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1.
Transl Psychiatry ; 11(1): 28, 2021 01 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33431818

RESUMO

The integration of technology in clinical care is growing rapidly and has become especially relevant during the global COVID-19 pandemic. Smartphone-based digital phenotyping, or the use of integrated sensors to identify patterns in behavior and symptomatology, has shown potential in detecting subtle moment-to-moment changes. These changes, often referred to as anomalies, represent significant deviations from an individual's baseline, may be useful in informing the risk of relapse in serious mental illness. Our investigation of smartphone-based anomaly detection resulted in 89% sensitivity and 75% specificity for predicting relapse in schizophrenia. These results demonstrate the potential of longitudinal collection of real-time behavior and symptomatology via smartphones and the clinical utility of individualized analysis. Future studies are necessary to explore how specificity can be improved, just-in-time adaptive interventions utilized, and clinical integration achieved.


Assuntos
Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/métodos , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico , Telemedicina/métodos , Acelerometria/métodos , Acelerometria/psicologia , Adulto , Boston , Avaliação Momentânea Ecológica/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Aplicativos Móveis , Movimento , Fenótipo , Recidiva , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Medição de Risco , Esquizofrenia/fisiopatologia , Tempo de Tela , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Sono , Smartphone , Comportamento Social
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33322103

RESUMO

The interactions between movement behaviors (physical activity, screen time, and sleep) affect the health of preschool children. Therefore, we examined the status of adherence to combinations of 24-hour movement guidelines (24-h MG) in Japanese preschool children and determined the associations between overweight/obesity and adherence to these 24-h MG. This cross-sectional study was conducted with 421 children aged 3-5 years (216 boys and 199 girls) living in the northeastern region of Japan. To evaluate the 24-h MG, physical activity over one week was measured using a three-axis accelerometer. For screen time and sleep duration, a questionnaire survey was conducted. Children who failed to meet all the 24-h MG had a higher probability of overweight/obesity than those who met all the 24-h MG (odds ratio 1.139, 95% confidence interval: 1.009, 1.285). The percentage of adherence to the 24-h MG was 91.6% for physical activity, 82.5% for sleep duration, and 33.7% for screen time, and only 21.5% of the children adhered to all three areas of the guidelines. Our findings have important implications for developing public health policies and effective intervention programs for preschool children.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/estatística & dados numéricos , Sobrepeso/prevenção & controle , Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle , Sono/fisiologia , Acelerometria/métodos , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Sobrepeso/etiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/etiologia , Comportamento Sedentário
3.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243752, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33315913

RESUMO

In a prior publication, we described a previously unknown eye movement phenomenon during the execution of actively performed multiaxial rotations in high level gymnasts. This phenomenon was consistently observed during the phase of fast free flight rotations and was marked by a prolonged and complete suppression of nystagmus and gaze stabilizing "environment referenced eye movements" (EREM; such as the vestibulo-ocular reflex, optokinetic reflex, smooth pursuit and others). Instead, these eye movements were coupled with intersegmental body movements. We have therefore called it "spinal motor-coupled eye movements" (SCEM) and have interpreted the phenomenon to likely be caused by anti-compensatory functions of more proprioceptive mediated reflexes and perhaps other mechanisms (e.g., top-down regulation as part of a motor plan) to effectively cope with a new-orientation in space, undisturbed by EREM functions. In the phase before landing, the phenomenon was replaced again by the known gaze-stabilizing EREM functions. The present study specifically evaluated long-term measures of vestibulo-ocular reflex functions (VOR) in high level gymnasts and controls during both passively driven monoaxial rotations and context-specific multiaxial somersault simulations in a vestibular lab. This approach provided further insights into the possible roles of adaptive or mental influences concerning the VOR function and how they are associated with the described phenomenon of SCEM. Results showed high inter-individual variability of VOR function in both gymnasts and controls, but no systematic adaptation of the VOR in gymnasts, neither compared to controls nor over a period of three years. This might generally support the hypothesis that the phenomenon of SCEM might indeed be driven more by proprioceptively mediated and situationally dominant eye movement functions than by adaptative processes of the VOR.


