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1.
BMJ Open ; 11(9): e049202, 2021 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34493516

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the impact of prehabilitation on objectively measured physical activity (PA) levels in elective surgery patients. DATA SOURCES: Articles published in Web of Science Core Collections, PubMed, Embase (Ovid), CINAHL (EBSCOHost), PsycInfo (EBSCOHost) and CENTRAL through August 2020. STUDY SELECTION: Studies that met the following criteria: (1) written in English, (2) quantitatively described the effect(s) of a PA intervention among elective surgery patients prior to surgery and (3) used and reported objective measures of PA in the study. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS: Participant characteristics, intervention details, PA measurement, and clinical and health-related outcomes were extracted. Risk of bias was assessed following the revised Cochrane risk of bias tool. Meta-analysis was not possible due to heterogeneity, therefore narrative synthesis was used. RESULTS: 6533 unique articles were identified in the search; 21 articles (based on 15 trials) were included in the review. There was little evidence to suggest that prehabilitation is associated with increases in objectively measured PA, but this may be due to insufficient statistical power as most (n=8) trials included in the review were small feasibility/pilot studies. Where studies tested associations between objectively measured PA during the intervention period and health-related outcomes, significant beneficial associations were reported. Limitations in the evidence base precluded any assessment via meta-regression of the association between objectively measured PA and clinical or health-related outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Additional large-scale studies are needed, with clear and consistent reporting of objective measures including accelerometry variables and outcome variables, to improve our understanding of the impact of changes in PA prior to surgery on surgical and health-related outcomes. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42019151475.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Exercício Pré-Operatório , Acelerometria , Viés , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos , Humanos
2.
BMC Geriatr ; 21(1): 478, 2021 09 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34481465

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Regular physical activity (PA) is potentially beneficial for age-related cognitive decline. Although moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) is mostly advised, older adults with chronic illnesses might benefit more from light physical activity (LPA), as they suffer from mobility problems, pain, and fatigue, limiting high-intensity PA. Therefore, the longitudinal association between change in LPA and MVPA and the change in cognitive functioning (CF) is investigated in older adults with chronic illnesses. METHODS: In total 432 older adults (mean age 73.7 [±6.1] years; 46.8% female) with at least one chronic illness participated in this longitudinal observational study. Longitudinal associations between accelerometer-assessed change in PA (LPA and MVPA) and change in CF, measured with an objective validated neuropsychological test battery, were tested with multivariate linear regressions. RESULTS: An increase in LPA between baseline and 6 months follow-up was significantly associated with improved short-term verbal memory and inhibition over the first 6 months. In addition, the change score in LPA over the first 6 months was predictive for the change score in short-term verbal memory over 12 months. Furthermore, an increase in MVPA between baseline and 6 months follow-up was significantly associated with a decrease in longer-term verbal memory scores over the same six-month period. CONCLUSIONS: For older adults with chronic illnesses who may experience difficulties in being sufficiently active, an increase in LPA is probably more achievable than an increase in MVPA. In addition, an increase in LPA enhances CF more than an increase in MVPA does. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Netherlands Trial Register NL6005 ; Date of Registration 21-03-2017.


Assuntos
Acelerometria , Exercício Físico , Idoso , Doença Crônica , Cognição , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino
3.
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 952021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34477180

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Research has uncovered a global pandemic of physical inactivity and schools have been signaled as possible "agents" to modify these negative scores, since all children spend many hours a day there. The aim was to evaluate if it is possible to increase the physical activity levels of a whole school using a multifactorial, self-regulated intervention program during recess. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted involving all the students (N=50) of a rural public school located in northern Spain (grades 1-6). The study followed an ABA case study research design (changes in the experimentation conditions and data collection after each one: week 1 no intervention, weeks 2-3 intervention, week 4 no intervention) and mixed quantitative-qualitative methodology which included the use of accelerometers (each participant wore one during the whole school day and the school week), field notes (researcher) and focus groups (teachers). Normality tests, descriptive and inferential statistics (ANOVAs) were conducted in the quantitative data obtained, while thematic content and constant comparison analyses in the qualitative data. RESULTS: Quantitative results showed that there was a significant increase to 67.15 ± 13.95 minutes/day of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in week 2. Boys reached significantly higher scores than girls: 72.1 ± 12.12. Unfortunately, these scores went back to almost normal in the second week of implementation of the program (58.21 ± 12.88; boys= 62.75 ± 10.86). From the joined analysis of the researcher field notes and the teachers' focus groups 4 themes emerged: intensity change, dominance change, interactions change and self-regulation. CONCLUSIONS: It is possible to increase the physical activity levels of a whole school with a multifactorial, self-regulated program, but it is necessary to acknowledge that novelty "wears out" to avoid losing efficacy with time.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Serviços de Saúde Escolar , Acelerometria , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Autocontrole , Espanha
4.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 18(1): 104, 2021 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34376213

