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1.
Lancet ; 395(10220): 273-284, 2020 01 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31928765

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hong Kong has been embroiled in increasingly violent social unrest since June, 2019. We examined the associated population mental health burden, risk factors, and health-care needs. METHODS: In a population-based prospective cohort, adult participants aged 18 years or older were assessed at nine timepoints from 2009. Probable depression was measured using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (score ≥10) and suspected post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) by the PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version (score ≥14), plus direct exposure to traumatic events related to the ongoing social unrest. We used multivariable logistic regression to identify factors associated with both outcomes, adjusting for doctor-diagnosed depression or anxiety disorders before the unrest. On the basis of routine service statistics and respondents' intention to seek professional care, we projected the number of additional ambulatory specialist psychiatric visits required. FINDINGS: After the two baseline surveys, we followed up random subsets of 1213-1736 adults at each timepoint. Probable depression was reported by 11·2% (95% CI 9·8-12·7) of participants in 2019, compared with 1·9% (1·6-2·1) during 2009-14 and 6·5% (5·3-7·6) in 2017 after the Occupy Central Movement and before the current unrest. Prevalence of suspected PTSD in 2019 was estimated to be 12·8% (11·2-14·4). Age, sex, educational attainment, or household income were not associated with either outcome, whereas heavy social media use (≥2 h per day) was associated with both. Political attitude or protest participation was not associated with probable depression, but neutrality towards the extradition bill approximately halved the risk of suspected PTSD. Family support mitigated against probable depression. We estimated that the mental health burden identified would translate into roughly an excess 12% service requirement to the public sector queue or equivalent. INTERPRETATION: We have identified a major mental health burden during the social unrest in Hong Kong, which will require substantial increases in service surge capacity. Health-care and social care professionals should be vigilant in recognising possible mental health sequelae. In a world of increasing unrest, our findings might have implications for service planning to better protect population mental health globally. FUNDING: Research Grants Council, University Grants Committee of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Jockey Club Charities Trust.


Assuntos
Depressão/epidemiologia , Exposição à Violência/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Distúrbios Civis/psicologia , Feminino , Hong Kong , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Prospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Mídias Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
2.
Presse Med ; 48(12): e369-e381, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31785940

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In 2015, the vaccine against human Papillomavirus (hPV) was recommended in France for children from 11 to 14 years-old. This study assessed the knowledge of parents from Normandy about this vaccine and measured the impact of an information campaign on their intent to have their children vaccinated. METHODS: Parents from Normandy with children in sixth-grade class, aged 10 to 11, during the 2015-2016 school year were included. The secondary schools were selected in collaboration with academic institutions. The intent to have their child vaccinated was measured with a questionnaire distributed to children in April 2016 and collected from May to June 2016 by school nurses. RESULTS: Among the 16 selected secondary schools, 1428 questionnaires were distributed and 864 (60.5 %) were collected regardless of the gender of the child. Among the 439 girls, 85.9 % were not vaccinated against hPV. The intent to vaccinate was higher when the parent who responded was the mother (P<0.001). Among the parents who took note of the information booklet, 73.7 % found this information useful. There was a significant association between the knowledge about the vaccine against hPV and the intent to vaccinate (P<0.001). The percentage of vaccinated girls was significantly higher when their parents were informed (10.9 % versus 3.2 %). We noticed a significant rise of the intent to vaccinate children when information booklets were distributed (P<0.001). CONCLUSION: The vaccination rate after specific information about vaccination against hPV was significantly higher. The information campaign has thus a significant positive impact.


Assuntos
Intenção , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/uso terapêutico , Pais , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Relações Pais-Filho , Pais/educação , Pais/psicologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Saúde Escolar/história , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Vacinação/psicologia
3.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 1076, 2019 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31864297

