rates in other high-prevalence settings.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Carga Viral/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem , Zâmbia/epidemiologia
10.
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen ; 140(11)2020 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês, Norueguês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32815335

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We wished to investigate how the flow of patients to the Psychiatric Casualty Clinic in Oslo was affected during the acute phase of the COVID-19 pandemic. MATERIAL AND METHOD: All patient records from the Psychiatric Casualty Clinic in Oslo from and including 13 March 2020 up to and including 1 April 2020 were compared with the patient records from the same period in 2019. Patient visits were registered as COVID-19-related when the patient came to the clinic for an issue linked to the pandemic. RESULTS: The Psychiatric Casualty Clinic in Oslo had 105 patient visits in the period 13 March 2019-1 April 2019 and 63 in the same period for 2020 (-40 %). The number of admissions amounted to 16 in 2019 and 7 in 2020 (-56 %). The number of COVID-19-related consultations was 14/63 (22 %). There was a reduction in the number of patient visits for crisis reactions, from 28 in 2019 to 8 in 2020. INTERPRETATION: The background for the decline in the flow of patients in the acute phase of the COVID-19 pandemic is most likely a complex one. We believe that patients primarily chose not to visit the clinic due to the risk of infection and the wish to avoid burdening the health services. With the reservation that our data are limited, it does not appear that increased access to psychiatric health services requiring physical attendance is indicated in the acute phase of a pandemic.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Serviços de Emergência Psiquiátrica/estatística & dados numéricos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Humanos , Noruega/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia
11.
BMJ ; 370: m2521, 2020 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32816816

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the different self-management models (multidisciplinary case management, regularly supported self-management, and minimally supported self-management) and self-monitoring models against usual care and education to determine which are most effective at reducing healthcare use and improving quality of life in asthma. DESIGN: Systematic review and network meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES: Medline, the Cochrane Library, CINAHL, EconLit, Embase, Health Economics Evaluations Database, NHS Economic Evaluation Database, PsycINFO, and ClinicalTrials.gov from January 2000 to April 2019. REVIEW METHODS: Randomised controlled trials involving the different self-management models for asthma were included. The primary outcomes were healthcare use (hospital admission or emergency visit) and quality of life. Summary standardised mean differences (SMDs) and 95% credible intervals were estimated using bayesian network meta-analysis with random effects. Heterogeneity and publication bias were assessed. RESULTS: From 1178 citations, 105 trials comprising 27 767 participants were included. In terms of healthcare use, both multidisciplinary case management (SMD -0.18, 95% credible interval -0.32 to -0.05) and regularly supported self-management (-0.30, -0.46 to -0.15) were significantly better than usual care. For quality of life, only regularly supported self-management (SMD 0.54, 0.11 to 0.96) showed a statistically significant benefit compared with usual care. For trials including adolescents/children (age 5-18 years), only regularly supported self-management showed statistically significant benefits (healthcare use: SMD -0.21, -0.40 to -0.03; quality of life: 0.23, 0.03 to 0.48). Multidisciplinary case management (SMD -0.32, -0.50 to -0.16) and regularly supported self-management (-0.32, -0.53 to -0.11) were most effective at reducing healthcare use in patients with symptoms of severe asthma at baseline. CONCLUSIONS: This network meta-analysis indicates that regularly supported self-management reduces the use of healthcare resources and improves quality of life across all levels of asthma severity. Future healthcare investments should provide support that offer reviews totalling at least two hours to establish self-management skills, reserving multidisciplinary case management for patients with complex disease. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO number CRD42019121350.


Assuntos
Asma/terapia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Qualidade de Vida , Autogestão , Humanos , Metanálise em Rede
12.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(32): e21495, 2020 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32769885

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to clarify the relationship between doctor-shopping behavior and clinical conditions, and to clearly outline the effects of both the number of clinic visits and the number of doctor changes on patients' health conditions. Data from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2004 was collected from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. After randomly selecting one million people, we extracted 5-year longitudinal data, about the number of clinic visits, number of doctor changes, and changes in self-health status for each patient with diabetes over the age of 18. We developed a relationship among the variables by using the generalized estimating equation. The results revealed that the number of clinic visits on the change of health status is a U curve, suggesting that health condition could be optimal with an appropriate number of clinic visits. The effect of the number of doctor changes is linearly correlated with health deterioration. The results suggest that disease conditions can only be controlled with an adequate number of clinic visits. Excessively frequent clinic visits are not only unfavorable to patients' health status but are also wasteful of limited medical resources. For diabetic mellitus patients, the more they change doctors, the worse their health status. All of these results are important for patients to stay healthy and to save medical resources.