Assuntos
Movimentos Oculares/fisiologia , Reflexo Vestíbulo-Ocular/fisiologia , Acelerometria/instrumentação , Acelerometria/métodos , Adolescente , Atletas , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Rotação
5.
Sportis (A Coruña) ; 6(3): 408-425, sept. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-197056

RESUMO

Los métodos educativos de integración del movimiento son reconocidos como potenciadores de la actividad física, de las funciones ejecutivas y del aprendizaje. Sin embargo, el impacto de estas metodologías sobre la cognición y la actividad física en Educación Infantil ha sido poco estudiado. El objetivo de la investigación fue analizar el efecto de un programa educativo de integración del movimiento basado en el juego en esta etapa, evaluando sus efectos sobre los niveles de actividad física de los niños. Participaron 134 alumnos de 5 años de la provincia de Málaga. Se diseñó e implementó un programa de integración del movimiento basado en actividades de juego motor semi-dirigido que cambiaban cada quince minutos, en las cuales se trabajaron contenidos académicos. Se evaluó la cantidad e intensidad de actividad física mediante acelerometría (Actigraph GT3X). Durante su participación en el programa, los niños realizaron una media de 45,65 minutos de actividad física moderada-vigorosa. El porcentaje más alto corresponde a la actividad sedentaria y a la actividad moderada-vigorosa respectivamente, lo cual concuerda con estudios que afirman que la actividad de los niños pequeños consiste en ráfagas cortas de actividad moderada-vigorosa intercaladas con períodos de menor intensidad. Los datos muestran que el juego como método de integración del movimiento contribuye a alcanzar los niveles de actividad recomendados por las organizaciones internacionales. Nuestros resultados apoyan el uso del juego semi-dirigido como una herramienta especialmente útil para la mejora del proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje en Educación Infantil y para el aumento de la actividad física del alumnado


Educational movement integration methods have been recognized as enhancers of physical activity, executive functions and learning. However, the impact of these methodologies on cognition and physical activity in Early Childhood Education has been little studied. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of an educational play-based movement integration program at this stage, evaluating its effects on children's physical activity levels. A total of 134 5-year-old students from the province of Malaga participated. We designed and implemented a movement integration program based on semi-directed motor play activities that changed every fifteen minutes, in which academic content was worked on. The amount and intensity of physical activity was evaluated using accelerometry (Actigraph GT3X). During their participation in the program, children carried out an average of 45.65 minutes of moderate-vigorous physical activity. The highest percentage corresponds to sedentary activity and moderate-vigorous activity respectively, which is consistent with other studies that state the activity of young children consists of short bursts of moderate-vigorous activity interspersed with less-intensity periods. Data shows that play as a movement integration method contributes to reaching the activity levels recommended by international organizations. Our results support the use of semi-directed play as an especially useful tool for the improvement of the teaching-learning process in Early Childhood Education and for increasing students' physical activity


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adulto , Jogos e Brinquedos , Movimento/fisiologia , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Inclusão Escolar/métodos , Integração de Sistemas , Promoção da Saúde , Acelerometria/métodos
6.
J Rehabil Med ; 52(10): jrm00115, 2020 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32830279

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore associations between physical activity and peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), age, sex, and Hoffer classification in young wheelchair-users with spina bifida. DESIGN: Exploratory study. SUBJECTS: Fifty-three dutch children (age 5-19 years) with spina bifida who use a manual wheelchair. METHODS: For the dependent variable physical activity, data from 2 physical activity monitors were analysed: VitaMove data for 34 participants and Actiheart data for 36 participants. Time sedentary, time physically active, and time in moderate to vigorous physical activity were analysed. The Wheelchair Shuttle Test was used to measure VO2peak. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed. Independent variables were VO2peak, age, sex, and Hoffer classification. RESULTS: Time sedentary and time physically active during a school day were influenced by age (ß=0.326/ß=-0.320) and Hoffer classification (ß=0.409/ß=-0.534) and during a weekend day by Hoffer classification (ß=0.617/ß=-0.428). Time in moderate to vigorous physical activity was influenced by Hoffer classification (ß=-0.527) during a school day and by age (ß=-0.600) during a weekend day. CONCLUSION: Older age and the inability to walk negatively influence physical activity. Sex and VO2peak were not associated with physical activity. These results imply that increasing cardiorespiratory fitness alone will not improve physical activity in young wheelchair-users with spina bifida.