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: HIV voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) is a crucial gateway to all strategies related to care, prevention and treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Nevertheless, utilization of voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) service among adults is very low in Ethiopia. The objective of this study is to identify determinants associated with VCT utilization among adult women aged 15-49 in Ethiopia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted based on data taken from the Ethiopian Demographic Health Survey (EDHS) 2016. Using cluster sampling, 14,369 women aged 15-49 years were selected from all the nine administrative regions and two city administrations. Logistic regression was used to analyze factors associated with HIV VCT utilization. RESULTS: Overall prevalence of ever tested for HIV was 53% (95% CI, 52, 54). Aged 20-44, ever married, being at higher socio economic position (SEP) and having risky sexual behavior were factors which are positively associated with VCT utilization. Being Muslims in urban and protestants in rural were factors significantly and negatively associated with VCT utilization. Those who had stigmatizing attitude both in urban and rural and who had comprehensive knowledge in rural were less likely to utilize VCT service. CONCLUSION: VCT utilization among women in Ethiopia is demonstrating better improvement in recent years. However, stigmatizing attitude continued to be among the major factors, which are negatively affecting VCT uptake among women in Ethiopia. Concerted efforts should be made by all stakeholders to mitigate stigma, improve socio economic inequities and increase awareness on the benefit of VCT in controlling HIV in the society. In this aspect, the role of religious leader, schools, health extension workers and community leaders should not be undermined.


Assuntos
Aconselhamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Estigma Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
4.
Presse Med ; 48(12): e361-e368, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31767250

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few studies of mental health or substance abuse have focused on rural life. This study aimed to evaluate the association between socio-demographic and clinical characteristics and the probability of rural alcoholic women seeking help on their own at a specialty treatment service. METHODS: This exploratory study used a cross-sectional design to collect data from alcoholic women upon admission to a French outpatient department. Multiple logistic regression models tested whether the socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of these women predicted the likelihood that they would seek treatment at a specialty service on their own. RESULTS: Among 50 rural alcoholic women, the probability of seeking help on their own at a specialty treatment service was 5.6 times greater (95% CI 1.2-25.7, P=0.03) for participants with a history of physical and/or sexual trauma and 5.1 times greater (95% CI 1.1-24, P=0.03) among women with no complementary health insurance. CONCLUSION: Increased knowledge of the specific characteristics of rural alcoholic women is needed to develop programs that will increase awareness of and access to specialty treatment services among these women.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Alcoolismo/psicologia , Alcoolismo/terapia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Participação do Paciente/psicologia , Participação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
5.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1485, 2019 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31703660

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Refugees are particularly vulnerable to poor mental health outcomes due to exposure to pre migration trauma and post migration stressors. Research has demonstrated evidence to suggest that the professional help-seeking among refugee groups is low or problematic. This study seeks to examine help-seeking for emotional problems in two large samples of Iraqi and Afghan refugees in Australia. METHODS: This study uses data from two waves of the Building a New Life in Australia, the longitudinal study of Humanitarian migrants. The data was collected face-to-face between 2013 and 2016, among humanitarian migrants. All participants held a permanent protection visa and had arrived in Australia or been granted their visa between period of May to December 2013. The study sample included 1288 participants born in Iraq and Afghanistan (aged 15 and over). In the Wave 3 interview (2015-2016) participants reported on professional help received to deal with emotional problems. RESULTS: Approximately 36 and 37% of the Iraqi and Afghan groups respectively, reported seeking help for emotional problems. Within the Iraqi group, associations between mental health status, namely general psychological distress and PTSD and help-seeking were found but this was not present in the Afghan group, where age seemed to play a role in help-seeking. Frequency of help received was low with approximately 47% of the Iraqi and 57% of the Afghan groups reporting having received help 5 times or less in the last 12 months. CONCLUSIONS: Findings from this study provide clear directions on areas where culturally tailored mental health promotion programs should target in these two refugee communities. Further, the differences in help-seeking behaviour of these communities should be noted by both clinicians and policy makers as efforts to provide culturally responsive mental health services.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Refugiados/psicologia , Migrantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Afeganistão/etnologia , Austrália , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Iraque/etnologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/etnologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/etnologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(46): e17687, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31725611

RESUMO

To analyze the factors that affecting the help-seeking behavior of bipolar disorder (BD) patients by conducting interviews BD individuals in Hunan province of China.In 2015, 72,999 people from 123 counties of Hunan province of China were interviewed through multistage stratified random sampling. Twelve items of general health questionnaire (GHQ-12) and abnormal behavioral clue questionnaire were used as screening tools. The Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV (DSM-IV) (SCID) was used as a diagnostic tool.Among the 75 BD patients, 36% (27/75) sought help. Compared with help-seekers, non-help-seekers were more likely to be older, divorced, or widowed, mostly illiterate or elementary education, family monthly income at least 3000 ¥, more physically consulted in the past year, able to effective work or study, at a stable illness status. 70.4% help-seekers firstly sought help from a medical institution. The main reasons that patients did not seek help were economic problem, did not know where to seek help, unsatisfied with medical services, afraid of mental health stigma, and other problems, such as traffic inconvenience.Non-help-seekers were faced with more difficulties in their social functions and social interactions.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar/psicologia , Comportamento de Busca de Ajuda , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , China , Análise por Conglomerados , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
7.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1531, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31730450