Assuntos
Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Continuidade da Assistência ao Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Diabetes Mellitus/terapia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Médicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Assistência Ambulatorial/psicologia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Diabetes Mellitus/psicologia , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Programas Nacionais de Saúde , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taiwan
13.
Malawi Med J ; 32(1): 45-51, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32733659

RESUMO

Background: Intermittent presumptive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp) of malaria using sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) was introduced in Nigeria in 2005 to reduce the burden of malaria in pregnancy. By 2013, 23% of reproductive aged women surveyed received SP for malaria prevention in their last pregnancy of the past 5 years. This paper highlights geographic and socio-economic variations and inequities in accessing and using SP for malaria prophylaxis in pregnancy in Nigeria, as well as client-related and service delivery determinants. Methods: Secondary data from 2013 Nigeria demographic and health survey (DHS) was used. Sample of 38,948 eligible women were selected for interview using stratified three-stage cluster design. Data obtained from the individual recode dataset was used for descriptive and logistic regression analysis of factors associated with SP use in pregnancy was performed. Independent variables were age, media exposure, region, place of residence, wealth index, place of antenatal care (ANC) attendance and number of visits. Results: Women in the upper three wealth quintiles were 1.33 - 1.80 times more likely to receive SP than the poorest (CI: 1.15-1.56; 1.41-1.97; 1.49-2.17). Women who received ANC from public health facilities were twice as likely (inverse of OR 0.68) to use SP in pregnancy than those who used private facilities (CI: 0.60-0.76). Those who attended at least 4 ANC visits were 1.46 times more likely to get SP prophylaxis (CI: 1.31-1.63). Using the unadjusted odds ratio, women residing in rural areas were 0.86 times less likely to use SP compared to those in urban areas. Conclusions: Inequities in access to and use of SP for malaria prophylaxis in pregnancy exist across sub-population groups in Nigeria. Targeted interventions on the least covered are needed to reduce existing inequities and scale-up IPTp of malaria.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos/administração & dosagem , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Malária/prevenção & controle , Complicações Parasitárias na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Cuidado Pré-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Pirimetamina/administração & dosagem , Sulfadoxina/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez , Complicações Parasitárias na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Pirimetamina/uso terapêutico , Sulfadoxina/uso terapêutico , Adulto Jovem
14.
Med Care ; 58(9): 757-762, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32732786

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Affordable Care Act's Medicaid expansions (ME) increased insurance coverage for low-income Americans, among whom unmet need for mental health care is high. Empirical evidence regarding the impact of expanding insurance coverage on use of mental health services among low income and minority populations is lacking. METHODS: Data on mental health service use collected between 2007 and 2015 by the Medical Expenditures Panel Survey from nationally representative cross-sectional samples of low income (income<138% of the federal poverty line) adults were analyzed. Use trends among people in states that expanded Medicaid (ME states; n=29,827) were compared with concurrent trends among people in states that did not (non-ME states; n=22,873), with statistical adjustment for demographic characteristics and psychological distress. RESULTS: Annual outpatient visits for mental health conditions increased by 0.513 (0.053-0.974) visits per person, from a baseline rate in ME states of 0.894 visits per person. However, no significant changes were observed in number of mental health related hospital stays, emergency department visits or prescription fills. The increase outpatient visits was limited to Hispanics and non-Hispanic Whites, with no increase in service use observed among non-Hispanic Blacks. There was no apparent increase in the number of users of outpatient mental health care (AOR=0.992, P=0.942) and a marginally significant (P=0.096) increase of 3.144 visits per user. DISCUSSION: ME had a limited but positive impact on use of mental health services by low income Americans, although it may also have increased racial/ethnic disparities.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicaid/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act/legislação & jurisprudência , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Gastos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/etnologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Pobreza/etnologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos
15.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237081, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764783