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While physical activity has consistently been associated with decreased mortality rates, it remains unknown if there is a single "ideal" combination of time in physical activities of different intensities and sedentary behavior (SB) associated with the lowest rate. This study examined the associations of combinations of time in moderate-to-vigorous intensity (MVPA), higher-light intensity (HLPA), lower-light intensity activities (LLPA), and SB with mortality rates in older women. METHODS: This prospective cohort study included 16,676 older women from throughout the United States enrolled in the Women's Health Study. Women wore accelerometers on their hip from 2011 to 2015 and were followed through 2017 (mean (SD) of 4.3 (1.1) years). Deaths were confirmed with medical records, death certificates, or the National Death Index. Compositional Cox regression models were used. RESULTS: The mean (SD) age was 72 (5.7) years at accelerometer wear; 503 women died. Compared to the least active women (mean, 3 min/day MVPA, 27 min/day HLPA, 162 min/day LLPA, and 701 min/day SB): compositional models showed an inverse L-shaped dose-response association of MVPA replacing other behaviors with mortality rates mortality rates (P = .02); SB relative to LLPA, HLPA, and MVPA was directly associated with mortality rates in a curvilinear dose-response manner (P < .001); replacing 10 min of SB for MVPA (HR (95% CI) = .86 (.73-.98)) or for HLPA (HR (95% CI.94 (.88-1.00)) associated with 14 and 6% lower mortality rates, respectively; a 47% risk reduction (HR [95% CI] = .53 [.42-.64]) was observed among women meeting physical activity guidelines (mean, 36 min/day MVPA, 79 min/day HLPA, 227 min/day LLPA and 549 min/day SB); and similar mortality rate reductions of 43% (HR (95% CI) = .57 (.41-.73)) were observed with increases in HLPA and LLPA without increasing MVPA, e.g., reallocating SB to 90 min/day of HLPA plus 120 min/day of LLPA. CONCLUSIONS: There was no "ideal" combination of physical activities of different intensities and SB associated with the lowest mortality rates. Of particular relevance to older women, replacing SB with light intensity activity was associated with lower mortality rates, and "mixing and matching" times in different intensities yielded equivalent mortality risk reductions.


Assuntos
Acelerometria/métodos , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Mortalidade , Comportamento Sedentário , Idoso , Atestado de Óbito , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Saúde da Mulher
5.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1558, 2021 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34404361

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Limited physical activity (PA) and a high level of sedentary time (ST) are associated with childhood obesity and are a target for intervention. This study aimed to assess objectively measured PA and ST in Dutch children across weight categories, age groups and sex. METHODS: 202 children with overweight, obesity and morbid obesity (55% girls, 12 ± 3y of age, BMI z-score + 3.15 ± 0.73), referred to the Centre for Overweight Adolescents and Children's Healthcare (COACH, Maastricht UMC+) were included. PA (total PA, light PA and moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA)) and ST were measured with the GT3X Actigraph accelerometer. Wear time validation was set to include at least four days, 480 min/day, including one weekend day. RESULTS: PA levels in children with morbid obesity were higher compared to children with obesity, also after correction for age and sex (corrected difference (B) 118 counts per minute (cpm), p = .006). ST was lower in children with morbid obesity compared to children with obesity (B - 51 min/day, p = .018). Girls performed significantly less MVPA than boys (B - 11 min/day, p < .001) and for each year increase of age, children performed less PA (B - 46 cpm, p < .001) and ST increased (B 18 min/day, p < .001). CONCLUSION: PA and ST is different in subgroups of children with overweight, obesity and morbid obesity, depending on sex, age and overweight severity. In particular, children with obesity perform less PA and more ST compared to children with morbid obesity. Future research could explore the preferences and needs for PA and ST in children in the different weight categories. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial is registered with Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02091544 at March 19, 2014.