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the U.S., transgender and gender diverse (TGD) populations face structural, interpersonal, and individual barriers to healthcare. Less is known, however, about the HIV prevention and treatment experiences of TGD youth in the U.S. The current study was developed to fill this research gap. METHODS: This article describes the research protocol for a multi-site, U.S.-based mixed-methods study that sought to identify the multi-level facilitators and barriers that influence participation of TGD youth in various stages of the HIV prevention (e.g., pre-exposure prophylaxis uptake) and care continua. A sample of diverse TGD youth ages 16-24 was recruited from 14 U.S. sites. TGD youth participants completed a one-time, in-person visit that included an informed consent process, computer-based quantitative survey, and in-depth qualitative interview assessing experiences accessing HIV prevention and/or care services. Providers serving TGD youth were recruited from the same 14 sites and completed a one-time visit via phone that included informed consent, demographic questionnaire, and in-depth qualitative interview assessing their experiences providing HIV prevention or treatment services to TGD youth. RESULTS: Overall, 186 TGD youth ages 16-24 and 59 providers serving TGD youth were recruited and enrolled from across the 14 U.S. sites. TGD youth participants had a mean age of 20.69; 77.3% youth of color; 59.7% trans-feminine; 15.5% trans-masculine; 24.9% non-binary; 53.6% family income under poverty level. Providers included medical and mental health providers as well as case manager/care coordinators, HIV test counselors, and health educators/outreach workers. Providers were 81.3% cisgender and 30.5% people of color. Successes with community-engagement strategies and gender-affirming research methods are reported. CONCLUSIONS: This study addresses critical gaps in current knowledge about the HIV prevention and care experiences of TGD youth. Findings have implications for the development of HIV interventions across levels to support the health and well-being of TGD youth. Future research is warranted to replicate and expand on lessons learned regarding recruitment and engagement of communities of TGD youth, including longitudinal designs to assess engagement across their developmental stages. Lessons learned working with TGD youth through developing and implementing the study protocol are shared. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Registered on ClinicalTrials.gov on 05/20/2015 (NCT02449629).


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/psicologia , Pessoas Transgênero/psicologia , Adolescente , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Projetos de Pesquisa , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
8.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1534, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31730454

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since Nepali cross-border migrants can freely enter, work and stay in India, they are largely undocumented. The majority is involved in semi-skilled or unskilled jobs with limited labour rights and social security, a fact which predisposes them to psychological distress. We aimed to assess the prevalence of and factors associated with psychological morbidity among Nepali migrants upon their return from India. METHODS: A community based cross-sectional study was conducted in six districts of Nepal between September 2017 and February 2018. A total of 751 participants who had worked at least six months in India and returned to Nepal were interviewed from 24 randomly selected clusters. The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ)-12 was used to measure the psychological morbidity. Data were analysed using Poisson regression analysis. RESULTS: The majority was younger than 35 years (64.1%), male (96.7%), married (81.8%), had at least a primary education (66.6%), and belonged to Dalit, Janajati and religious minorities (53.7%). The prevalence of psychological morbidity was 13.5% (CI: 11.2-16.1%). Participants aged 45 years and above (adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR) = 2.74), from the Terai (aPR = 3.29), a religious minority (aPR = 3.64), who received no sick leave (aPR = 2.4), with existing health problems (aPR = 2.0) and having difficulty in accessing health care (aPR = 1.88) were more likely than others to exhibit a psychological morbidity. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that psychological morbidity was prevalent in the study participants and varied significantly with individual characteristics, work conditions and health. Multifaceted approaches including psychological counselling for returnees and protection of labour and health rights in the workplace are recommended to help reduce psychological morbidity.