Assuntos
Acelerometria/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoas com Deficiência/estatística & dados numéricos , Exercício Físico , Disrafismo Espinal/fisiopatologia , Cadeiras de Rodas/estatística & dados numéricos , Acelerometria/métodos , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Países Baixos , Análise de Regressão , Fatores de Tempo , Caminhada , Adulto Jovem
7.
Public Health ; 186: 71-77, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32784098

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To synthesize evidence on accelerometer-measured moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary behavior (SB) levels of Chinese children and adolescents. STUDY DESIGN: This is both a systematic review and meta-analysis study. METHODS: Online databases were searched for studies published from January 2009 up to February 2019. These studies reported accelerometer-measured daily minutes of MVPA and/or SB among Chinese children and adolescents. Random-effects meta-analysis was used to separately pool the time spent in MVPA and SB. RESULTS: Of 4754 records, 20 studies were included in the meta-analysis. Sample sizes ranged from 96 to 2163. The meta-analysis showed that Chinese children and adolescents spent 41.11 min/day in MVPA and 529.83 min/day in SB averagely. Boys spent more time in MVPA compared with girls (P = 0.01). Children accumulated more MVPA time than adolescents (P = 0.05), and children spent less time in SB than adolescents (P = 0.05). Unlike weekdays, SB was lower on weekends (P = 0.02). There were significant differences in children and adolescents' MVPA time in regions (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: MVPA level in Chinese children and adolescents is well below international recommendations, and their SB level is very high.


Assuntos
Acelerometria/métodos , Exercício Físico , Comportamento Sedentário , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Criança , China , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
Am Heart J ; 228: 47-56, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32798787

RESUMO

AIMS: To investigate the effect of the sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitor empagliflozin on N-terminal pro-b-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) in patients with heart failure (HF) and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). METHODS AND RESULTS: Empire HF was an investigator-initiated, multi-center, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, randomized trial. Patients with mildly symptomatic HFrEF, mean (standard deviation (SD)) age 64 (11) years, 85% male, and mean left ventricular ejection fraction 29% (8), on recommended HF therapy were assigned to receive either empagliflozin 10 mg once daily or placebo for 12 weeks. The primary endpoint was the between-group difference in the change of NT-proBNP from baseline to 12 weeks. In total, 95 patients were assigned to empagliflozin and 95 to placebo. No significant difference in the change of NT-proBNP with empagliflozin versus placebo was observed [Empagliflozin: baseline, median (interquartile range (IQR)) 582 (304-1020) pg/mL, 12 weeks, 478 (281-961) pg/mL; Placebo: baseline, 605 (322-1070) pg/mL, 12 weeks, 520 (267-1075) pg/mL, adjusted ratio of change empagliflozin/placebo 0.98; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.82-1.11, P = 0.7]. Further, no significant difference was observed in accelerometer-measured daily activity level [adjusted mean difference of change, empagliflozin versus placebo, -26.0 accelerometer counts; 95% CI -88.0 to 36.0, P = 0.4] or Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire Overall Summary Score [adjusted mean difference of change, empagliflozin versus placebo 0.8; 95% CI -2.3 to 3.9, P = 0.6]. CONCLUSION: In low-risk patients with HFrEF with mild symptoms and on recommended HF therapy, empagliflozin did not change NT-proBNP after 12 weeks. Further, no change in daily activity level or health status was observed.


Assuntos
Acelerometria/métodos , Atividades Cotidianas , Compostos Benzidrílicos , Glucosídeos , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/sangue , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/sangue , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/diagnóstico , Compostos Benzidrílicos/administração & dosagem , Compostos Benzidrílicos/efeitos adversos , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Glucosídeos/administração & dosagem , Glucosídeos/efeitos adversos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/sangue , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/administração & dosagem , Volume Sistólico
9.
J Stud Alcohol Drugs ; 81(4): 505-510, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32800088