Assuntos
Obesidade Mórbida , Obesidade Pediátrica , Acelerometria , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade Mórbida/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Comportamento Sedentário
6.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444948

RESUMO

The present study was conducted to estimate total energy expenditure (TEE) of fire-fighters using tri axial-accelerometers in conjunction with an activity log survey on a large number of subjects undergoing training mimicking a large-scale disaster. Subjects were 240 fire-fighters participating in a two-day fire-fighting training dedicated to large-scale natural disasters. Data was analyzed by job type of activity group and the job rank, and by comparing the average. The average TEE of the total survey training period is about 3619 (±499) kcal, which is the same value of expenditure for professional athletes during the soccer game season. From the activity group, the rescue and other teams consumed significantly more energy than the fire and Emergency Medical Team (EMS) teams. From the job rank, Fire Captain (conducting position) consumed significantly lower energy than the Fire Lieutenant and Fire Sergeant. Furthermore, it was found that a middle position rank consumed the most energy. This research supports a need to reconsider the current rescue food (and protocols) to supplement the energy expenditure of fire-fighters. In addition, since there was a significant difference between the job type and the job rank, it is necessary to examine the energy amount and shape suitable for each.


Assuntos
Acelerometria/métodos , Metabolismo Energético , Bombeiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Trabalho de Resgate , Trabalho/fisiologia , Acelerometria/instrumentação , Adulto , Desastres , Bombeiros/educação , Humanos , Masculino , Necessidades Nutricionais , Treinamento por Simulação , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
Comput Biol Med ; 135: 104633, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34346318

RESUMO

This paper introduces methods to estimate aspects of physical activity and sedentary behavior from three-axis accelerometer data collected with a wrist-worn device at a sampling rate of 32 [Hz] on adults with type 1 diabetes (T1D) in free-living conditions. In particular, we present two methods able to detect and grade activity based on its intensity and individual fitness as sedentary, mild, moderate or vigorous, and a method that performs activity classification in a supervised learning framework to predict specific user behaviors. Population results for activity level grading show multi-class average accuracy of 99.99%, precision of 98.0 ± 2.2%, recall of 97.9 ± 3.5% and F1 score of 0.9 ± 0.0. As for the specific behavior prediction, our best performing classifier, gave population multi-class average accuracy of 92.43 ± 10.32%, precision of 92.94 ± 9.80%, recall of 92.20 ± 10.16% and F1 score of 92.56 ± 9.94%. Our investigation showed that physical activity and sedentary behavior can be detected, graded and classified with good accuracy and precision from three-axial accelerometer data collected in free-living conditions on people with T1D. This is particularly significant in the context of automated glucose control systems for diabetes, in that the methods we propose have the potential to inform changes in treatment parameters in response to the intensity of physical activity, allowing patients to meet their glycemic targets.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Acelerometria , Adulto , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Comportamento Sedentário , Condições Sociais , Punho
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444185

RESUMO

Accurate measurement of physical activity is critical to understand its role in cardiometabolic health and obesity development in children and to monitor trends in behavior and evaluate interventions. An ongoing mixed-longitudinal study of child growth and development in Samoa is collecting physical activity data with both accelerometers and the Netherlands Physical Activity Questionnaire (NPAQ). The aims of our analyses were to (1) describe the response frequency and correlations of individual questions in the NPAQ, (2) develop modified NPAQ scores with selected questions and (3) examine the concordance of modified NPAQ scores with accelerometer outcomes among children aged 2-4 years. We developed two modified NPAQ scores with combinations of questions and assessed concordance of the modified scores with accelerometer data using estimated marginal means adjusted for monitor wear time. Although the evenly distributed tertiles of the modified 15-point NPAQ score showed promising trends of increasing minutes of accelerometer-assessed high-intensity physical activity with increasing tertile, the estimated marginal means were imprecise with high variance, demonstrating that NPAQ score could not accurately assess physical activity levels of preschool-aged children in Samoa. Considering that questionnaires are often considered more cost-effective tools for physical activity measurement than accelerometry, further research is necessary to develop a culturally and age-appropriate physical activity questionnaire in this population.


Assuntos
Acelerometria , Exercício Físico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Países Baixos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 53(4): 728-733, 2021 Aug 18.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34393236

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the differences of alignment and operative time between portable accelerometer-based navigation device (PAD) and computer assisted surgery (CAS) in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). METHODS: Data of patients using iASSIST (a kind of PAD) and OrthoPilot (a kind of CAS) for TKA in Peking University Third Hospital from December 2017 to December 2019 were retrospectively collected. The differences of preoperative general data, preoperative alignment, operative time and postoperative alignment were studied between the two groups. RESULTS: A total of 82 patients were enrolled in our study, including 40 patients in the PAD group and 42 patients in the CAS group. Gender, age, body mass index (BMI), surgical side, preoperative hip-knee-ankle (HKA) angle and preoperative HKA angle deviation didn't show statistically significant difference between the PAD group and the CAS group (P>0.05). Postoperative HKA angle (180.8°±2.2° vs.181.8±1.6°, t=-2.458, P=0.016) and postoperative coronal femoral-component angle (CFA, 90.6°±1.8° vs. 91.6°±1.6°, t =-2.749, P=0.007) of the PAD group were smaller than those of the CAS group, but there was no significant difference in coronal tibia-component angle (CTA, 90.0°±1.3° vs.89.6°±1.4°, t=1.335, P=0.186) between the two groups. There was no significant difference in the rate of outliers (varus or valgus > 3°) for postoperative HKA angle (10.0% vs.11.9%, χ2 =0.076, P=0.783), CFA (12.5% vs. 14.3%, χ2=0.056, P=0.813) and CTA (2.5% vs. 0%, χ2=1.063, P=0.303). There was no significant difference in the accuracy of postoperative HKA angle (2.1° vs. 2.0°, t=0.055, P=0.956), CFA (1.4° vs. 1.8°, t=-1.365, P=0.176) and CTA (1.0° vs. 1.1°, t=-0.828, P=0.410) between the two groups. The precision of postoperative HKA angle (1.1° vs. 1.3°, F=1.251, P=0.267), CFA (1.3° vs. 1.4°, F=0.817, P=0.369) and CTA (0.8° vs. 0.9°, F=0.937, P=0.336) were also not significantly different. We also didn't find statistically significant difference in operative time between the two groups [(83.4±25.6) min vs. (86.5±17.7) min, t=-0.641, P=0.524]. CONCLUSION: PAD and CAS had similar accuracy and precision in alignment in TKA, and there was no significant difference in operative time, which indicates that PAD has a broad application prospect in TKA.


Assuntos
Artroplastia do Joelho , Osteoartrite do Joelho , Cirurgia Assistida por Computador , Acelerometria , Humanos , Articulação do Joelho/cirurgia , Duração da Cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tíbia/cirurgia
10.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 9(8): e23938, 2021 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34346890

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Accurate solutions for the estimation of physical activity and energy expenditure at scale are needed for a range of medical and health research fields. Machine learning techniques show promise in research-grade accelerometers, and some evidence indicates that these techniques can be applied to more scalable commercial devices. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to test the validity and out-of-sample generalizability of algorithms for the prediction of energy expenditure in several wearables (ie, Fitbit Charge 2, ActiGraph GT3-x, SenseWear Armband Mini, and Polar H7) using two laboratory data sets comprising different activities. METHODS: Two laboratory studies (study 1: n=59, age 44.4 years, weight 75.7 kg; study 2: n=30, age=31.9 years, weight=70.6 kg), in which adult participants performed a sequential lab-based activity protocol consisting of resting, household, ambulatory, and nonambulatory tasks, were combined in this study. In both studies, accelerometer and physiological data were collected from the wearables alongside energy expenditure using indirect calorimetry. Three regression algorithms were used to predict metabolic equivalents (METs; ie, random forest, gradient boosting, and neural networks), and five classification algorithms (ie, k-nearest neighbor, support vector machine, random forest, gradient boosting, and neural networks) were used for physical activity intensity classification as sedentary, light, or moderate to vigorous. Algorithms were evaluated using leave-one-subject-out cross-validations and out-of-sample validations. RESULTS: The root mean square error (RMSE) was lowest for gradient boosting applied to SenseWear and Polar H7 data (0.91 METs), and in the classification task, gradient boost applied to SenseWear and Polar H7 was the most accurate (85.5%). Fitbit models achieved an RMSE of 1.36 METs and 78.2% accuracy for classification. Errors tended to increase in out-of-sample validations with the SenseWear neural network achieving RMSE values of 1.22 METs in the regression tasks and the SenseWear gradient boost and random forest achieving an accuracy of 80% in classification tasks. CONCLUSIONS: Algorithms trained on combined data sets demonstrated high predictive accuracy, with a tendency for superior performance of random forests and gradient boosting for most but not all wearable devices. Predictions were poorer in the between-study validations, which creates uncertainty regarding the generalizability of the tested algorithms.


Assuntos
Acelerometria , Aprendizado de Máquina , Adulto , Algoritmos , Calorimetria Indireta , Metabolismo Energético , Humanos
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360287

RESUMO

The bi-directional, day-to-day associations between daytime physical activity and sedentary behavior, and nocturnal sleep, in office workers are unknown. This study investigated these associations and whether they varied by weekday or weekend day. Among 324 Swedish office workers (mean age 42.4 years; 33.3% men), moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and sedentary behaviors and sleep (total sleep time (TST) and sleep efficiency (SE)) were ascertained by using accelerometers (Actigraph GT3X) over 8 days. Multilevel linear mixed models were used to assess the bi-directional, day-to-day, within-person associations. Additional analyses stratified by weekend/weekday were performed. On average, participants spent 6% (57 min) of their day in MVPA and 59% (9.5 h) sedentary, and during the night, TST was 7 h, and SE was 91%. More daytime sedentary behavior was associated with less TST that night, and reciprocally, more TST at night was associated with less sedentary behavior on the following weekday. Greater TST during the night was also associated with less MVPA the next day, only on weekdays. However, daytime MVPA was not associated with TST that night. Higher nighttime SE was associated with greater time spent sedentary and in MVPA on the following day, regardless if weekday or weekend day. Sleep may be more crucial for being physically active the following day than vice versa, especially on weekdays. Nevertheless, sedentary behavior's relation with sleep time may be bi-directional. Office workers may struggle with balancing sleep and physical activity time.


Assuntos
Acelerometria , Comportamento Sedentário , Adulto , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Sono , Fatores de Tempo
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360295

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to analyze the intragroup differences in weekly training monotony (TM) and training strain (TS) between starter and non-starter male professional soccer players at accelerometry based variables throughout the periods of a season. TM and TS of different accelerations and decelerations zones for twenty-one players were followed for forty-eight weeks. Regardless of group, players obtained the highest mean TM (starters = 3.3 ± 0.6, non-starters = 2.2 ± 1.1, in arbitrary unit, AU) and TS (starters = 1288.9 ± 265.2, non-starters = 765.4 ± 547.5, AU) scores in the pre-season for accelerations at Zone 1 (<2 m/s2). The results also indicated that both groups exhibited similar TM and TS scores in accelerations at Zones 2 (2 to 4 m/s2) and 3 (>4 m/s2) across the entire season. While the starters showed the highest TM and TS scores at deceleration Zone 1 (<-2 m/s2) in the end-season, the non-starters exhibited the highest scores at the deceleration Zone 1 in pre-season. It seems that in pre-season, coaches applied higher levels of training with greater emphasis on deceleration for non-starters. This tendency was reduced over time for non-starters, while starters presented higher values of deceleration Zone 1. These results highlight the variations in TM and TS across the different periods of a full season according to match starting status among professional soccer players, and the results suggest that non-starter players should receive higher levels of load to compensate for non-participation in matches throughout a soccer season.


Assuntos
Futebol , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Aceleração , Acelerometria , Humanos , Masculino , Estações do Ano
14.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(15)2021 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34372198

RESUMO

Shock impacts during activity may cause damage to the joints, muscles, bones, or inner organs. To define thresholds for tolerable impacts, there is a need for methods that can accurately monitor shock impacts in real-life settings. Therefore, the main aim of this scoping review was to present an overview of existing methods for assessments of shock impacts using wearable sensor technology within two domains: sports and occupational settings. Online databases were used to identify papers published in 2010-2020, from which we selected 34 papers that used wearable sensor technology to measure shock impacts. No studies were found on occupational settings. For the sports domain, accelerometry was the dominant type of wearable sensor technology utilized, interpreting peak acceleration as a proxy for impact. Of the included studies, 28 assessed foot strike in running, head impacts in invasion and team sports, or different forms of jump landings or plyometric movements. The included studies revealed a lack of consensus regarding sensor placement and interpretation of the results. Furthermore, the identified high proportion of validation studies support previous concerns that wearable sensors at present are inadequate as a stand-alone method for valid and accurate data on shock impacts in the field.


Assuntos
Corrida , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Acelerometria , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Monitorização Fisiológica , Tecnologia
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34388093

RESUMO

Estimations of human joint torques can provide clinically valuable information to inform patient care, plan therapy, and assess the design of wearable robotic devices. Predicting joint torques into the future can also be useful for anticipatory robot control design. In this work, we present a method of mapping joint torque estimates and sequences of torque predictions from motion capture and ground reaction forces to wearable sensor data using several modern types of neural networks. We use dense feedforward, convolutional, neural ordinary differential equation, and long short-term memory neural networks to learn the mapping for ankle plantarflexion and dorsiflexion torque during standing, walking, running, and sprinting, and consider both single-point torque estimation, as well as the prediction of a sequence of future torques. Our results show that long short-term memory neural networks, which consider incoming data sequentially, outperform dense feedforward, neural ordinary differential equation networks, and convolutional neural networks. Predictions of future ankle torques up to 0.4 s ahead also showed strong positive correlations with the actual torques. The proposed method relies on learning from a motion capture dataset, but once the model is built, the method uses wearable sensors that enable torque estimation without the motion capture data.


Assuntos
Articulação do Tornozelo , Tornozelo , Acelerometria , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Eletromiografia , Humanos , Redes Neurais de Computação , Torque
16.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(16)2021 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34451005

RESUMO

Physical inactivity increases the risk of many adverse health conditions, including the world's major non-communicable diseases, such as coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, and breast and colon cancers, shortening life expectancy. There are minimal medical care and personal trainers' methods to monitor a patient's actual physical activity types. To improve activity monitoring, we propose an artificial-intelligence-based approach to classify physical movement activity patterns. In more detail, we employ two deep learning (DL) methods, namely a deep feed-forward neural network (DNN) and a deep recurrent neural network (RNN) for this purpose. We evaluate the two models on two physical movement datasets collected from several volunteers who carried tri-axial accelerometer sensors. The first dataset is from the UCI machine learning repository, which contains 14 different activities-of-daily-life (ADL) and is collected from 16 volunteers who carried a single wrist-worn tri-axial accelerometer. The second dataset includes ten other ADLs and is gathered from eight volunteers who placed the sensors on their hips. Our experiment results show that the RNN model provides accurate performance compared to the state-of-the-art methods in classifying the fundamental movement patterns with an overall accuracy of 84.89% and an overall F1-score of 82.56%. The results indicate that our method provides the medical doctors and trainers a promising way to track and understand a patient's physical activities precisely for better treatment.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Acelerometria , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Redes Neurais de Computação
17.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(16)2021 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34451085

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To explore the effects of wearing compression garments on joint mechanics, soft tissue vibration and muscle activities during drop jumps. METHODS: Twelve healthy male athletes were recruited to execute drop jumps from heights of 30, 45 and 60 cm whilst wearing compression shorts (CS) and control shorts (CON). Sagittal plane kinematics, ground reaction forces, accelerations of the quadriceps femoris (QF), hamstrings (HM) and shoe heel-cup, and electromyography images of the rectus femoris (RF) and biceps femoris (BF) were collected. RESULTS: Compared with wearing CON, wearing CS significantly reduced the QF peak acceleration at 45 and 60 cm and the HM peak acceleration at 30 cm. Wearing CS significantly increased the damping coefficient for QF and HM at 60 cm compared with wearing CON. Moreover, the peak transmissibility when wearing CS was significantly lower than that when wearing CON for all soft tissue compartments and heights, except for QF at 30 cm. Wearing CS reduced the RF activity during the pre-, post-, and eccentric activations for all heights and concentric activations at 45 cm; it also reduced the BF activity during post- and eccentric activations at 30 and 60 cm, respectively. The hip and knee joint moments and power or jump height were unaffected by the garment type. CONCLUSION: Applying external compression can reduce soft tissue vibrations without compromising neuromuscular performance during strenuous physical activities that involve exposure to impact-induced vibrations.


Assuntos
Músculo Esquelético , Vibração , Acelerometria , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Eletromiografia , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Masculino , Sapatos
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444253

RESUMO

Sufficient daily physical activity is associated with many positive mental, physical, and societal benefits in children. Unfortunately, most children worldwide do not achieve recommended levels of daily physical activity (PA), and a majority of evidence is from Western countries and based on subjective measures. This study examined the prevalence and correlates of objectively measured PA levels among Omani children in 2017 (pre-pandemic). A two-stage cluster sampling was used to recruit the 4th grade children across five regions of Oman. A final analytic sample included 1053 children (504 boys, 549 girls) with a mean age of 9.21 years old. PA was objectively measured using a wrist-worn Polar Active Watch during three consecutive school days. Screen-based sedentary behaviors and other PA-related behaviors were subjectively measured. On average, boys were less sedentary and more active, with a greater likelihood of meeting current recommendations when compared with girls. The self-reported time spent in screen-based sedentary behaviors was relatively low for both boys and girls and was not associated with PA; however, sports team participation was associated with a greater likelihood of meeting the current recommendation. The present study provides empirical data on objectively measured PA in Omani children. The gender disparities concerning daily PA, including sports team participation, should receive further attention.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Esportes , Acelerometria , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Atividade Motora , Instituições Acadêmicas , Comportamento Sedentário
19.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34207655

RESUMO

Lower resting energy expenditure (REE) may partially explain the disproportionate prevalence of overweight/obesity among black African women. As no previous studies have investigated the REE of Southern African (South. Afr.) children, we aimed to determine, by sex and population group, the REE of 6- to 9-year-old urban school children. In a cross-sectional study with quota sampling, REE was measured with indirect calorimetry (IC). Confounders considered were: body composition (BC) (fat-free mass (FFM), FFM index, fat mass (FM), FM index), assessed using multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis, and physical activity (PA) measured with a pedometer. Multivariate regression was used to calculate REE adjusted for phenotypes (BC, z-scores of weight-for-age, height-for-age, body mass index-for-age) and PA. Sex and population differences in REE were determined with two-way ANOVA. Ninety-four healthy children (59.6% girls; 52.1% black) with similar socioeconomic status and PA opportunities participated. Despite BC variations, sex differences in REE were not significant (41 kcal/day; P = 0.375). The REE of black participants was lower than of white (146 kcal/day; P = 0.002). When adjusted for FFM and HFA z-score, the differences in REE declined but remained clinically meaningful at 91 kcal/day (P = 0.039) and 82 kcal/day (P = 0.108), respectively. We recommend the development of population-specific REE prediction equations for South. Afr. children.


Assuntos
Metabolismo Basal , Saúde da Criança/estatística & dados numéricos , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Saúde da População/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Acelerometria/métodos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise de Variância , Composição Corporal , Calorimetria Indireta , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Impedância Elétrica , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade Pediátrica/etnologia , Prevalência , Análise de Regressão , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , África do Sul/epidemiologia , África do Sul/etnologia
20.
J Occup Health ; 63(1): e12246, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34275174

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Objectively measured sedentary behavior (SB) on weekdays and weekends has been mainly assessed in white-collar workers, while data in blue-collar workers are sparse. Therefore, this study presented the difference in accelerometer-measured SB levels between weekdays and weekends, stratified by white- and blue-collar occupations. METHODS: This study was a sub-analysis of accelerometer data from 73 workers (31 blue-collar and 42 white-collar) at a Japanese manufacturing plant. SB was defined as ≤1.5 metabolic equivalents estimated using an accelerometer, and compared between weekdays and weekends by using mixed models adjusted for confounders. The proportion of workers who sat for ≤8 h/day on weekdays and weekends were compared using McNemar's test. RESULTS: In white-collar workers, SB time on weekdays was significantly longer than that on weekends (598 vs 479 min/day, P < .001). In blue-collar workers, there was no significant difference in SB time between weekdays and weekends (462 vs 485 min/day, P = .43). The proportion of workers who achieved the recommended SB levels (≤8 h) was only 4.8% for white-collar workers on weekdays and 54.8% on weekends (P = .04), while that of blue-collar workers was 45.2% and 58.1% respectively (P > .99). CONCLUSIONS: White-collar workers were exposed to significantly longer SB time on weekdays than on weekends, which was not the case in blue-collar workers. It may be rather challenging for white-collar workers to limit their SB time to the level recommended by the latest guidelines for better health, especially on weekdays.


Assuntos
Acelerometria/estatística & dados numéricos , Ocupações/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Sedentário , Fatores de Tempo , Trabalho/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Instalações Industriais e de Manufatura , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
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