Assuntos
Emigração e Imigração , Transtornos Mentais/etnologia , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Migrantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Análise por Conglomerados , Estudos Transversais , Emprego/psicologia , Feminino , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nepal/etnologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/etnologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Distribuição de Poisson , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
9.
J Music Ther ; 56(4): 381-402, 2019 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31742643

RESUMO

The MAP is an innovative receptive music therapy intervention derived from psychomusical relaxation methods that aims to foster the well-being and recovery of youths with mental health problems by providing them with an adaptive and effective music-assisted means to regulate their mood states. In this quasi-experimental pilot study, we assessed the mood-enhancing potential of participation in MAP sessions delivered by a music therapist in an in-patient mental health facility for children and adolescents. Using short standardized self-reported questionnaires, 20 participants aged 9-17 years old (M = 14, SD = 2.4), mainly girls (13 = 65%), rated their affective state immediately before and after two to four MAP sessions and a similar number of regular unit activity sessions used as comparison. This created a 2 × 2 (Time × Condition) single-group within-individual design. We analyzed pre-post session changes in affect using multilevel mixed models and found participation in MAP sessions to be associated with systematic reductions in self-reported general negative affect and state anxiety. These variations were of modest-to-large magnitude and significantly greater than those associated to participation in regular unit activities. While only a first step towards the validation of the MAP as an effective intervention to foster more adaptive and effective day-to-day mood regulation in youths with mental health problems, this study supports its specific potential to alleviate negative affects and provides a rare demonstration of the putative benefits of music therapy in a pediatric mental health inpatient context.


Assuntos
Pacientes Internados/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/reabilitação , Musicoterapia/métodos , Música/psicologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Terapia de Relaxamento/métodos , Adolescente , Afeto , Ansiedade/terapia , Criança , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Projetos Piloto , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 697, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31615523

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The reason for doctor visits associated with bad working conditions (and workplace bullying) remains unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the association between perceived working conditions as well as workplace bullying and the number of doctor visits as well as the reason for seeing a doctor. METHODS: Data were derived from the German General Social Survey, a representative cross-section of the population in the year 2014. Self-reported doctor visits in the last 3 months were used as outcome measure. Self-rated working conditions (noise, bad air; time/performance pressure; bad working atmosphere; overtime; shifts/night work; hard physical labour) and workplace bullying were assessed. The reason for seeing a doctor was also recorded (acute illness; chronic illness; feeling unwell; requesting advice; visit to the doctor's office without consulting the doctor (e.g., need to get a prescription); preventive medical check-up/vaccination). Regression analysis stratified by sex was conducted. RESULTS: Adjusting for various potential confounders, Poisson regressions showed that workplace bullying was associated with increased doctor visits in men, but not in women. Contrarily, time/performance pressure at work was only associated with increased doctor visits in women, but not in men. Furthermore, the probability of visiting the doctor for reasons of acute illness or feeling unwell increased with workplace bullying in men. The probability of visiting the doctor because of feeling unwell increased with time/performance pressure in women. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings stress the association between adverse working conditions (workplace bullying as well as time/performance pressure at work) and doctor visits, with remarkable gender differences. Longitudinal studies are required to confirm the present findings and to obtain further insights into this relationship.


Assuntos
Bullying/psicologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Doença Aguda , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Bullying/estatística & dados numéricos , Doença Crônica , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Visita a Consultório Médico/estatística & dados numéricos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Percepção , Distribuição por Sexo , Inquéritos e Questionários , Local de Trabalho/psicologia , Local de Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
12.
Adv Clin Exp Med ; 28(10): 1377-1383, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31638746

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Poland is considered among the European countries with an average incidence of cervical cancer (CC; about 3,000-3,500/year) and at the same time with high mortality (5-year survival rate - 55.2%). For this reason, in 2006 Poland introduced a Population-Based Cervical Cancer Prevention and Early Detection Program addressed to women aged 25-59 years, in which a cytological test is carried out every 3 years. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to assess the changes in the curability of CC patients brought by the introduction of the Screening Program in the Lower Silesian voivodeship and to identify the subpopulation of women for whom activities aimed at increasing adherence rates must be intensified. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The 5-year relative survival in 3,586 CC patients from 2000-2010 registered in the Lower Silesian Cancer Registry was analyzed. RESULTS: In the Lower Silesian voivodeship, a 55.1% 5-year survival rate was recorded in 2000-2004 and 70.5% in 2010. The highest increase in 5-year relative survival rates was found in rural communities (from 53.1% in 2000-2004 to 77.7% in 2010) and in Wroclaw (56.8% and 74.2%, respectively). In the study group, the number of patients with invasive CC (C53) detected in the local stage of the disease increased systematically from 61.5% in 2000-2004 to 74.3% in 2010. CONCLUSIONS: The introduction of the population-based screening program improved the curability rate in CC patients in the Lower Silesian voivodeship. In order to maintain the recent positive trends, further education should be continued, and activities aimed at increasing adherence to screening tests should be intensified, especially in urban-rural communities.