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Approximately 18,000 Syrian refugees have resettled to the United States. Half of these refugees are children, whose age and refugee status jeopardize their abilities to attain quality healthcare. Information on Syrian refugees' health in the U.S. is limited. This qualitative study sought to explore Syrian refugee parents' beliefs, perspectives, and practices regarding their children's health through in-depth interviews. METHODS: Eighteen Syrian refugee parents residing in Cincinnati, Ohio were interviewed in Arabic by bilingual researchers using semi-structured in-depth interviews. The interviews were recorded, transcribed, and translated. Three members of the research team independently coded each interview using an inductive thematic analysis approach. RESULTS: Analysis identified four salient themes: stressors preclude health seeking behaviors, parents perceive health barriers, parents are dissatisfied with the healthcare system, and parents use resilience behaviors to overcome barriers. Stressors included poor housing and neighborhoods, reliving traumatic experiences, depression and anxiety, and social isolation. Dissatisfaction included emergency room wait times, lack of testing and prescriptions. Health barriers included missed appointments and inadequate transportation, translation services, health literacy and care coordination. Parents reported resilience through faith, by seeking knowledge, use of natural remedies, and utilizing community resources. CONCLUSION: This qualitative study provides information on the beliefs, practices, and behaviors of Syrian refugee parents related to health care utilization of pediatric refugees in the United States. Psychosocial and environmental stressors as well as perceived systemic health barriers, hinder health seeking behaviors in Syrian refugee parents. Culturally relevant care targeting perceived barriers and incorporating resilience behaviors may improve parental satisfaction and parental health seeking behaviors. Further study is needed to implement and evaluate interventions that target identified barriers.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde/etnologia , Letramento em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Pais/psicologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Refugiados/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Características da Família/etnologia , Feminino , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ohio , Poder Familiar/etnologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/etnologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Refugiados/estatística & dados numéricos , Síria , Adulto Jovem
16.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236559, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32817636

RESUMO

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) poses a significant but heterogeneous burden to individuals and healthcare systems. Policymakers develop targeted policies to minimize this burden but need personalized tools to evaluate novel interventions and target them to subpopulations most likely to benefit. We developed a platform to identify subgroups that are at increased risk of emergency department visits, hospitalizations and mortality and to provide stratified patient input in economic evaluations of COPD interventions. We relied on administrative and survey data from Ontario, Canada and applied a combination of microsimulation and multi-state modeling methods. We illustrated the functionality of the platform by quantifying outcomes across smoking status (current, former, never smokers) and by estimating the effect of smoking cessation on resource use and survival, by comparing outcomes of hypothetical cohorts of smokers who quit at diagnosis and smokers that continued to smoke post diagnosis. The cumulative incidence of all-cause mortality was 37.9% (95% CI: 34.9, 41.4) for never smokers, 34.7% (95% CI: 32.1, 36.9) for current smokers, and 46.4% (95% CI: 43.6, 49.0) for former smokers, at 14 years. Over 14 years, smokers who did not quit at diagnosis had 16.3% (95% CI: 9.6, 38.4%) more COPD-related emergency department visits than smokers who quit at diagnosis. In summary, we combined methods from clinical and economic modeling to create a novel tool that policymakers and health economists can use to inform future COPD policy decisions and quantify the effect of modifying COPD risk factors on resource utilization and morality.


Assuntos
Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Formulação de Políticas , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/mortalidade , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/estatística & dados numéricos , Fumar Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Análise Custo-Benefício , Feminino , Recursos em Saúde/economia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Teóricos , não Fumantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Ontário , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fumantes/estatística & dados numéricos
18.
J Adolesc Health ; 67(4): 603-605, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32792255