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Sensing the effects of alcohol consumption in real time could offer numerous opportunities to reduce related harms. This study sought to explore accuracy of gait-related features measured by smartphone accelerometer sensors on detecting alcohol intoxication (breath alcohol concentration [BrAC] > .08%). METHOD: In a controlled laboratory study, participants (N = 17; 12 male) were asked to walk 10 steps in a straight line, turn, and walk 10 steps back before drinking and each hour, for up to 7 hours after drinking a weight-based dose of alcohol to reach a BrAC of .20%. Smartphones were placed on the lumbar region and 3-axis accelerometer data was recorded at a rate of 100 Hz. Accelerometer data were segmented into task segments (i.e., walk forward, walk backward). Features were generated for each overlapping 1-second windows, and the data set was split into training and testing data sets. Logistic regression models were used to estimate accuracy for classifying BrAC ≤ .08% from BrAC > .08% for each subject. RESULTS: Across participants, BrAC > .08% was predicted with a mean accuracy of 92.5% using logistic regression, an improvement from a naive model accuracy of 88.2% (mean sensitivity = .89; specificity = .92; positive predictive value = .77; and negative predictive value = .97). The two most informative accelerometer features were mean signal amplitude and variance of the signal in the x-axis (i.e., gait sway). CONCLUSIONS: We found preliminary evidence supporting use of gait-related features measured by smartphone accelerometer sensors to detect alcohol intoxication. Future research should determine whether these findings replicate in situ.


Assuntos
Acelerometria/métodos , Intoxicação Alcoólica/diagnóstico , Testes Respiratórios/métodos , Marcha , Smartphone , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
10.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0221668, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32776927

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Animal models of brain recovery identify the first days after lesioning as a time of great flux in sensorimotor function and physiology. After rodent motor system lesioning, daily skill training in the less affected forelimb reduces skill acquisition in the more affected forelimb. We asked whether spontaneous human motor behaviors of the less affected upper extremity (UE) early after stroke resemble the animal training model, with the potential to suppress clinical recovery. METHODS: This prospective observational study used a convenience sample of patients (n = 25, mean 4.5 ±1.8) days after stroke with a wide severity range; Controls were hospitalized for non-neurological conditions (n = 12). Outcome measures were Accelerometry, Upper-Extremity Fugl-Meyer (UEFM), Action Research Arm Test (ARAT), Shoulder Abduction/ Finger Extension Test (SAFE), NIH Stroke Scale (NIHSS). RESULTS: Accelerometry indicated total paretic UE movement was reduced compared to controls, primarily due to a 44% reduction of bilateral UE use. Unilateral paretic movement was unchanged. Thus, movement shifted early after stroke; bilateral use was reduced and unilateral use of the non-paretic UE was increased by 77%. Low correlations between movement time and motor performance prompted an exploratory factor analysis (EFA) revealing a 2-component solution; motor performance tests load on one component (motor performance) whereas accelerometry-derived variables load on a second orthogonal component (quantity of movement). CONCLUSIONS: Early after stroke, spontaneous overall UE movement is reduced, and movement shifts to unilateral use of the non-paretic UE. Two mechanisms that could influence motor recovery may already be in place 4.5 ± 1.8 days post stroke: (1) the overuse of the less affected UE, which could set the stage for learned non-use and (2) skill acquisition in the non-paretic limb that could impede recovery. Accurate UE motor assessment requires two independent constructs: motor performance and quantity of movement. These findings provide opportunities and measurement methods for studies to develop new behaviorally-based stroke recovery treatments that begin early after onset.


Assuntos
Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral/métodos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Acelerometria/métodos , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Movimento/fisiologia , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Paresia/fisiopatologia , Paresia/terapia , Estudos Prospectivos , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica/fisiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos , Extremidade Superior/fisiologia
11.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236573, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756595

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: South Asians are one of the fastest growing ethnic groups in western countries with a high incidence of chronic diseases like metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease occurring at younger ages and lower body weight compared with white Europeans. Physically active lifestyle and reduced sedentary time are modifiable risk factors that can decrease burden of chronic diseases. Population-level surveys based on self-report show South Asians engage in low levels of physical activity. Because of known limitations with self-report data, we aimed to synthesize available evidence to generate a physical activity /sedentary time profile of South Asians from studies using accelerometry. METHODS: We systematically searched Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and SportDiscus. We included studies applying accelerometry to measure physical activity /sedentary time under free-living. Studies with an exclusive focus on drugs or including participants with health conditions/physical disability, and special populations (athletes/pregnant women) were excluded. Two authors independently adjudicated inclusion of citations at title/abstract and full text. We applied a standardized data abstraction form to extract relevant data. We evaluated methodological quality using Newcastle Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale. Due to variability and inconsistencies in measurement and reporting of physical activity /sedentary time, we only provide a narrative synthesis. FINDINGS: We identified only 14 studies(n = 1,338). Despite using similar accelerometry assumptions, we noted variability in reported outcomes for physical activity and sedentary time. Sedentary time ranged from 482(98) to 587 min/day. Mean light physical activity ranged from 211.69(67. 38) to 574(227) min/day. Moderate to vigorous physical activity among South Asian women ranged from 17-41 min/day and among men, 32-43 min/day. CONCLUSION: South Asians exhibited higher levels of physical activity when compared to the Canadian population level survey but not when compared to the American population level survey. Overall, fewer studies, and small sample sizes led to considerable variability limiting any effective comparisons. Results highlight the importance of conducting methodologically robust studies based on random sampling to advance the field, and to capture true levels of sedentary time and physical activity in the South Asian population.


Assuntos
Acelerometria/métodos , Doença Crônica/prevenção & controle , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Comportamento Sedentário , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Atletas , Canadá/epidemiologia , Doença Crônica/epidemiologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Autorrelato
12.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237784, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32813745

RESUMO

Built environments have been cited as important facilitators of activity and research using geographic information systems (GIS) has emerged as a novel approach in exploring environmental determinants. The Active Children Through Individual Vouchers Evaluation Project used GIS to conduct a cross-sectional analysis of how teenager's (aged 13-14) environments impacted on their amount of activity and influences fitness. The ACTIVE Project recruited 270 participants aged 13-14 (year 9) from 7 secondary schools in south Wales, UK. Demographic data and objective measures of accelerometery and fitness were collected from each participant between September and December 2016. Objective data was mapped in a GIS alongside datasets relating to activity provision, active travel routes, public transport stops, main roads and natural resources. This study shows that fitness and physical activity are not correlated. Teenagers who had higher levels of activity also had higher levels of sedentary time/inactivity. Teenagers showed higher amounts of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity if their homes were closer to public transport. However, they were also more active if their schools were further away from public transport and natural resources. Teenagers were fitter if schools were closer to natural resources. Sedentary behaviour, fitness and activity do not cluster in the same teenagers. Policymakers/planning committees need to consider this when designing teenage friendly environments. Access to public transport, active travel, green space and activities that teenagers want, and need could make a significant difference to teenage health.


Assuntos
Saúde do Adolescente/estatística & dados numéricos , Ambiente Construído , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Acelerometria/métodos , Acelerometria/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Feminino , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Transportes/estatística & dados numéricos , País de Gales
13.
Nat Med ; 26(9): 1385-1391, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32807930

RESUMO

Use of wearable devices that monitor physical activity is projected to increase more than fivefold per half-decade1. We investigated how device-based physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) and different intensity profiles were associated with all-cause mortality. We used a network harmonization approach to map dominant-wrist acceleration to PAEE in 96,476 UK Biobank participants (mean age 62 years, 56% female). We also calculated the fraction of PAEE accumulated from moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA). Over the median 3.1-year follow-up period (302,526 person-years), 732 deaths were recorded. Higher PAEE was associated with a lower hazard of all-cause mortality for a constant fraction of MVPA (for example, 21% (95% confidence interval 4-35%) lower hazard for 20 versus 15 kJ kg-1 d-1 PAEE with 10% from MVPA). Similarly, a higher MVPA fraction was associated with a lower hazard when PAEE remained constant (for example, 30% (8-47%) lower hazard when 20% versus 10% of a fixed 15 kJ kg-1 d-1 PAEE volume was from MVPA). Our results show that higher volumes of PAEE are associated with reduced mortality rates, and achieving the same volume through higher-intensity activity is associated with greater reductions than through lower-intensity activity. The linkage of device-measured activity to energy expenditure creates a framework for using wearables for personalized prevention.


Assuntos
Acelerometria/métodos , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Mortalidade , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Acelerometria/instrumentação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monitorização Fisiológica
14.
ESC Heart Fail ; 7(5): 2093-2097, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32696600

RESUMO

AIMS: A reduction of habitual physical activity due to prolonged COVID-19 quarantine can have serious consequences for patients with cardiovascular diseases, such as heart failure. This study aimed to explore the effect of COVID-19 nationwide quarantine on accelerometer-assessed physical activity of heart failure patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: We analysed the daily number of steps in 26 heart failure patients during a 6-week period that included 3 weeks immediately preceding the onset of the quarantine and the first 3 weeks of the quarantine. The daily number of steps was assessed using a wrist-worn accelerometer worn by the patients as part of an ongoing randomized controlled trial. Multilevel modelling was used to explore the effect of the quarantine on the daily step count adjusted for weather conditions. As compared with the 3 weeks before the onset of the quarantine, the step count was significantly lower during each of the first 3 weeks of the quarantine (P < 0.05). When the daily step count was averaged across the 3 weeks before and during the quarantine, the decrease amounted to 1134 (SE 189) steps per day (P < 0.001), which translated to a 16.2% decrease. CONCLUSIONS: The introduction of the nationwide quarantine due to COVID-19 had a detrimental effect on the level of habitual physical activity in heart failure patients, leading to an abrupt decrease of daily step count that lasted for at least the 3-week study period. Staying active and maintaining sufficient levels of physical activity during the COVID-19 pandemic are essential despite the unfavourable circumstances of quarantine.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/reabilitação , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Quarentena , Teste de Caminhada/estatística & dados numéricos , Acelerometria/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
15.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1072, 2020 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32631292

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Occupational Sitting and Physical Activity Questionnaire (OSPAQ) was developed as an easy-to-use instrument for self-reported assessment of percentage sitting, standing, walking, and performing heavy labour in a workplace setting. This study aimed to evaluate the concurrent validity of all dimensions of the OSPAQ compared to accelerometer-assessed measures of occupational physical activities in a mixed sample of sedentary and physically active professions. METHODS: Data from the Flemish Employees' Physical Activity (FEPA) study were used, including employees from the service and production sector. All participants filled in a questionnaire, underwent clinical measurements, and wore two Axivity AX3 accelerometers for at least 2 consecutive working days. Intraclass (ICC) and Spearman rho correlations (r) were analyzed to assess concurrent validity. RESULTS: The sample included 401 workers (16% sedentary profession) with a mean age of 39.2 (± 11) years. Concurrent validity was good and moderate for assessing percentage of sitting (ICC = 0.84; r = 0.53), and standing (ICC = 0.64; r = 0.53), respectively. The concurrent validity for walking was weak to moderate (ICC = 0.50; r = 0.49), and weak for performing heavy labour (ICC = 0.28; r = 0.35). Stronger validity scores were found in sedentary professions for occupational sitting and standing. In physically active professions, an underestimation of self-reported sitting and standing was found, and an overestimation of self-reported walking and heavy labour. No significant self-reported over- or underestimation was found for sitting and heavy labour in sedentary professions, but an underestimation of self-reported standing and an overestimation of self-reported walking was observed. CONCLUSIONS: The OSPAQ has acceptable measurement properties for assessing occupational sitting and standing. Accelerometer-assessed measures of occupational walking and heavy labour are recommended, since a poor concurrent validity was found for both.


Assuntos
Acelerometria/normas , Saúde do Trabalhador/normas , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos , Local de Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos , Acelerometria/métodos , Adulto , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ocupações , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Comportamento Sedentário , Autorrelato , Autoavaliação , Postura Sentada , Posição Ortostática , Fatores de Tempo , Caminhada/estatística & dados numéricos
16.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236024, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32687507

RESUMO

Training prescription and monitoring of team-sport athletes rely on accurate quantification of player movement. Our aim was to determine the sensitivity, reliability and construct validity of measures derived from a wearable device incorporating Global Positioning System (GPS) and accelerometer technology to quantify the peak periods of rugby competition. Match movement data were collected from 30 elite and 30 sub-elite rugby union players across respective competitive seasons. Accelerometer and GPS measures were analysed using a rolling average to identify peak movement for epochs ranging from 5 to 600 seconds. General linear mixed modelling was used to quantify the effects of playing position and match-half on the peak movement and variabilities within and between players represented reliability of each measure. Mean positional differences and match-half changes were assessed via standardisation and magnitude-based decisions. Sensitivity of measures was quantified via evaluation of ("signal") and typical error of measurement ("noise"). GPS and accelerometer measures had poor sensitivity for quantifying peak movement across all epochs and both levels of rugby union competition (noise 4× to 5× the signal). All measures displayed correspondingly low reliability across most epochs and both levels of competition (ICC<0.50). Construct validity was evident in mean differences between playing positions and match halves that were consistent with expected activity profiles in rugby union. However, it was clear from the pattern of differences across epoch durations and levels of competition that GPS and accelerometer measures provided different information about player movement. The poor sensitivity and low reliability of GPS and accelerometer measures of peak movement imply that rugby union players need to be monitored across many matches to obtain adequate precision for assessing individuals. Although all measures displayed construct validity, accelerometers provided meaningful information additional to that of GPS. We recommend using accelerometers alongside GPS to monitor and prescribe match respresentative training.


Assuntos
Acelerometria/métodos , Atletas/estatística & dados numéricos , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Futebol Americano/fisiologia , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica/instrumentação , Corrida/fisiologia , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Curva ROC , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
17.
PLoS Med ; 17(7): e1003210, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32701954

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Less than 20% of adolescents globally meet recommended levels of physical activity, and not meeting these recommended levels is associated with social disadvantage and rising disease risk. The determinants of physical activity in adolescents are multilevel and poorly understood, but the school's social environment likely plays an important role. We conducted a cluster randomised controlled trial to assess the effectiveness of a school-based programme (GoActive) to increase moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) among adolescents. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Non-fee-paying, co-educational schools including Year 9 students in the UK counties of Cambridgeshire and Essex were eligible for inclusion. Within participating schools (n = 16), all Year 9 students were eligible and invited to participate. Participants were 2,862 13- to 14-year-olds (84% of eligible students). After baseline assessment, schools were computer-randomised, stratified by school-level pupil premium funding (below/above county-specific median) and county (control: 8 schools, 1,319 participants, mean [SD] participants per school n = 165 [62]; intervention: 8 schools, 1,543 participants, n = 193 [43]). Measurement staff were blinded to allocation. The iteratively developed, feasibility-tested 12-week intervention, aligned with self-determination theory, trained older adolescent mentors and in-class peer-leaders to encourage classes to conduct 2 new weekly activities. Students and classes gained points and rewards for engaging in any activity in or out of school. The primary outcome was average daily minutes of accelerometer-assessed MVPA at 10-month follow-up; a mixed-methods process evaluation evaluated implementation. Of 2,862 recruited participants (52.1% male), 2,167 (76%) attended 10-month follow-up measurements; we analysed the primary outcome for 1,874 participants (65.5%). At 10 months, there was a mean (SD) decrease in MVPA of 8.3 (19.3) minutes in the control group and 10.4 (22.7) minutes in the intervention group (baseline-adjusted difference [95% confidence interval] -1.91 minutes [-5.53 to 1.70], p = 0.316). The programme cost £13 per student compared with control; it was not cost-effective. Overall, 62.9% of students and 87.3% of mentors reported that GoActive was fun. Teachers and mentors commented that their roles in programme delivery were unclear. Implementation fidelity was low. The main methodological limitation of this study was the relatively affluent and ethnically homogeneous sample. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we observed that a rigorously developed school-based intervention was no more effective than standard school practice at preventing declines in adolescent physical activity. Interdisciplinary research is required to understand educational-setting-specific implementation challenges. School leaders and authorities should be realistic about expectations of the effect of school-based physical activity promotion strategies implemented at scale. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN Registry ISRCTN31583496.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/psicologia , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Serviços de Saúde Escolar/economia , Acelerometria/métodos , Adolescente , Análise Custo-Benefício , Feminino , Promoção da Saúde/economia , Humanos , Masculino , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Reino Unido
18.
J Sports Sci ; 38(18): 2071-2079, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32508219

RESUMO

Studies that have analysed the association between the different movement behaviours and fundamental movement skills (FMS) have considered it in an independent manner, disregarding the compositional nature of 24-h movement behaviours (24-h MB). The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the 24-h MB and FMS in preschoolers using a compositional data analysis . Two hundred and four preschoolers (4.5 ± 0.8 years old; 101 boys) provided objectively assessed physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviour (SB) data (Actigraph wGT3X), and FMS (TGMD-2). Sleep duration (SD) was reported by parents. Association of daily composition of movement behaviours with FMS was explored using compositional analysis and isotemporal substitution (R Core Team, 3.6.1). When considered as a 24-h MB composition (PA, SB and SD), adjusted for age, BMI and sex, the composition predicted locomotor (r2 = 0.31), object control (r2 = 0.19), and total motor score (r2 = 0.35), respectively (all P < 0.001). Reallocation of time from light to moderate-to-vigorous PA was associated with greatest positive changes in total motor score. Achieving adequate balance between movement behaviours over the 24-h period, and its relationship with locomotor and object control skills should be considered and further investigated in early childhood.


Assuntos
Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Movimento/fisiologia , Acelerometria/métodos , Brasil , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Feminino , Monitores de Aptidão Física , Humanos , Masculino , Pobreza , Comportamento Sedentário , Sono , Fatores de Tempo
19.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 826, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32487107

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gendered patterns of physical activity behaviours may help explaining health inequalities between men and women. However, evidence on such patterns in the working population is sparse. This study aimed at documenting and comparing compositions of sitting, standing and moving at work and during leisure among male and female office workers of different age. METHODS: Sitting (including lying), standing and moving were measured using accelerometry for, on average, four working days in 55 male and 57 female Swedish office workers. Behaviours were described in terms of time spent in four exhaustive categories: sitting in short (< 30 min) and long (≥30 min) bouts, standing, and moving. In a compositional data analysis approach, isometric log-ratios (ilr) were calculated for time sitting relative to non-sitting, time in short relative to long sitting bouts, and time in standing relative to moving. Differences between genders (men vs. women), domains (work vs. leisure), and according to age were examined for each ilr using ANOVA. RESULTS: At work, time spent sitting in short bouts, sitting in long bouts, standing, and moving was, on average, 29, 43, 21 and 7% among men, and 28, 38, 26 and 7% among women. Corresponding proportions during leisure were 34, 27, 27 and 13% among men and 28, 27, 32 and 13% among women. Men spent more time sitting relative to non-sitting ([Formula: see text] =0.04, p = 0.03) than women, and less time standing relative to moving ([Formula: see text] =0.07, p = 0.01). At work compared to during leisure, both genders spent more time sitting relative to non-sitting ([Formula: see text] =0.47, p < 0.01); within sitting more time was spent in long relative to short sitting bouts ([Formula: see text] =0.26, p < 0.01), and within non-sitting, more time was spent standing than moving ([Formula: see text] =0.12, p < 0.01). Older workers spent less of their non-sitting time moving than younger workers ([Formula: see text] =0.07, p = 0.01). CONCLUSION: Male office workers spent more time sitting relative to non-sitting than female workers, and more time moving relative to standing. Both genders were sitting more at work than during leisure. Older workers moved less than younger. These workers could likely benefit from interventions to reduce or break up prolonged sitting time, preferably by moving more.


Assuntos
Acelerometria/métodos , Exercício Físico , Atividades de Lazer , Postura Sentada , Posição Ortostática , Mulheres Trabalhadoras/estatística & dados numéricos , Local de Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Análise de Dados , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Sexuais , Suécia
20.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234725, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32559207

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A variety of wearable monitors are available for objectively assessing physical activity but there is a lack of established values for the activity intensity of MotionWatch8 (MW8) and a similar lack of studies on comparability across devices. Our study aimed to establish activity intensity cutpoints for the MW8 accelerometer in children, which are necessary to determine whether they are meeting physical activity guidelines. METHODS: Children (n = 39, ages 9-13 years) were asked to wear two different accelerometers (MW8 and ActiGraph) simultaneously on the same dominant wrist as they performed different activities designed to mimic activities of variable intensity that a child might perform in a free-living environment. Linear regression and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were performed to assess sensitivity and specificity of the identified MW8 intensity cutpoints compared to established ActiGraph cutpoints. RESULTS: Mean values for each activity were positively correlated using the MW8 and ActiGraph monitors (r = 0.85, p<0.001). The optimal cutpoints for differentiating sedentary from light physical activity, light from moderate, and moderate from vigorous activity were ≤32 counts, ≥ 371.5 counts, and ≥ 859.5 counts per 30 seconds, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrated the ability of MW8 to discriminate different intensity activities and provided the first cutoff values for researchers using the MW8 to measure physical activity patterns among children.


Assuntos
Acelerometria/métodos , Exercício Físico , Acelerometria/instrumentação , Adolescente , Área Sob a Curva , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Curva ROC , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis
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