Assuntos
Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Cooperação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Adulto , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/organização & administração , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Cooperação do Paciente/psicologia , Polônia/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/mortalidade , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/patologia
13.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 747, 2019 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31651307

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pregnant women and newborns are at high risk for infectious diseases. Altered immunity status during pregnancy and challenges fully vaccinating newborns contribute to this medical reality. Maternal immunization is a strategy to protect pregnant women and their newborns. This study aimed to find out how patient-provider relationships affect maternal vaccine uptake, particularly in the context of a lower middle- income country where limited research in this area exists. METHODS: We conducted semi-structured, in-depth narrative interviews of both providers and pregnant women from four sites in Kenya: Siaya, Nairobi, Mombasa, and Marsabit. Interviews were conducted in either English or one of the local regional languages. RESULTS: We found that patient trust in health care providers (HCPs) is integral to vaccine acceptance among pregnant women in Kenya. The HCP-patient relationship is a fiduciary one, whereby the patients' trusts is primarily rooted in the provider's social position as a person who is highly educated in matters of health. Furthermore, patient health education and provider attitudes are crucial for reinstating and fostering that trust, especially in cases where trust was impeded by rumors, community myths and misperceptions, and religious and cultural factors. CONCLUSION: Patient trust in providers is a strong facilitator contributing to vaccine acceptance among pregnant women in Kenya. To maintain and increase immunization trust, providers have a critical role in cultivating a positive environment that allows for favorable interactions and patient health education. This includes educating providers on maternal immunizations and enhancing knowledge of effective risk communication tactics in clinical encounters.


Assuntos
Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Gestantes/psicologia , Relações Profissional-Paciente , Confiança , Vacinas , Adolescente , Adulto , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Família , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Humanos , Imunização , Quênia , Defesa do Paciente , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Vacinação , Adulto Jovem
14.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 760, 2019 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31655575

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With most countries in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) lagging behind schedule to implement a comprehensive viral hepatitis elimination strategy, several barriers to accurate information and hepatitis B virus (HBV) services still exist, that are unique to different regions. In an obstetric population of a high HBV burden SSA setting without antenatal HBV services, we systematically evaluated perceptions and prevention behavioral intentions in relation to HBV and liver cancer. METHODS: Eligible consenting pregnant women were recruited from public health care facilities in the central and northern regions of Uganda, between October 2016 and December 2017. Standardized procedures and instruments based on the health belief model and theory of planned behavior were used to collect data on socio-demographic characteristics, HBV perceptions and behavioral intentions. Descriptive analysis using Chi-square tests was done to obtain distribution of respondents by levels of perceived risk of HBV and liver cancer for themselves, their child under 5 years and their spouse. Modified Poisson regression analyses were used to evaluate relationships between perception variables and different behavioral outcomes (intention to screen, vaccinate and treat HBV). RESULTS: Perceived risk (PRR = 0.95(0.90-1.00), p = 0.055) was inversely associated with intention to screen for HBV. Conversely, perceived self-efficacy showed a consistent association with intention to screen for HBV (PRR = 1.18(1.10-1.23) p = 0.005), to vaccinate (PRR = 1.20(1.05-1.36) p = 0.006) and to seek treatment for HBV (PRR = 1.40(1.18-1.67) p < 0.001). Women from the north, compared to the central region (PRR = 1.76 (1.13-2.72) p = 0.012), and those who self-identified as Catholic (PRR = 1.85 (0.99-3.56) p = 0.056), and as Protestant, (PRR = 2.22 (1.22-4.04) p = 0.002), were more likely to have higher perceived self-efficacy, compared to Muslims. Age and education were not related to perceived self-efficacy. CONCLUSION: Women in both regions hold incorrect perceptions of HBV and liver cancer risk, with women from the central reporting higher perceived risk than those from the north. High perceived self-efficacy influenced intention to participate in HBV prevention. Programs and policies geared towards enhancing HBV prevention in this sub-population may consider socio-cultural factors observed to influence prevention behaviors. These findings may guide HBV interventions aimed at improving capacity to seek HBV prevention services, thereby promoting HBV micro-elimination in this sub-population.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Hepatite B/prevenção & controle , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Gestantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Gravidez , Medição de Risco , Uganda , Adulto Jovem
16.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1270, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533670

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Getting it Right study determined the validity, sensitivity, specificity and acceptability of the culturally adapted 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (aPHQ-9) as a screening tool for depression in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (hereafter referred to as Indigenous) people. In this process evaluation we aimed to explore staff perceptions about whether Getting it Right was conducted per protocol, and if the aPHQ-9 was considered an acceptable and feasible screening tool for depression in primary healthcare. This process evaluation will provide information for clinicians and policy makers about the experiences of staff and patients with Getting it Right and what they thought about using the aPHQ-9. METHODS: Process evaluation using grounded theory approaches. Semi-structured interviews with primary healthcare staff from services participating in Getting it Right were triangulated with feedback (free-text and elicited) from participants collected during the validation study and field notes. Data were thematically analysed according to the Getting it Right study protocol to identify the acceptability and feasibility of the aPHQ-9. RESULTS: Primary healthcare staff (n = 36) and community members (n = 4) from nine of the ten participating Getting it Right services and Indigenous participants (n = 500) from the ten services that took part. Most staff reported that the research was conducted according to the study protocol. Staff from two services reported sometimes recruiting opportunistically (rather than recruiting consecutive patients attending the service as outlined in the main study protocol), when they spoke to patients who they knew from previous interactions, because they perceived their previous relationship may increase the likelihood of patients participating. All Getting it Right participants responded to at least six of the seven feedback questions and 20% provided free-text feedback. Most staff said they would use the aPHQ-9 and most participants said that the questions were easy to understand (87%), the response categories made sense (89%) and that they felt comfortable answering the questions (91%). CONCLUSION: Getting it Right was predominantly conducted according to the study protocol. The aPHQ-9, the first culturally adapted, nationally validated, freely available depression screening tool for use by Indigenous people, appears to be acceptable and feasible to use. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry ANZCTR12614000705684 , 03/07/2014.


Assuntos
Depressão/diagnóstico , Programas de Rastreamento/normas , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos/psicologia , Adulto , Austrália , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Serviços de Saúde do Indígena/normas , Humanos , Masculino , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Questionário de Saúde do Paciente , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Projetos de Pesquisa
17.
BMC Womens Health ; 19(1): 116, 2019 09 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31519195

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the most prevalent cancer in women, and in those with a positive family history, it is important to perform mammography. One of the probable barriers in doing mammography is fatalism. METHODS: This is a descriptive/cross-sectional study conducted on 400 women residing in Isfahan, Iran, randomly selected in 2017. Sampling was done randomly among the enrolled women in Health Integrity System. The data collection tool was a questionnaire regarding the demographic-fertility information and fatalism. The data analysis was done by SPSS software. A P-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: The results showed that the mean rate of fatalism was 59.5 ± 23.2 in women with the experience of mammography, and 65.9±18.7 in women without the experience. Moreover, the mean rate of fatalism was 73.1±15.2 in subjects with a family history of breast cancer, and 59.3 ± 22.5 in those no family history related to this condition. Accordingly, fatalism was statistically significant associated (P < 0.001) with a family history of breast cancer and experience of mammography. There was no significant relationship between demographic information and fatalism (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: The results indicated that fatalism in women with no experience of mammography was higher than in those with a positive history. Regarding the necessity of mammography in women with a family history of breast cancer, the required interventions seem to be essential to changing the viewpoints of women regarding the importance and effect of mammography as a screening method for breast cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/psicologia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/psicologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença/psicologia , Mamografia/psicologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Adulto , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Estudos Transversais , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Mamografia/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
J Consult Clin Psychol ; 87(9): 802-814, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31403816

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Problem gambling can cause severe harm to concerned significant others (CSOs) in the form of, for example, relationship problems, financial difficulties, and mental and physical illness. CSOs are important for their ability to support problem gamblers and motivate them to change. This study investigated the effect of an Internet-based intervention for CSOs of treatment-refusing problem gamblers on (a) gambling-related harm, (b) the gamblers' treatment-seeking rate, and (c) the relationship satisfaction and mental health of the CSOs. METHOD: A total of 100 CSOs of problem gamblers were randomized into one of two conditions: Internet-delivered cognitive-behavioral therapy for CSOs or a wait-list control group. The intervention group was given Internet-based treatment consisting of nine modules with therapist support available via telephone and e-mail. Outcome measures were collected up 12 months posttreatment. RESULTS: The intervention improved the psychological well-being of the CSOs compared to the wait-list group at the posttest (CSO's emotional consequences: d = -0.90, 95% CI [-1.47, -0.33]; relationship satisfaction: d = 0.41, 95% CI [0.05, 0.76]; anxiety: d = -0.45, 95% CI [-0.81, -0.09]; depression: d = -0.49, 95% CI [-0.82, -0.16]). However, the effects on the gambling outcomes were small and inconclusive (gambling losses: multiplicative effect = 0.73, 95% CI [0.29, 1.85]; treatment-seeking: hazard ratio = 0.86, 95% CI [0.31, 2.38]). CONCLUSION: The results confirm earlier studies' findings that affecting the gambler via a CSO is challenging, but it is possible to increase the CSO's coping and well-being. The trial's outcome data and scripts are available for download (https://osf.io/awtg7/). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Família/psicologia , Amigos/psicologia , Jogo de Azar/psicologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Telemedicina/métodos , Adulto , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Jogo de Azar/terapia , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Satisfação Pessoal , Listas de Espera
19.
Med Care ; 57(10): 809-814, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31415340

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Personal health records offer patients access to view their own health information and to manage their care online through secure patient portal tools. Little is known about the patient-reported experience in using health portals to manage chronic conditions. OBJECTIVE: In a patient-centered research study, we examined how using portal tools affects patient health care experiences among patients with chronic conditions. We also examined barriers among nonportal users. RESEARCH DESIGN: A cross-sectional patient survey. SUBJECTS: Patients with a chronic condition in an integrated delivery system offering a patient portal. MEASURES: Respondents reported barriers, preferences, and experiences in using the patient portal, and whether using the portal changed their overall health. RESULTS: Among all the 1824 respondents (70% response rate), portal nonusers reported preferring in-person health care (54%) or experiencing internet access barriers (41%). Portal users reported that using the portal was convenient (90%), the information available was useful (92%), and that it integrated well with other health care (92%). Among users, 31% reported that using the portal had improved their overall health. After adjustment, patients were significantly more likely to report that portal use improved their health if they had also reported convenience, information usefulness, or integration with other care (P<0.05). Reassuringly, patient-reported impacts on overall health did not vary by patient characteristics (including age, race, sex, education, income, complex conditions). CONCLUSION: Patients with chronic conditions using the portal reported convenience, information usefulness, and integration of the patient portal with their health care; these may act as potential pathways improving health.


Assuntos
Doença Crônica/psicologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Portais do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , California , Estudos Transversais , Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde , Gerenciamento Clínico , Feminino , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
20.
Transplant Proc ; 51(6): 1651-1654, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31399156

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Singapore has had an opt-out organ donation system since the inception of the Human Organ Transplant Act in 2009. This law allows all Singapore citizens and permanent residents to donate their organs after confirmation of brain death, usually in the setting of devastating brain injury or stroke in an intensive care unit (ICU) setting, and such cases are referred to the National Organ Transplant Unit team by intensivists after the presumed clinical brain stem death testing. The further confirmatory tests, coordination with surgeons to find suitable recipients, and communication with family members is then carried out by the transplant coordinators from the National Organ Transplant Unit and not the clinicians. Despite a decade of the institution of the Act, the rates of organ donation remain low. This survey is the first aimed to assess the concerns and recommendations of the intensivists in Singapore. METHODS: This was an anonymous survey sent to 120 intensivists registered in Singapore with a 58% response rate. The survey included 14 open-ended questions. The respondents included both private and public sector intensivists. A qualitative analysis was carried out to analyze the emergent themes from the survey. RESULTS: A total of 79% of the respondents mentioned raising awareness through publicity, education, and advertising; 34% mentioned educating physicians and engaging ICU physicians in further planning of the organ transplant program in Singapore; 35% felt that publicizing more real stories of recipients would help. Generally, there was unease at the opt-out system infringing basic rights. CONCLUSION: This is the first survey to elicit the responses of the referring physicians for organ transplant. Their opinions suggest that a wider awareness and buy-in is needed both by the public and the ICU physicians, and addressing their valid moral concerns is essential in bridging this gap.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Transplante de Órgãos/psicologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Médicos/psicologia , Obtenção de Tecidos e Órgãos/legislação & jurisprudência , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transplante de Órgãos/legislação & jurisprudência , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Singapura , Inquéritos e Questionários
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