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study provides information on how the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak is affecting emerging adults currently or recently homeless in terms of engagement in protective behaviors, mental health, substance use, and access to services. METHODS: Ninety participants in an ongoing clinical trial of a risk reduction program for homeless, aged 18-25 years, were administered items about COVID-19 between April 10 and July 9, 2020. RESULTS: Most participants reported engaging in COVID-19 protective behaviors. Past week mental health symptoms were reported by 38%-48% of participants, depending on symptoms. Among those who used substances before the outbreak, 16%-28% reported increased use of alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana. More than half of the participants reported increased difficulty meeting basic needs (e.g., food), and approximately 32%-44% reported more difficulty getting behavioral health services since the outbreak. CONCLUSIONS: Innovative strategies are needed to address the increased behavioral health needs of young people experiencing homelessness during events such as the COVID-19 outbreak.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Pessoas em Situação de Rua , Serviços de Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral , Adolescente , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , California , Feminino , Pessoas em Situação de Rua/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Serviços de Saúde Mental/provisão & distribução , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
19.
Med J Aust ; 213(6): 276-279, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32772375

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To design and evaluate 3D-printed nasal swabs for collection of samples for SARS-CoV-2 testing. DESIGN: An iterative design process was employed. Laboratory evaluation included in vitro assessment of mock nasopharyngeal samples spiked with two different concentrations of gamma-irradiated SARS-CoV-2. A prospective clinical study compared SARS-CoV-2 and human cellular material recovery by 3D-printed swabs and standard nasopharyngeal swabs. SETTING, PARTICIPANTS: Royal Melbourne Hospital, May 2020. Participants in the clinical evaluation were 50 hospital staff members attending a COVID-19 screening clinic and two inpatients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19. INTERVENTION: In the clinical evaluation, a flocked nasopharyngeal swab sample was collected with the Copan ESwab and a mid-nasal sample from the other nostril was collected with the 3D-printed swab. RESULTS: In the laboratory evaluation, qualitative agreement with regard to SARS-CoV-2 detection in mock samples collected with 3D-printed swabs and two standard swabs was complete. In the clinical evaluation, qualitative agreement with regard to RNase P detection (a surrogate measure of adequate collection of human cellular material) in samples collected from 50 hospital staff members with standard and 3D-printed swabs was complete. Qualitative agreement with regard to SARS-CoV-2 detection in three pairs of 3D-printed mid-nasal and standard swab samples from two inpatients with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 was also complete. CONCLUSIONS: Using 3D-printed swabs to collect nasal samples for SARS-CoV-2 testing is feasible, acceptable to patients and health carers, and convenient.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/instrumentação , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Técnicas de Diagnóstico do Sistema Respiratório/instrumentação , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Impressão Tridimensional , Adulto , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nasofaringe/virologia , Pandemias
20.
Public Health Rep ; 135(5): 621-630, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32791022

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Electronic health records (EHRs) hold promise as a public health surveillance tool, but questions remain about how EHR patients compare with populations in health and demographic surveys. We compared population characteristics from a regional distributed data network (DDN), which securely and confidentially aggregates EHR data from multiple health care organizations in the same geographic region, with population characteristics from health and demographic surveys. METHODS: Ten health care organizations participating in a Colorado DDN contributed data for coverage estimation. We aggregated demographic and geographic data from 2017 for patients aged ≥18 residing in 7 counties. We used a cross-sectional design to compare DDN population size, by county, with the following survey-estimated populations: the county population, estimated by the American Community Survey (ACS); residents seeking any health care, estimated by the Colorado Health Access Survey; and residents seeking routine (eg, primary) health care, estimated by the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. We also compared data on the DDN and survey populations by sex, age group, race/ethnicity, and poverty level to assess surveillance system representativeness. RESULTS: The DDN population included 609 840 people in 7 counties, corresponding to 25% coverage of the general adult population. Population coverage ranged from 15% to 35% across counties. Demographic distributions generated by DDN and surveys were similar for many groups. Overall, the DDN and surveys assessing care-seeking populations had a higher proportion of women and older adults than the ACS population. The DDN included higher proportions of Hispanic people and people living in high-poverty neighborhoods compared with the surveys. CONCLUSION: The DDN population is not a random sample of the regional adult population; it is influenced by health care use patterns and organizations participating in the DDN. Strengths and limitations of DDNs complement those of survey-based approaches. The regional DDN is a promising public health surveillance tool.


Assuntos
Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Geografia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Vigilância em Saúde Pública/métodos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Colorado , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA